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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888205

ABSTRACT

The incidence of tinnitus is very high, which can affect the patient's attention, emotion and sleep, and even cause serious psychological distress and suicidal tendency. Currently, there is no uniform and objective method for tinnitus detection and therapy, and the mechanism of tinnitus is still unclear. In this study, we first collected the resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) data of tinnitus patients and healthy subjects. Then the power spectrum topology diagrams were compared of in the band of δ (0.5-3 Hz), θ (4-7 Hz), α (8-13 Hz), β (14-30 Hz) and γ (31-50 Hz) to explore the central mechanism of tinnitus. A total of 16 tinnitus patients and 16 healthy subjects were recruited to participate in the experiment. The results of resting state EEG experiments found that the spectrum power value of tinnitus patients was higher than that of healthy subjects in all concerned frequency bands. The


Subject(s)
Attention , Brain , Electroencephalography , Humans , Parietal Lobe , Tinnitus
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1,supl.1): 51-56, abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002605

ABSTRACT

Para evaluar los procesos atencionales a estímulos visuales que no requieren repuesta motora, se llevó a cabo un estudio con potenciales evocados a 17 niños con trastornos del déficit de atención/ hiperactividad (TDAH-I) con predominio inatento y a 15 controles de edades entre 7 y 11 años. Se analizó la latencia y localización de fuentes de los potenciales evocados visuales tempranos P100 y N100 durante la realización de una tarea oddball visual (20% rayas horizontales y 80% verticales) en que las rayas verticales no exigían respuesta motora. Los resultados indican que los niños con TDAH-I procesan la información visual que no requiere respuesta motora con un mayor aumento de la actividad cerebral y mediante la vía temporal ventral mientras que el grupo control lo hace mediante la vía parietal dorsal. Este proceso neurobiológico de procesamiento de la información visual vía temporal ventral de los niños con TDAH-I podría deberse a alteraciones en los procesos emocionales que influyen directamente en el reconocimiento visual o a un déficit en el control de los procesos atencionales por parte de la vía parietal dorsal.


To evaluate attentional processes to visual stimuli that do not require motor response, a study with evoked potentials was carried out on 17 children with attention deficit disorder predominantly inattentive (ADDH-I) and 15 controls between the ages of 7 and 11 years. The latency and localization of sources of the early visual evoked potentials P100 and N100 were analyzed during the performance of a visual oddball task (20% horizontal and 80% vertical lines) where the vertical lines did not require motor response. The results indicate that ADDH-I group process visual information that does not require motor response with a greater increase in brain activity and through the ventral temporal pathway, while the control group does so by means of the dorsal parietal stream. This neurobiological process of visual information processing by ventral temporal pathway of ADDH-I group could be due to alterations in emotional processes that directly influence visual recognition or as consequence of deficit in the control of attentional processes by the dorsal parietal pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Evoked Potentials, Visual/physiology , Parietal Lobe/physiology , Attention/physiology , Temporal Lobe/physiology , Visual Perception/physiology , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739464

ABSTRACT

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a novel brain stimulation technique which has kindled hope in alleviating motor, language as well as cognitive deficits in neuronal injury. Current case report describes application of tDCS in two phases using two different protocols in a patient with hypoxic injury. In the first phase anodal stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improved the language fluency. Subsequently, after 6 months second phase application of anodal stimulation over posterior parietal region targeted arithmetic and working memory deficits. Individualising the treatment protocols of brain stimulation, based on the lesion and the functional deficits, for neuro-rehabilitation is emphasised.


Subject(s)
Brain , Clinical Protocols , Cognition Disorders , Dyscalculia , Hope , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Memory, Short-Term , Neurons , Parietal Lobe , Prefrontal Cortex , Rehabilitation , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 173-185, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777198

ABSTRACT

Working memory (WM) refers to the process of temporally maintaining and manipulating input information. WM is the global workspace of cognitive functions, however, with severely restricted capacity and precision. Previous cognitive and computational models discussed the methods of calculating capacity and precision of WM and the reason why they are so limited. It still remains debated which model is the best across all datasets, and whether there exists upper limits of items. Besides, sensory cortices and the frontal-parietal loop are suggested to represent WM memorandum. Yet recently, the sensory recruitment hypothesis that posits an important role of sensory cortices in WM is strongly argued. Meanwhile, whether the prefrontal cortex shows sustained activity or bursting γ oscillations is intensely debated as well. In the future, disentangling the contribution to WM of feedforward γ vs feedback α/β oscillations, and/or dopamine vs serotonin systems, is critical for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying WM. It will further do help to recognize the basis for the psychiatric (e.g. schizophrenia) or neurological (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) disorders, and potentially to develop effective training and intervening methods.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Models, Neurological , Parietal Lobe , Physiology , Prefrontal Cortex , Physiology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741922

ABSTRACT

The core concept for pathophysiology in panic disorder (PD) is the fear network model (FNM). The alterations in FNM might be linked with disturbances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which is a common phenomenon in PD. The traditional FNM included the frontal and limbic regions, which were dysregulated in the feedback mechanism for cognitive control of frontal lobe over the primitive response of limbic system. The exaggerated responses of limbic system are also associated with dysregulation in the neurotransmitter system. The neuroimaging studies also corresponded to FNM concept. However, more extended areas of FNM have been discovered in recent imaging studies, such as sensory regions of occipital, parietal cortex and temporal cortex and insula. The insula might integrate the filtered sensory information via thalamus from the visuospatial and other sensory modalities related to occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. In this review article, the traditional and advanced FNM would be discussed. I would also focus on the current evidences of insula, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes in the pathophysiology. In addition, the white matter and functional connectome studies would be reviewed to support the concept of advanced FNM. An emerging dysregulation model of fronto-limbic-insula and temporooccipito-parietal areas might be revealed according to the combined results of recent neuroimaging studies. The future delineation of advanced FNM model can be beneficial from more extensive and advanced studies focusing on the additional sensory regions of occipital, parietal and temporal cortex to confirm the role of advanced FNM in the pathophysiology of PD.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System , Connectome , Frontal Lobe , Limbic System , Neuroimaging , Neurotransmitter Agents , Occipital Lobe , Panic Disorder , Panic , Parietal Lobe , Rabeprazole , Temporal Lobe , Thalamus , White Matter
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are three distinct subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): the nonfluent/agrammatic variant (nfvPPA), the semantic variant (svPPA), and the logopenic variant (lvPPA). We sought to characterize the pattern of [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention across all three subtypes and determine the topography of [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention correlated with each neurolinguistic score. METHODS: We enrolled 50 participants, comprising 13 PPA patients (3 nfvPPA, 5 svPPA, and 5 lvPPA) and 37 subjects with normal cognition (NC) who underwent 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging, [¹⁸F]-THK5351 positron-emission tomography scans, and detailed neuropsychological tests. The PPA patients additionally participated in extensive neurolinguistic tests. Voxel-wise and region-of-interest-based analyses were performed to analyze [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention. RESULTS: The nfvPPA patients exhibited higher [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the the left inferior frontal and precentral gyri. In svPPA patients, [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention was elevated in the anteroinferior and lateral temporal cortices compared to the NC group (left>right). The lvPPA patients exhibited predominant [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the inferior parietal, lateral temporal, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and the precuneus (left>right). [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the left inferior frontal area was associated with lower fluency scores. Comprehension was correlated with [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the left temporal cortices. Repetition was associated with [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the left inferior parietal and posterior temporal areas, while naming difficulty was correlated with retention in the left fusiform and temporal cortices. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention was well matched with clinical and radiological findings for each PPA subtype, in agreement with the anatomical and functional location of each language domain.


Subject(s)
Aphasia, Primary Progressive , Cognition , Comprehension , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neurofibrillary Tangles , Neuropsychological Tests , Parietal Lobe , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prefrontal Cortex , Rabeprazole , Semantics , Temporal Lobe
8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763549

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of daily low-dose tadalafil on cognitive function and to examine whether there was a change in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and mild cognitive impairment. METHODS: Male patients aged 50 to 75 years with at least three months of ED (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]-5 score ≤ 21) and mild cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA] score ≤ 22) were included in the study. The subjects were prescribed a low-dose PDE5 inhibitor (tadalafil 5 mg) to be taken once daily for eight weeks. Changes in MoCA score and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study between the two time-points were assessed by paired t tests. RESULTS: Overall, 30 male patients were assigned to the treatment group in this study and 25 patients completed the eight-week treatment course. Five patients were withdrawn due to adverse events such as myalgia and dizziness. Mean baseline IIEF and MoCA scores were 7.52 ± 4.84 and 18.92 ± 1.78. After the eight-week treatment, mean IIEF and MoCA scores were increased to 12.92 ± 7.27 (p < 0.05) and 21.8 ± 1.71 (p < 0.05), respectively. Patients showed increased relative regional CBF in the postcentral gyrus, precuneus, and brainstem after tadalafil administration versus at baseline (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The results of this prospective clinical study suggest that daily use of tadalafil 5 mg increases some regional CBF and improves cognitive function in patients with ED and mild cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
Brain Stem , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Clinical Study , Cognition , Dizziness , Erectile Dysfunction , Humans , Male , Methylenebis(chloroaniline) , Cognitive Dysfunction , Myalgia , Parietal Lobe , Perfusion , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors , Prospective Studies , Somatosensory Cortex , Tadalafil , Tomography, Emission-Computed
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763532

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Dopamine plays a significant role in working memory by acting as a key neuromodulator between brain networks. Additionally, treatment of patients with schizophrenia using amisulpride, a pure dopamine class 2/3 receptor antagonist, improves their clinical symptoms with fewer side effects. We hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia treated with amisulpride and aripiprazole show increased working memory and glucose metabolism compared with those treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and aripiprazole instead. METHODS: Sixteen patients with schizophrenia (eight in the amisulpride group [aripiprazole+amisulpride] and eight in the CBT group [aripiprazole+CBT]) and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were recruited for a 12-week-long prospective trial. An [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computerized tomography scanner was used to acquire the images. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of treatment, the amisulpride group showed greater improvement in the Letter-Number Span scores than the CBT group. Additionally, although brain metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus, left occipital lingual gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobe was increased in all patients with schizophrenia, the amisulpride group exhibited a greater increase in metabolism in both the right superior frontal gyrus and right frontal precentral gyrus than the CBT group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a small dose of amisulpride improves the general psychopathology, working memory performance, and brain glucose metabolism of patients with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole.


Subject(s)
Aripiprazole , Brain , Cognition , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Dopamine , Electrons , Frontal Lobe , Glucose , Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Metabolism , Neurotransmitter Agents , Occipital Lobe , Parietal Lobe , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prefrontal Cortex , Prospective Studies , Psychopathology , Schizophrenia , Sulpiride
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared the activation pattern of the mirror neurons (MN) between two types of hand movement according to action observation using functional MRI. METHODS: Twelve right-handed healthy subjects (5 male and 7 female, mean age 21.92±2.02 years) participated in the experiment. During fMRI scanning, subjects underwent two different stimuli on the screen: 1) video clips showing repeated grasping and releasing of the ball via simple hand movement (SHM), and (2) video clips showing an actor performing a Purdue Pegboard test via complex hand movement (CHM). paired t-test in statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to compare the activation differences between the two types of hand movement. RESULTS: CHM as compared with the SHM produced a higher blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal response in the right superior frontal gyrus, left inferior and superior parietal lobules, and lingual gyrus. However, no greater BOLD signal response was found by SHM compared with CHM (FWE corrected, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings provided that the activation patterns for observation of SHM and CHM are different. CHM also elicited boarder or stronger activations in the brain, including inferior parietal lobule called the MN region.


Subject(s)
Brain , Female , Hand Strength , Hand , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mirror Neurons , Occipital Lobe , Oxygen , Parietal Lobe , Prefrontal Cortex
11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 370-378, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are crucial for early diagnosis and intervention, in which the identification of biomarkers in other areas of the body that represent the immature brain of children with ADHD is necessary. The present study aimed to find biomarkers of ADHD in the retina and assessed the relationship between macular thickness of the retina and cortical thickness of the brain in children with ADHD. METHODS: Twelve children with ADHD and 13 control children were recruited for the study. To find ocular markers of ADHD, we investigated the correlation between clinical symptoms of ADHD assessed with the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS), cortical thickness of the brain, and macular thickness measured with the mean thickness from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). RESULTS: Children with ADHD showed increased macular thicknesses quantified as an ETDRS ring in both eyes, compared to control subjects. Moreover, the right inner ETDRS ring had a positive correlation with K-ARS scores. The ADHD group had an increased ratio of thickness of the right frontal lobe to that of the parietal cortex, compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the means of the inner ETDRS ring (right) and the left paracentral/right isthmus cingulate thicknesses in the control group. However, there were negative correlations between the means of the inner ETDRS ring (right) and the left frontal pole/right pars triangularis thicknesses in the ADHD group. The results of both groups were at the uncorrected level. CONCLUSION: The different patterns of macular thickness might represent the immature cortical thickness of the brain in children with ADHD.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Biomarkers , Brain , Broca Area , Child , Diabetic Retinopathy , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Parietal Lobe , Pilot Projects , Retina
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786490

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate regional cerebral amyloid beta retention in cognitively normal Korean adults using F-18 florbetaben (FBB).METHODS: We prospectively analyzed F-18 FBB positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans of 30 cognitively healthy adults (age range, 50??0 years) using automated quantification. The standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) of F-18 FBB were calculated for predefined regions by normalizing the regional count with cerebellar cortex.RESULTS: The distribution of amyloid beta for each brain region revealed no age-related trends (p > 0.05). From all subjects, mean SUVR of amyloid deposit was 1.30 ± 0.18. The right parietal lobe showed the highest SUVR value (1.46 ± 0.23), whereas the right frontal lobe and left precuneus showed the lowest SUVR (1.23 ± 0.25).CONCLUSIONS: We provide reference values of normative data obtained from healthy elderly Koreans and suggest its use for accurate diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Brain , Cerebellar Cortex , Diagnosis , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Parietal Lobe , Plaque, Amyloid , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospective Studies , Reference Values
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714547

ABSTRACT

The decision of which surgical approach to use for the treatment of a multifocal craniofacial abscess is still a controversial matter. A failure to control disease progress in the craniofacial region can potentially put the patient's life at risk. Therefore, understanding the various ways to approach the craniofacial region helps surgeons to obtain satisfactory results in such cases. In this report, we describe a patient who visited the emergency department with a large swelling in his right cheek. A blood test and computed tomography revealed odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. The patient developed sepsis due to a progressive multifocal abscess. An abscess was seen in the temporal muscle, infratemporal fossa, and interorbital region. To control this multifocal abscess, we used the facial dismasking flap (FDF) approach. After debridement using the FDF approach, we succeeded in obtaining sufficient drainage of the abscess, and the patient recovered from sepsis. The advantages of the FDF approach are that it provides a wide surgical field, extending from the parietal region to the mid-facial region, and that it leaves no aesthetically displeasing scars on the face. The FDF approach may be one of the best options to approach multifocal abscesses in the craniofacial region.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Cheek , Cicatrix , Debridement , Drainage , Emergency Service, Hospital , Facial Bones , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Maxillary Sinus , Maxillary Sinusitis , Orbit , Parietal Lobe , Sepsis , Surgeons , Temporal Muscle
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an etiology of dementia that is reversible following cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, however, surgical intervention not always clinically effective and the respons to shunt therapy is poorly understood. Furthermore, NPH is a source of comorbidity in diseases with neurodegenerative pathology, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). CASE REPORT: A 61-year-old woman presented to the neurology clinic with progressive gait difficulties and cognitive impairment over five years. Nine years after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt treatment, the patient began to experience frequent falls. There was no improvement in clinical symptoms after the alteration of valve pressure on the VP shunt. An 18F-florbetaben amyloid positron emission tomography scan showed increased diffusion uptake over the bilateral cortices, precuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The patient of NPH was unresponsive to shunt therapy due to the development of AD.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts , Cognition Disorders , Comorbidity , Dementia , Diffusion , Female , Gait , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure , Middle Aged , Neurology , Parietal Lobe , Pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717709

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are important, as CVST is potentially fatal. Pregnancy and puerperium are known risk factors for CVST. Here, we report the case of a patient who developed superior sagittal sinus thrombosis after a normal vaginal delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with a headache and seizures two days after a normal vaginal delivery. Initially, brain computed tomography (CT) showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right parietal lobe and sylvian fissure, together with mild cerebral edema. CT angiography revealed superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Multiple micro-infarctions were seen on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. An intravenous infusion of heparin and mannitol was administered immediately. Two days after treatment initiation, the patient showed sudden neurological deterioration, with left-sided hemiplegia. Brain CT showed moderate brain edema and hemorrhagic densities. Emergency decompressive craniectomy was performed, and heparin was re-administered on post-operative day (POD) 1. On POD 9, the patient's mental state improved from stupor to drowsy, but the left-sided hemiplegia persisted. CT angiography showed that the superior sinus thrombosis had decreased. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an uncommon complication, with an unfavorable outcome, after delivery. Timely diagnosis and treatment are important for preventing neurological deterioration.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Brain , Brain Edema , Cerebral Infarction , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Emergencies , Female , Headache , Hemiplegia , Heparin , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Mannitol , Parietal Lobe , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Rare Diseases , Risk Factors , Seizures , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Stupor , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Superior Sagittal Sinus , Thrombosis , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717588

ABSTRACT

Meningioma is relatively common, benign, and extra-axial tumor accounting for about 20% of primary brain and spinal cord tumors. The World Health Organization (WHO) classified these tumors into Grade I (benign), Grade II (atypical), and Grade III (anaplastic) meningioma. Grade I meningioma which is slowly growing tumor and have some rare subtypes. Among them, metaplastic subtype is defined as a tumor containing focal or widespread mesenchymal components including osseous, cartilaginous, lipomatous, myxoid or xanthomatous tissue, singly or in combinations. We report a rare metaplastic meningioma overspreading nearly whole cerebral convexity from main extra-axial tumor bulk in the parietal lobe.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Meningioma , Parietal Lobe , Pathology , Spinal Cord Neoplasms , World Health Organization
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717587

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor that mainly arises from the medulla of the adrenal gland. Some PCCs become malignant and metastasize to other organs. For example, it typically involves skeletal system, liver, lung, and regional lymph nodes. However, only a few cases of PCC with brain metastasis have been reported worldwide. We report a case of metastatic brain tumor from PCC in South Korea in 2016. A 52-year-old man presented with headache, dizziness and motor aphasia. He had a medical history of PCC with multi-organ metastasis, previously underwent several operations, and was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Brain MRIs showed a brain tumor on the left parietal lobe. Postoperative pathology confirmed that the metastatic brain tumor derived from malignant PCC. This is the first report PCC with brain metastasis in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Aphasia, Broca , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Dizziness , Drug Therapy , Headache , Humans , Korea , Liver , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Parietal Lobe , Pathology , Pheochromocytoma , Radiotherapy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To explore anatomic substrate of specific wandering patterns in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) by performing positron emission tomography with 18F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). METHODS: Drug-naïve AD patients with wandering (n=80) and without wandering (n=262) were recruited. First, the specific pattern of wandering type was operationally classified according to specific wandering score and clinical assessment. Second, brain FDG PET was performed and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake differences of specific brain regions according to wandering patterns were compared to those of non-wanderers. RESULTS: In patients with pacing pattern, FDG PET showed significant lower FDG uptake in both middle cingulum and left putamen cluster compared to non-wanderers. The right precuneus and supplementary motor area in patients with random pattern and left calcarine sulcus, right calcarine sulcus, right middle cingulum, and right post central gyrus in patients with lapping pattern had significantly lower FDG uptake compared to non-wanderers. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that wandering in patients with AD had three distinct patterns. These specific patterns showed significant lower FDG uptake in specific brain areas compared to non-wanderers.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Brain , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Motor Cortex , Occipital Lobe , Parietal Lobe , Positron-Emission Tomography , Putamen , Somatosensory Cortex
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes of multiple sub-frequency bands in cirrhotic patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy using resting-state functional MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study recruited 46 cirrhotic patients without clinical hepatic encephalopathy (noHE), 38 cirrhotic patients with clinical hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and 37 healthy volunteers. ReHo differences were analyzed in slow-5 (0.010−0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027−0.073 Hz), and slow-3 (0.073−0.198 Hz) bands. Routine analysis of (0.010−0.080 Hz) band was used as a benchmark. Associations of abnormal ReHo values in each frequency band with neuropsychological scores and blood ammonia level were analyzed. Pattern classification analyses were conducted to determine whether ReHo differences in each band could differentiate the three groups of subjects (patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy and healthy controls). RESULTS: Compared to routine analysis, more differences between HE and noHE were observed in slow-5 and slow-4 bands (p 12, overall corrected p < 0.05). Sub-frequency band analysis also showed that ReHo abnormalities were frequency-dependent (overall corrected p < 0.05). In addition, ReHo abnormalities in each sub-band were correlated with blood ammonia level and neuropsychological scores, especially in the left inferior parietal lobe (overall corrected p < 0.05 for all frequency bands). Pattern classification analysis demonstrated that ReHo differences in lower slow-5 and slow-4 bands (both p < 0.05) and higher slow-3 band could differentiate the three groups (p < 0.05). Compared to routine analysis, ReHo features in slow-4 band obtained better classification accuracy (89%). CONCLUSION: Cirrhotic patients showed frequency-dependent changes in ReHo. Sub-frequency band analysis is important for understanding HE and clinical monitoring.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Benchmarking , Brain , Classification , Healthy Volunteers , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Parietal Lobe
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786970

ABSTRACT

Obesity, an increasingly common problem in modern societies, results from energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. This imbalance of energy can be triggered by the internal state of the caloric equation (homeostasis) and non-homeostatic factors, such as social, cultural, psychological, environmental factors or food itself. Nowadays, positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been examined to understand the cerebral control of food intake in humans. Using ¹⁵O–H₂ PET, changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to neuronal activity were reported in states of fasting, satiation after feeding, and sensory stimulation. In addition, rCBF in obese subjects showed a greater increase in insula, the primary gustatory cortex. ¹⁸F–fluorodeoxyglucose PET showed higher metabolic activity in postcentral gyrus of the parietal cortex and lower in prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in obese subjects. In addition, dopamine receptor (DR) PET demonstrated lower DR availability in obese subjects, which might lead to overeating to compensate. Brain PET has been utilized to reveal the connectivity between obesity and brain. This could improve understanding of obesity and help develop a new treatment for obesity.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Eating , Electrons , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Fasting , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Hyperphagia , Neurons , Obesity , Parietal Lobe , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prefrontal Cortex , Radiopharmaceuticals , Receptors, Dopamine , Satiation , Somatosensory Cortex
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