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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 418-423, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153339

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic fauna of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818) from Southeastern Brazil. Between September 2017 and March 2018, a total of 100 specimens of O. oglinum from the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (22°54'S, 43°34'W) were examined. Ninety one specimens of O. oglinum were parasitized by at least one species of metazoan with a mean of 5.84 ± 7.98 parasites/fish. Seven species were collected: 2 digeneans, 2 monogeneans, 2 copepods and 1 nematode. The digenean Parahemiurus merus (Linton) was the most abundant and dominant species, representing 43% of metazoan parasites collected. The parasite species richness was positively correlated with the total length of the hosts. Only Neobomolochus elongatus Cressey showed a positive correlation between host's total length and parasite prevalence. The mean parasite species diversity was not correlated with host's total length, but significant differences among the mean parasite diversity between males and females was observed. Opisthonema oglinum represents a new host record for Caligus mutabilis Wilson, Hysterothylacium sp. and Cribomazocraes travassosi Santos and Kohn. The copepod N. elongatus is recorded for the first time on the Brazilian coast.


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a fauna parasitária de Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818) do Sudeste do Brasil. No período entre setembro de 2017 e março de 2018, um total de 100 espécimes de O. oglinum provenientes da Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (22°54'S; 43°34'O), foram examinados. Noventa espécimes de O. oglinum estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de metazoário com média de 5,84 ± 7,98 parasitos/peixe. Sete espécies foram coletadas: 2 digenéticos, 2 monogenéticos, 2 copépodes e 1 nematoide. O digenético Parahemiurus merus (Linton) foi à espécie mais abundante e dominante, representando 43% dos metazoários parasitos coletados. A riqueza parasitária foi correlacionada com o comprimento total do hospedeiro. Apenas Neobomolochus elongatus Cressey apresentou correlação positiva entre o comprimento total do hospedeiro e a prevalência parasitária. A diversidade média de espécies de parasitos não apresentou correlação com o comprimento total do hospedeiro, mas foram observadas diferenças significativas entre a diversidade média de parasitos entre machos e fêmeas. Opisthonema oglinum representa um novo registro de hospedeiro para Caligus mutabilis Wilson, Hysterothylacium sp. e Cribomazocraes travassosi Santos and Kohn. O copépode N. elongatus é registrado pela primeira vez na costa Brasileira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Parasites/classification , Trematoda/classification , Fishes/parasitology , Brazil , Bays , Ecology
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e021819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138075

ABSTRACT

Abstract Comparative studies of parasites in sympatric bird species have been generally scarce. Parasitic infection/transmission can be spread in a number of ways that suggests possible direct and indirect, horizontal transmission between avian hosts. In order to determine whether two sympatric icterids from Central and Southern Chile share their parasite fauna (ecto- and endoparasites), we examined parasites of 27 Shiny Cowbirds, Molothrus bonariensis, and 28 Austral Blackbirds, Curaeus curaeus, including individuals captured in the wild and carcasses. We found that Shiny Cowbirds were infected with the chewing lice Brueelia bonariensis, Philopterus sp. 1, the feather mites Amerodectes molothrus, Proctophyllodes spp. (species 1 and 2), and the helminths Mediorhynchus papillosus, Plagiorhynchus sp., Dispharynx nasuta and Tetrameres paucispina, while Austral Blackbirds had the chewing lice Myrsidea sp., Philopterus sp. 2, the feather mites Proctophyllodes sp. 3, Amerodectes sp., and three helminths: Anonchotaenia sp., Capillaria sp. and M. papillosus. The flea Dasypsyllus (Neornipsyllus) cteniopus was found only on the Austral Blackbird. The only parasite species shared by both icterids was the acanthocephalan M. papillosus, possibly due to their feeding on the same intermediate insect hosts. With the exception of B. bonariensis and Philopterus sp. 1 found on the Shiny Cowbird, all species reported in this study represent new parasite-host associations and new records of parasite diversity in Chile.


Resumo Estudos comparativos de parasitas em espécies de aves simpátricas são escassos. A infecção/transmissão de parasitas pode acontecer de diversas maneiras, incluindo possível transmissão direta, indireta ou horizontal entre as aves hospedeiras. Com o objetivo de determinar se dois icterídeos simpátricos do centro e sul do Chile compartilham a sua fauna parasitária (ecto- e endoparasitas), foram examinados os parasitas de 27 chupins Molothrus bonariensis e 28 pássaros-pretos-austral Curaeus curaeus, incluindo indivíduos capturados com rede de neblina e em carcaças. Nos chupins analisados, foram encontrados os piolhos de penas Brueelia bonariensis, Philopterus sp. 1, os ácaros Amerodectes molothrus, Proctophyllodes spp. (espécie 1 e 2), e os helmintos Mediorhynchus papillosus, Plagiorhynchus sp., Dispharynx nasuta e Tetrameres paucispina. Em contraste, os pássaros-pretos-austral estavam infectados com os piolhos Myrsidea sp., Philopterus sp. 2, os ácaros Proctophyllodes sp. 3, Amerodectes sp., e os helmintos Anonchotaenia sp., Capillaria sp. e M. papillosus. Adicionalmente, um espécime de pássaro-preto-austral estava parasitado pela pulga Dasypsyllus (Neornipsyllus) cteniopus. A única espécie de parasita que foi encontrada nas duas espécies de aves foi o acantocéfalo M. papillosus, possivelmente devido ao fato de que ambas as aves se alimentam dos insetos que são os hospedeiros intermediários deste parasita. Exceto os registros de B. bonariensis e Philopterus sp. 1 encontrados no chupim, todas as espécies reportadas neste estudo correspondem à novas associações de parasita/hospedeiro e novos registros para a diversidade parasitológica do Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/classification , Parasites/physiology , Passeriformes/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Chile , Host Specificity , Helminths/physiology , Mites/physiology
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e003920, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138118

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Neotropic cormorant Nannopterum (Phalacrocorax) brasilianus (Suliformes: Phalacrocoracidae) is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Chile, information about parasites for this species is limited to helminths and nematodes, and little is known about other parasite groups. This study documents the parasitic fauna present in 80 Neotropic cormorants' carcasses collected from 2001 to 2008 in Antofagasta, Biobío, and Ñuble regions. Birds were externally inspected for ectoparasites and necropsies were performed to examine digestive and respiratory organs in search of endoparasites. Ectoparasites collected were cleared and mounted for identification under a microscope. Fecal samples were also evaluated to determine the presence of protozoan parasites employing a flotation technique. A total of 44 (42.5%) of birds were infested with at least one ectoparasite species, while 77 (96.25%) were carrying endoparasites. No protozoan forms were found after examination. Most prevalent endoparasite species found were Contracaecum rudolphii s. l. (72/80, 90%), followed by Pectinopygus gyroceras (33/80, 41.25%), and Profilicollis altmani (26/80, 32.5%). This is the first report of P. altmani, Baruscapillaria carbonis, Avioserpens sp., Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma) phenisci, and Eidmaniella pelucida in the Neotropic cormorant. These findings also expand the distributional range of Andracantha phalacrocoracis, Paradilepis caballeroi, Hysteromorpha triloba, and P. gyroceras to Chile.


Resumo O Biguá Nannopterum (Phalacrocorax) brasilianus (Suliformes: Phalacrocoracidae) é amplamente distribuído na América Central e na do Sul. No Chile, as informações sobre parasitos para essa espécie são limitadas a helmintos e nematoides, e pouco se sabe sobre outros grupos de parasitos. Este estudo documenta a fauna parasitária presente em 80 biguás coletados de 2001 a 2008, nas regiões de Antofagasta, Biobío e Ñuble. As aves foram inspecionadas externamente em busca de ectoparasitas; adicionalmente, foram realizadas necropsias para examinar os órgãos digestivos e respiratórios em busca de endoparasitos. Os ectoparasitos coletados foram limpos e montados para identificação ao microscópio. As amostras de fezes também foram avaliadas para determinar a presença de parasitos protozoários, empregando-se uma técnica de flutuação. Um total de 44 (42,5%) aves estavam infectadas com pelo menos um ectoparasito, enquanto 77 (96,25%) estavam portando endoparasito. Nenhuma forma de protozoário foi encontrada após o exame. As espécies de endoparasitos mais prevalentes encontradas foram Contracaecum rudolphii (72/80, 90%), Pectinopygus gyroceras (33/80, 41.25%) e Profilicollis altmani (26/80, 32.5%). Este é o primeiro registro de P. altmani, Baruscapillaria carbonis, Avioserpens sp., Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma) phenisci e Eidmaniella pelucida no biguá. Esses resultados também expandem a distribuição de Andracantha phalacrocoracis, Paradilepis caballeroi, Ascocotyle felippei, Hysteromorpha triloba e P. gyroceras no Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/classification , Parasites/physiology , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Birds/parasitology , Chile , Helminths
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e007320, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138117

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although anemia has been historically linked to Haemonchus contortus infection, other infectious agents, such as hemotropic mycoplasmas and tick-borne disease pathogens, may also lead to anemic crisis in sheep. This study has aimed to investigate infections related to anemia in a sheep herd from Bandeirantes City, Paraná State, southern Brazil. Seven out of forty-two (16.6%; 95% CI: 8.32-30.6%) sheep were positive for hemoplasmas by a PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and all tested negative for A. marginale/A. ovis and Babesia/Theileria spp. by PCR based on msp4 and 18S rRNA genes, respectively. Two (4.7%; 95% CI: 1.32-15.79%) animals were infested with Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. Fecal egg counting was performed in 38 sheep and 24 (63.15%; 95% CI: 47.2-76.6%) presented > 500 eggs per gram. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the detected hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. 16S and 23S rRNA genes confirmed that the animals were infected with Mycoplasma ovis. Polymorphism analysis of partial 16S rRNA sequences showed three different genotypes of M. ovis infecting sheep assessed in the present study. Mycoplasma ovis and gastrointestinal nematodes occurs in sheep from the northern region of Paraná State.


Resumo Embora a principal causa de anemia seja historicamente relacionada à infecção por Haemonchus contortus, outros agentes infecciosos, como micoplasmas hemotrópicos e patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos, também podem causar quadros anêmicos em ovinos. O presente estudo objetivou investigar infecções relacionadas à anemia em um rebanho de ovinos, na cidade de Bandeirantes, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Sete (16,6%; 95% CI: 8,32-30,6%) de 42 ovinos foram positivos para hemoplasmas pela PCR do gene 16S rRNA, enquanto todos foram negativos para A. marginale/A. ovis e Babesia/Theileria spp. por ensaios da PCR baseados nos genes msp4 e 18S rRNA, respectivamente. Dois (4,7%; 95% CI: 1,32-15,79%) animais estavam infestados por carrapatos Rhipicephalus microplus. Dos 38 animais nos quais foi realizada a contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), 24 (63,15%; 95% CI: 47,2-76,6%) apresentaram valores >500 para OPG. A análise filogenética das sequências parciais dos genes 16S rRNA e 23S rRNA de hemoplasmas confirmou a infecção por Mycoplasma ovis. A análise de polimorfismos de um fragmento do gene 16S rRNA mostrou a ocorrência de três genótipos diferentes de M. ovis nos animais. Mycoplasma ovis e nematódeos gastrointestinais ocorrem em ovinos da região nordeste do Estado do Paraná.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/isolation & purification , Parasites/classification , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/complications , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/microbiology , Anemia/veterinary , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Phylogeny , Sheep Diseases/microbiology , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Brazil , Sheep , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Anemia/complications , Anemia/parasitology , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/genetics
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e008720, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138115

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study provides an updated list of parasite species and their respective hosts in the upper Paraná River floodplain. The list of parasites is structured by phylum, class, order and family, followed by a record of each host species. A total of 315 taxa of parasites were reported, of which 201 were identified at the species level. These 201 species comprise 3 Flagellata, 3 Myxozoa, 50 Monogenea, 43 Digenea, 40 Cestoda, 41 Nematoda, 8 Acanthocephala, 6 Copepoda, 5 Branchiura and 2 Pentastomida, arranged in 84 host fish species. This work carried out in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River contributes to the listing of parasite species and host interactions of the local ichthyofauna. Little is known about these communities and its riches are underestimated due to the high density of fish found in this region, highlighting the importance of conducting studies on the local fauna.


Resumo Este estudo fornece uma lista atualizada de espécies de parasitos e seus respectivos hospedeiros da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná. A lista de parasitos está estruturada em filo, classe, ordem e família, seguida do registro de cada espécie de hospedeiro. São relatados 315 táxons de parasitos e, destes, 201 foram identificados por espécie. Essas 201 espécies compreendem: 3 Flagellata, 3 Myxozoa, 50 Monogenea, 43 Digenea, 40 Cestoda, 41 Nematoda, 8 Acanthocephala, 6 Copepoda, 5 Branchiura e 2 Pentastomida, distribuídos em 84 espécies de hospedeiros. Este trabalho, realizado na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, contribui para a listagem de espécies de parasitos e interações parasito-hospedeiro da ictiofauna local. Pouco dessas comunidades é conhecida, e suas riquezas são subestimadas devido à alta densidade de peixes encontrados nessa região, destacando-se a importância da realização de estudos sobre a fauna local.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/isolation & purification , Parasites/classification , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Rivers , Checklist , Fishes/parasitology
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e012920, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138129

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the parasitic fauna of hybrids tambacu (Colossoma macropomum × Piaractus mesopotamicus) and patinga (P. mesopotamicus × Piaractus brachypomus) and their host-parasite-environment interaction during the warm and cold seasons in two fish farms located in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, South America. A total of 120 fish, being 60 fish for species (30 in the warm season and 30 in the cold season) were examined. Water quality was measured weekly to evaluate the interaction between environmental conditions and parasitism. Fifteen species of parasites were found: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Chilodonella hexasticha e Trichodina sp. (Protozoa), Henneguya piaractus, Myxobolus colossomatis and Myxobolus cuneus (Myxozoa); Anacanthorus penilabiatus, Mymarothecium boegeri, Mymarothecium viatorum, and Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea), Goezia spinulosa and Goezia sp. (Nematoda), Echinorhynchus jucundus (Acanthocephala), and Dolops carvalhoi, Lernaea cyprinacea (Crustacea). The ciliate protozoan I. multifiliis and monogenoids were the most prevalent parasites in the cold and warm seasons for both hybrids in the different culture systems intensive production and sportive fishing. It was observed that the serrasalmid hybrids are more susceptible to parasites and harbor high diversity of parasites in relation to the parental species C. macropomum, P. mesopotamicus and P. brachypomus, with a predominance of ectoparasites.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a fauna parasitária de híbridos tambacu (Colossoma macropomum × Piaractus mesopotamicus) e patinga (P. mesopotamicus × Piaractus brachypomus) e a interação hospedeiro-parasito-ambiente durante as estações quente e fria em duas pisciculturas localizadas no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, América do Sul. Foram examinados um total de 120 peixes, sendo 60 peixes por espécie. A qualidade da água foi mensurada semanalmente para avaliar a interação entre condições ambientais e parasitismo. Foram encontradas quinze espécies de parasitos: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Chilodonella hexasticha e Trichodina sp. (Protozoa); Henneguya piaractus, Myxobolus colossomatis e Myxobolus cuneus (Myxozoa), Anacanthorus penilabiatus, Mymarothecium boegeri, Mymarothecium viatorum e Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea), Goezia spinulosa e Goezia sp. (Nematoda), Echinorhynchus jucundus (Acanthocephala), Dolops carvalhoi eLernaea cyprinacea (Crustacea). O protozoário ciliado I. multifiliis e helmintos monogenoides foram os parasitos mais prevalentes nas estações fria e quente para ambos os híbridos nos diferentes sistemas de cultivo, produção intensiva comercial e pesca esportiva. Observou-se que os híbridos de serrasalmídeos são mais suscetíveis aos parasitos e abrigam alta diversidade parasitária em relação às espécies parentais, C. macropomum, P. mesopotamicus e P. brachypomus em ambiente de cultivo com predominância de ectoparasitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/classification , Characiformes/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Brazil , Aquaculture
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e013520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138124

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study investigated the fauna of monogeneans on gills of 13 fish species from the Matapi River, Brazilian Amazon. A total 548 fish belonging to 13 species (1 Anostomidae, 3 Characidae, 1 Curimatidae, 1 Hemiodontidae, 2 Serrasalmidae, 3 Scianidae, 1 Ageneiosidae and 1 Tetradontidae) were examined. From these fish, 6 species were infected and with a total prevalence of 22.4%. Monogeneans collected are represented by the following taxa: Anacanthorus gravihamulatus, Notozothecium minor, Notozothecium penetrarum, Diplectanum piscinarius, Aetheolabes goeldiensis, Euryhaliotrema succedanus, Anacanthorus jegui, Urocleidoides astyanacis, Urocleidoides strombicirrus, Euryhaliotrema sp. and Urocleidoides spp. There was a variation in the prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of monogeneans among the host populations examined. Monogeneans of Metynnis lippincottianus, Plagioscion squamosissimus, Astyanax bimaculatus and Curimata incompta presented a highly aggregated dispersion pattern. Body weight of M. lippincottianus and C. incompta presented a weak positive correlation with abundance of parasites. Lastly, this is first study for 12 fish species from the Matapi River and the first report of E. succedanus for Plagioscion surinamensis and N. penetrarum for Serrasalmus rhombeus.


Resumo Este estudo investigou a fauna de monogeneas das brânquias de 13 espécies de peixes do Rio Matapi, na Amazônia brasileira. Foram examinados um total de 548 peixes pertencentes a 13 espécies (1 Anostomidae, 3 Characidae, 1 Curimatidae, 1 Hemiodontidae, 2 Serrasalmidae, 3 Scianidae, 1 Ageneiosidae e 1 Tetradontidae). Entre esses peixes, 6 espécies estavam infectadas e houve uma prevalência total de 22,4%. As espécies de monogeneas coletadas foram distribuídas nos seguintes táxons: Anacanthorus gravihamulatus, Notozothecium minor, Notozothecium penetrarum Diplectanum piscinarius, Euryhaliotrema sp., Aetheolabes goeldiensis, Euryhaliotrema succedanus, Anacanthorus jegui, Urocleidoides astyanacis, Urocleidoides strombicirrus Urocleidoides spp. Houve variação na prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média de monogeneas entre as populações hospedeiras. Monogeneas em Metynnis lippincottianus, Plagioscion squamosissimus, Astyanax bimaculatus e Curimata incompta apresentaram um padrão de dispersão altamente agregado. O peso corporal de M. lippincottianus do Rio Matapi mostrou uma correlação positiva fraca com a abundância de A. jegui. O comprimento de C. incompta também mostrou uma correlação positiva fraca com abundância de Urocleidoides spp. Por fim, este é primeiro estudo para 12 espécies de peixes da bacia do Rio Matapi e registra pela primeira vez E. succedanus para Plagioscion surinamensis e N. penetrarum para Serrasalmus rhombeus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/classification , Trematoda/classification , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Fishes/parasitology , Gills/parasitology , Brazil , Rivers , Fishes/classification
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 415-419, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042476

ABSTRACT

Abstract Three species of snappers from artisanal, small-scale fisheries were examined for the presence of parasites. A total of 139 lutjanid fish were collected: 69 specimens of Lutjanus analis, 47 specimens of Lutjanus vivanus, and 23 specimens of Lutjanus synagris. Encysted plerocercoid of trypanorhynch cestodes found at necropsy in the viscera of snappers were sampled for parasitological analysis. These plerocercoid larvae belong to the genera Floriceps, Pseudogrillotia , and Oncomegas. Although these parasites do not have any zoonotic potential, fish with heavy loads of plerocercoids are rejected during inspection as they compromise meat hygiene. Our findings suggest that light larval cestode infections in lutjanids would not lead to consumer rejection of the food product. The occurrence of Floriceps sp. in L. analis and in L. synagris, of Pseudogrillotia sp. in L. vivanus and in L. synagris , and of Oncomegas sp. in L. synagris are new findings in these fish species. These parasites are new to these fish species and have not been reported in snappers from the northeast coast of Brazil. The results contribute to the existing body of knowledge about the parasitic fauna of fish and its distribution along the coastline of Brazil.


Resumo Três espécies de pargos de pescaria artesanal e de pequena escala foram examinadas quanto à presença de parasitas. Um total de 139 peixes lutjanídeos foram coletados: 69 espécimes de Lutjanus analis, 47 de Lutjanus vivanus e 23 de Lutjanus synagris. Cistos de plerocercóides de cestodas Trypanorhyncha encontrados durante a necrópsia nas vísceras de pargos foram amostrados para análise parasitológica. Estas larvas plerocercóides pertencem aos gêneros Floriceps, Pseudogrillotia e Oncomegas. Embora esses parasitas não tenham qualquer potencial zoonótico, peixes com elevadas cargas de plerocercóides são rejeitados durante a inspeção, pois comprometem a higiene da carne. Os achados sugerem que baixas infecções por essas formais larvais de cestodas em lutjanídeos não levariam a rejeição do consumidor quanto ao produto alimentar. A ocorrência de Floriceps sp. em L. analis e em L. synagris, de Pseudogrillotia sp. em L. vivanus e em L. syngaris, e de Oncomegas sp. em L. synagris são novas descobertas nestas espécies de peixes. Estes parasitas são novos para essas espécies de peixes e não foram relatados em pargos da costa nordeste do Brasil. Os resultados contribuem para o conhecimento existente sobre a fauna parasitária do peixe e sua distribuição ao longo do litoral do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/isolation & purification , Parasites/classification , Perciformes/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Perciformes/classification , Brazil
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2317-2325, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The parasites are indicative of several biological aspects of their hosts, including their diet, migration, recruitment and phylogeny, but they can also be direct indicators of the environmental quality. Hoplosternum littorale is a fish that has a high commercial value in some South American countries. The fishes were collected from January to July 2012, in two locations of the Peixe River in the municipality of Anhembi, State of São Paulo, Brazil, which had different environmental and limnological characteristics (river mouth and Lagoa Cabeça de Boi). An amount of 30 fish specimens were captured in each location for the analysis of their parasitic fauna. Nine species of metazoan parasites were collected. Both Brillouin`s diversity index and Margalef`s richness index were greater in the Lagoa Cabeça de Boi. The ratio of heteroxenous and monoxenous parasite species richness (SH/SM) was higher in the Lagoa Cabeça de Boi. The results of the physicochemical analysis of the water showed that the mouth of the Peixe River can be considered an area that suffers more from anthropogenic actions than the Lagoa da Cabeça de Boi. Proteocephalus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Scleroductus sp. and Capillaria (Neocapillaria) pterophylli are being registered for the first time in this host.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/isolation & purification , Catfishes/parasitology , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Parasites/classification , Brazil , Water/analysis , Environmental Biomarkers , Rivers , Host-Parasite Interactions
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2305-2315, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886799

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The community composition of parasites was characterized in Astronotus ocellatus from a tributary of the Amazon River, northern Brazil. The prevalence was 87.9%, and a total of 526,052 parasites were collected, with a mean of 15,941 parasites per host. Nine taxa of ecto- and endo-parasites were identified, but Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, while Piscinoodinium pillulare, Clinostomum marginatum and Argulus multicolor were the least prevalent parasites. The parasite community was characterized by a low species richness, low diversity and low evenness. Host body size was not found to influence the composition of the parasite community, and there was no significant correlation between abundance of any parasite species and host body size. Papers published concerning the presence of parasites in this host in different hydrographic basins within Brazil indicate that 22 species of parasites are known to infect A. ocellatus, including species of ectoparasites and endoparasites. In Brazil, ectoparasites species, particularly crustaceans, have been found to parasitize A. ocellatus in relatively high numbers. This predominance of ectoparasites is typical of fish of lentic ecosystems. Finally, the presence of different endoparasites taxa suggest that A. ocellatus acts as an intermediate or definitive host.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/classification , Cichlids/parasitology , Biodiversity , Parasites/isolation & purification , Brazil , Prevalence , Cichlids/classification , Rivers , Body Size
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 559-569, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843298

ABSTRACT

ResumenMicropterus salmoides es una especie muy apreciada en la acuacultura y pesca deportiva, sin embargo, no existen estudios sistemáticos sobre los parásitos en México. El objetivo principal del presente estudio fue describir la prevalencia, abundancia e intensidad de los metazoarios parásitos de M. salmoides y su asociación con el factor de condición y el sexo. El tamaño de muestra fue de 672 hospederos, recolectados entre 2011-2013 de los siguientes reservorios de Nuevo León, México: Presa Rodrigo Gómez (“La Boca”, LB); Presa Cuchillo-Solidaridad (CS), Laguna Salinillas (LS), Presa Mariano Escobedo (“Sombreretillo”, S), y Presa José López Portillo (“Cerro Prieto”, CP). Los peces fueron transportados vivos al laboratorio, se les registró el tamaño y peso para calcular el coeficiente de condición de Fulton (k). El sexo también se registró cuando fue posible. Los parásitos fueron detectados con el estereoscopio, recolectados y preservados con las técnicas parasitológicas tradicionales. Se calcularon los análisis estadísticos de asociación entre la carga parasitaria, sexo y factor de condición usando X2 y la prueba de t de Student. Los resultados mostraron la identificación de 12 metazoarios diferentes: dos tremátodos (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi y Phyllodistomum pearsei); un céstodo (Proteocephalus ambloplitis); tres nemátodos (Contracaecum sp.; Spinitectus carolini y Philometra nodulosa); dos acantocéfalos (Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus y Arhythmorhynchus sp.); un hirudineo (Myzobdella moorei) y tres copépodos (Ergasilus versicolor; Ergasilus arthrosis y Ergasilus cerastes). La prueba de Tukey HSD mostró que los peces infectados de LB fueron significativamente diferentes a los de LS, CS, CP y S (P < 0.05). Los parásitos que se recolectaron más comúnmente en las cinco localidades fueron: P. m. centrarchi, Contracaecum sp., y E. versicolor. La frecuencia de P. m. centrarchi fue altamente significativa (P < 0.001) en comparación con los otros parásitos; además presentó la más elevada prevalencia (97.5 %), abundancia (10.12-83.6) e intensidad (15.4488.5). Se encontró asociación estadística entre la intensidad y abundancia de los metazoarios con respecto al sexo femenino y tamaño en los cinco reservorios (t= 143.82, P = 0.0001; t= 2.6, P= 0.01, respectivamente). Además, la abundancia e intensidad mostraron asociación estadística con respecto a k, lo cual fue proporcionalmente significativo. Se incluyen nuevos registros de localidad para P. m. centrarchi, P. pearsei, P. ambloplitis, Contracaecum sp., Arhythmorhynchus sp. y E. cerastes. Además, P. nodulosa, S. carolini, N. cylindratus, y E. arthrosis se consideran como nuevos registros para México.


AbstractThe largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides is a very valuable fish species for aquaculture and sport fishing; however, there are no systematic studies on fish metazoan parasites in Mexico. The main objective of the present study was to describe the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of M. salmoides metazoan parasites, and their association with fish condition factor and gender. The sample size was composed by 672 hosts, collected between 2011-2013 from the following reservoirs of Nuevo Leon, México: Rodrigo Gómez dam (“La Boca”, LB), Cuchillo-Solidaridad dam (CS), Salinillas lagoon (LS), Mariano Escobedo dam (“Sombreretillo”, S), and José López Portillo dam (“Cerro Prieto”, CP). Living fish were transported to the laboratory; sizes and weights were then recorded to calculate the Fulton condition factor (k). If possible, gender was also recorded. Parasites were detected under stereoscopy, recollected and preserved by traditional techniques. Statistical analysis of association between parasitic load, gender, and Fulton condition factor were calculated, using the X2 and the Student-t tests. Results showed that 12 different metazoans were identified, two flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi and Phyllodistomum pearsei), one tapeworm (Proteocephalus ambloplitis), three roundworms (Contracaecum sp., Spinitectus carolini and Philometra nodulosa), two acantocephalan (Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus and Arhythmorhynchus sp.), one leech (Myzobdella moorei), and three copepods (Ergasilus versicolor; Ergasilus arthrosis and Ergasilus cerastes). HSD Tukey test showed that infected fish from LB were significantly different than LS, CS, CP, and S (P<0.05). Parasites most commonly collected in all five locations were P. m. centrarchi, Contracaecum sp. and E. versicolor. The frequency of P. m. centrarchi was highly significant (P<0.001) than other parasites; furthermore, this parasite showed the highest prevalence (97.5 %), abundance (10.12-83.6), and intensity (15.44-88.5). Statistical dependence was found between intensity and abundance of metazoans with regard to female gender and size on five reservoirs (t=143.82, P=0.0001; t=2.6, P=0.01, respectively). In addition, the abundance and intensity showed statistical dependence with regard to k, which was proportionally significant. New locality records for Nuevo Leon include P. m. centrarchi, P. pearsei, P. ambloplitis,Contracaecum sp., Arhythmorhynchus sp., and E. cerastes. Furthermore, P. nodulosa, S. carolini, N. cylindratus, and E. arthrosis were new records for Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 559-569. Epub 2016 June 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Parasites/classification , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Perciformes/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Parasites/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Aquaculture , Mexico
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51149

ABSTRACT

At present, more than 500,000 foreigner workers, most of them from Asian countries with high parasitic infection rates, are working in Korea. Since investigation into the prevalence of parasitic infections in foreigner workers has not yet been conducted in Korea, the present study was performed to determine the parasitic infection status of foreigner workers living in Cheonan City, Chungcheongnam-do (Chungnam Province) and to plan, on that basis, effective control measures. From October to December 2013, the parasitic infection status of 231 foreigner workers employed at selected Cheonan-si small businesses was investigated by both stool examination and ELISA. A total of 60 individuals (26.0%) were found to be infected with parasites. The stool examination detected 14 positive cases (6.1%), and ELISA revealed 50 positive people (21.6%), for at least a kind of parasitic disease. The most common infection was cysticercosis (8.7%), followed by toxocariasis (7.8%) and clonorchiasis (7.4%). Since it was proved that parasitic infections were prevalent among foreigner workers living in Cheonan City, more comprehensive study is urgently needed in order to understand the nationwide status of parasitic infections in foreigner workers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Asia , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Male , Parasites/classification , Parasitic Diseases/diagnosis , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Travel , Young Adult
13.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(3): 480-494, Jul-Sep/2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: lil-752558

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o potencial de plantas que crecem na região de Coquimbo, no controle de nematódeos gastrintestinais em caprinos. Nós usamos uma abordagem não-experimental para validar a eficácia potencial das plantas medicinais como anti-helmínticos. Esta validação foi realizada com base em uma revisão da extensa literatura consultada a respeito de plantas medicinais. Determinou-se o um potencial de eficácia das plantas, da consistência das informações sobre o uso tradicional, os compostos presentes e farmacologia. Analisamos também os dados dos potenciais efeitos adversos que impedem seu uso em animais. Antecedentes apoiam a um alto potencial da eficácia como anti-helmíntico para se três espécies de plantas que crescem na região de Coquimbo: Allium sativum L., Artemisia absinthium L. e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Os possíveis efeitos secundários do consumo de plantas medicinais ou seus derivados devem ser avaliadas em testes de campo antes de serem utilizados nas em escala produtiva.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the potential of the plants which grow at the Coquimbo region in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats. We used a non-experimental approach to evaluate the potential efficacy of medicinal plants as anthelmintics. This research was conducted with exhaustive bibliography referred to the medicinal use of plants in the international literature. We determined the potential of effectiveness of the plants, the consistency of the information about the traditional use, the present compounds and the pharmacology. We also performed an analysis about the potential adverse effects of the plants" application in animals. The collected data support the efficacy of these three species of plants growing at the Coquimbo region as efficient anthelmintic ones: the Allium sativum L., the Artemisia absinthium L. and the Chenopodium ambrosioides L. The possible side effects of the consumption of medicinal plants or their derivatives must be evaluated in field trials before they start being used in a productive scale.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Ruminants/classification , Nematoda/pathogenicity , Parasites/classification , Anthelmintics/analysis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91234

ABSTRACT

Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the major causes of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive individuals. Antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of many opportunistic infections, but parasite-related diarrhea still remains frequent and often underestimated especially in developing countries. The present hospital-based study was conducted to determine the spectrum of intestinal parasitosis in adult HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients with or without diarrhea with the levels of CD4+ T-cell counts. A total of 400 individuals were enrolled and were screened for intestinal parasitosis. Of these study population, 200 were HIV seropositives, and the remaining 200 were HIV uninfected individuals with or without diarrhea. Intestinal parasites were identified by using microscopy as well as PCR assay. A total of 130 (32.5%) out of 400 patients were positive for any kinds of intestinal parasites. The cumulative number of parasite positive patients was 152 due to multiple infections. A significant association of Cryptosporidium (P<0.001) was detected among individuals with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/microl.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Adult , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Parasites/classification , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197166

ABSTRACT

Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Parasites/classification , Prevalence , Rural Population , Sex Factors , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223075

ABSTRACT

A total of 450 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics of Pediatric Department, Minia University Hospital, Minia District, Egypt. Two groups of patients were studied, including 200 immunosuppressed and 250 immunocompetent children. Stool samples were subjected to wet saline and iodine mounts. A concentration technique (formol-ether sedimentation method) was carried out for stool samples diagnosed negative by wet saline and iodine mounts. Samples were stained by 2 different methods; acid fast stain (modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and Giemsa stain. Total 188 cases (94%) were diagnosed positive for parasitic infections among immunosuppressed children, whereas 150 cases (60%) were positive in immunocompetent children (P<0.0001). The most common protozoan infection in immunosuppressed group was Cryptosporidium parvum (60.2%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (12.1%), Isospora belli (9.7%), and Cyclospora caytenensis (7.8%). On the other hand, Entamoeba histolytica (24.6%) and Giardia lamblia (17.6%) were more common than other protozoans in immunocompetent children.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Parasites/classification , Protozoan Infections/epidemiology
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 71(3): 623-627, Aug. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597169

ABSTRACT

Sixty specimens of singing catfish Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877) (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) collected from Guandu River (22º 48' 32" S and 43º 37' 35" W), in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from October 2006 to March 2009, were necropsied to study their parasites. From the 60 specimens of T. striatulus examined 57 were parasitised by at least one parasite species. The majority of the parasite specimens collected were monogeneans followed by Nematoda, Digenea and Hirudinea. Cosmetocleithrum sp. was the numerically predominant species with highest prevalence and abundance. The parasites of T. striatulus showed the typical pattern of aggregated distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the host and their abundance. The mean parasite species richness was not correlated with the host's total body length and sex. Values of the Brillouin index of diversity had a mean of H = 0.083 ± 0.136.


Entre outubro de 2006 a março de 2009 foram necropsiados 60 espécimes de cumbaca, Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877) (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) provenientes do rio Guandu (22º 48' 32" S e 43º 37' 35" O), estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil para estudo de suas comunidades parasitárias. Dos 60 espécimes de peixes examinados, 57 estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de metazoário parasito. Os monogenéticos constituíram a maioria dos espécimes coletados, seguidos de Nematoda, Digenea e Hirudinea. Cosmetocleithrum sp. foi a espécie numericamente predominante, com maiores valores de prevalência e abundância. Os parasitos de T. striatulus apresentaram um típico padrão de distribuição agregado. Nenhuma espécie de parasito apresentou correlação significativa entre o comprimento total do hospedeiro e sua abundância. A avaliação do efeito do sexo do hospedeiro na abundância parasitária não apresentou resultados significativos. A riqueza de espécies de parasitos não apresentou correlação com o comprimento total e sexo dos hospedeiros. As infracomunidades parasitárias tiveram uma média para o índice de diversidade de Brillouin de H = 0.083 ± 0.136.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Catfishes/parasitology , Parasites/classification , Brazil , Catfishes/classification , Host-Parasite Interactions , Parasites/isolation & purification , Rivers
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 71(3): 771-782, Aug. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597187

ABSTRACT

This work aimed to study the temporal variation of metazoan parasites of Trichiurus lepturus from the coastal zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between July 2006 and June 2007, there were four seasonal quarterly samples of 30 specimens of T. lepturus. In addition to a group composed of anisakid larvae, we collected a total of 14 species of metazoan parasites: five digenean; five monogenean, two cestode larvae, one acanthocephalan larvae; and one copepod. With the exception of Lecithochirium microstomum and Lecithochirium sp., all species showed peaks of prevalence and abundance especially those fishes collected in summer, which may indicate a seasonal variation of these parasites in T. lepturus from the coast of Rio de Janeiro.


O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da variação temporal dos metazoários parasitos de Trichiurus lepturus do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Entre julho de 2006 e junho de 2007, foram realizadas quatro coletas trimestrais de 30 espécimes de T. lepturus, coincidentes com as estações do ano. Além do grupo formado pelas larvas de anisaquídeos, foi coletado um total de 14 espécies de metazoários parasitos: cinco digenéticos; cinco monogenéticos; dois cestoides em estágio larval; um acantocéfalo e um copépode. Com exceção de L. microstomum e Lecithochirium sp., todas as espécies apresentaram picos de prevalência e abundância principalmente naqueles peixes coletados no verão, o que pode indicar uma variação sazonal dessas espécies de parasitos em T. lepturus do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/isolation & purification , Perciformes/parasitology , Seasons , Biodiversity , Brazil , Parasites/classification
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 71(3): 791-796, Aug. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597189

ABSTRACT

This study describes the parasitic fauna of Oxydoras niger from the Coari Lake, tributary of the medium Solimões River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, and the relationship between the number of Monogenoidea and the condition factor. From a total of 27 examined fish, 70.3 percent were parasitised by at least one parasite species as follows: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa), Chilodonella sp. (Protozoa), Cosmetocleithrum gussevi, C. confusus, C. parvum and Cosmetocleithrum sp. (Monogenoidea), Paracavisona impudica (Acanthocephala), Cucullanus grandistomis (Nematoda), Proteocephalus kuyukuyu (Cestoda) and Dadaytrema sp. (Digenea). Monogenoidea helminthes were the most prevalent parasite when compared to protozoan and intestinal helminthes. This study showed that O. niger has a great parasite diversity composed mainly of monogenoideans followed by acanthocephalan and digenean. This is the first record of Dadaytrema in O. niger from the Brazilian Amazon. There was a positive correlation between the number of monogenoideans and the condition factor (Kn) of fish, and with this mean intensity of infection, fish welfare was not affected.


Este estudo descreve a fauna parasitária de Oxydoras niger do lago Coari, tributário do médio rio Solimões, estado do Amazonas, Brasil, e a relação entre o número de Monogenoidea e o fator de condição. De um total de 27 peixes examinados, 70,3 por cento estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito como segue: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa), Chilodonella sp. (Protozoa), Cosmetocleithrum gussevi, C. confusus, C. parvum and Cosmetocleithrum sp. (Monogenoidea), Paracavisona impudica (Acanthocephala), Cucullanus grandistomis (Nematoda), Proteocephalus kuyukuyu (Cestoda) and Dadaytrema sp. (Digenea). Helmintos monogenóideos foram os mais prevalentes quando comparados com protozoários e helmintos intestinais. Este estudo mostrou que O. niger apresenta grande diversidade de parasitos composta principalmente de monogenóideos seguidos de acantocéfalos e digenéticos. Este foi o primeiro relato de Dadaytrema em O. niger na Amazônia brasileira. Foi observada correlação positiva entre o número de monogenóideos e o fator de condição (Kn) e nessa intensidade média de infecção o bem-estar do peixe não foi afetado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/parasitology , Parasites/isolation & purification , Biodiversity , Brazil , Fishes/classification , Parasites/classification , Rivers
20.
Rio de Janeiro; Fiocruz; 2011. 484 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-939294

ABSTRACT

Iniciativa inédita no mundo, o livro compila o conhecimento disponível sobre o assunto e apresenta o estado da arte em paleoparasitologia – termo cunhado há cerca de 30 anos por um brasileiro, o pesquisador da Fiocruz Luiz Fernando Ferreira, pioneiro dessa ciência voltada para o estudo dos parasitos no passado. Multidisciplinar por essência, a paleoparasitologia reúne contribuições de cientistas sociais, biólogos, historiadores, arqueólogos, farmacêuticos, médicos e tantos outros profissionais, sejam da área biomédica ou das humanidades. Com aplicações variadas, como nos estudos evolutivos ou das migrações, seus resultados, muitas vezes, dependem da associação entre os achados de laboratório e os vestígios culturais. A obra está dividida em quatro partes - Os Parasitos, Hospedeiros Humanos e o Ambiente; Vestígios de Parasitos Preservados em Diversos Materiais, Técnicas de Microscopia e Diagnóstico Molecular; O Encontro de Parasitos em Material Antigo: uma visão paleogeográfica; e Estudos Especiais e Perspectivas. Assinado por autores de vários países, como Argentina, Estados Unidos, Alemanha e França, o livro tem capítulos dedicados às descobertas da paleoparasitologia em todos os continentes


Subject(s)
Animals , Fossils , Parasites/classification
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