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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210041, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286049

ABSTRACT

Eurytrema coelomaticum is a trematode reported in the pancreatic ducts of ruminants. It is conjectured that may cause disorders in the pancreas, as well as digestive and metabolic processes dependent on them. This study, determined if there is an impairment of exocrine pancreatic function, and correlated it with parasite burden. Pancreas, blood, and fecal samples were collected from 119 bovines at a abattoir. Stool samples were subjected to the gelatin and x-ray film digestion tests (to detect the presence of trypsin in feces). Using blood samples, the following biochemical tests were performed: amylase, lipase, glucose, fructosamine, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, and globulins. Analyses were correlated with pancreatic parasite burden. Cattle with a high parasitic load presented higher incidence of negative tests in both gelatin digestion and x-ray film digestion tests (P < 0.001) when compared to non-parasitized animals and those with a low parasitic load. Changes in those tests only occurred if the parasitemia was moderate or severe. The activity of the amylase and lipase enzymes was significantly higher in animals with low parasitemia (P < 0.05), compared to non-parasitized animals and with a high parasitic burden. In this study, in cases of high parasitemia, negative results were observed in both gelatin and x-ray film in the feces digestion tests. However, the low infection of E. coelomaticum, higher levels of serum amylase and lipase that also indicated loss of pancreatic exocrine functions were reported.


Eurytrema coelomaticum, um trematódeo de ductos pancreáticos de ruminantes. Conjectura-se que possa ocasionar transtornos nas funções pancreáticas, mais especificamente nos processos digestivos e metabólicos dependentes destas. Neste estudo, o objetivo foi determinar se há comprometimento da função pancreática exócrina, correlacionado-a a carga parasitária. Foram utilizados pâncreas e respectivas amostras de sangue e fezes de 119 bovinos. As amostras de fezes foram submetidas aos testes de digestão da gelatina em tubo e digestão de filme radiográfico, ambos para detecção de tripsina nas fezes. Foram realizados os seguintes exames bioquímicos em amostras de sangue: amilase, lipase, glicemia, frutosamina, colesterol, triglicerídeos, proteínas totais, albumina e globulinas. Após isto, as análises bioquímicas foram correlacionadas com a quantidade numérica de parasitas encontrados no pâncreas (post-mortem). Houve maior quantidade de testes negativos (digestão do filme radiográfico e prova de digestão da gelatina) nos animais com alta carga parasitária (P < 0.001), quando comparados aos animais não parasitados e com baixa carga parasitária. Portanto, os exames supracitados se alteram somente se a quantidade de parasitas for moderada ou severa. As atividades das enzimas amilase e lipase foram significativamente maiores nos animais que apresentavam baixa parasitemia (P < 0.05), em comparação com os animais com alta carga parasitária e não parasitados. Conclui-se que em quadros de alta parasitemia há alteração significativa nos testes de digestão nas fezes, e que em quadros de baixa parasitemia há alterações significativas nos valores de amilase e lipase séricas, ambos comprovando alterações pancreáticas importantes, de acordo com o quadro de parasitemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency/parasitology , Pancreatitis/parasitology , Trematode Infections/complications , Trematode Infections/veterinary , Amylases/blood , Lipase/blood , Trematoda , Parasite Load/veterinary
2.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e494, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149915

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Comparar tres métodos de concentración de enteroparásitos en muestras fecales humanas. Métodos. Se diseñó un estudio transversal en el que se evaluaron 154 muestras fecales categorizadas en dos grupos: parasitados (n= 127) y no parasitados (n= 27). Las muestras fueron sometidas a tres métodos: parasitológico directo, sedimentación simple y Ritchie modificado, y a la observación microscópica en lugol y suero fisiológico a un aumento de 40X. Resultados. Se observó mayor frecuencia en la presencia de estructuras parasitarias por el método de Ritchie modificado (37 por ciento), seguido de la sedimentación simple (14,8 por ciento) en el grupo de no parasitados; mientras que en el grupo de parasitados, se observó mayor carga parasitaria obtenida por el método de Ritchie (3+ (15,8 por ciento) y 2+ (23,6 por ciento), que en la sedimentación simple (3+ (10,2 por ciento) y 2+ (22,8 por ciento). Las especies parasitarias con mayor frecuencia fueron Entamoeba coli (20,3 por ciento), Giardia lamblia (18,8 por ciento), Blastocystis hominis (15,9 por ciento) y Endomlimax nana (15,2 por ciento); además, se presentó 48,7 por ciento casos con poliparasitismo. El área bajo la curva (AUC) para los métodos de Ritchie modificado, sedimentación simple y parasitológico directo fue de 0,870; 0.648 y 0,796, respectivamente. El AUC del método de Ritchie modificado fue mayor en los varones (0,933) que en las mujeres (0.,92); así como en aquellos menores de 12 años (0,867), comparados con personas entre 12-37 años (0,833) y 18-39 años (0,800). Conclusiones. El método de Ritchie modificado presenta alto rendimiento diagnóstico y permite concentrar mayor cantidad de parásitos intestinales que el método de sedimentación simple. Además, presenta la ventaja de utilizar insumos de fácil acceso y baja toxicidad, lo que genera mayor posibilidad de implementación en los laboratorios de parasitología(AU)


Objective: Compare three enteroparasite concentration methods in human stool samples. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 154 stool samples divided into two groups: with parasites (n= 127) and without parasites (n= 27). The samples were subjected to three methods: direct parasitological examination, simple sedimentation and modified Ritchie's, and to microscopic observation in lugol and saline solution to a 40x increase. Results: In the non-parasite group the highest frequency in the presence of parasite structures was observed with the modified Ritchie's method (37 percent), followed by simple sedimentation (14.8 percent). In the parasite group a greater parasite load was obtained by Ritchie's method (3+ (15.8 percent) and 2+ (23.6 percent) than by simple sedimentation (3+ (10.2 percent) and 2+ (22.8 percent). The parasite species showing the highest frequency were Entamoeba coli (20.3 percent), Giardia lamblia (18.8 percent), Blastocystis hominis (15.9 percent) and Endomlimax nana (15.2 percent), whereas polyparasitism was found in 48.7 percent of the cases. The area under the curve (AUC) for the modified Ritchie's method, simple sedimentation technique and direct parasitological examination was 0.870, 0.648 and 0.796, respectively. In the modified Ritchie's method the AUC was greater in male (0.933) than in female subjects (0.92), as well as in subjects aged under 12 years (0.867) in comparison with people aged 12-37 years (0.833) and 18-39 years (0.800). Conclusions: The modified Ritchie's method has a high diagnostic yield and makes it possible to concentrate a larger number of intestinal parasites than the simple sedimentation method. Additionally, it has the advantage of using inputs of easy access and low toxicity, broadening the possibility of its implementation in parasitology laboratories(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Parasites/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Parasite Load/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190364, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091242

ABSTRACT

Oral transmission of Chagas disease has been increasing in Latin American countries. The present study aimed to investigate changes in hepatic function, coagulation factor levels and parasite load in human acute Chagas disease (ACD) secondary to oral Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. Clinical and epidemiological findings of 102 infected individuals attended in the State of Pará from October 2013 to February 2016 were included. The most common symptoms were fever (98%), asthenia (83.3%), face and limb edema (80.4%), headache (74.5%) and myalgia (72.5%). The hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of 30 ACD patients were higher compared with controls, and this increase was independent of the treatment with benznidazole. Moreover, ACD individuals had higher plasma levels of activated protein C and lower levels of factor VII of the coagulation cascade. Patients with the highest parasite load had also the most increased transaminase levels. Also, ALT and AST were associated moderately (r = 0.429) and strongly (r = 0.595) with parasite load respectively. In conclusion, the present study raises the possibility that a disturbance in coagulation and hepatic function may be linked to human ACD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Protein C/analysis , Factor VIIa/analysis , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Liver/physiopathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Chagas Disease/enzymology , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/transmission , Parasite Load , Liver/enzymology , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190477, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057272

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Benznidazole (BZL) and Nifurtimox (NFX) are the pharmacological treatment for acute phase Chagas Disease (CD); however, therapy resistance and residual mortality development remain important unresolved issues. Posaconazole (POS) has shown a trypanocidal effect in vivo and in vitro. Thus, this study aimed at comparing the T. Cruzi parasitic load-reducing effect of the combination of BZL+POS against that of monotherapy with either, during acute phase CD, in an experimental murine model. METHODS Nineteen Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups and inoculated with the trypomastigotes of T. cruzi strain´s JChVcl1. The rats were administered anti-parasites from day 20-29 post-infection. The Pizzi and Brener method was used for parasitemia measurement. Longitudinal data analysis for the continuous outcome of repeated measures was performed using parasitemia as the outcome measured at days 20, 22, 24, 27, and 29 post-infection. RESULTS All four groups had similar parasitic loads (p=0.143) prior to therapy initiation. Among the three treatment groups, the BZL+POS (n=5) group showed the highest mean parasitic load reduction (p=0.000) compared with the control group. Likewise, the BZL+POS group rats showed an earlier therapeutic effect and were the only ones without parasites in their myocardial samples. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of acute phase CD with BZL+POS was more efficacious at parasitemia and myocardial injury reduction, compared with monotherapy with either.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Triazoles/administration & dosage , Trypanocidal Agents/administration & dosage , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Nitroimidazoles/administration & dosage , Acute Disease , DNA, Protozoan , Rats, Wistar , Disease Progression , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Parasite Load
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200091, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136875

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The drugs currently available for leishmaniasis treatment have major limitations. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the effect of a quinoline derivative, Hydraqui (7-chloro-4-(3-hydroxy-benzilidenehydrazo)quinoline, against Leishmania amazonensis. In silico analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) parameters were performed. RESULTS: Hydraqui showed significant in vitro anti-amastigote activity. Also, Hydraqui-treated mice exhibited high efficacy in lesion size (48.3%) and parasitic load (93.8%) reduction, did not cause hepatic and renal toxicity, and showed appropriate ADMET properties. CONCLUSIONS: Hydraqui presents a set of satisfactory criteria for its application as an antileishmanial agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Quinolines/chemistry , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Disease Models, Animal , Parasite Load , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200377, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a tropical neglected disease with high associated rates of mortality. Several studies have highlighted the importance of the intestinal tract (IT) and gut microbiota (GM) in the host immunological defense. Data in the literature on parasite life cycle and host immune defense against VL are scarce regarding the effects of infection on the IT and GM. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to investigate changes observed in the colon of Leishmania infantum-infected hamsters, including alterations in the enteric nervous system (ENS) and GM (specifically, levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli). METHODS Male hamsters were inoculated with L. infantum and euthanised at four or eight months post-infection. Intestines were processed for histological analysis and GM analysis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to quantify each group of bacteria: Bifidobacterium spp. (Bf) and Lactobacillus spp (LacB). FINDINGS Infected hamsters showed histoarchitectural loss in the colon wall, with increased thickness in the submucosa and the mucosa layer, as well as greater numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Forms suggestive of amastigotes were seen inside mononuclear cells. L. infantum infection induced changes in ENS, as evidenced by increases in the area of colonic enteric ganglia. Despite the absence of changes in the levels of Bf and LacB during the course of infection, the relative abundance of these bacteria was associated with parasite load and histological alterations. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that L. infantum infection leads to important changes in the colon and suggest that bacteria in the GM play a protective role.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bifidobacterium , Leishmania infantum , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lactobacillus , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Cricetinae , Parasite Load , Intestines/parasitology
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 760-763, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058003

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of oral afoxolaner in controlling fleas in cats. Fourteen cats were used. The cats were given identification numbers, housed individually, artificially infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis, and treated (or not) with afoxolaner. Were divided into a treatment group and a control group (n = 7/group), on the basis of the fleas count hours after an infestation applied on Day (one-by-one allocation after ordering by count). At the start of the experimental protocol (designated day 0), the treated group received afoxolaner in a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg and the control group animals received a placebo. All animals were infested with 100 C. felis felis fleas two days before day 0, as well as on days 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, and 63, parasite loads being evaluated at 48 h after each infestation. The efficacy of afoxolaner was 100% on day 2 and remained above 98% until day 42, decreasing to 95.3% by day 63. The findings confirm that a single dose of oral afoxolaner was effective in controlling C. felis felis in cats, and there were no observed adverse events.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma dose única de afoxolaner oral no controle de pulgas em gatos. Foram utilizados 14 gatos. Os animais foram identificados, alojados individualmente, infestados artificialmente com C. felis felis e tratados (ou não) com afoxolaner. Foram divididos em um grupo de tratamento e um grupo controle (n = 7/ grupo), com base na contagem de pulgas, horas após a infestação aplicada no dia (alocação de um por um após o período por contagem). No início do protocolo experimental (dia 0), o grupo tratado recebeu afoxolaner em dose inicial de 2,5 mg / kg e os animais do grupo controle receberam um placebo. Todos os animais foram infestados com 100 pulgas C. felis felis dois dias antes do dia 0, assim como nos dias 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54 e 63, sendo avaliadas as cargas parasitárias às 48 h após cada infestação. A eficácia do afoxolaner foi de 100% no dia 2 e permaneceu acima de 98% até o dia 42, diminuindo para 95,3% no dia 63. Os resultados confirmam que uma dose única de afoxolaner oral foi eficaz no controle de C. felis felis em gatos, e não houve eventos adversos observados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Flea Infestations/veterinary , Isoxazoles/administration & dosage , Naphthalenes/administration & dosage , Antiparasitic Agents/administration & dosage , Cat Diseases/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Treatment Outcome , Flea Infestations/drug therapy , Parasite Load , Siphonaptera
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 563-570, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011256

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a fauna parasitária de tambaquis na região do Baixo São Francisco-AL/SE-Brasil e correlacionar os índices de prevalência e intensidade média com fatores bióticos e abióticos. Foram coletados 252 espécimes para análise parasitológica de 10 pisciculturas. Os parasitos foram contabilizados, identificados, e determinaram-se os índices de prevalência e intensidade média, que foram correlacionados com fatores bióticos e abióticos. Dos peixes coletados, 65,5% estavam parasitados por pelo menos um táxon. Foram encontrados 10 táxons: Monogeneas, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, tricodinídeos, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Ichthyobodo sp., Dolops carvalhoi, Lernaea cyprinacea, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Henneguya sp. e Myxobolus sp. As maiores prevalências foram encontradas para Monogeneas (49,2%) e Myxobolus sp. (31,5%). Correlações negativas entre prevalência e fatores bióticos (peso e comprimento) foram observadas para Monogeneas (r2= -0,49; r2= -0,43), Myxobolus sp. (r²= -0,46; r²= -0,39) e Henneguya sp. (r²= -0,41; r²= -0,39). O fator abiótico temperatura apresentou correlação negativa com as prevalências de Lernaea cyprinacea (r= -0,39) e tricodinídeos (r= -0,33), enquanto a condutividade elétrica apresentou correlação positiva (r= 0,40) com a prevalência de tricodinídeos. Conclui-se que a fauna parasitária dos tambaquis cultivados na região do Baixo São Francisco é diversificada e com a carga parasitária dependente da qualidade de água e do estágio de desenvolvimento dos peixes.(AU)


This study investigated the parasitic fauna of tambaquis reared in lower Sao Francisco region-Al/SE-Brazil correlating parasitic indices to abiotic and biotic factors. A total of 252 specimens of tambaqui were collected in ten fish farms for parasitological analysis. The parasites were counted, identified and the parasitological indices were determined and correlated to biotic and abiotic factors. Of all collected fish, 65,5 % were parasitized by at least one taxon. Ten taxa were found: Monogeneans, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, trichodinids Piscinoodinium pillulare, Ichthyobodo sp, Dolops carvalhoi, Lernaea cyprinacea, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Henneguya sp. and Myxobolus sp. The higher prevalences were found to monogeneans (49.2%) and Myxobolus sp. (31.5%). Negative correlation of prevalence and biotic factor (weight and length) were observed to monogeneans (r 2 = -0.49, r 2 = -0.43), Myxobolus sp (r²= -0.46; r²= -0.39) and Henneguya sp (r²= -0.41; r²= -0.39). Abiotic factor of temperature presented a negative correlation to prevalence of Lernaea cyprinacea and trichodinids (r= -0.39 e r= -0.33, respectively) and the electric conductivity presented positive correlation to trichodinids (r= 0.40). It was concluded that parasitic fauna of tambaquis cultured in Lower São Francisco region is diversified and the parasitic load dependent on water parameters and fish growth.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/epidemiology , Parasite Load/veterinary , Fishes/parasitology , Parasites , Aquaculture , Fish Diseases
9.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 23(1): e20180150, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-975236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the epidemiological and clinical aspects involved in the transmission and manifestation of schistosomiasis in a community of fishermen from the endemic area of Alagoas. Methods: Epidemiological, transversal, prospective, descriptive, quantitative study. The coproparasitological survey included 275 family units of fish workers and the epidemiological and clinical ones, those with a positive diagnosis for S. mansoni. Results: The prevalence of schistosomiasis was 13.9% (fishermen), 2.1% (shellfish) and 2.1% (family members). The occurrence of the infection varied according to gender, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Exposure occurred near the home. Autochthonous and predominant low parasite burden, intestinal clinical presentation, abdominal pain and diarrhea were observed. There were no nutritional and pressure changes associated with parasitosis. Adherence to drug therapy and use of the schistosomicidal drug was feared. Conclusion: Fish workers are at high risk for contracting the disease with clinical hepatointestinal manifestation, which requires more intense health actions.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar los aspectos epidemiológicos y clínicos involucrados en la transmisión y manifestación de la esquistosomiasis en una comunidad de pescadores de área endémica de Alagoas. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico, transversal, prospectivo, descriptivo, cuantitativo. La encuesta coproparasitológica contempló 275 unidades familiares de los trabajadores de la pesca y el epidemiológico y clínico, aquellos con diagnóstico positivo para S. mansoni. Resultados: La prevalencia de la esquistosomiasis fue 13,9% (pescadores), 2,1% (marisqueras) y 2,1% (familiares). La ocurrencia de la infección varió según el género, edad, etnia y condición socioeconómica. La exposición ocurrió cerca del domicilio. Se observó autoctonía y predominio de carga parasitaria baja, presentación clínica intestinal, dolor abdominal y diarrea. No hubo alteraciones nutricionales y presión arterial asociadas a la parasitosis. Existia el temor de la adhesión a la terapia medicamentosa y al uso de la droga esquistomicida. Conclusión: Los trabajadores de la pesca presentan alto riesgo para contraer la enfermedad con manifestación clínica hepatointestinal, lo que requiere acciones de salud más intensas.


Resumo Objetivo: Analisar os aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos envolvidos na transmissão e manifestação da esquistossomose em uma comunidade de pescadores de área endêmica de Alagoas. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, prospectivo, descritivo, quantitativo. O inquérito coproparasitólogico contemplou 275 unidades familiares de trabalhadores da pesca e o epidemiológico e clínico, àqueles com diagnóstico positivo para S. mansoni. Resultados: A prevalência da esquistossomose foi 13,9% (pescadores), 2,1% (marisqueiras) e 2,1% (familiares). A ocorrência da infecção variou conforme gênero, idade, etnia e condição socioeconômica. A exposição ocorreu próxima ao domicílio. Observou-se autoctonia e predominância de carga parasitária baixa, apresentação clínica intestinal, dor abdominal e diarreia. Não ocorreram alterações nutricionais e pressóricas associadas à parasitose. Houve receio na adesão à terapêutica medicamentosa e ao uso do fármaco esquistossomicida. Conclusão: Os trabalhadores da pesca apresentam alto risco para contrair a doença com manifestação clínica hepatointestinal, o que requer ações de saúde mais fortalecidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Fisheries , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors , Health Profile , Brazil/epidemiology , Occupational Risks , Abdominal Pain/parasitology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Basic Sanitation , Diarrhea/parasitology , Parasite Load
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180541, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057254

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Chagas disease is a major public health problem that is endemic in Brazil and Latin America. This study aimed to determine the socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 171 patients (mean age, 45 years; female, 65%) with Chagas disease at Hospital Universitário de Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. METHODS We implemented this cross-sectional study using a clinical epidemiological questionnaire, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and quantitative detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood using qRT-PCR. RESULTS Among the patients, 26.3% had a full elementary education, and 13.2% were illiterate. Most (63.6%) were economically classified as class C, and 51.5% were born in Bahia state. A total of 62.0% participants reported previous contact with the triatomine bug. The clinical forms of the disease were indeterminate (69.51%), cardiac (15.24%), digestive (10.37%), and mixed (4.88%). The most common electrocardiographic abnormality was complete right bundle branch block in association with a divisional anterosuperior block. Only 14.6% of the patients complied with benznidazole medication for at least 60 days, and 164 of them were assessed by echocardiography. The parasite load was positive in 56% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Chagas disease affected mostly women, with the indeterminate chronic form of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Parasite Load , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Middle Aged
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(9): e170522, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-955127

ABSTRACT

The Malaria Frontier Hypothesis (MFH) is the current model for predicting malaria emergence in the Brazilian Amazon. It has two important dimensions, 'settlement time' and 'malaria incidence', and its prediction are: malaria incidence peaks five years after the initiation of human settlement and declines towards zero after an estimated 10 years. Although MFH is currently accepted, it has been challenged recently. Herein, we described a novel method for estimating settlement timeline by using remote sensing technology integrated in an open-software geographic information system. Surprisingly, we found that of the majority of the rural settlements with high malaria incidence are more than 10 years old.


Subject(s)
Humans , Geographic Information Systems/organization & administration , Malaria/parasitology , Malaria/transmission , Malaria/epidemiology , Rural Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources/trends , Parasite Load/statistics & numerical data
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742228

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is expanding and becoming urbanized, especially in non-endemic areas such as the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Considering that infected dogs are the main reservoir for zoonotic VL, this study evaluated the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, a new area of expansion of VL in Brazil. Serum and plasma from 405 asymptomatic dogs from the municipalities of Canoas (n=107), São Leopoldo (n=216), and Novo Hamburgo (n=82) were tested for CVL using immunochromatographic (DPP®) and ELISA EIE® assays (2 assays officially adopted by the Brazilian government for the diagnosis of CVL) and real-time PCR to confirm the results. There was no agreement among serological and real-time PCR results, indicating that the Leishmania infection in asymptomatic animals with low parasite load, confirmed by negative parasitological tests (smears and parasite culture), need to be evaluated by molecular methods. The prevalence of LVC in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, confirmed by real-time PCR was 4% (5.6% in Canoas and 4.6% in São Leopoldo). The use of molecular method is essential for accurate diagnosis of CVL, especially in asymptomatic dogs in non-endemic areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brazil , Diagnosis , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoassay , Leishmania , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Methods , Parasite Load , Parasites , Plasma , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 1-8, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897520

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe gordiids are freshwater representatives of the parasite phylum Nematomorpha that function as a link between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years, different ecotoxicologic studies have been made with the South-American gordiid species, Chordodes nobilii, that have demonstrated the capacity of this group to act as a bioindicator of contamination. Despite the Gordiida's ecologic relevance, further studies are still needed to elucidate different aspects of the biology of the class, and among those, the infective capacity, a parameter that can be evaluated by the infection index mean abundance (IIMA). A knowledge of the intrinsic variability in the infective capacity of C. nobilii would warrant priority in order to establish, the range of acceptable responses for normal or standard conditions in the laboratory, and, to compare the criteria among different assays. The objective of this study was to establish a baseline value for the infective capacity for C. nobilii larvae, under controlled laboratory conditions, by employing the IIMA as the evaluation parameter. To that end, we analyzed the infective capacity of C. nobilii larvae that had hatched from different strings of eggs laid in the laboratory by a total of 12 females. The C. nobilii adults were collected from streams within the Argentina Sauce Grande basin, between 2006 and 2009. Once in the laboratory, after mating, the females were placed in individual containers for oviposition. The egg strings obtained from each female were cut in 3 mm long segments; and when free larvae were observed, the segments (N= 90) were placed together with 30 Aedes aegypti larvae for evaluation of the gordiids' infective capacity. After 72 h, the mosquito larvae were observed by microscopy in order to quantify the C. nobilii larvae in body cavities. The IIMAs were calculated as the total number of C. nobilii larvae present divided by total number of A. aegypti larvae examined. For analysis of the IIMAs obtained, the data were grouped according to the female who made the original ovoposition. Our results enabled the corroboration of an ample range of responses in the infective capacity of this species, a characteristic that would normally be linked to the progenitors originating the hatch. Because this relationship prevents the establishment of a baseline for making comparisons among assays with gordiids, through the IIMA as a response parameter, we recommend expressing the IIMA values in each assay relative to their respective controls. These findings also provide evidence for the greater success in infections by certain members of the progeny over others. Finally, on the basis of the results obtained from this study, we stress the relevance of the use of the IIMA as a decisive aspect to be considered in different studies on the biology of Gordiida. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 1-8. Epub 2017 March 01.


ResumenLos gordiidos son representantes dulceacuícolas del Phylum parásito Nematomorpha que actúan como un enlace entre ecosistemas acuáticos y terrestres. En años recientes, diferentes estudios ecotoxicológicos se han desarrollado con una especie sudamericana de gordiido, C. nobilii, que ha demostrado la capacidad de este grupo de actuar como bioindicador de contaminación. A pesar de su evidente importancia ecológica, aún se necesitan realizar estudios para dilucidar distintos aspectos de su biología, entre estos, la capacidad infectiva, un parámetro que puede evaluarse utilizando el Índice de Infección Abundancia Media (IIMA). El conocimiento de la variabilidad intrínseca en la capacidad infectiva de C. nobilii merece prioridad con el objeto de establecer el ámbito de respuesta aceptable para condiciones normales o estándar en el laboratorio, y que permita comparar los resultados entre distintos ensayos. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer la línea de base de la capacidad infectiva del gordiido C. nobilii en condiciones controladas de laboratorio, empleando el IIMA como parámetro de evaluación. Con este fin, se analizó la capacidad infectiva de larvas de C. nobilii que eclosionaron de diferentes cordones de huevos depositados por un total de 12 hembras, mantenidas en laboratorio. Los adultos de C. nobilii fueron recolectados de arroyos de la cuenca argentina Sauce Grande, entre 2006 y 2009. Una vez en el laboratorio, después de la cópula, las hembras se ubicaron en recipientes individuales a la espera de la oviposición. Los cordones de huevos obtenidos de cada hembra se cortaron en segmentos de 3 mm de longitud; y cuando las larvas libres fueron observadas al microscopio, los segmentos (N= 90) fueron ubicados junto con 30 larvas de Aedes aegypti para evaluar la capacidad infectiva del gordiido. Después de 72 h, las larvas del mosquito fueron observadas al microscopio para contabilizar las larvas de C. nobilii en las cavidades corporales. El IIMA fue calculado como el número total de larvas de C. nobilii presentes dividido entre el número total de larvas de A. aegypti examinadas. Para el análisis de los IIMAs obtenidos, los datos fueron agrupados de acuerdo a la hembra que hizo la oviposición. Nuestros resultados permiten corroborar un amplio rango de respuesta en la capacidad infectiva de esta especie, que estaría vinculada al origen de la camada. Debido a que no se pudo establecer una línea de base para realizar comparaciones entre estudios en los gordiidos utilizando el IIMA como parámetro de respuesta, se aconseja relativizar los valores de los IIMAs a sus respectivos controles. Estos resultados también pusieron en evidencia la ventaja en el éxito de infección de algunas progenies sobre las restantes. Finalmente, con base en los resultados obtenidos a partir de este estudio se plantea la importancia del uso del IIMA como punto final a considerar en distintos estudios sobre la biología de los gordiida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasite Load/methods , Helminths/pathogenicity , Larva/pathogenicity , Oviposition/physiology , Reference Standards , Sex Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Aedes/parasitology , Fresh Water/parasitology
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(1): 264-268, jan.-fev. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-836719

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to verify the parasitologycal aspects of fish (Hoplias malabaricus), coming from São Bento city, Maranhão state. For this, 70 fish were used, verifying the parasitism indexes and coefficients. For the parasitological results nematodeos were identified, with zoonotical potential of the Contracaecum spp, Pseudoterranova spp, Eustrongylides spp; monogenetics Gyrodactirus spp, Dactylogirus spp and larva Acanthella of Acanthocephalo. Of the 70 (100%) fishes, 64 (91.4%) were sponged, with prevalence of 82.8% (58) for the nematodeo Contracaecum spp, 65.7% (46), Pseudoterranova spp, 7.1% (5), Eustrongylides spp, 71.4% (50), monogenetics and larva Acanthella of Acantocephalo, respectively. A maior amplitude de intensidade (1-30), coeficiente de variação foi verificado para o nematódeo Pseudoterranova spp., a intensidade média (7,3), índice de abundância (6,7), coeficiente de dominância (36,4) foi ao Contacaecum spp., todos os parasitos estavam no mesentério da cavidade abdominal, encistados em forma larval.The largest intensity width (1-30), variation coefficient was verified for the nematodeo Pseudoterranova spp, the medium intensity (7,3), abundance index (6,7), dominance coefficient (36,4) it went to the Contacaecum spp, all of the parasites were in the mesenterio of the abdominal cavity, encysted in larval form. The results show that fish from this region presented unsatisfactory sanitary conditions in parasitological aspect and can expose consumers to the risks of foodborne illnesses.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Characiformes/parasitology , Nematoda , Parasite Load/veterinary
15.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954842

ABSTRACT

Background The present study evaluated the effect of treatment with benznidazole on mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-10, TGF-β and FoxP3 in spleen and heart tissue of BALB/c mice in the acute phase of an experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, strains JLP or Y. Methods The mRNA expression of cytokines and parasite load were assessed by q-PCR. Dependent groups were compared using Student's paired t-test and independent groups were compared using Student's unpaired t-test. Results Infection with the JLP or Y strains increased expression of IFN-γ in the heart and of IL-10 and IL-17 in the spleen and heart compared to uninfected animals. Treatment increased the expression of IFN-γ and decreased the expression of IL-17, IL-10, TGF- β and Foxp3 in spleen and heart tissue compared to untreated infected animals. Conclusion Benznidazole can induce Th1 profile in the initial of the acute phase. The treatment decreased the parasite load in both organs, although the number of parasites in Y-strain-infected mice remained high. The data suggest that benznidazole may modulate cytokine expression in infection and can be dependent of the strain. However, treatment was not fully effective in the infection provoked by Y strain, probably due to the characteristics of the strain itself.(AU)


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cytokines , Interferons , Chagas Disease , Parasite Load , Immunity
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 713-720, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829676

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease currently affects 5.7 million people in Latin America and is emerging in non-endemic countries. There is no consensus concerning the efficacy of trypanocidal therapy for patients with the chronic form of the disease. We evaluated cardiac function and sociodemographic, clinical, and serologic characteristics of a group of asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive former blood donors, and compared the effects of benznidazole treatment applied for different lengths of time. METHODS: Blood donors who screened positive for T. cruzi between 1998 and 2002 were recruited 10 years later for follow-up (n = 244); 46 individuals had received treatment. Three subjects had terminated treatment prematurely. The remaining 43 individuals were divided into two groups: individuals who had received benznidazole therapy for 50-60 days (n = 28; BT ≤60 group) or more than 60 days (n = 15; BT >60). Serologic assays, biochemical tests, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and clinical examinations were performed on all participants. Parasite loads were determined by qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Parasitemia was significantly reduced in the BT ≤60 and BT >60 groups compared with the untreated group. There were no differences in epidemiologic profiles or clinical, biochemical, electrocardiographic, or echocardiographic data between any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite elimination or significant reduction in parasitemia in patients with chronic Chagas disease who received benznidazole, there was no clinical difference between those who were treated for >60 days and those treated for a shorter duration. Furthermore, the adverse effects of benznidazole appear to be less severe than previous reports would suggest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Trypanocidal Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Donors , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Parasitemia/parasitology , Nitroimidazoles/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Clinical Protocols , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Treatment Outcome , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Asymptomatic Infections , Parasite Load , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(3): 342-347, July-Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795072

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis and parasite load in the liver and spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), using immunohistochemistry. Liver and spleen samples from 71 dogs with VL were used. The parasite load in the spleen and liver showed significant difference between organs in infected group (P=0.0219). The density of the parasite load in the spleen (median=2.4) was higher than liver (median=0.8). Immunodetection of apoptotic cells was predominant in lymphocytes and differ between the infected and control group in spleen (P=0.0307) and liver (P=0.0346). There was a significant correlation between apoptosis and parasite load (P = 0.0084; r=0.3104) only in the spleen of the infected group, where it was observed that, when increasing the number of apoptotic cells increases the parasitic load. It was concluded that the liver and spleen of infected dogs presented greater numbers of cells undergoing apoptosis (lymphocytes) than the control group, thus suggesting that this process may be contributing towards the survival of Leishmania in these organs, because lymphocyte in apoptosis did not have the ability to present and recognize the antigen, allowing the survival of the parasite.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a apoptose e a carga parasitária no fígado e baço de cães com leishmaniose visceral (LV), pela técnica de imuno-histoquímica. Foram utilizadas amostras de fígado e baço de 71 cães com LV. A carga parasitária no baço e fígado mostrou diferença significativa entre os órgãos no grupo infectado (P=0,0219). A densidade da carga de parasita no baço (média=2,4) foi maior do que no fígado (média=0,8). A imunodetecção de células em apoptose foi predominante nos linfócitos, com diferenças entre o grupo infectado e controle no baço (P=0,0307) e fígado (P=0,0346). Houve uma correlação positiva fraca entre apoptose e carga parasitária (P=0,0084; r=0,3104) apenas no baço do grupo infectado, onde observou-se que quando aumentava o número de células em apoptose aumentava a carga parasitária. Concluiu-se que o fígado e o baço de cães infectados apresentam um maior número de células que sofrem apoptose (linfócitos) do que o grupo controle, sugerindo que este processo possa contribuir para a sobrevivência de Leishmania nestes órgãos, pois os linfócitos em apoptose não tiveram a capacidade de apresentar e reconhecer o antígeno, permitindo a sobrevivência do parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Spleen/parasitology , Apoptosis/physiology , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Parasite Load , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Liver/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(2): 244-247, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785153

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmania infantum chagasi liver parasite load was compared to hemostatic abnormalities, as well as to clinical, laboratorial, and histopathological findings in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. The liver parasite load of 30 dogs L. infantum chagasi naturally-infected was evaluated by quantitative real- time PCR and the results were compared with serum biochemistry and primary and secondary hemostasis findings. Moreover, hepatic histological lesions were described in these dogs. Prolonged bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), were observed in the group with visceral leishmaniasis. Eleven dogs presented inflammatory liver lesions, with predominance of mild multifocal mononuclear periportal hepatitis. No association between the presence of parasites and abnormalities in screening tests was observed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The clinical progression in leishmaniasis is associated with the occurrence of hemorrhagic diathesis, which depends not only on the presence of the parasite but also the inflammatory process, compromised immunological response, hepatic and renal failure in symptomatic dogs.


Resumo A carga parasitária de Leishmania infantum chagasi do fígado foi comparada às anormalidades hemostáticas, bem como aos achados clínicos, laboratoriais e histopatológicos em cães com leishmaniose visceral. A carga parasitária do fígado de 30 cães naturalmente infectados por L. infantum chagasi foi avaliada por PCR quantitativo em tempo real e os resultados foram comparados com bioquímica sérica e achados de hemostasia primária e secundária. Além disso, foram descritas as lesões hepáticas nestes cães. Prolongado tempo de sangramento, tempo de protrombina (TP) e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA) foram observados no grupo com leishmaniose visceral. Onze cães apresentaram lesões inflamatórias no fígado, predominando hepatite periportal mononuclear multifocal. Não foi observada associação entre a presença de parasitos e as anormalidades nos testes laboratoriais por correlação de Spearman. A progressão clínica na leishmaniose está associada com a ocorrência de diátese hemorrágica, que depende não só da presença do parasito, mas também do processo inflamatório, do comprometimento da resposta imunológica e da falência renal e hepática em cães sintomáticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/blood , Parasite Load/veterinary , Hemostasis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood
19.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 25(2): 243-250, abr.-jun. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-785212

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: avaliar a efetividade do tratamento coletivo para esquistossomose mansônica em duas localidades endêmicas do município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes-PE. MÉTODOS: foram descritas a prevalência de esquistossomose e a carga média parasitária antes e após tratamento coletivo, no período 2011-2013; foram utilizados dados do Sistema de Informações da Esquistossomose e de relatórios de conclusão dos inquéritos amostrais. RESULTADOS: observou-se redução no percentual de positividade de 8,9% para 2,3% em Barra de Jangada e de 15,7% para 3,5% em Novo Horizonte; ocorreu diminuição da carga média parasitária em Novo Horizonte (de 67,0 para 52,7 ovos/grama de fezes) e incremento em Barra de Jangada (de 23,8 para 91,7 ovos/grama de fezes). CONCLUSÃO: o tratamento coletivo contribuiu para a redução do percentual de positividade nas áreas endêmicas.


OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effectiveness of collective treatment for Schistosomiasis mansoni in two endemic localities in Jaboatão dos Guararapes-PE. METHODS: we described the prevalence of Schistosomiasis mansoni and the average parasite load before and after collective treatment in the period 2011-2013; data from the Schistosomiasis mansoni Information System and completion of sample surveys reports were used. RESULTS: there is a reduction in 8.9% positivity rate to 2.3% in Barra de Jangada and from 15.7% to 3.5% in Novo Horizonte; there was a decrease of the parasitic load average in Novo Horizonte (67.0 to 52.7 eggs/gram of feces) and increase in Barra de Jangada (23.8 to 91.7 eggs/gram of feces). CONCLUSION: the collective treatment contributed to reducing the rate of positivity in endemic areas.


OBJETIVO: evaluar la efectividad del tratamiento colectivo para Esquistosomiasis mansónica en dos localidades endémicas del municipio de Jaboatão dos Guararapes-PE. MÉTODOS: describimos la prevalencia de Esquistosomiasis mansónica y la carga parasitaria antes y después del tratamiento colectivo en el período 2011-2013; se utilizaron los datos del Sistema de Información de la esquistosomiasis y la finalización de los informes de encuestas por muestreo. RESULTADOS: observamos una reducción de 8,9% para 2,3% en la tasa de positividad en Barra de Jangada y de 15,7% para 3,5% en Novo Horizonte; hubo una disminución del promedio de carga parasitaria en Nuevo Horizonte (de 67,0 para 52,7 huevos/gramo de heces) y un aumento en Barra de Jangada (de 23,8 a 91,7 huevos/gramo de heces). CONCLUSIÓN: el tratamiento colectivo ayudó a reducir la tasa de positividad en las zonas endémicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Parasite Load , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/parasitology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/therapy , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Feces/parasitology , Health Information Systems , Parasite Egg Count , Treatment Outcome
20.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(1): 127-130, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777540

ABSTRACT

Abstract The skin is the site of inoculation of Leishmania spp. in susceptible hosts, and consequently dermatopathies, especially ulcerative dermatitis, are the main clinical signs observed. The aim of this study was to assess parasitism of the skin (intact and ulcerated) among dogs that were naturally infected by Leishmania spp., through immunohistochemical analysis. Skin fragments (intact and ulcerated) were collected from 13 dogs with positive parasitological (bone marrow aspiration and exfoliative skin) and serological examinations (ELISA S7® Biogene) forLeishmania spp. These samples were processed using the immunohistochemical technique, involving the streptavidin-peroxidase complex. Ulcerative lesions were mainly observed on the elbows (53.84%; 7/13), nostrils (15.38%; 2/13), ears (23.07%; 3/13) and wings of the ilium (7.69%; 1/13). A severe parasite load was detected in 46.15% and 76.92% of the intact and ulcerated skin samples tested, respectively. The parasite load on ulcerated skin was statistically higher than on intact skin (p = 0.0221). These results indicate that the intact and ulcerated skin may host a high parasite load of amastigote forms of Leishmania spp., which can favor the transmission of the parasite.


Resumo A pele é o local de inoculação da Leishmania spp. nos hospedeiros susceptíveis e dessa forma, as dermatopatias, principalmente as dermatites ulcerativas são os principais sinais clínicos observados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o parasitismo na pele (íntegra e ulcerada) em cães naturalmente infectados por Leishmania spp. através da técnica de imunohistoquímica. Fragmentos de pele (íntegra e ulcerada) foram coletados de 13 cães com diagnóstico parasitológico (aspirado de medula óssea e esfoliação cutânea) e sorológico positivos (ELISA S7® Biogene) paraLeishmania spp. Amostras foram processadas por imunohistoquímica pelo complexo estreptoavidina-peroxidase. As lesões ulcerativas foram observadas principalmente nas regiões do cotovelo 53,84% (7/13), narina 15,38% (2/13), orelha 23,07% (3/13) e sobre a asa do ílio 7,69% (1/13). Uma intensa carga parasitária foi detectada 46,15% e 76,92% das amostras de pele íntegra e ulcerada, respectivamente. A carga parasitária na pele ulcerada foi estatisticamente superior à pele íntegra (p = 0,0221). Esses resultados indicam que a pele intacta e ulcerada pode albergar uma intensa carga parasitária de formas amastigotas de Leishmania spp., o que pode favorecer a transmissão do parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Skin/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/veterinary , Parasite Load/veterinary , Dog Diseases/parasitology
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