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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 984-988, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1285258

ABSTRACT

O Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (PNSC), localizado no estado de Minas Gerais, é um importante habitat de inúmeras espécies de animais ameaçados de extinção, como o lobo-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Parasitos de animais selvagens podem representar um problema para os programas de manejo e recuperação de espécies ameaçadas, pois atuam como causa primária ou agravante de inúmeras doenças. Dependendo da época do ano, a suscetibilidade ao parasitismo pode ser maior devido à facilidade de infecção. Com o objetivo de avaliar a frequência de endoparasitos e a sazonalidade dessas parasitoses em diferentes épocas do ano, foram examinadas 103 amostras fecais de lobos-guarás, coletadas no PNSC, durante o período de março de 2017 a agosto de 2019. O número de amostras positivas para pelo menos uma espécie de parasito foi de 47 amostras (45,63%), sendo o outono a estação em que foi encontrada a maior frequência de formas parasitárias, com 60,86% (14/23) de amostras positivas, seguido do inverno, com 52,38% (11/21), verão com 37,5% (15/40), e primavera com 36,84% (7/19). Dentre os parasitos encontrados, Capillaria sp. apresentou a maior frequência, sendo encontrado em 23 amostras (22,33%), seguido de trematódeos, em 15 amostras (14,56%), acantocéfalos, ascarídeos, Trichuris sp. e Ancylostoma sp., em cinco amostras (4,85%), nematoides da superfamília Strongyloidea, Lynxacarus sp., em duas amostras (1,94%), e pentastomídeos em uma amostra (0,97%).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/diagnosis , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/epidemiology , Canidae/parasitology , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Brazil , Animals, Wild/parasitology
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 598-604, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1278360

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to evaluate the antiparasitic resistance against horse nematodes in the South of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The results concerning the tests of anthelmintic efficacy on horses, stored in the database of the Parasitic Diseases Study Group (GEEP) - Veterinary Faculty, at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), were carried out in the laboratory from 2018 to 2019. Stool samples were received from farms with breeding of adult female and male Criollo horses naturally infected, located in municipalities in the country's southern region. The antiparasitic agents tested were Triclorfon + Fenbendazole, Closantel + Albendazole, Ivermectin + Praziquantel, Fenbendazole, Ivermectin, Doramectin, Mebendazole and Moxidectin. Techniques such as Gordon and Whitlock, Coproculture and Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test were performed. Of all the antiparasitic drugs tested, it was observed that only treatments with Ivermectin 2% showed desired values. The observed results indicate that resistance to macrocyclic lactones is usual in equine parasites in this Brazilian region, despite the results with isolated Ivermectin.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a resistência antiparasitária contra nematodeos de equinos no sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os resultados referentes aos testes de eficácia anti-helmíntica em cavalos, armazenados no banco de dados do Grupo de Estudos de Doenças Parasitárias (GEEP) - Faculdade de Veterinária, da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), foram realizados em laboratório, no período de 2018 a 2019. Amostras de fezes foram recebidas de fazendas com criação de cavalos Crioulos adultos fêmeas e machos naturalmente infectados, localizadas em municípios da região Sul do país. Os agentes antiparasitários testados foram triclorfon + fenbendazol, closantel + ivermectina + praziquantel, fenbendazol, ivermectina, doramectina, mebendazol e moxidectina. Técnicas como Gordon e Whitlock, coprocultura e teste de redução da contagem de ovos fecais foram realizadas. De todos os antiparasitários testados, observou-se que apenas os tratamentos com ivermectina 2% apresentaram os valores desejados. Os resultados indicam que a resistência às lactonas macrocíclicas é comum em parasitas equinos nessa região brasileira, apesar dos resultados com ivermectina isolada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Macrolides/analysis , Horses/parasitology , Anthelmintics/analysis , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Brazil , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Antiparasitic Agents/analysis
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e015819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092688

ABSTRACT

Abstract An evaluation was made of the effect of anthelmintic treatments on the performance of Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves before and after weaning. To this end, the calves were divided into three groups: (1) treated monthly with a low efficacy anthelmintic drug, ivermectin; (2) treated monthly with a highly effective anthelmintic drug, albendazole; and (3) untreated control group. All the groups in this experiment showed an average fecal egg count of less than 400 eggs per gram (EPG), and no clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis. The blood variables were within the normal range and no calf presented anemia. In most of the samplings, mean EPGs were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the group treated with albendazole. The calves received dietary supplementation before and after weaning, which enabled them to gain weight in every month of the experiment and reach a body weight of about 250 kg on the last sampling date, before turning one year old. The anthelmintic treatments did not affect body weight gain, leading to the conclusion that, when fed with suitable dietary supplements, Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves are not affected by gastrointestinal nematode parasites acquired by grazing.


Resumo O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito de tratamentos anti-helmínticos no desempenho de bezerros Simental x Nelore antes e após o desmame. Os bezerros foram alocados em três grupos: (1) tratado mensalmente com anti-helmínticos de baixa eficácia, ivermectina; (2) tratado mensalmente com anti-helmíntico de alta eficácia, albendazol e (3) controle não tratado. A média das contagens de ovos de nematoides durante o experimento foi inferior a 400 ovos por grama (OPG) em todos os grupos sem manifestação clínica de gastroenterite parasitária. As variáveis ​​sanguíneas mantiveram-se dentro dos limites de normalidade e nenhum bezerro apresentou anemia. Na maioria das coletas, as médias de OPG foram significativamente inferiores (P<0,05) no grupo tratado com albendazol. Os bezerros receberam suplementação antes e depois do desmame, o que lhes permitiu ganhar peso em todos os meses do experimento, atingindo peso corporal em torno de 250 kg, ao final do experimento, antes de completarem um ano de idade. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos anti-helmínticos no ganho em peso, o que permitiu concluir que bezerros Nelore x Simental não são afetados pelo parasitismo por nematoides gastrintestinais sob condições de pastejo, quando devidamente suplementados com concentrado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Albendazole/administration & dosage , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Feces/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Nematode Infections/parasitology , Nematode Infections/drug therapy
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e013119, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058018

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of carvacryl acetate (CVA) and nanoencapsulated CVA (nCVA) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The CVA was nanoencapsulated with chitosan/gum arabic and the efficacy of nanoencapsulation (EE), yield, zeta potential, nanoparticle morphology and release kinetics at pH 3 and 8 were analyzed. Acute and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in rodents and reduction of egg counts in the faeces (FECRT) of sheep. The sheep were divided into four groups (n = 10): G1, 250 mg/kg CVA; G2, 250 mg/kg nCVA; G3, polymer matrix and G4: 2.5 mg/kg monepantel. EE and nCVA yield were 65% and 57%, respectively. The morphology of the nanoparticles was spherical, size (810.6±286.7 nm), zeta potential in pH 3.2 (+18.3 mV) and the 50% release of CVA at pHs 3 and 8 occurred at 200 and 10 h, respectively. nCVA showed LD50 of 2,609 mg/kg. CVA, nCVA and monepantel reduced the number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) by 57.7%, 51.1% and 97.7%, respectively. The epg of sheep treated with CVA and nCVA did not differ from the negative control (P>0.05). Nanoencapsulation reduced the toxicity of CVA; however, nCVA and CVA presented similar results in the FECRT.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do acetato de carvacrila (ACV) e do ACV nanoencapsulado (nACV) sobre nematóides gastrintestinais de ovinos. O ACV foi nanoencapsulado com quitosana/goma arábica e foi analisada a eficácia de nanoencapsulamento (EE), o rendimento, potencial zeta, morfologia das nanopartículas e cinética de liberação em pH 3 e 8. Foram avaliadas as toxicidades aguda e subcrônica em roedores e a redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (RCOF) de ovinos. Os ovinos foram divididos em quatro grupos (n = 10): G1, 250 mg/kg ACV; G2, 250 mg/kg de nACV; G3, matriz polimérica e G4: 2,5 mg/kg de monepantel. A EE e o rendimento de nACV foram de 65% e 57%, respectivamente. A morfologia das nanopartículas foi esférica, tamanho (810,6±286,7 nm), potencial zeta no pH 3,2 (+18,3 mV) e a liberação de 50% de CVA nos pHs 3 e 8 ocorreu às 200 e 10 h, respectivamente. nACV apresentou DL50 de 2.609 mg/kg. ACV, nACV e o monepantel reduziram a contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (opg) em 57,7%, 51,1% e 97,7%, respectivamente. A contagem de opg de ovelhas tratadas com ACV e nCVA não diferiu do controle negativo (P>0,05). O nanoencapsulamento reduziu a toxicidade do AVC; no entanto, nACV e ACV apresentaram resultados semelhantes na RCOF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Monoterpenes/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Nanocapsules/administration & dosage , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Nematoda/drug effects , Nematode Infections/drug therapy , Parasite Egg Count , Rodentia , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Sheep , Toxicity Tests , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Monoterpenes/toxicity , Nanocapsules/toxicity , Feces/parasitology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Anthelmintics/toxicity , Mice , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Nematoda/classification , Nematode Infections/parasitology
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e016419, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058009

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate environmental contamination by helminth eggs with zoonotic potential that were found in dog feces in the vicinity of elementary schools. Seventy-nine samples of dog feces were collected from 28 municipal schools located in five neighborhoods in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. The samples were processed using the Willis-Mollay technique and analyzed using an optical microscope (40X), to identify any parasite eggs present. All neighborhoods were positive and 74.7% of the samples exhibited one or more helminth genera. The agent with the highest prevalence was Ancylostoma spp. (93.2%), followed by Trichuris spp. (18.6%), Toxocara spp. (11.9%) and Toxascaris (1.7%). These data show that there is a need for greater care towards controlling these helminths with zoonotic potential, including responsible pet ownership and daily activities to clean and collect dog feces in the vicinity of schools, because these are places where children play and study.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação ambiental por ovos de helmintos com potencial zoonótico, diagnosticados em fezes caninas depositadas nas proximidades de escolas primárias. Setenta e nove amostras de fezes foram colhidas em 28 escolas municipais localizadas em cinco bairros da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. As amostras foram processadas pela técnica de Willis-Mollay e analisadas em microscópio óptico (40X), para identificar quaisquer parasitos presentes. Todos os bairros foram positivos e 74,7% das amostras apresentaram um ou mais gêneros de helmintos. O agente com maior prevalência foi Ancylostoma spp. (93,2%), seguido por Trichuris spp. (18,6%), Toxocara spp. (11,9%) e Toxascaris (1,7%). Esses dados mostram que há necessidade de maior cuidado no controle desses helmintos com potencial zoonótico, incluindo a posse responsável dos animais e atividades diárias de limpeza e colheita de fezes de cães nas proximidades das escolas, porque esses são locais onde as crianças brincam e estudam.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Parasite Egg Count , Soil/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Schools , Brazil , Urban Health , Prevalence
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 700-707, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057997

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim here is to present data on the efficacy of anthelmintics in sheep flocks in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to discuss the interpretation of the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) for each nematode genus. Fecal eggs counts and pre- and post-treatment coprocultures were performed, the former to evaluate the efficacy of and the latter to determine the overall parasite prevalence. An additional efficacy test was performed at Farm # 1 a year after the initial test. Severe anthelmintic resistance was found for the flocks, with no FECRT sensitivity at any of the 22 farms evaluated. However, an analysis of the infective larvae showed that some drugs were effective against certain parasitic genera; i.e., levamisole was more effective against Haemonchus spp. and moxidectin against Trichostrongylus spp. In the additional FECRT performed at Farm # 1, moxidectin and nitroxynil were ineffective separately, but when applied in combination they were highly effective due to their efficacy against Haemonchus (nitroxynil) and Trichostrongylus (moxidectin), respectively. The use of the FECRT targeting the parasitic nematode species prevalent on farms may make it possible to choose more effective anthelmintics.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar dados sobre a eficácia de anti-helmínticos em rebanhos ovinos no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e discutir a interpretação do teste de redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (TRCOF) para cada gênero de nematoide. A contagem de ovos fecais (OPG) e coprocultura pré e pós-tratamento foram realizadas para avaliar a eficácia e a prevalência geral do parasito, respectivamente. Um teste de eficácia adicional foi realizado na Fazenda # 1 após um ano do teste inicial. Resistência anti-helmíntica grave foi encontrada, não havendo sensibilidade no TRCOF em nenhuma das 22 fazendas avaliadas. No entanto, na análise das larvas infectantes observou-se que algumas drogas foram eficazes contra certos gêneros parasitários; por exemplo, o levamisol foi mais eficaz contra Haemonchus spp. e a moxidectina contra Trichostrongylus spp. No TRCOF adicional realizado na Fazenda 1, a moxidectina e o nitroxinil foram ineficazes separadamente, mas quando aplicados em combinação, foram altamente eficazes devido à sua eficácia contra Haemonchus spp. (nitroxinil) e Trichostrongylus spp. (moxidectina), respectivamente. O TRCOF visando às espécies de nematoides parasitas prevalentes nas fazendas pode possibilitar a escolha de anti-helmínticos mais eficazes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasite Egg Count , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Nematoda/drug effects , Drug Resistance , Sheep , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Nematoda/classification
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 652-660, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057987

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two nutritional statuses on the productive performance of Dorper lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Thirty-two lambs, grazing together on the same pasture, were allocated into four experimental groups: (G1) infected-supplemented diet, (G2) control-supplemented diet, (G3) infected-basal diet, and (G4) control-basal diet. Control animals received suppressive treatment with monepantel every two weeks, while precautionary anthelmintic treatments were given to all lambs of the infected groups with packed cell volume (PCV) <23%. There was reduction in the PCV means of all groups, which was more pronounced in the infected lambs that also presented reduction in total plasma protein values in comparison with the controls. Weight gain was affected by diet and infection status (P < 0.05). Daily body weight gain was 0.170 kg in the G1, 0.205 kg in the G2, 0.085 kg in the G3, and 0.116 kg in the G4. The cold carcass weight was 4.1% and 13.7% higher in controls in comparison with infected lambs, respectively, in the supplemented and basal diets. The infected groups, despite receiving precautionary anthelmintic treatments to prevent deaths due to haemonchosis, presented reduction in the production parameters in comparison with the controls.


Resumo O experimento teve por objetivo determinar o efeito de dois níveis de nutrição no desempenho produtivo de cordeiros Dorper naturalmente infectados por nematoides gastrintestinais. Trinta e dois cordeiros, mantidos juntos na mesma pastagem, foram alocados em quatro grupos experimentais: (G1) infectado-suplementado, (G2) controle-suplementado, (G3) infectado-dieta basal e (G4) controle-dieta basal. Os cordeiros suplementados receberam diariamente concentrado em quantidade equivalente a 2% do peso corporal (PC), enquanto na dieta basal receberam apenas uma pequena quantidade de concentrado (0,35% do PC). Os animais controles receberam tratamento supressivo com anti-helmíntico a cada duas semanas e os infectados foram tratados individualmente quando apresentaram volume globular (VG) <23%. Houve redução nas médias de VG em todos os grupos, as quais foram mais pronunciadas nos animais dos grupos infectados, que também apresentaram redução nos valores de proteína plasmática total em comparação com os controles. Houve efeito significativo da dieta e da infecção no ganho de peso (P <0,05). O ganho em peso diário foi de 0,170 kg no G1, 0,205 kg no G2, 0,085 kg no G3 e 0,116 kg no G4. Os grupos infectados, apesar de receberem tratamentos anti-helmínticos preventivos que evitaram mortes por haemonchose, apresentaram redução nos parâmetros produtivos em comparação com os controles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Trichostrongylosis/veterinary , Nutritional Status , Dietary Supplements , Aminoacetonitrile/analogs & derivatives , Haemonchiasis/veterinary , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Parasite Egg Count , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Trichostrongylosis/drug therapy , Sheep , Case-Control Studies , Aminoacetonitrile/administration & dosage , Haemonchiasis/drug therapy
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 605-612, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057981

ABSTRACT

Abstract Eimeriosis is a global poultry health problem. In the current study, we investigated the role of Salvadora persica leaf extracts (SE) against murine eimeriosis induced by Eimeria papillata. The infection induced an oocyst output of 6242 ± 731 oocysts/g feces. After treatment with 300 mg⁄kg SE, the oocysts expelled in feces decreased by approximately 3-fold. In addition, the total number of E. papillata in the parasitic stage decreased in the jejunum of mice after treatment with SE. In addition, SE significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells by approximately 2-fold in the infected jejunum. SE ameliorated the changes in glutathione, malondialdehyde, and catalase due to E. papillata infection. Finally, SE regulated the cytokine genes, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the apoptotic genes, B-cell lymphoma-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. SE protects the jejunum from E. papillata induced injury and may have potential therapeutic value as a food additive during eimeriosis.


Resumo A eimeriose é um problema global de saúde avícola. No presente estudo, investigou-se o papel dos extratos de folhas de Salvadora persica (SE) contra a eimeriose murina induzida por Eimeria papillata. A infecção induziu uma produção de oocistos de 6242 ± 731 oocistos/g de fezes. Após o tratamento com 300 mg⁄kg SE, os oocistos eliminados nas fezes diminuíram em aproximadamente 3 vezes. Além disso, o número total de E. papillata no estágio parasitário diminuiu nos jejunos de camundongos após o tratamento com SE. Da mesma forma, o SE reduziu significativamente o número de células apoptóticas em aproximadamente 2 vezes no jejuno infectado. O estudo mostrou que o SE melhorou as alterações na glutationa, malonaldeído e catalase devido à infecção por E. papillata. Finalmente, o SE regulou os genes das citocinas, interleucina (IL) -1β, IL-6, interferon-γ e fator de necrose tumoral α, e os genes apoptóticos, linfoma-2, Bax e Caspase-3. Assim, o SE protegeu os jejunos das lesões induzidas por E. papillata e pode ter potencial valor terapêutico como aditivo alimentar durante a eimeriose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Coccidiosis/parasitology , Salvadoraceae/chemistry , Eimeria/drug effects , Feces/parasitology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Parasite Egg Count , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 769-772, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057975

ABSTRACT

Abstract Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease that affects millions of people around the world, being common in the state of Maranhão. A total of 225 rodents of the Holochilus sciureus species from the Western Lowland Maranhão were studied, of which 144 animals (64%) exhibited Schistosoma eggs in their feces samples. Macroscopic lesions characterized as well-defined whitish areas on the liver and spleen surfaces were observed. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal granulomas in the esophagus, liver, spleen, pancreas and duodenum, with structures compatible with Schistosoma mansoni eggs, as well as severe hepatic micro-vacuolar degeneration, multifocal and coalescent, with proliferation of random bile ducts and associated epithelial hyperplasia to areas of fibrosis. Adult forms of the parasite were observed in the blood vessels of the portal space. The lungs exhibited moderate and diffuse interstitial pneumonia with intralesional S. mansoni eggs. In the kidneys, hyaline cylinders were observed in the pelvis and diffuse hemorrhage. In conclusion, H. sciureus displays a pathological picture similar to human being. This rodent plays a role as sentinel in Baixada Maranhense.


Resumo A esquistossomose é uma doença negligenciada que afeta milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo, sendo comum no estado do Maranhão. Um total de 225 roedores da espécie Holochilus sciureus da Planície Ocidental do Maranhão foram estudados, dos quais 144 animais (64%) apresentaram ovos de Schistosoma em suas fezes. Lesões macroscópicas caracterizadas como áreas esbranquiçadas bem definidas nas superfícies do fígado e baço foram observadas. O exame histopatológico revelou granulomas multifocais no esôfago, fígado, baço, pâncreas e duodeno, com estruturas compatíveis com ovos de Schistosoma mansoni, degeneração micro-vacuolar hepática grave, multifocal e coalescente, com proliferação de ductos biliares aleatórios e hiperplasia epitelial associada a áreas de fibrose. Formas adultas do parasito foram observadas nos vasos sanguíneos do espaço portal. Os pulmões exibiram pneumonia intersticial moderada e difusa com ovos de S. mansoni intralesionais. Nos rins, foram observados cilindros hialinos na pelve e hemorragia difusa. Em conclusão, H. sciureus apresenta um quadro patológico semelhante ao ser humano. Este roedor desempenha um papel de sentinela na Baixada Maranhense.


Subject(s)
Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis mansoni/veterinary , Sigmodontinae/parasitology , Parasite Egg Count , Schistosomiasis mansoni/parasitology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/pathology , Feces/parasitology
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 644-651, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057972

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil and citronellal on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. Essential oil composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The substances were evaluated in vitro using adult worm motility test (AWMT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity test in mice and the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in sheep were performed. Citronellal was confirmed as the essential oil major constituent (63.9%). According to the AWMT, 2 mg/mL of essential oil and citronellal completely inhibited Haemonchus contortus motility at 6 h post exposure. H. contortus exposed to essential oil and citronellal exhibited internal ultrastructural modifications. The lethal dose 50 values in mice were 5,000 and 2,609 mg/kg for essential oil and citronellal, respectively. E. citriodora essential oil reduced sheep epg at 14 days post treatment by 69.5% (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in epg between the citronellal and negative control groups (P>0.05). The interaction between citronellal and other constituents in the essential oil may be relevant for its in vivo anthelmintic activity. Thus, E. citriodora essential oil and citronellal pharmacokinetic studies may help elucidate the anthelmintic activity of these compounds.


Resumo Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade anti-helmíntica do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus citriodora e citronelal sobre nematoides gastrintestinais de ovinos. A composição do óleo essencial foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. As substâncias foram avaliadas in vitro utilizando-se teste de motilidade de vermes adultos (AWMT) e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM). Teste de toxicidade aguda em camundongos e teste de redução da contagem de ovos fecais (FECRT) em ovinos foram realizados. Citronelal foi confirmado como componente majoritário do óleo essencial (63,9%). No AWMT, 2 mg/mL de óleo essencial e citronelal inibiram completamente a motilidade de H. contortus 6 h pós-exposição. H. contortus expostos ao óleo essencial e citronelal exibiram modificações ultraestruturais internas. Os valores da dose letal 50 em camundongos foram 5.000 e 2.609 mg/kg para óleo essencial e citronelal, respectivamente. Óleo essencial de E. citriodora reduziu opg de ovinos 14 dias pós-tratamento em 69,5% (P<0,05). Não houve diferença significativa de opg entre grupo controle negativo e citronelal (P>0,05). A interação entre citronelal e outros constituintes do óleo essencial pode ser relevante na atividade anti-helmíntica in vivo. Portanto, avaliação farmacocinética do óleo essencial de E. citriodora e citronelal pode auxiliar a elucidar a atividade anti-helmíntica desses compostos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sheep/parasitology , Eucalyptus/chemistry , Haemonchiasis/veterinary , Haemonchus/drug effects , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Parasite Egg Count , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Haemonchiasis/parasitology , Haemonchus/isolation & purification , Haemonchus/ultrastructure , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 164-167, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042501

ABSTRACT

Abstract On a farm with permanent history of fasciolasis a study was performed aimed to know the efficacy of triclabendazole (TCBZ) and then to contrast with that of nitroxynil. Thirty-nine cattle naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica were randomly allocated into 4 experimental groups: Group 1 (control) was left untreated. Group 2 was treated with of 12 mg/kg body weight (bw) of TCBZ by oral route. Group 3 treated with 24 mg/kg bw TCBZ orally. Group 4 was treated with 10 mg/kg bw of nitroxynil subcutaneously. The anthelmintic efficacy was calculated as the percentage of reduction in faecal egg count (FEC) at 14 and 28 d post-treatment. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in the percentage of FEC reduction between control group and the groups treated with 12 or 24 mg/kg of TCBZ. On the contrary, the treatment with nitroxinyl significantly reduced the FEC and decreased the percentage of positive animals. In conclusion, Fasciola hepatica is reported for first time as resistant to TCBZ in Chile, which highlights the need of rotating drugs and assessing the efficacy of the administered drug in order to avoid the selection of resistant worms.


Resumo Em uma fazenda com histórico de fasciolose permanente, foi realizado um estudo com o objetivo de conhecer a eficácia do triclabendazol (TCBZ) e depois contrastar com o do nitroxinil. Trinta e nove bovinos naturalmente infectados com Fasciola hepatica foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 4 grupos experimentais: Grupo 1 (controle), sem tratamento. O grupo 2 foi tratado com 12 mg/kg de peso vivo (PV) do TCBZ por via oral (VO). Grupo 3 tratado com 24 mg/kg de PV TCBZ por VO. O grupo 4 foi tratado com 10 mg /kg de PV Nitroxinil via subcutânea. A eficácia anti-helmíntica foi calculada comparando a percentagem de redução na contagem de ovos fecais (FEC) 14 e 28 dias pós tratamento. Não houve diferença significativa na porcentagem de redução FEC entre o grupo controle e os grupos tratados com 12 ou 24 mg/kg de TCBZ. Entretanto, o tratamento com nitroxinil reduziu significativamente o FEC e diminuiu a porcentagem de animais positivos. Em conclusão, a Fasciola hepatica é relatada pela primeira vez como resistente ao TCBZ no Chile, o que destaca a necessidade de realizar uma rotação em relação aos medicamentos anti-helmínticos e avaliar a eficácia do mesmo, a fim de evitar a seleção de vermes resistentes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Triclabendazole/therapeutic use , Nitroxinil/therapeutic use , Antiplatyhelmintic Agents/therapeutic use , Parasite Egg Count , Chile , Treatment Outcome , Fascioliasis/drug therapy , Feces/parasitology
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 33-39, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990808

ABSTRACT

Abstract Currently, albendazole is one of the most commonly used drugs because of its affordability. The objective was to evaluate the histopathology of Fasciola hepatica specimens. For this, the efficacy test was performed on sheep treated with albendazole at the dose recommended for F. hepatica, in which the helminths recovered at necropsy were counted and separated for histology. Spermatogenic cells from parasites recovered from treated and control sheep were examined by microscopy. The fecal egg-count reduction test revealed 97.06% efficacy of albendazole in the treatment of F. hepatica. Changes in testicular tubule cells started 48 hours after treatment and became evident within 72 hours, at which point it became difficult to identify cell types. Primary and secondary spermatogonia became increasingly rare and intercellular vacuolization was more evident. Signs of apoptosis, with pycnotic nuclei and evidence of keriorrexia were observed at all times. Cell debris was identified 96 hours after treatment. The results indicated that parasitic spermatogenesis was severely affected by albendazole and demonstrated the importance of the use of histopathology for the diagnosis of therapeutic efficacy in field strains.


Resumo Na atualidade, o albendazol é uma das drogas mais usadas devido à sua acessibilidade econômica. O objetivo foi avaliar a histopatologia dos espécimes de Fasciola hepatica. Para isso, foi realizado o teste de eficácia em ovinos tratados com albendazol na dose recomendada para Fasciola hepatica, no qual os helmintos recuperados em necropsia foram contabilizados e separados para histologia. As células espermatogênicas de parasitas recuperados de ovinos tratados e controle foram examinadas por microscopia. O teste de redução de ovos por grama de fezes revelou 97,06% de eficácia do albendazol no tratamento de F. hepatica. As alterações nas células dos túbulos testiculares iniciaram-se 48 horas após o tratamento e tornaram-se evidentes em 72 horas, altura em que tornou-se difícil identificar os tipos de células. As espermatogônias primárias e secundárias tornaram-se cada vez mais raras e a vacuolização intercelular foi mais evidente. Sinais de apoptose, com núcleos picnóticos e evidência de cariorrexia foram observados em todos os momentos. Os detritos celulares foram identificados 96 horas após o tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a espermatogênese parasitária foi severamente afetada pelo albendazol e demonstrou a importância do uso da histopatologia para o diagnóstico de eficácia terapêutica em cepas de campo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Sheep/parasitology , Albendazole/administration & dosage , Fasciola hepatica/drug effects , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Parasite Egg Count , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Fascioliasis/parasitology , Fascioliasis/drug therapy , Feces/parasitology
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180595, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040622

ABSTRACT

The genetic information of ancient Paragonimus westermani, the oriental lung fluke infecting over 20 million people worldwide, has not been thoroughly investigated thus far. We analysed genetic markers (COI and ITS2) of P. westermani from coprolite specimens (n = 6) obtained from 15th to 18th century Korean mummies. Our results indicated that all P. westermani sequences were generally distinct from the other species of the genus Paragonimus. The sequences were clustered into three groups: Group I for East Asia; Group II for South and Southeast Asia; and Group III for India and Sri Lanka. In this study, we found that ancient P. westermani sequences in Korea belong to Group I, adding invaluable information to the existing knowledge of Paragonimus paleogenetics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mummies/parasitology , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Paragonimus westermani/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Paleodontology , Parasite Egg Count , Phylogeny , Asia , Paragonimus westermani/genetics
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180529, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040608

ABSTRACT

Helmintex is a sensitive method used for detecting Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Here, we describe the observed frequency of six proposed criteria associated with the identification of S. mansoni eggs prepared with the Helmintex method and stained with ninhydrin. The efficacy of these criteria in classifying S. mansoni eggs when applied in various combinations was also examined. Nine observers registered the presence or absence of 6 different criteria in 100 eggs using a microscope at 100x magnification. Ninhydrin purple, which was frequently observed, was the criterion associated with the lowest inter-observer variability. At least three criteria were associated with a significantly better performance in egg identification. In conclusion, ninhydrin staining and a combination of criteria are recommended for microscope examination of faecal sediments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum/cytology , Parasite Egg Count/methods , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Indicators and Reagents , Ninhydrin , Parasite Egg Count/standards , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180556, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Angiostrongyliasis is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis and can lead to eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis in humans. The young adult worms play central pathogenic roles in the central nervous system (CNS); however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) are good investigation targets for studying the relationship between a host and its parasite. OBJECTIVES We aimed to profile, identify, and characterise the proteins in the ESPs of A. cantonensis young adults. METHODS The ESPs of young adult worms were collected from culture medium after incubation ranging from 24 to 96 h. Proteomic and bioinformatics analyses were performed to characterise the ESPs. FINDINGS A total of 51 spots were identified, and the highly expressed proteins included two protein disulphide isomerases, one calreticulin, and three uncharacterised proteins. Subsequently, approximately 254 proteins were identified in the ESPs of A. cantonensis young adults via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, and these were further classified according to their characteristics and biological functions. Finally, we identified the immunoreactive proteins from a reference map of ESPs from A. cantonensis young adults. Approximately eight proteins were identified, including a protein disulphide isomerase, a putative aspartic protease, annexin, and five uncharacterised proteins. The study established and identified protein reference maps for the ESPs of A. cantonensis young adults. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The identified proteins may be potential targets for the development of diagnostic or therapeutic agents for human angiostrongyliasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Parasite Egg Count , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 218-222, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042470

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the parasitological profiles of traction equids from the semi-arid climate of Paraíba (PB) State. We analyzed 96 equids that performed traction work, with no defined breed, males and females, and all older than 24 months. Among the analyzed animals, 51% were donkeys, 41.7% mules, and 7.3% horses. Fecal material and blood were collected for parasitological examination and to determine the packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. The samples were sent to the Veterinary Parasitology Laboratory, Veterinary Hospital - IFPB, Sousa-PB campus, and epidemiological questionnaires were provided to the owners. It was observed that 83.3% of equids tested positive for gastrointestinal parasites. Strongylidae was the most prevalent parasite (83.3%), followed by Giardia sp. (5.3%), and Eimeria sp. (2.1%). The mean eggs per gram (EPG) value of the fecal samples was 1143. Fecal analysis revealed that 78.9% of the larvae were from "small strongyles". The presence of ectoparasites was not observed in the studied animals. The answers to our questionnaire revealed that 69.8% of the animals had never been dewormed and that the remaining 31.2% had only been dewormed once. We concluded that the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among traction equids in the municipality of Sousa-PB is high.


Resumo Objetivou-se determinar o perfil parasitológico de equídeos carroceiros no município de Sousa, Sertão da Paraíba. Foram analisados 96 equídeos que realizavam trabalho de tração, sem raça definida, machos e fêmeas, idade superior a 24 meses. Dentre os animais analisados 51% foram asininos, 41,7% muares e 7,3% equinos. Foi coletado material fecal para exames coproparasitológicos e sanguíneo para determinação do volume globular (VG), encaminhados ao Laboratório de Parasitologia Veterinária, Hospital Veterinário - IFPB, campus Sousa-PB. Foi aplicado questionários epidemiológicos aos proprietários. Observou-se que 83,3% dos equídeos carroceiros foram positivos nos exames parasitológicos fecais. Os Estrongilídeos foram os parasitos mais prevalentes (83,3%), seguidos por Giardia sp. (5,3%). e Eimeria sp. (2,1%). A média de OPG dos equídeos carroceiros foi 1143. Nas coproculturas, constatou-se que 78,9% das larvas eram de "pequenos estrôngilos". Não foi observada a presença de ectoparasitas. Em 69,8% dos animais nunca haviam sido vermifugados e os demais 31,2% apenas uma vez. Concluiu-se que é alta a prevalência de parasitos gastrintestinais em equídeos carroceiros do município de Sousa-PB.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Equidae/parasitology , Horses/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Parasite Egg Count , Brazil/epidemiology , Climate , Equidae/blood , Agriculture , Feces/parasitology , Horses/blood , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/blood , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(1): 112-117, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042459

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study investigated the frequency of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces from dogs and cats in five municipalities in the southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The risk factors associated with infection were also investigated. Feces samples from 110 dogs and 18 cats were stained using the auramine method. At the time of feces sampling, a questionnaire with semi-open-ended questions was applied to the animal guardians and all data obtained underwent statistical analysis. The real frequency of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. was 24.63% (27 dogs and two cats). Only four samples of dog feces were diarrheic and no presence of oocysts was observed in any of them. Variables that represented risk factors for infection were: homemade food, untreated water, circulation of animals on grassy terrain and living in the same environment as other animals (cattle). The results made it possible to inferring that within the population studied, the frequency of parasitism due to Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs was relevant and emphasize the asymptomatic nature of this infection. The adopting control measures are highlighted, particularly in relation to variables that represent risk factors for this infection.


Resumo Este estudo verificou a frequência de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. em fezes de cães e gatos em cinco municípios da região sul do Rio Grande do Sul e fatores de risco associados à infecção. Amostras de fezes de 110 cães e 18 gatos foram coradas pelo método de auramina. No momento da coleta de fezes aplicou-se um questionário aos tutores dos animais com questões semiabertas e os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística. A frequência verdadeira de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foi de 24,63% (27 cães e 2 gatos). Apenas quatro amostras de fezes caninas eram diarreicas e todas sem oocistos. As variáveis que representaram fatores de risco para a infecção foram: alimentos de preparo caseiro, água não tratada, circulação dos animais em terreno gramíneo e convivência com outros animais, principalmente bovinos. Os resultados sugerem que a frequência de cães parasitados por Cryptosporidium spp. é relevante, reforçando o caráter assintomático da infeção. Destaca-se a importância da adoção de medidas de controle, particularmente das variáveis que representaram fatores de risco à infecção.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Parasite Egg Count , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Oocysts
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(1): 48-52, Jan. 2018. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-895558

ABSTRACT

Given the numerous reports of anthelminthic resistance of sheep nematodes to different anthelmintic compounds, this study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected sheep to monepantel in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Four farms that present extensive raising system and absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days were selected for the study. Lambs that present counts of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) ≥200 (sensitivity of 50 EPG) one day (D-1) before the treatment were select for the study and randomly separated into two groups, a control group and an experimental group treated with monepantel. Feces were collected 9 days after the treatment (D+9) for EPG counts and fecal culture. The monepantel was 100% effective only on 2. The efficacy found on farm 1, 3, and 4 were 2.82%, 25.8%, and 78.4%, respectably. There were no viable larvae post-treatment at farm 2, but the genera Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, and Strongyloides were resistant to it at the other farms. This study shows the presence of parasites resistant to the treatment with monepantel, pointing to the importance of monitoring its efficacy in sheep flocks of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.(AU)


Devido aos numerosos relatos de resistência anti-helmíntica de nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos a diferentes compostos, este estudo objetivou avaliar o status da resistência de nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos naturalmente infectados ao monepantel no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Quatro fazendas que apresentam sistema extensivo de criação e ausência de tratamento anti-helmíntico por 60 dias foram selecionados para o estudo. Animais que apresentassem as contagens de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) ≥200 (sensibilidade de 50 OPG) um dia (D-1) antes do tratamento foram selecionados para o estudo e separados em dois grupos, um grupo controle e um grupo experimental tratado com monepantel. Fezes foram coletadas nove dias após o tratamento (D + 9) para realização do OPG e cultura fecal. O monepantel foi 100% eficaz apenas na propriedade 2. A eficácia encontrada nas propriedades 1, 3 e 4 foi 2,82%, 25,8% e 78,4%, respectivamente. Não houveram larvas viáveis após o tratamento nas propriedades 2, porém os gêneros Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia e Strongyloides demonstraram resistência a este nas demais propriedades. Este estudo mostra a presença de parasitas resistentes ao tratamento com monepantel, apontando para a importância de monitorar a sua eficácia em rebanhos de ovinos do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Aminoacetonitrile/administration & dosage , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance , Nematoda , Sheep/parasitology , Brazil , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 848-852, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041439

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study analyzed the performance of the Kato Katz technique in detecting intestinal schistosomiasis in the State of Pará. METHODS: Of three stool samples provided by each of 380 participants, a total of 16 Kato Katz slides were examined to define the reference value (RV) of positives for comparisons. RESULTS: The RV revealed 37 (9.7%) infected participants in contrast to 10 (2.6%) according to a single slide. CONCLUSIONS: This significant underestimation of the infection rate gives reason to discuss if the current classification of prevalence levels reflects the real situation, principally in low transmission areas, like the Amazon region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis mansoni , Feces/parasitology , Parasite Egg Count , Reference Values , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Prevalence , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 658-665, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897006

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The development of the São Francisco River Integration Project [Projeto de Integração do Rio São Francisco (PISF)] in the State of Ceará, Brazil, has resulted in environmental and socioeconomic changes with potential risks to public health. We aimed to determine the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infections in schoolchildren (aged 7-14 years) and workers from the construction site in an area under the direct influence of the PISF in the municipality of Brejo Santo-CE, to aid in the prevention and control of schistosomiasis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using two S. mansoni-detection methods: detection of S. mansoni eggs by the Kato-Katz parasitological method in stool samples (assessed in triplicate for each sample) and S. mansoni circulating cathodic antigen by the point-of-care immunochromatographic rapid test (POC-CCA) in urine. RESULTS In general, the positivity rates for S. mansoni detection were 1.9% (2/106) among schoolchildren and 2.9% (4/138) among workers. No child had evidence of S. mansoni eggs in their stools; 1.9% tested positive by the POC-CCA method. Among workers, two (1.4%) tested positive by the Kato-Katz test and three (2.2%) by the POC-CCA test. If the POC-CCA test results that were scored as traces were considered negative, then the positivity rates dropped to 0.9% and 0.7% for schoolchildren and workers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The active transmission of schistosomiasis in a region covered by the PISF was recognized, reinforcing the necessity to consolidate surveillance and control actions, as well as structural sanitation measures to reverse the social determinants of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis mansoni/urine , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Rivers , Parasite Egg Count , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Schistosomiasis mansoni/prevention & control , Schistosomiasis mansoni/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Chromatography, Affinity , Point-of-Care Testing , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases
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