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1.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(1): 91-102, 4 de Abril 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427691

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La prevalencia del cáncer de tiroides es del 4 al 7%, en Ecuador alcanza una tasa de 16/100.000 habitantes, en la mayoría de casos requiere resolución quirúrgica asociando una tasa de complicaciones del 2 al 15%, de estas la hipocalcemia representa al menos el 10.9%. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la utilidad de la medición de la hormona paratiroidea sérica (PTH) como predictor de hipocalcemia posterior a tiroidectomía. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico de pacientes con tiroidectomía en el Hospital Metropolitano de Quito, en el periodo enero del 2017 a diciembre del 2019. Se analizaron variables demográficas, clínicas, quirúrgicas y complicaciones. Se comparó la relación de la PTH con la presencia de hipocalcemia clínica, serológica o ambas mediante RP, sensibilidad, especificidad, VPP, VPN, LR. Otras variables confusoras se analizaron mediante regresión logística multinomial comparando sus OR. Resultados: Se incluyeron 212 registros, 15.6% hombres y 84.4% mujeres, con promedio de 52.1 años. La indicación principal de tiroidectomía fue por Carcinoma papilar 123 (58.0%). Las complicaciones fueron el 22.7%. Un total de 48 pacientes desarrollaron hipocalcemia. Los niveles de PTH < 10 ng/l predicen la hipocalcemia con sensibilidad de 0.55, especificidad 0.78, VPP: 43%, VPN: 85%, RP fue 2.91 (IC 95% 1.06 - 8.01). Conclusiones: La cuantificación de PTH en 10 ng/l o menos, es útil para predecir hipocalcemia clínica en los pacientes sometidos a tiroidectomía total.


Introduction: The prevalence of thyroid cancer is from 4 to 7%; in Ecuador, it reaches a rate of 16/per 100,000 inhabitants; in most cases, it requires surgical resolution associated with a complication rate of 2 to 15%, of this hypocalcemia represents at least minus 10.9%. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of measuring serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) as a predictor of hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study of patients with thyroidectomy was carried out at the Metropolitan Hospital of Quito from January 2017 to December 2019. Demographic, clinical, surgical, and complication variables were analyzed. PTH's relationship with clinical or serological hypocalcemia or both was compared using PR, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and LR. Other confounding variables were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression comparing their ORs. Results: A total of 212 records were included, 15.6% men and 84.4% women, with an average age of 52.1 years. The main indication for thyroidectomy was papillary carcinoma 123 (58.0%). Complications were 22.7%. A total of 48 patients developed hypocalcemia. PTH levels < 10 ng/l predict hypocalcemia with a sensitivity of 0.55, specificity of 0.78, PPV: 43%, NPV: 85%, and PR was 2.91 (95% CI 1.06 - 8.01). Conclusions: PTH quantification of 10 ng/l or less helps predict clinical hypocalcemia in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Parathyroid Hormone , Thyroidectomy , Hypocalcemia
2.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 832-836, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011053

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the application value of near-infrared autofluorescence imaging in identifying and protecting parathyroid glands in endoscopic thyroid surgery. Methods:From May 2022 to February 2023, 158 patients who underwent endoscopic thyroid surgery in the Department of Thyroid and Breast Vascular Surgery of Guilin People's Hospital were selected. The endoscopic fluorescence camera system was used to monitor the parathyroid glands under autofluorescence during endoscopic thyroid surgery. A total of 214 pieces were collected, among which the first 15 cases that could not be preserved in situ during the operation needed to be autotransplanted or the tissue clamped parts that could not be clearly identified as parathyroid glands were sent to fast-frozen pathology to determine whether they were parathyroid glands. Results:Among the first 15 patients who could not be preserved in situ during the operation or whose anatomy could not be clearly defined, 23 parathyroid glands were detected by autofluorescence imaging, 21 parathyroid glands were confirmed by pathology, and 2 were adipose tissue, with an accuracy rate of 91.30%; 158 patients underwent surgery Blood calcium decreased 2 hours after operation compared with preoperative blood calcium(P<0.05), decreased blood calcium 5 days after operation compared with preoperative blood calcium(P<0.01), and increased slightly 5 days after the operation compared to blood calcium 2 hours after the operation, but the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05); while comparing parathyroid hormone(PTH), PTH at 2 hours after operation decreased significantly compared with PTH before operation(P<0.01), and PTH at 5 days after operation compared with PTH before operation PTH also decreased(P<0.01), but increased compared with PTH 2 hours after operation(P=0.001). Conclusion:In laparoscopic thyroid surgery, the application of near-infrared autofluorescence imaging technology can help surgeons quickly identify and protect parathyroid glands, and reduce the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism. Combining autofluorescence imaging, visual anatomy recognition under magnification of laparoscope, and intraoperative frozen pathological examination "trinity" method can improve the success rate of parathyroid gland recognition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parathyroid Glands/transplantation , Thyroid Gland/surgery , Calcium , Parathyroid Hormone , Optical Imaging/methods , Laparoscopy , Thyroidectomy/methods
3.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 33-33, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010688

ABSTRACT

Orthodontically induced tooth root resorption (OIRR) is a serious complication during orthodontic treatment. Stimulating cementum repair is the fundamental approach for the treatment of OIRR. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) might be a potential therapeutic agent for OIRR, but its effects still lack direct evidence, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to explore the potential involvement of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in mediating the anabolic effects of intermittent PTH and contributing to cementum repair, as identifying lncRNA-disease associations can provide valuable insights for disease diagnosis and treatment. Here, we showed that intermittent PTH regulates cell proliferation and mineralization in immortalized murine cementoblast OCCM-30 via the regulation of the Wnt pathway. In vivo, daily administration of PTH is sufficient to accelerate root regeneration by locally inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Through RNA microarray analysis, lncRNA LITTIP (LGR6 intergenic transcript under intermittent PTH) is identified as a key regulator of cementogenesis under intermittent PTH. Chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP) and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays revealed that LITTIP binds to mRNA of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 6 (LGR6) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (HnRNPK) protein. Further co-transfection experiments confirmed that LITTIP plays a structural role in the formation of the LITTIP/Lgr6/HnRNPK complex. Moreover, LITTIP is able to promote the expression of LGR6 via the RNA-binding protein HnRNPK. Collectively, our results indicate that the intermittent PTH administration accelerates root regeneration via inhibiting Wnt pathway. The lncRNA LITTIP is identified to negatively regulate cementogenesis, which activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling via high expression of LGR6 promoted by HnRNPK.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Cementogenesis , Wnt Signaling Pathway , beta Catenin/metabolism , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Parathyroid Hormone , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism
4.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 389-392, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982755

ABSTRACT

To review the diagnosis and treatment of a case of hypercalcium crisis caused by primary hyperparathyroidism(PHPT) and prophylactic treatment of hungry bone syndrome. In a 32-year-old male with hypercalcemia, the main manifestations were loss of appetite, nausea, polyuria, polydipsia, fatigue, lethargy, etc. parathyroid hormone, serum calcium increased, thyroid function was normal, thyroid color ultrasound and MRI showed space-occupying behind the right thyroid, radionuclide examination showed abnormal imaging agent concentration in the right parathyroid area, there was a history of pathological fracture. Clinically diagnosed as hypercalcemia crisis secondary to PHPT.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/surgery , Parathyroid Hormone , Hypocalcemia/complications , Thyroid Gland , Calcium
5.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 365-369, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982750

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between parathyroid hormone(PTH) level and permanent hypoparathyroidism(PHPP) on the first day after radical papillary thyroidectomy, and its predictive value. Methods:A total of 80 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroid resection and central lymph node dissection were collected and analyzed from January 2021 to January 2022. According to whether PHPP occurred after surgery, the patients were divided into hypoparathyroidism group and normal parathyroid function group, and univariate and binary logistics regression were used to analyze the correlation between PTH and serum calcium levels and PHPP on the first day after surgery in two groups. The dynamic changes of PTH at different time points after operation were analyzed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic was used to evaluate the predictive power of PTH on the development of PHPP after surgery. Results:Among the 80 patients with papillary thyroid cancer, 10 cases developed PHPP, with an incidence rate of 12.5%. Binary logistics regression analysis showed that PTH on the first postoperative day(OR=14.534, 95%CI: 2.377-88.858, P=0.004) was an independent predictive risk factor for postoperative PHPP. Taking PTH=8.75 ng/L on the first postoperative day as the cut-off value, the AUC of the area under the curve was 0.874(95%CI: 0.790-0.958, P<0.001), the sensitivity was 71.4%, the specificity was 100%, and the Yoden index was 0.714. Conclusion:PTH level on the first day after total thyroid papillary carcinoma surgery is closely related to PHPP, and is an independent predictor of PHPP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium , Hypoparathyroidism/surgery , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroid Hormone , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Thyroidectomy
6.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 282-287, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982733

ABSTRACT

Objective:To quantitatively evaluate the risk of recurrence in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy. Methods:The clinical data of 168 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy(PTX) from June 2017 to May 2019 were collected. The prediction model was constructed by using Akaike information criterion(AIC) to screen factors. A total of 158 patients treated with PTX from June 2019 to September 2021 were included in the validation set to conduct external validation of the model in three aspects of differentiation, consistency and clinical utility. Results:The prediction model we constructed includes different dialysis methods, ectopic parathyroid gland, the iPTH level at one day and one month after surgery, the number of excisional parathyroid and postoperative blood phosphorus. The C index of external validation of this model is 0.992 and the P value of the Calibration curve is 0.886[KG0.5mm]1. The decision curve analysis also shows that the evaluation effect of this model is perfect. Conclusion:The prediction model constructed in this study is useful for individualized prediction of recurrence after PTX in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parathyroidectomy/methods , Parathyroid Hormone , Retrospective Studies , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/surgery , Parathyroid Glands , Recurrence , Calcium
7.
Med. UIS ; 35(3)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534823

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hipocalcemia por hipoparatiroidismo es la complicación más frecuente tras tiroidectomía total. Un factor predictor importante de hipocalcemia es la parathormona postoperatoria, pero el momento en el que otorga mejores resultados predictivos aún se discute. Objetivo: El objetivo es analizar el valor pronóstico de la parathormona postoperatoria a las 24 horas como indicador de hipocalcemia, en comparación con la seriación de los niveles de calcio. Metodología: Estudio observacional retrospectivo y descriptivo de 297 pacientes intervenidos de tiroidectomía total durante ocho años. Los pacientes fueron clasificados en tres grupos de riesgo según la parathormona postoperatoria (alto, medio y bajo riesgo). Para comparar la parathormona frente al calcio postoperatorio como predictor de hipocalcemia, se obtuvieron curvas ROC y áreas debajo de la curva. Resultados: El riesgo relativo de tener hipocalcemia con parathormona ≤15 pg/mL es de 353,4 (p = 0,00). La prueba de parathormona postoperatoria (≤15 pg/mL a las 24 h) obtuvo una sensibilidad del 96,25 % para la detección de hipocalcemia, especificidad del 94,06 % y precisión global del 95,03 %. El grupo de alto riesgo (parathormona ≤15 pg/mL) concentra la mayoría de los pacientes con hipocalcemia, y abarca la totalidad de los casos permanentes. Conclusiones: La parathormona postoperatoria a las 24 horas de la tiroidectomía total es un test con un valor pronóstico considerable, capaz de predecir el riesgo de hipocalcemia postquirúrgica. Se encontró que los pacientes con parathormona >15 pg/mL pueden ser dados de alta de manera segura.


Introduction: Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism is the most frequent complication after total thyroidectomy. An important predictive factor of hypocalcaemia is postoperative parathormone (PTH), but the optimal time for testing PTH levels is under discussion. Objectives: The objective is to analyze the prognostic value of postoperative PTH at 24 hours as an indicator of hypocalcaemia, compared to serum calcium levels. Methodology: Descriptive retrospective observational study of 297 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy over an 8-year period. The patients were classified into 3 risk groups according to postoperative parathormone (high, medium and low risk). To compare parathormone versus postoperative calcium as a predictor of hypocalcemia, ROC curves and areas under the curve (AUC) were obtained. Results: The relative risk of having hypocalcemia with parathormone ≤ 15 pg/mL is 353.4 (p = 0.00). The postoperative parathormone test (≤ 15 pg / mL at 24h) obtained a sensitivity of 96.25% for the detection of hypocalcemia, specificity of 94.06% and global precision of 95.03%. The high-risk group (parathormone ≤ 15 pg/mL) accounts for the vast majority of patients with hypocalcemia and covers all permanent cases. Conclusions: Postoperative levels 24 hours after total thyroidectomy is a test with considerable prognostic value, capable of predicting the risk of postsurgical hypocalcemia. Patients with levels over > 15 pg/mL can be safely discharged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thyroidectomy , Parathyroid Hormone , Postoperative Complications , Hypocalcemia , Hypoparathyroidism , Length of Stay
8.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392505

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar a eficácia da utilização da terapia combinada de alendronato de sódio e vitamina D no metabolismo ósseo de mulheres em tratamento de osteoporose pós-menopausa. Métodos: trata-se de uma revisão sistemática, a qual foram pesquisados ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) indexados nas bases de dados BVS, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect e Scopus que comparavam a associação de alendronato sódico e vitamina D com a monoterapia de alendronato de sódio. Resultados: um total de seis ECR contemplou os critérios para serem inclusos nesse estudo, compreendendo um total de 4164 participantes e seus respectivos dados. Os estudos avaliaram diferentes domínios do metabolismo ósseo, como níveis séricos de vitamina D, paratormônio, densidade mineral óssea e marcadores de turnover ósseo. A terapia combinada produziu melhora significativa nos marcadores metabólicos ósseos. Conclusão: a terapia combinada de alendronato de sódio com vitamina D promove melhora no metabolismo ósseo de mulheres com osteoporose pós-menopausa.


Aim: to evaluate the effectiveness of using the combined therapy of sodium alendronate and vitamin D on bone metabolism in women undergoing postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods: this is a systematic review. The studies included were Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) indexed in the BVS, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Scopus Databases which compared the association of sodium alendronate and vitamin D to monotherapy of sodium alendronate. Results: a total of six RCT met the criteria to be included in this study, comprising a total of 4164 participants and their respective data. The studies evaluated different domains of bone metabolism, such as serum levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. Combination therapy produced significant improvement in bone metabolic markers. Conclusion: combined therapy of sodium alendronate with vitamin D promotes improved bone metabolism in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Parathyroid Hormone , Vitamin D , Women , Bone and Bones , Bone Density , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Alendronate
9.
Actual. osteol ; 18(3): 183-191, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509337

ABSTRACT

La crisis hipercalcémica (CH) es una emergencia endocrina inusual, definida por la presencia de calcemia > 14 mg/dl asociada a disfunción renal, alteraciones cardiovasculares, gastrointestinales y del sensorio; también podría considerarse en pacientes con síntomas graves y calcemia menor. El hiperparatiroidismo primario (HPTP) y las neoplasias malignas son las etiologías más comunes de la hipercalcemia (90% de los casos); sin embargo, rara vez el primero se presenta como CH. Debido a la alta mortalidad asociada a esta entidad, es de gran importancia establecer diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces. Presentamos dos pacientes con crisis hipercalcémica como primera manifestación del HPTP, el 1.° con bloqueo auriculoventricular (AV) completo y el 2.° con pancreatitis aguda. La anatomía patológica (AP) reveló adenoma oxifílico en ambos casos, que es una variante histológica poco frecuente y puede manifestarse clínicamente de forma grave. Conclusiones: los adenomas paratiroideos son causa poco frecuente de CH. Consideramos el tipo histológico observado (adenoma oxifílico) como probable factor condicionante. La pancreatitis y especialmente el bloqueo AV son manifestaciones poco frecuentes de la CH. Resaltamos la importancia de la determinación de los niveles de calcio dentro de la evaluación inicial de todo paciente con bloqueo AV. (AU)


Hypercalcemic crisis (HC) is an unusual endocrine emergency, defined as the presence of serum calcium > 14 mg/dl related to kidney dysfunction, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and sensory disturbances. It could also be considered in patients with severe symptoms and lower serum calcium levels. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and malignant neoplasms are the most common hypercalcemia etiologies (90% of cases), nevertheless, the former hardly ever occurs as HC. Due to the high mortality associated with HC, it is crucial to establish early diagnosis and treatment.We report two patients with HC as the first manifestation of PHPT; the former with atrioventricular (AV) block and the latter with acute pancreatitis. Pathology revealed oxyphilic adenoma in both cases, which is an infrequent histological variant that can have a severe clinical manifestation. Conclusions: parathyroid adenomas are a rare cause of HC. We consider the histological type observed (oxyphilic adenoma) as a probable conditioning factor. Pancreatitis and especially AV block are rare manifestations of HC. We emphasize the importance of determining calcium levels in the initial evaluation of all patients with AV block. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Parathyroid Neoplasms/complications , Adenoma/complications , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/complications , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Pancreatitis/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone/analysis , Parathyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenoma/pathology , Calcium/blood , Oxyphil Cells/pathology , Atrioventricular Block/etiology , Hypercalcemia/etiology
10.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 509-517, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To identify the miRNAs targeting vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and their effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in secondary hyperparathyroidism.@*METHODS@#Primary parathyroid cells with secondary hyperparathyroidism were isolated by collagenase digestion and cultured. The miRNAs targeting VDR were screened by bioinformatics methods and full transcriptome sequencing, and dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the targeting relationship between VDR and the screened miRNA. The effects of overexpression or inhibition of the candidate miRNA on VDR mRNA and protein expressions and PTH secretion were evaluated using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The expression levels of the candidate miRNAs and VDR mRNA in clinical specimens of parathyroid tissues were verified by qRT-PCR, and the expression of VDR protein was detected by immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#We successfully isolated primary parathyroid cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay verified the targeting relationship of hsa-miR-149-5p, hsa-miR-221-5p, hsa-miR-222-3p, hsa-miR-29a-5p, hsa-miR-301a-5p, hsa-miR-873-5p, hsa-miR-93-3p with VDR, and among them, the overexpression of hsa-miR-149-5p and hsa-miR-301a-5p significantly increased PTH secretion in the parathyroid cells. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, hsa-miR-149-5p was highly expressed in the parathyroid tissues (P=0.046), where the expressions of VDR mRNA (P=0.0267) and protein were both decreased.@*CONCLUSION@#The two miRNAs, hsa-miR-149-5p and hsa-miR-301a-5p, may promote the secretion of PTH in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism by down-regulating the expression of VDR gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Parathyroid Hormone , RNA, Messenger , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics
11.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 238-243, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936307

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish an cell model of hyperparathyroidism by isolation, in vitro culture, and identification of parathyroid cells from patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT).@*METHODS@#The parathyroid gland tissues obtained from 10 patients with SHPT were dissociated by collagenase digestion for primary culture of the parathyroid cells. Morphological changes and growth characteristics of the cells were assessed by microscopic imaging and cell counting. The mRNA and protein expression levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), and glial cells missing 2 (GCM2) in the primary and passaged cells were determined by immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Primary cultures of parathyroid cells were successfully obtained. The cells exhibited a high expression of PTH shown by immunofluorescence assay and had a population doubling time of approximately 71.61 h. PTH secretion in the second-passage (P2) cells was significantly lower than that in the primary (P0) and first-passage (P1) cells (P < 0.001). Despite a significant downregulation of CaSR mRNA (P=0.017) and protein (P=0.006) in P1 cells as compared with P0 cells, no significant differences were found in mRNA and protein expressions of PTH or GCM2 between the two cell generations.@*CONCLUSION@#Primary cultures of parathyroid cells isolated from SHPT patients by collagenase digestion show similar biological properties to the cells in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/metabolism , Parathyroid Glands/metabolism , Parathyroid Hormone , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing/metabolism
12.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 748-752, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388891

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: A pesar de que el carcinoma de paratiroides es uno de los cánceres menos frecuentes del mundo, es importante tenerlo en cuenta al plantear el diagnóstico diferencial del hiperparatiroidismo primario, ya que su diagnóstico temprano tiene repercusiones en el tratamiento y el pronóstico vital del paciente. Caso Clínico: A continuación, se expone un caso clínico de un paciente con sintomatología abigarrada de hiperfunción paratiroidea que, dada la sospecha clínica de carcinoma de paratiroides y la no infiltración de estructuras adyacentes, fue tratado con una paratiroidectomía. Conclusión: Esta cirugía supone una menor morbilidad, sin suponer un detrimento para la supervivencia global del paciente.


Introduction: Parathyroid carcinoma should be taken into consideration among the differential diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, even though it is one of the less common malignant tumours in the world, because an early diagnosis is essential for the treatment and the prognosis of the patient. Case Report: We present the case of a patient whose symptoms were compatible with hyperfunction of parathyroid gland. Due to the malignant disease suspicion and the non-invasion of adjacent tissue, he was treated with a parathyroidectomy. Conclusión: This type of treatment supposes a lower morbidity without decrease in overall survival, according to bibliography.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Parathyroid Hormone/metabolism , Parathyroid Neoplasms/metabolism , Lymphatic Metastasis , Parathyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Parathyroidectomy , Ultrasonography
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 539-550, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350905

ABSTRACT

Abstract Patients on hemodialysis are exposed to calcium via the dialysate at least three times a week. Changes in serum calcium vary according to calcium mass transfer during dialysis, which is dependent on the gradient between serum and dialysate calcium concentration (d[Ca]) and the skeleton turnover status that alters the ability of bone to incorporate calcium. Although underappreciated, the d[Ca] can potentially cause positive calcium balance that leads to systemic organ damage, including associations with mortality, myocardial dysfunction, hemodynamic tolerability, vascular calcification, and arrhythmias. The pathophysiology of these adverse effects includes serum calcium changes, parathyroid hormone suppression, and vascular calcification through indirect and direct effects. Some organs are more susceptible to alterations in calcium homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the existing data and potential mechanisms linking the d[Ca] to calcium balance with consequent dysfunction of the skeleton, myocardium, and arteries.


Resumo Pacientes em hemodiálise são expostos ao cálcio, por meio do dialisato, pelo menos três vezes por semana. As alterações no cálcio sérico variam de acordo com a transferência de massa de cálcio durante a diálise, que é dependente do gradiente entre a concentração de cálcio no plasma e no dialisato (d [Ca]) e o estado de renovação do esqueleto que altera a capacidade do osso de incorporar cálcio. Embora subestimado, o d [Ca] pode potencialmente causar balanço positivo de cálcio que leva a danos em órgãos sistêmicos, incluindo associações com mortalidade, disfunção miocárdica, tolerabilidade hemodinâmica, calcificação vascular e arritmias. A fisiopatologia desses efeitos adversos inclui alterações do cálcio sérico, supressão do hormônio da paratireóide e calcificação vascular por meio de efeitos diretos e indiretos. Alguns órgãos são mais suscetíveis a alterações na homeostase do cálcio. Nesta revisão, discutimos os dados existentes e os mecanismos potenciais que ligam o d [Ca] ao equilíbrio do cálcio com a consequente disfunção no esqueleto, miocárdio e artérias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular System , Calcium , Parathyroid Hormone , Bone and Bones , Renal Dialysis
14.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(6): 804-808, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357131

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aims to evaluate the influence of hormonal levels of vitamin D, calcitonin, testosterone, estradiol, and parathyroid in patients with fractures attributed to osteoporosis when compared with young patients with fractures resulting from high-impact accidents. Methods Blood samples were collected from 30 elderly patients with osteoporosisattributed fractures (T-score ≤-2.5) (osteoporotic group), and from 30 young patients with fractures resulting from high-impact accidents (control group). Measurement of 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D (Kit Diasorin, Saluggia, Italy), calcitonin (Kit Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA), testosterone, estradiol, and parathyroid hormone (Kit Beckman Couter, Indianapolis, IN, United States) was performed using a chemiluminescence technique. Data were inserted into a Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Armonk, WA, USA) spreadsheet and analyzed using Statview statistical software. Results showing non-normal distribution were analyzed with nonparametric methods. The Mann-Whitney test was applied for group comparison, and a Spearman test correlated hormonal levels. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. All analyzes compared gender and subjects with and without osteoporosis. Results Women with osteoporosis had significantly lower levels of estradiol and vitamin D (p = 0.047 and p = 0.0275, respectively). Men with osteoporosis presented significantly higher levels of parathyroid hormone (p = 0.0065). There was no significant difference in testosterone and calcitonin levels. Conclusion Osteoporosis patients presented gender-related hormonal differences. Women had significantly lower levels of estradiol and vitamin D, whereas men had significantly higher parathyroid hormone levels, apparently impacting the disease.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a influência dos níveis hormonais de vitamina D, calcitonina, testosterona, estradiol e paratormônio em pacientes com fratura atribuída a osteoporose, quando comparados com pacientes jovens que tiveram fraturas decorrentes de acidente de alto impacto. Métodos Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 30 pacientes idosos com fratura atribuída a osteoporose (T-score ≤-2,5) (grupo com osteoporose) e 30 amostras de sangue de pacientes jovens que sofreram fraturas decorrentes de acidentes de alto impacto (grupo controle). Foram realizadas dosagem de 1,25-hidroxivitamina D (Kit Diasorin, Saluggia, Italy), calcitonina (Kit Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA), testosterona, estradiol e paratormônio (Kit Beckman Couter, Indianapolis, IN, United States) pela técnica de quimiluminescência. Os dados foram inseridos em uma planilha de dados no programa Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, EUA) e analisados pelo programa de estatística Statview. Os resultados que apresentaram distribuição não normal foram analisados com métodos não paramétricos. Para análise de variáveis comparando-se os dois grupos, aplicou-se o teste Mann-Whitney. Foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Spearman para a correlacionar os níveis hormonais. Um valor-p >0.05 foi considerado significante. Todas as análises foram feitas comparando gênero e grupos de pacientes come sem osteoporose. Resultados Mulheres com osteoporose apresentam níveis significativamente menores de estradiol e vitamina D (p = 0.047 e p = 0.0275), respectivamente. Homens com osteoporose demonstraram níveis significativamente maiores de paratormônio (p = 0.0065). Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de testosterona e calcitonina. Conclusão Existem diferenças hormonais entre os gêneros na osteoporose. Em mulheres, níveis significativamente menores de estradiol e vitamina D e, nos homens, níveis significativamente maiores de paratormônio, parecem influenciar na doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoporosis , Parathyroid Hormone , Vitamin D , Calcitonin , Control Groups , Estradiol , Fractures, Bone , Gender Identity , Hormones
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(2): 228-235, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286934

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Some authors advise in favor of delayed sampling of intraoperative parathormone testing (ioPTH) during parathyroidectomy in dialysis and kidney-transplanted patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intensity and the role of delayed sampling in the interpretation of ioPTH during parathyroidectomy in dialysis patients (2HPT) and successful kidney-transplanted patients (3HPT) compared to those in single parathyroid adenoma patients (1HPT). Methods: This was a retrospective study of ioPTH profiles in patients with 1HPT, 2HPT, and 3HPT operated on in a single institution. Samples were taken at baseline ioPTH (sampling at the beginning of the operation), ioPTH-10 min (10 minutes after excision of the parathyroid glands), and ioPTH-15 min (15 minutes after excision of the parathyroid glands). The values were compared to baseline. Results: Median percentage values of ioPTH compared to baseline (100%) were as follows: 1HPT, ioPTH-10 min = 20% and ioPTH-15 min = 16%; 2HPT, ioPTH-10 min = 14% and ioPTH-15 min = 12%; 3HPT, ioPTH-10 min = 18% and ioPTH-15 min = 15%. Discussion: The reduction was equally effective at 10 minutes in all groups. In successful cases, ioPTH decreases satisfactorily 10 minutes after parathyroid glands excision in dialysis and transplanted patients, despite significant differences in kidney function. The postponed sampling of ioPTH appears to be unnecessary.


Resumo Introdução: Alguns autores aconselham a favor de se fazer uma amostragem tardia de teste de paratormônio intraoperatório (PTHIO) durante paratireoidectomia em pacientes transplantados renais e em diálise. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a intensidade e o papel da amostragem tardia na interpretação do PTHIO durante paratireoidectomia em pacientes em diálise (2HPT) e pacientes com transplante renal bem sucedido (3HPT) em comparação com aqueles em pacientes com adenoma único de paratireoide (1HPT). Métodos: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo dos perfis de PTHIO em pacientes com 1HPT, 2HPT, e 3HPT operados em uma única instituição. Foram coletadas amostras de PTHIO basal (amostragem no início da operação), PTHIO-10 min (10 minutos após a excisão das glândulas paratireoides), e PTHIO-15 min (15 minutos após a excisão das glândulas paratireoides). Os valores foram comparados aos resultados basais. Resultados: Os valores percentuais medianos do PTHIO em comparação aos basais (100%) foram os seguintes: 1HPT, PTHIO-10 min = 20% e PTHIO-15 min = 16%; 2HPT, PTHIO-10 min = 14% e PTHIO-15 min = 12%; 3HPT, PTHIO-10 min = 18% e PTHIO-15 min = 15%. Discussão: A redução foi igualmente eficaz aos 10 minutos em todos os grupos. Em casos de sucesso, o PTHIO diminui satisfatoriamente 10 minutos após a excisão das glândulas paratireoides em pacientes em diálise e transplantados, apesar das diferenças significativas na função renal. A amostragem tardia de PTHIO parece ser desnecessária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parathyroidectomy , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/surgery , Parathyroid Hormone , Retrospective Studies , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Renal Dialysis , Kidney
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(2): 182-190, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286936

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Mineral and bone disorders (MBD) are associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients. The main guidelines related to the subject, Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), were elaborated based on published information from hemodialysis participants. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (according to guideline ranges from KDOQI and KDIGO) on the cardiovascular mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods: We used the BRAZPDII database, an observational multi-centric prospective study, which assessed participants on PD between December 2004 and January 2011. Amongst 9,905 participants included in this database, we analyzed 4424 participants who were on PD for at least 6 months. The appropriate confounding variables were entered into the model. Serum levels of Ca, P, and PTH were the variables of interest for the purposes of the current study. Results: We found a significant association between high P serum levels, categorized by KDOQI and KDIGO (P above 5.5 mg/dL), and cardiovascular survival (p < 0.01). Likewise, a compelling association was found between lower levels of PTH, categorized by guidelines (KDOQI and KDIGO - PTH less than 150 pg/mL, p < 0.01), and cardiovascular survival. Conclusion: In conclusion, levels of P above and PTH below the values proposed by KDOQI and KDIGO were associated with cardiovascular mortality in PD patients.


Resumo Introdução: Os distúrbios minerais e ósseos (DMO) estão associados a maior mortalidade em pacientes de diálise. As principais diretrizes relacionadas ao assunto, Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) e Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) foram elaboradas com base em informações publicadas de pacientes em hemodiálise. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi avaliar o impacto do cálcio (Ca), fósforo (P) e paratormônio (PTH) (de acordo com as faixas propostas pelas diretrizes do KDOQI e KDIGO) na mortalidade cardiovascular de pacientes em diálise peritoneal (DP). Métodos: Utilizamos o banco de dados BRAZPDII, um estudo prospectivo observacional multicêntrico, que avaliou participantes de DP entre dezembro de 2004 e janeiro de 2011. Entre os 9.905 participantes incluídos neste banco de dados, analisamos 4.424 que estavam em DP há pelo menos 6 meses. As variáveis de confusão apropriadas foram inseridas no modelo. Os níveis séricos de Ca, P e PTH foram as variáveis de interesse para os fins do presente estudo. Resultados: Encontramos uma associação significativa entre níveis séricos de P elevados, categorizados por KDOQI e KDIGO (P acima de 5,5 mg/dL), e sobrevivência cardiovascular (p < 0,01). Da mesma forma, foi encontrada uma associação convincente entre níveis mais baixos de PTH, categorizados por diretrizes (KDOQI e KDIGO - PTH inferior a 150 pg/mL, p < 0,01), e sobrevivência cardiovascular. Conclusão: Em conclusão, níveis de P acima e PTH abaixo dos valores propostos por KDOQI e KDIGO foram associados à mortalidade cardiovascular em pacientes de DP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Peritoneal Dialysis , Parathyroid Hormone , Calcium , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Minerals
17.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(2): 173-181, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286946

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) are common in dialysis patients. Definition of targets for calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), parathormone (iPTH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and their treatment recommendations, are provided by international guidelines. There are few studies analyzing CKD-MBD in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and the impact of guidelines on mineral metabolism control. The aim of our study was to describe the prevalence of biomarkers for CKD-MBD in a large cohort of PD patients in Brazil. Methods: Data from the nation-wide prospective observational cohort BRAZPD II was used. Incident patients were followed between December 2004 and January 2011. According to KDOQI recommendations, reference ranges for total Ca were 8.4 to 9.5 mg/dL, for P, 3.5 to 5.5 mg/dL, for iPTH, 150-300 pg/mL, and for ALP, 120 U/L. Results: Mean age was 59.8 ± 16 years, 48% were male, and 43% had diabetes. In the beginning, Ca was 8.9 ± 0.9 mg/dL, and 48.3% were on the KODQI target. After 1 year, Ca increased to 9.1 ± 0.9 mg/dL and 50.4% were in the KDOQI preferred range. P at baseline was 5.2 ± 1.6 mg/dL, with 52.8% on target, declining to 4.9 ± 1.5 mg/dL after one year, when 54.7% were on target. Median iPTH at baseline was 238 (P25% 110 - P75% 426 pg/mL) and it remained stable throughout the first year; patients within target ranged from 26 to 28.5%. At the end of the study, 80% was in 3.5 meq/L Ca dialysate concentration, 66.9% of patients was taking any phosphate binder, and 25% was taking activated vitamin D. Conclusions: We observed a significant prevalence of biochemical disorders related to CKD-MBD in this dialysis population.


Resumo Introdução: Os distúrbios minerais e ósseos da doença renal crônica (DMO-DRC) são comuns em pacientes em diálise. A definição de metas para cálcio (Ca), fósforo (P), paratormônio (PTHi) e fosfatase alcalina (FA) e suas recomendações de tratamento são fornecidas por diretrizes internacionais. Há poucos estudos analisando o DMO-DRC em pacientes em diálise peritoneal (DP) e o impacto das diretrizes no controle do metabolismo mineral. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi descrever a prevalência de alterações nos marcadores para DMO-DRC em uma grande coorte de pacientes em DP no Brasil. Métodos: Foram utilizados dados da coorte observacional prospectiva nacional BRAZPD II. Pacientes incidentes foram acompanhados entre Dezembro de 2004 e Janeiro de 2011. De acordo com as recomendações do KDOQI, os intervalos de referência para Ca total foram de 8,4 a 9,5 mg/dL, para P, 3,5 a 5,5 mg/dL, para PTHi, 150-300 pg/mL, e para FA, 120 U/L. Resultados: A idade média foi de 59,8 ± 16 anos, 48% eram homens e 43% tinham diabetes. No início, o Ca era de 8,9 ± 0,9 mg/dL, e 48,3% estavam na meta do KODQI. Após 1 ano, o Ca aumentou para 9,1 ± 0,9 mg/dL e 50,4% estavam na faixa preferida do KDOQI. P basal era 5,2 ± 1,6 mg/dL, com 52,8% na meta, diminuindo para 4,9 ± 1,5 mg/dL após um ano, quando 54,7% estavam na meta. O PTHi basal mediano foi de 238 (P25% 110 - P75% 426 pg/mL) e permaneceu estável durante o primeiro ano; os pacientes dentro da meta variaram de 26 a 28,5%. No final do estudo, 80% estavam na concentração de 3,5 meq/L de Ca dialisato, 66,9% dos pacientes estavam tomando qualquer quelante de fosfato, e 25% estavam tomando vitamina D ativada. Conclusões: Observamos uma prevalência significativa de distúrbios bioquímicos relacionados ao DMO-DRC nesta população em diálise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/etiology , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/epidemiology , Peritoneal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Parathyroid Hormone , Calcium , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis , Goals , Middle Aged , Minerals
18.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 351-355, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288681

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To compare the serum levels of vitamin D and minerals in children with or without isolated distal radius fractures. Methods The present prospective clinical study included 50 children (aged between 5 and 15 years) with isolated distal radius fractures who were admitted to our emergency unit between February and May 2018 as the study group (group A), and 50 healthy children with no history of fracture as the control group (group B). Peripheral venous blood samples were obtained and analyzed for measurements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in both groups. Patient characteristics and peripheral venous blood samples were compared between the groups. Results The mean age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and gender distribution were similar in both groups. There were no statistical differences in the blood analyses, including Ca, Mg, P, ALP, and PTH. However, the serum levels of 25(OH)D were statistically lower in group A when compared to group B (p < 0.001), and the number of patients with 25(OH)D insufficiency was statistically higher in group A than in group B (p = 0.012). Conclusion Children with isolated distal radius fracture should be informed about vitamin D deficiency, and, in children with low levels of vitamin D, supplementation may be considered.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar os níveis séricos de vitamina D e minerais de crianças com ou sem fraturas isoladas da extremidade distal do rádio. Métodos Este estudo clínico prospectivo incluiu 50 crianças (com idade entre 5 e 15 anos) com fratura isolada distal do rádio que deram entrada em nossa unidade de emergência entre fevereiro e maio de 2018 como grupo de estudo (grupo A), e 50 crianças saudáveis sem histórico de fratura como grupo controle (grupo B). Foram obtidas e analisadas amostras de sangue venoso periférico para medições de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25(OH)D), Cálcio (Ca), Magnésio (Mg), Fósforo (P), fosfatase alcalina (FA) e hormônio da paratireoide (HPT) em ambos os grupos. As características dos pacientes e as amostras de sangue venoso periférico foram comparadas entre os grupos. Resultados A média de idade, altura, peso, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e distribuição de gênero foram semelhantes em ambos os grupos. Não houve diferenças estatísticas nas análises sanguíneas, incluindo Ca, Mg, P, FA e HPT. No entanto, os níveis séricos de 25(OH)D foram estatisticamente menores no grupo A do que no grupo B (p < 0,001), e o número de pacientes com insuficiência de 25(OH)D foi estatisticamente maior no grupo A do que no grupo B (p = 0,012). Conclusão Crianças com fratura isolada distal do rádio devem ser informadas sobre deficiência de vitamina D, e, em crianças com baixos níveis de vitamina D, a suplementação pode ser considerada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Parathyroid Hormone , Radius Fractures , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Calcium , Alkaline Phosphatase
19.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(1): 34-40, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154647

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aim: Current guidelines do not address between-person variability in markers of bone and mineral metabolism across subgroups of patients, nor delineate treatment strategies based upon such factors. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out to analyze data from 20,494 United States Veterans and verify the variability of Vitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels across race and stage of chronic kidney disease. Results: PTH levels were higher in Black Americans (BA) than White Americans (WA) at all levels of 25(OH)D and across eGFR strata. There was a progressive decline in PTH levels from the lowest (25(OH)D < 20) to highest quartile (25(OH)D >=40) in both BA (134.4 v 90 pg/mL, respectively) and WA (112.5 v 71.62 pg/mL) (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion: In this analysis, higher than normal 25(OH)D levels were well tolerated and associated with lower parathyroid hormone values in both blacks and whites. Black Americans had higher PTH values at every level of eGFR and 25(OH)D levels suggesting a single PTH target is not appropriate.


RESUMO Objetivo: as diretrizes atuais não abordam a variabilidade entre as pessoas nos marcadores do metabolismo ósseo e mineral em subgrupos de pacientes, nem traçam estratégias de tratamento com base em tais fatores. Métodos: realizamos um estudo transversal para analisar dados de 20.494 veteranos de guerra dos Estados Unidos e verificar a variabilidade nos níveis de vitamina D (25 (OH) D) e hormônio da paratireóide (PTH) entre a raça e o estágio da doença renal crônica. Resultados: os níveis de PTH foram maiores em americanos negros (AN) do que em americanos brancos (AB) em todos os níveis de 25 (OH) D e em todos os estratos de TFGe. Houve um declínio progressivo nos níveis de PTH do quartil mais baixo (25 (OH) D <20) para o quartil mais alto (25 (OH) D> = 40) em AN (134,4 v 90 pg/mL, respectivamente) e AB (112,5 v 71,62 pg/mL) (p <0,001 para todas as comparações). Conclusão: Nesta análise, níveis de 25 (OH) D acima do normal foram bem tolerados e associados a valores mais baixos do hormônio da paratireóide em negros e brancos. Os americanos negros tinham valores de PTH mais altos em todos os níveis de TFGe e 25 (OH) D, sugerindo que uma única meta de PTH não é apropriado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin D Deficiency , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Parathyroid Hormone , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Cross-Sectional Studies , Race Factors
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(3): 399-408, mar. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389472

ABSTRACT

Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant disease that presents as a sporadic or familial primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). The latter is associated with some genetic syndromes. It occurs with equal frequency in both sexes, unlike PHP caused by parathyroid adenoma that is more common in women. It should be suspected in cases of severe hypercalcemia, with high parathyroid hormone levels and a palpable cervical mass. Given the difficulty in distinguishing between parathyroid carcinoma and adenoma prior to the surgery, the diagnosis is often made after parathyroidectomy. The only curative treatment is complete surgical resection with oncologic block resection of the primary tumor to ensure free margins. Adjuvant therapies with chemotherapy or radiation therapy do not modify overall or disease-free survival. Recurrences are common and re-operation of resectable recurrent disease is recommended. The palliative treatment of symptomatic hypercalcemia is crucial in persistent or recurrent disease after surgery since morbidity and mortality are more associated with hypercalcemia than with tumor burden.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parathyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Parathyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroidectomy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
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