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1.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 24(4)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530178

ABSTRACT

El síndrome POEMS es un trastorno paraneoplásico raro y poco frecuente, que se presenta principalmente en la sexta década de la vida, caracterizado por el compromiso multisistémico con predominio de neuropatía desmielinizante. Abarca diversas y heterogéneas manifestaciones clínicas y su diagnóstico requiere un alto índice de sospecha. Se presentan dos casos de pacientes que consultaron por cuadros poco frecuentes en los que la pérdida de la fuerza orientó al acercamiento de una afectación multisistémica que concluyó con el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad(AU)


POEMS syndrome is a rare and infrequent paraneoplastic syndrome, which occurs mainly in the sixth decade of life, characterized by multisystem involvement with a predominance of demyelinating neuropathy, which encompasses diverse and heterogeneous clinical manifestations and whose diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. We present two cases of patients who consulted due to unusual symptoms and whose loss of strength led to an approach due to multisystem involvement that concluded with the diagnosis of this disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Paraproteinemias , Polyneuropathies/epidemiology , POEMS Syndrome/diagnosis , Colombia , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 20(2): 103-107, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428748

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Síndrome POEMS trata de um raro evento paraneoplásico, sem relato atual na literatura sobre sua real prevalência. A maior parte dos casos ocorre em homens de meia idade; Relato do Caso: Relatamos o caso de um paciente masculino, 65 anos, admitido com queixa edema e parestesia em pernas que evoluiu para plegia, associada a hiporexia e fadiga. Investigação ambulatorial inicial evidenciou polirradiculoneuropatia inflamatória desmielinizante crônica (PIDC) de etiologia indefinida. Excluídos secundarismos para polirradiculoneuropatia inflamatória desmielinizante crônica, o paciente foi a seguir diagnosticado com hipotireoidismo primário, hipogonadismo severo, lesões hipercrômicas em pele, ascite, derrame pleural e trombocitose, além de gamopatia monoclonal IgA Lambda por imunofixação sérica. Sorologias para HIV, Sífilis e Hepatites todas negativas. Excluída a possibilidade de Mieloma Múltiplo e outras gamopatias, foi aventada a hipótese de Síndrome POEMS, sendo realizada dosagem de Fator de Crescimento Endotelial Vascular (VEGF) plasmática (425 pg/mL; VR = <96.2). O paciente passou então a preencher os critérios obrigatórios para diagnóstico, além de um maior (VEGF elevada) e vários outros menores. Trata-se de um caso atípico na medida em que, lesões ósseas, presentes em até 97% dos casos, não foram evidenciadas no paciente em questão, tornando desafiador o diagnóstico e sendo então necessário recorrer à dosagem de VEGF. O diagnóstico de síndromes raras, embora desafiante, traz ao clínico um olhar mais amplo do paciente na medida em que incrementa o raciocínio clínico. Difundir e explorar esse universo é cada vez mais necessário


Introduction: POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic event, with no current report in the literature about its real prevalence. Most cases occur in middle-aged men; Case Report: We report the case of a male patient, 65 years old, admitted with complaints of edema and paresthesia in the legs that progressed to plegia, associated with hyporexia and fatigue. Initial outpatient investigation revealed Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) of undefined etiology. Excluding secondaries for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, the patient was subsequently diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism, severe hypogonadism, hyperchromic skin lesions, ascites, pleural effusion and thrombocytosis, in addition to monoclonal IgA Lambda gammopathy by serum immunofixation. All serologies for HIV, Hepatitis and syphilis were negative. Excluding the possibility of Multiple Myeloma and other gammopathies, the hypothesis of POEMS Syndrome was raised, and plasma Vascular Endotelial Growth Factor (VEGF) measurement was performed (425 pg/mL; RV = <96.2). The patient then started to fulfill the mandatory criteria for diagnosis, in addition to a major (elevated VEGF) and several other minors. This is an atypical case in that bone lesions, present in up to 97% of the cases, were not evidenced in the patient in question, making the diagnosis challenging and therefore requiring the use of VEGF dosage. The diagnosis of rare syndromes, although challenging, brings the clinician a broader view of the patient as it increases clinical reasoning. Spreading and exploring this universe is increasingly necessary


Subject(s)
Humans , Paraproteinemias , POEMS Syndrome/diagnosis , Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy , Diagnosis, Differential , Endocrine System Diseases
3.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 89(2): 136-140, jul.-dic. 2021. ilus, graf., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1359456

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La Macroglobulinemia de Waldens- tröm (MW) es un desorden proliferativo en el cual está presente un Linfoma Linfoplasmocitoide (LLP) en la médula ósea y asociado a una gammapatía monoclonal IgM. Con una incidencia global de 3 casos por millón de personas-año, representa aproximadamente el 2% de todas las neoplasias hematológicas. Este es el primer caso documentado de MW en Honduras con confirmación molecular de la mutación MYD88 p.L265P. Descripción del caso: Paciente de 58 años de edad evaluado en 2017 con informe de biopsia que re - porta infiltración linfoplasmocitaria en glándula salival del labio infe- rior, refiriendo 3 meses de epistaxis y gingivorragia, anemia severa, leucopenia, episodios de lipotimia y pérdida de peso. Al examen físico presentó agrandamiento bilateral de glándula parótida y sub - mandibular, múltiples adenopatías cervicales, alteración en glándula tiroides, hepatomegalia leve y esplenomegalia masiva. Se encontra- ron valores elevados de TSH, microglobulina y LDH; eletroforesis y citometría de flujo de médula ósea sugestiva de desorden de IgM monoclonal. Se logró confirmación molecular mediante la detección de la mutación L265P en el gen MYD88. El paciente recibió esque- ma de primera línea con Ciclofosfamida, Adriamicina, Vincristina, Prednisona y Rituximab(CHOP-R), luego por recaída recibió mismo esquema por haber mostrado buena respuesta. Posteriormente, tras una nueva recaída recibió tratamiento con Chlorambucil pre - sentando nuevamente recaída. Se diagnosticó con MW refractaria y es candidato para recibir Ibrutinib; no disponible en nuestro me - dio. Conclusión: La escasa casuística de enfermedad de MW en Honduras dificulta el diagnóstico oportuno y tratamiento óptimo en nuestro medio...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia/diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms , Paraproteinemias , Hepatomegaly
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(5): 747-757, mayo 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389512

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal gammopathies of uncertain significance (MGUS) correspond to pre-malignant hematological disorders characterized by the production of a monoclonal protein and infiltration of less than 10% of the bone marrow by plasma cells. Its importance lies in the risk of progression to malignant disorders and in the association with different renal, neurological and skin manifestations. There are pathophysiological mechanisms that support a causal relationship between monoclonal gammopathies (MGs) and different skin diseases, such as type I cryoglobulinemia (CG), primary systemic amyloidosis (PSA) or necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG). However, there is a group of skin diseases associated with MGs whose pathogenesis has not been elucidated. In this context, the role of the dermatologist is crucial in the suspicion of different haematological disorders based on skin manifestations and in the multidisciplinary treatment of these patients. In this article, we carry out an exhaustive review of the literature published in this area and propose a screening algorithm for MGs in patients with specific skin diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paraproteinemias/complications , Skin Diseases/etiology , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance , Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis , Bone Marrow
5.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021326, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339247

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is growing evidence in the literature warning of misdiagnosis involving amyloidosis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Although inducing clinical manifestations outside the peripheral nervous system, light chain and transthyretin amyloidosis may initially present with peripheral neuropathy, which can be indistinguishable from CIDP, leading to a delay in the correct diagnosis. Besides, the precise identification of the amyloid subtype is often challenging. This case report exemplifies clinical and laboratory pitfalls in diagnosing amyloidosis and subtyping amyloid, exposing the patient to potentially harmful procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Amyloidosis, Familial/complications , Paraproteinemias , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating/complications , Diagnostic Errors , Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis/complications
6.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 42(3): 200-205, July-Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Since the World has been facing the COVID-19 pandemic, special attention has been taken concerning cancer patients; related to their immunosuppression status, adding risk for more aggressive COVID-19 and mortality, but also concerns about the access and the quality of care in cancer therapy. The COVID-19 pandemic impacts the number of infected, its related mortality, as well as the care of cancer patients. Multiple myeloma patients are a particular group with several important aspects to be considered during pandemic times. In essence, they are immunosuppressed in different intensities during their treatment. Most of them are elderly and all of them require long-term therapy, with prolonged contact with the health care system, possibly including a stem cell transplant during the treatment. A panel of experts in multiple myeloma and infectious diseases discusses pieces of evidence and the lack of the same in the scenario of COVID-19 in myeloma patients, while also exposing what is expected for the next phases of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Paraproteinemias , Stem Cell Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/therapy
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(8)ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389302

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the devastating consequences of monoclonal gammopathies is the development of end-stage kidney disease, which can be prevented with an early diagnosis. Renal involvement can be secondary to saturation of paraproteins with intratubular precipitation or the glomerular deposition of paraproteins with secondary inflammation and destruction. These conditions can also be associated with monoclonal gammopathies that do not meet hematological treatment criteria, called monoclonal gammopathies of renal significance (MGRS). Aim: To report a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent a renal biopsy and whose final diagnosis was a form of monoclonal gammopathy. Material and Methods: We reviewed the clinical and laboratory features and response to treatment of 22 patients aged 63 ± 12 years (55% women) with a pathological diagnosis of a nephropathy associated with paraproteinemia. Results: The most common hematological diagnosis was amyloidosis in 50% of patients, followed by cast nephropathy. The predominant clinical presentations were proteinuria (without nephrotic syndrome) and nephritic syndrome. Classic criteria such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 100 mm/h and protein-albumin gap were unusual. Serum light chain quantification was the test with the best yield to detect paraproteins. Conclusions: In this group of patients, light chains tend to affect the kidney more commonly than heavy chains. The prognosis of multiple myeloma is much worse than MGRS.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paraproteinemias , Kidney Diseases , Paraproteinemias/complications , Paraproteinemias/diagnosis , Paraproteins , Retrospective Studies , Kidney , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/etiology
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 977-982, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827175

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigated the clinical and pathological characteristics of related-renal damage in patients with POEMS syndrome.@*METHODS@#Five patients diagnosed as POEMS syndrome in our hospital were selected. Their clinical manifestation, pathological characteristics of kidney and laboratory examination were analyzed retrospectively. Among the 5 patients, three males and two females with a median age of 50 years old. The mean interval before diagnosis was 13.0±7.2 months.@*RESULTS@#All the patients showed neuropathy, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cell-proliferative disorder, skin changes and extravascular volume overload, in which 4 patients showed organomegaly. Proteinuria was found in 5 patients, and microhematuria was found in 4 patients. Moreover, 4 patients showed an elevated blood urea, while 2 patients showed creatinine elevation. 1 patient at chronic kidney disease (CKD)-G1 stage, 2 patients at CKD-G2 stage, and 1 patient at CKD-G3b stage, moreover, 1 patient at CKD-G5 stage. Endothelial injury and mesangial lesion were the main characteristics of renal pathology. 3 patients were pathologically diagnosed as thrombotic microangiopathy kidney damage, while 2 patients as light chain amyloidosis.@*CONCLUSION@#POEMS syndrome is a multi-systemic disease with complex clinical manifestations. 5 patients had different degrees of renal insufficiency. Endothelial injury and mesangial lesion are the main features of renal pathology.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Kidney , POEMS Syndrome , Paraproteinemias , Renal Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies
12.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 193-200, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a subset of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) with bone marrow (BM) involvement and an IgM monoclonal gammopathy of any level. We aimed to identify the clinical, laboratory, and BM findings of patients with WM and to evaluate the usefulness of CD154 for the diagnosis and prognosis of WM.METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and BM studies and/or flow cytometric immunotyping of 31 patients with untreated WM. Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry (CD20, CD138, tryptase, and CD154) of BM was performed.RESULTS: Only six patients presented with symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome. Eleven patients had solid cancer and/or another hematologic malignancy. Mast cells (MC) increased in all samples, with some in close contact with tumor cells. Tryptase-positive MC (17.1/ high-power fields [HPF], 1.2–72.0/HPF) and CD154-positive MC (8.6/HPF, 0.1–31.1/HPF) were observed. The high CD154-positive MC (≥8.6/HPF) group showed a lower overall five-year survival rate than the low CD154-positive MC (<8.6/HPF) group (71.9% vs. 100.0%; P=0.012). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of BM aspirates showed increased B lymphocytes and plasma cells with a normal phenotype (CD138⁺/CD38⁺/CD19⁺/CD45⁺/CD56⁻).CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of WM patients showed other malignancies and all patients had increased MC. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric immunophenotyping are useful for diagnosing WM, and increased CD154-positive MC can indicate poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms , Immunoglobulin M , Immunohistochemistry , Immunophenotyping , Lymphoma , Mast Cells , Medical Records , Paraproteinemias , Phenotype , Plasma Cells , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Tryptases , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
13.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(supl.1): e843, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1280397

ABSTRACT

Las gammapatías monoclonales son un grupo amplio de enfermedades de células hematológicas con expresión clínica variable, con afectación sistémica o localizada. Muchos de estos trastornos simulan enfermedades reumáticas, y pueden presentarse previa- o posteriormente a la enfermedad de base, por lo cual dificultan su diagnóstico. El propósito de este estudio es comunicar los casos de cinco pacientes con manifestaciones clínicas de enfermedades reumáticas y diagnóstico final de enfermedades oncohematológicas. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal mediante el análisis de historias clínicas de pacientes evaluados en el Servicio de Reumatología del Hospital José María Cullen de Santa Fe entre marzo del 2010 y junio del 2019. Se incluyó a cinco pacientes que fueron estudiados por sospecha de enfermedad reumatológica hasta llegar al diagnóstico final de gammapatía monoclonal. Cuatro pacientes presentaron mieloma múltiple manifestado como síndrome de Schnitzler; xantogranuloma del adulto y amiloidosis; aplastamientos vertebrales múltiples; falla renal aguda, respectivamente. El quinto paciente se presentó simulando una vasculitis sistémica con afectación multiorgánica y diagnóstico final de linfoma intravascular. Los pacientes fueron derivados al Servicio de Oncología y Hematología para su atención. A partir de la serie de casos analizados, se concluye que las manifestaciones reumáticas de las enfermedades oncohematológicas se deben tener presentes en el accionar diario para evitar la demora diagnóstica y los tratamientos innecesarios(AU)


Monoclonal gammapathies are a broad group of diseases from hematopoietic cells with variable clinical features and systemic or limited involvement. These entities could begin as a rheumatic disease, even previously to the diagnosis of MG. To describe five patients with rheumatic manifestations that lately were diagnosed as monoclonal gammapathies. We describe the more relevant features of five patients assisted in our rheumatology center. Four patients were diagnosed with multiple myeloma that begins as: 1) Schnitzler's syndrome, 2) Adult-onset xanthogranuloma and amyloidosis, 3) multiple vertebral fracture, 4) acute kidney failure. The 5th patient has a vasculitis-like syndrome due to an intravascular lymphoma. The rheumatic-like syndromes are infrequent but we should take into account this diagnosis in our clinical practice for rapid diagnostic and correct treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rheumatic Diseases , Hematology , Medical Oncology , Paraproteinemias/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(4): e1092, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093296

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los avances en el manejo del mieloma múltiple (MM) durante los últimos años incluyen la incorporación del trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos autólogo (TPHa) a la estrategia de tratamiento de estos pacientes. Objetivo: Dar a conocer los primeros resultados en el hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras (HHA) con la aplicación del TPHa en pacientes con gammapatías monoclonales (GM), empleando las altas dosis de melfalán (AD-Mel) como tratamiento acondicionante (TA) y su impacto en la sobrevida global (SG). Métodos: Se hizo un estudio retrospectivo de todos los pacientes con GM sometidos a TPHa en el Servicio de Hematología del HHA en el período comprendido entre 2009 y 2018. La muestra final comprendió 14 casos. Resultados: La edad promedio fue de 53,5 años; la mayoría tenía como diagnóstico MM (85,7 por ciento) y todos ellos debutaron en estadio III de Durie-Salmon; como TA el 64,2 por ciento recibió AD-mel, en dosis de 200 mg/m2. La recuperación de las cifras de neutrófilos y plaquetas ocurrieron como promedio a los 11,4 y 12 días, respectivamente. La mortalidad relacionada con el trasplante (MRT) al día +30 fue del 7,1 por ciento. La probabilidad de SG a los 2 años fue superior al 90 por ciento y a los 5 años del 68 por ciento. Conclusiones: Se comprobó que la realización del TPHa con el empleo de AD-Mel como TA en pacientes con GM es un proceder realizable en nuestro país con una MRT relativamente baja. Se logró demostrar que la inclusión del TPH en el tratamiento mejora considerablemente las expectativas de sobrevida de estos pacientes(AU)


Introduction: The recent advances in the management of multiple myeloma (MM) during the last years have included the autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) to the treatment strategy of these patients. Objective: To present the first results in the Hermanos Ameijeiras hospital (HAH) with the application of auto-HSCT in patients with monoclonal gammopathies (MG) using high doses of melphalan (HD-Mel) as conditioning regimen (CR) and its impacton overall survival (OS). Methods: A retrospective study of all patients with MG who underwent auto-HSCT in the Hematology Service of the HAH in the period between 2009 and 2018 wasmade. The final sample comprised 14 cases. Results: The average age was 53.5 years; the majority had diagnosis of MM (85.7percent) and all of them were diagnosed in stage III of Durie-Salmon; as CR 64.2 percent received HD-mel, at 200 mg/m2. The recovery of neutrophil and platelet counts occurred on average at 11.4 and 12 days respectively. Transplant related mortality (TRM) at day +30 was 7.1 percent. The probability of OS at 2 years was higher than 90 percent and at 5 years of 68 percent. Conclusions: It was verified that the performance of auto-HSCT with the use of HD-Mel as CR in patients with MG is a feasible procedure in our country with a relatively low TRM. It was possible to demonstrate that the inclusion of auto-HSCT in the treatment considerably improves the survival expectations of these patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Paraproteinemias/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Melphalan/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Multiple Myeloma/therapy
15.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(3): e1067, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1093277

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El mieloma múltiple (MM) es una enfermedad que va precedida por una fase previa conocida como gammapatía monoclonal de significado incierto (GMSI); en esta última existen varias anormalidades citogenéticas, que permiten la progresión a MM, entre estas encontramos reordenamientos primarios del gen de la cadena pesada de la inmunoglobina (IGH), además de células hiperdiploides. Desarrollo: Las alteraciones cromosómicas en el MM se pueden clasificar en dos grupos principales: las que involucran las translocaciones del locus IGH ubicado en el cromosoma 14q32 y cuyos principales reordenamientos se dan entre las regiones cromosómicas 11q13, 16q23, 4p16.3, 6p21 y, un segundo grupo caracterizado por los desequilibrios genómicos. Los pacientes con translocaciones de la IGH, muestran un pronóstico diferente en dependencia del tipo de reordenamiento cromosómico. La t(4;14)(p16;q32) y t(14;16)(q32;q23) se asocian a un mal pronóstico, mientras que los pacientes con t(11;14) (q13;q32) tiene un buen pronóstico de la enfermedad en ausencia de otras anormalidades genéticas. En el grupo con desequilibrio genómico se encuentran deleciones, amplificaciones, y células con números anormales de cromosomas (hiperdiploidas y no hiperdiploides); casi siempre asociadas a mal pronóstico ya que muchas de estas alteraciones involucran perdida de material genómico relacionado con el control de ciclo celular y progresión de la enfermedad, como son las deleciones de los cromosomas 1,13 y 17. Los pacientes con trisomías de los cromosomas impares 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19,21 suelen tener un mejor pronóstico y una tasa mayor de sobrevivencia(AU)


Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease that is preceded by a previous phase known as monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS); in this latter there are several cytogenetic abnormalities, which allow the progression to MM, among these we find primary rearrangements of the heavy chain gene of the immunoglobin (IGH), in addition to hyperdiploid cells. Development: Chromosomal alterations in MM can be classified into two main groups, those involving the translocations of the IGH locus located on chromosome 14q32 and whose main rearrangements occur between the chromosomal regions 11q13, 16q23, 4p16.3, 6p21, and a second group which is characterized by genomic imbalances. Patients with translocations of the IGH, show a different prognosis depending on the type of chromosomal rearrangement, the t(4; 14)(p16; q32) and t(14; 16)(q32; q23) are associated with a poor prognosis while patients with t(11; 14)(q13; q32) have a good prognosis of the disease in the absence of other genetic abnormalities. Within the genomic imbalances we find deletions, amplifications, and cells with abnormal numbers of chromosomes (hyperdiploids and not hyperdiploid), these almost always associated with poor prognosis since many of these alterations involve loss of genomic material related to cell cycle control and progression of the disease, such as deletions of chromosomes 1,13 and 17. Patients with trisomies of odd chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19,21 usually have a better prognosis and a higher survival rate(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prognosis , Multiple Myeloma/genetics , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Paraproteinemias/genetics , Chromosome Deletion , Disease Progression , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Bortezomib/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(8): 1036-1041, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058640

ABSTRACT

Hematological neoplasms are tumors of cells in different states of maturation and differentiation. Since monoclonal gammopathies (MG) refer to B mature lymphocyte neoplasms, lymphogenesis should be well known. We must keep in mind that the last stage of maturation of these lymphocytes is the plasma cell. This is how a MG could appear in the context of a plasma cell neoplasm, such as multiple myeloma or amyloidosis, but also in relation to a lymphoma. A monoclonal peak is produced by mature B lymphocytes or plasma cells that secrete a monoclonal protein (Immunoglobulin), and represents a MG. But it must be emphasized that, in the correct clinical context, a hypogammaglobulinemia can represent a MG as well. Another important point is the understanding and interpretation of requested tests, such as protein electrophoresis (PEP), immunofixation (IFx) or serum free light chains (sFLC). The current MG screening panel includes these three studies (PEF, IFx, sFLC), although a simpler panel measuring PEF and sFLC has also been proposed, but not yet formally validated. Therefore, screening done only with PEP is insufficient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paraproteinemias/blood , Paraproteins/analysis , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell/blood , Paraproteinemias/diagnosis , Blood Protein Electrophoresis/methods , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell/diagnosis
18.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 561-565, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762438

ABSTRACT

POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome, which includes polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes due to plasma cell (PC) neoplasm. Diagnosis of this disease is challenging because of its rarity and complex clinical manifestations. We attempted to identify the key clinical features and characteristic bone marrow (BM) findings of POEMS syndrome, by reviewing the medical records and BM analyses of 24 Korean patients. Frequent clinical manifestations included polyneuropathy (100%), monoclonal gammopathy (100%), organomegaly (92%), extravascular volume overload (79%), and endocrinopathy (63%). The BM analyses revealed mild PC hyperplasia (median PCs: 5.5%) and frequent megakaryocytic hyperplasia (88%), megakaryocyte clusters (88%), and hyperlobation (100%). Flow cytometry of BM aspirates using CD138/CD38/CD45/CD19/CD56 showed normal (67%, 4/6) or neoplastic PC immunophenotypes (33%, 2/6). A diagnosis of POEMS syndrome must be considered when a patient suspected of having PC dyscrasia shows the above clinical presentation and BM findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Flow Cytometry , Hyperplasia , Medical Records , Megakaryocytes , Paraneoplastic Syndromes , Paraproteinemias , Plasma Cells , POEMS Syndrome , Polyneuropathies , Skin
19.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 140-144, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759693

ABSTRACT

Diffuse plane xanthoma (DPX) presents with symmetric yellow-orange plaques primarily on the neck, upper trunk, flexural folds, and the periorbital region. Based on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels, these xanthomas are classified as normolipemic or hyperlipoproteinemic DPX. Diffuse normolipemic plane xanthoma (DNPX) is a rare condition that is not well studied yet. It is associated with reticulo-endothelial diseases, particularly multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). A 62-year-old woman developed yellowish hyperpigmented papules and diffuse patches in the medial canthal area of her neck. Based on a skin biopsy and laboratory analyses, she was diagnosed with DNPX associated with multiple myeloma. This diagnosis demonstrates that dermatological lesions should be carefully assessed as they may be the first manifestation of an underlying hematological disease. We report herein a rare case of diffuse plane xanthoma associated with multiple myeloma and review the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Hematologic Diseases , Lipoproteins , Multiple Myeloma , Neck , Paraproteinemias , Skin , Xanthomatosis
20.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 263-268, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760506

ABSTRACT

Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is a low-grade B-cell neoplasm, composed of small B lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes, and plasma cells, usually involving bone marrow and sometimes lymph nodes or spleen. LPL with bone marrow involvement and an IgM monoclonal gammopathy of any concentration is designated as Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). LPL associated with non-IgM monoclonal gammopathy or biclonal gammopathy is rarely observed. LPL diagnosis was based on clinical, morphological, and immunophenotypic findings. Recently, the test for L265P mutation of the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88) gene has been helpful in the diagnosis of LPL. Here, we reported the first case of LPL/WM with IgM-κ/IgA-λ biclonal gammopathy in Korea.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Multiple Myeloma , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Paraproteinemias , Plasma Cells , Spleen , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
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