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1.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(4): 1097-1124, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142981

ABSTRACT

Abstract This review presents the 100-year history of the Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine in Moscow, Russia, starting with its foundation and early activities, and also describes the impact of its leading scientists, some of whom became internationally known. The institute headed a network of nine tropical institutes in the various Soviet republics from the 1920s to 1990. The extensive body of literature on the history and research accomplishments of this institute has mainly been published in Russian; our goal here is to introduce these achievements and this expertise to the international scientific and medical community, focusing on malaria and leishmaniasis and the development of measures to control and monitor these diseases in the USSR.


Resumo O artigo analisa a história centenária do Instituto Martsinovsky de Parasitologia Médica e Medicina Tropical em Moscou, Rússia, desde sua fundação e primeiras atividades, e descreve a influência de seus principais cientistas, alguns dos quais viriam a conquistar renome internacional. O instituto liderou uma rede de nove institutos tropicais em diversas repúblicas soviéticas entre as décadas de 1920 e 1990. A vasta literatura sobre o trabalho de história e pesquisa desse instituto foi publicada sobretudo em russo; nosso objetivo aqui é apresentar esse trabalho e conhecimento à comunidade médica e científica internacional, concentrando-se na malária e na leishmaniose e no avanço de medidas de controle e monitoramento dessas doenças na URSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Tropical Medicine/history , Leishmaniasis/history , Biomedical Research/history , Academies and Institutes/history , Malaria/history , Parasitology/education , Parasitology/history , USSR , Moscow
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190535, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136801

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since the early 20th century, the detection of intestinal parasites has improved with the development of several techniques for parasitic structures recovery and identification, which differ in sensitivity, specificity, practicality, cost, and infrastructure demand. This study aims to review, in chronological order, the stool examination techniques and discuss their advantages, limitations, and perspectives, and to provide professionals and specialists in this field with data that lays a foundation for critical analysis on the use of such procedures. The concentration procedures that constitute the main techniques applied in routine research and in parasitological kits are a) spontaneous sedimentation; b) centrifugation-sedimentation with formalin-ethyl acetate; and c) flotation with zinc sulfate solution. While selecting a technique, one should consider the purpose of its application and the technical-operational, biological, and physicochemical factors inherent in the procedures used in stool processing, which may restrict its use. These intrinsic limitations may have undergone procedural changes driven by scientific and technological development and by development of alternative methods, which now contribute to the improvement of diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Parasitology/history , Specimen Handling/history , Feces/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Parasitology/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765139

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Parasitology/history , Korea , Periodicals as Topic
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742300

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Parasitology/history , Korea , Periodicals as Topic
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(6): 1373-1377, nov.-dic. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127736

ABSTRACT

Muchos han sido los médicos cubanos que se han dedicado al estudio de la microbiología médica, entre ellos algunos muy conocidos como el matancero Juan Guiteras Gener. Con este trabajo los autores pretendieron resaltar la figura del microbiólogo colombino Ángel Florencio Duque Pérez, primer microbiólogo matancero formado por la revolución y con una esmerada labor. Fallecido hace varios años, este excelente profesional es poco conocido y prácticamente ha quedado en el olvido. Para todos aquellos que lo conocieron y para los que no tuvieron ese enorme placer se les hace llegar esta síntesis biográfica (AU).


There have been many Cuban doctors who have devoted themselves to the study of Medical Microbiology, including well-known ones as the Matanzasan Juan Guiteras Gener. With this work the authors pretended to highlight the figure of the Colombinan microbiologist Florencio Angel Duque Pérez, the first microbiologist trained after the Revolution, with an important work. Deceased several years ago, this excellent professional is scarcely known and has been virtually forgotten. This biography is intended to all those who knew him and to all those who did not have that great pleasure (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/history , Microbiology/history , Parasitology/history , Professional Practice/history , Medicine/trends
6.
Salud colect ; 13(1): 139-148, ene.-mar. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845979

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN A pesar de que en distintas ramas de la biología se ha utilizado la filosofía de la ciencia de Lakatos, no se ha hecho esto con la helmintología. Aquí utilizamos su metodología de programas de investigación científica (PIC) para reconstruir la historia de la disciplina en cuestión. Sostenemos que el primer PIC de la biología lo inauguró Aristóteles, y en su cinturón protector hay un pequeño grupo de hipótesis auxiliares que se refieren a los helmintos. Ese programa se mantuvo vigente hasta el siglo XVII, época en la que surgen dos PIC rivales en helmintología: el internalista y el externalista. A partir de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, el PIC internalista fue abandonado, mientras que el externalista amplió considerablemente su cinturón protector durante el siglo XX. El abandono del PIC internalista se debió a los experimentos cruciales de Küchenmeister, que permitieron la consolidación del PIC externalista.


ABSTRACT Lakatos’s philosophy of science has been used for different branches of biology, however this has not been true for helminthology. Therefore, this article examines the possibility of using his methodology of scientific research programmes (SRP) for reconstructing the history of the discipline of helminthology. It is upheld that the first SRP in biology was inaugurated by Aristotle, and its protective belt included a small group of auxiliary hypotheses referring to helminths. This programme continued up until the 17th century, when two rival programmes in helminthology arose: the internalist and the externalist. After the second half of the 19th century the internalist SRP was abandoned, while the externalist considerably broadened its protective belt during the 20th century. The internalist programme was abandoned due to the crucial experiments of Küchenmeister, which permitted the consolidation of the externalist SRP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Parasitology/history , Philosophy/history , Helminths , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Europe
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(1): 67-74, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771075

ABSTRACT

Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such asTrypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors’ scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the “forest” of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century.


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Biomedical Research/history , Parasitology/history , Research Personnel/history , Brazil , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Parasitology/statistics & numerical data , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(9B): 722-726, set. 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688529

ABSTRACT

Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other phylogenetically close host species, but other parasite species were acquired from the environment as humans evolved. Human migration spread inherited parasites throughout the globe. To recover and trace the origin and evolution of infectious diseases, paleoparasitology was created. Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites in ancient material, which provided new information on the evolution, paleoepidemiology, ecology and phylogenetics of infectious diseases.


O parasitismo é composto por três subsistemas: o parasito, o hospedeiro e meio ambiente. Não existe organismo que não possa ser parasitado. A relação entre um parasito e suas espécies de hospedeiro não resulta, na maior parte das vezes, em dano ou doença ao hospedeiro. Entretanto, numa doença parasitária, a presença de um determinado parasito é sempre necessária, pelo menos em um determinado momento da infecção. Algumas espécies de parasitos que infectam humanos foram herdados dos pré-hominídeos, e foram compartilhados com outras espécies de hospedeiro filogeneticamente próximas, mas outras espécies foram adquiridas pelo meio ambiente à medida que os humanos se desenvolveram. As migrações humanas espalharam os parasitos adquiridos por todo o mundo. Para recuperar e traçar a origem e evolução das doenças infecciosas foi criada a paleoparasitologia. Paleoparasitologia é o estudo dos parasitos em materiais antigos, que trouxe novas informações na evolução, paleoepidemiologia, ecologia e filogenética das doenças infecciosas.


Subject(s)
Animals , History, Ancient , Humans , Parasites/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases/history , Parasitology/history , Biological Evolution , Host-Parasite Interactions
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14627

ABSTRACT

A paleoparasitological survey to detect helminth eggs was performed in archaeological sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 593 soil samples were collected in 12 sites of Jeolla-do and 5 sites of Jeju-do from April to November 2011, and examined by the methods of Pike and coworkers. A total of 4 helminth eggs, 2 eggs each for Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris sp., were found in soil samples from 1 site, in Hyangyang-ri, Jangheung-eup, Jangheung-gun, Jeollanam-do. The egg-recovery layer was presumed to represent a 19th century farm, which fact suggested the use of human manures. This is the third archaeological discovery of parasite eggs in Jeolla-do. Additionally, no helminth eggs in archaeological sites of Jeju-do is an interesting problem to be solved in the further investigations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Archaeology , Ascaris/classification , History, Ancient , Humans , Ovum/classification , Paleontology , Parasite Egg Count , Parasitology/history , Republic of Korea , Soil/parasitology , Trichuris/classification
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(5): 564-569, oct. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-660033

ABSTRACT

Homini verminoso or Dr. Worm were the nicknames that Nicholas Aindry won in life for his consecration to the study of intestinal worms and for his bad temper, which led him to fiercely attack the surgeons. The article reassumes the studies and contributions that gave Andry the title of Father of Parasitology and the candidacy to Father of Orthopaedics, and mentions some other candidates to this honor. Quite a man, he had -besides his biological one- two famous daughters, growing till our days; wrote at least three valuable books; and planted the immortal "tree of Andry", the symbol of Orthopaedics.


Homini verminoso o "Doctor Gusano" fueron los apodos ganados por Nicholas Andry, tanto por su dedicación al estudio de los gusanos intestinales como por su mal carácter, que lo llevó a atacar ferozmente a los cirujanos. Se resumen los estudios y aportes que lo llevaron a merecer el título de "Padre de la Parasitología" y a optar al de "Padre de la Ortopedia", para el cual se han propuesto también otros candidatos. De mente inquieta, conocedor y comentador de los clásicos, incursionó en la farmacología y en la lingüística, preocupado del mal uso del francés que hacían sus contemporáneos. Un hombre cabal, tuvo dos hijas célebres, que siguen creciendo en nuestros días; escribió al menos tres libros valiosos y plantó el "árbol de Andry", símbolo de la Ortopedia.


Subject(s)
History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , Orthopedics/history , Parasitology/history , France
15.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 63(3): 278-280, sep.-dic. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-615561
17.
In. Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Reinhard, Karl Jan; Araújo, Adauto. Fundamentos da paleoparasitologia. Rio de Janeiro, Editora Fiocruz, 2011. p.27-41. (Temas em saúde).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-638229
18.
Rio de Janeiro; Fiocruz; 2011. 298 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-653126

ABSTRACT

O livro guia o leitor pelos caminhos do pensamento médico brasileiro no século XIX e as origens da medicina tropical no país. Mais especificamente, fala da gênese da parasitologia helmintológica (estudo de vermes parasitas) e mostra como esse novo saber se legitimou e foi incorporado às práticas de diagnóstico, tratamento e profilaxia de doenças. Analisa as disputas em torno dessa legitimação, onde a helmintologia médica se confrontava com a climatologia - que associava as doenças às peculiaridades do clima e às características naturais do Brasil. Mostra como a helmintologia médica contribuiu para a corrosão da climatologia, embora esse processo tenha sido marcado tanto por rupturas como por continuidades, na medida em que, a princípio, não se tratava de saberes incomensuráveis. Como se lê desde o prefácio, "os inovadores não queriam vencer, mas convencer".


Subject(s)
Humans , Meteorology/history , Geography/history , Historiography , History of Medicine , Helminths/parasitology , Tropical Medicine/history , Parasitology/history , Public Health/history , Tropical Climate , Brazil
19.
Educ. med. super ; 23(4): 257-259, oct.-dic. 2009.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-584372

ABSTRACT

Se expone brevemente la historia de la microbiología y la parasitología médicas en Cuba desde sus inicios, con los trabajos de los doctores Carlos J. Finlay Barrés y Claudio Delgado Amestoy en 1886, para continuar con su desarrollo en el resto del período colonial, así como en los períodos de república burguesa y de revolución socialista. Se destaca la labor de veintitrés grandes figuras de estas especialidades médicas de nuestro país.


In a shortly way, the history of medical Microbiology and Parasitilogy in Cuba from its onset is exposed with papers from Doctors Carlos J Finlay Barrés and Claudio Delgado Amestoy in 1886, to continue with its development in the remainder colonial period, as well as in periods of Bourgeois Republic and the socialist revolution. We emphasize the work made by twenty three well-know figures of these medical specialties in our country.


Subject(s)
Microbiology/history , Parasitology/history , Cuba
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(1): 67-72, Jan.-Feb. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-507368

ABSTRACT

Uma das maiores realizações na história da medicina foi a descrição da doença de Chagas pelo médico e cientista Carlos Chagas. Ao completar 100 anos da descoberta da doença de Chagas, permanecem ainda especulações a respeito das duas indicações oficiais de Carlos Chagas à maior premiação mundial em ciência, o Nobel, em 1913 e 1921. Admite-se que a não premiação do genial cientista possa ter ocorrido em razão da forte oposição que enfrentou no Brasil por parte de alguns médicos e pesquisadores da época, que chegaram mesmo a questionar a existência da doença de Chagas, influenciando a decisão do Comitê Nobel para não premiá-lo. A análise do banco de dados dos arquivos do Prêmio Nobel, com a revelação dos nomes de indicadores, indicados e ganhadores do prêmio, cobrindo o período 1901-1951, trouxe informações não apenas sobre o que era considerada realização científica na época, mas também sobre quem eram os cientistas importantes e quais eram as relações entre eles. O não reconhecimento das descobertas de Carlos Chagas pelo Comitê Nobel parece ser mais corretamente explicado por esses fatores do que pelo impacto negativo da oposição local.


One of the greatest achievements in the history of medicine was the description of Chagas disease by the physician and scientist Carlos Chagas. A hundred years after the discovery of the disease, speculation still remains regarding the two official nominations of Carlos Chagas for the Nobel Prize, the biggest worldwide scientific award, in 1913 and in 1921. It has been accepted that the reason why the prize was not awarded to this brilliant scientist may have been the strong opposition that he faced in Brazil, from some physicians and researchers of that time. They went as far as questioning the existence of Chagas disease, thereby possibly influencing the decision of the Nobel Committee not to award the prize to him. Analysis of the database of the Nobel prize archives, with the revelation of the names of nominators, nominees and prizewinners spanning the years 1901-1951, brought information not only about what was considered to be a scientific achievement at that time, but also about who the important scientists were and what the relationships between them were. The non-recognition of Carlos Chagas' discoveries by the Nobel Committee appears to be more correctly explained by these factors than by the negative impact of the local opposition.


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Chagas Disease/history , Nobel Prize , Parasitology/history , Brazil
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