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3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic variants in a child with tyrosine hydroxylase-deficient infantile Parkinsonism with motor delay.@*METHODS@#Clinical feature of the patient was summarized. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples taken from the child and her family members. All exons of GCH1, TH and SPR genes were subjected to targeted capture and next-generation sequencing. Suspected variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The child could not sit alone at 7 month and 11 days. Physical examination suggested motor retardation and hypotonia, limb stiffness, head nodding, slight torticollis, and language and intellectual developmental delays. She developed involuntary shaking of limbs at 3 month old, which lasted approximately 10 seconds and aggregated with excitement and before sleeping. Cranial MRI revealed widening of subarachnoid space on the temporomandibular and particularly temporal sides. Genetic testing revealed that she has carried a nonsense c.457C>T (p.R153X) variant, which was known to be pathogenic, and a novel missense c.720C>G (p.I240M) variant of the TH gene. The two variants were derived from her father and mother, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The child was diagnosed as tyrosine hydroxylase-deficient infantile Parkinsonism with motor delay due to compound heterozygous variants of the TH gene. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of TH gene variants.


Subject(s)
Brain , Diagnostic Imaging , Codon, Nonsense , Dystonic Disorders , Genetics , Female , Genetic Testing , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Infant , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mutation , Parkinsonian Disorders , Genetics , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Genetics
4.
Clinics ; 75: e1505, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) and the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) are distinct neurodegenerative disorders that share similar clinical features of parkinsonism. The morphological alterations of these diseases have yet to be understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gray matter atrophy in PD and MSA-P using regions of interest (ROI)-based measurements and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). METHODS: We studied 41 patients with PD, 20 patients with MSA-P, and 39 controls matched for age, sex, and handedness using an improved T1-weighted sequence that eased gray matter segmentation. The gray matter volumes were measured using ROI and VBM. RESULTS: ROI volumetric measurements showed significantly reduced bilateral putamen volumes in MSA-P patients compared with those in PD patients and controls (p<0.05), and the volumes of the bilateral caudate nucleus were significantly reduced in both MSA-P and PD patients compared with those in the controls (p<0.05). VBM analysis revealed multifocal cortical and subcortical atrophy in both MSA-P and PD patients, and the volumes of the cerebellum and temporal lobes were remarkably reduced in MSA-P patients compared with the volumes in PD patients (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both PD and MSA-P are associated with gray matter atrophy, which mainly involves the bilateral putamen, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, and temporal lobes. ROI and VBM can be used to identify these morphological alterations, and VBM is more sensitive and repeatable and less time-consuming, which may have potential diagnostic value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parkinson Disease/classification , Parkinson Disease/diagnostic imaging , Atrophy/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Multiple System Atrophy/pathology , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , ROC Curve , Parkinsonian Disorders/pathology , Gray Matter/pathology
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(6): 791-795, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012980

ABSTRACT

Summary Parkinsonism is characterized by bradykinesia with rigidity and/or resting tremor, in addition to non-motor symptoms, which include dermatological manifestations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the main dermatoses in patients with parkinsonism found at the Philanthropic Association of Curitiba - PR. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out with the application of a questionnaire and dermatological evaluation of the patients. The sample consisted of 386 patients and was composed mainly by men (55.4%), between 60-74 years old (51.6%), with complete primary education (45.3%), disease diagnosis time between 5-10 years (35%) and in use of medication (96.6%). The most prevalent dermatoses were pigmented nevus (36.3%), warts (25.1%), actinic keratosis (22%), seborrheic keratosis (21.5%), seborrheic dermatitis (20.5%), and rosacea (19.2%). Among the 13 cases (3.4%) of malignant cutaneous neoplasms confirmed by biopsy, 2 were melanomas. Regarding patients' sex, there was a higher prevalence of inflammatory dermatoses (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.08-2.51, p = 0.025) and benign cutaneous neoplasms (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.16-2.69, p = 0.01) in men. As to age, patients aged between 60-74 years had more pre-malignant skin lesions (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.05-6.44, p <0.001) and seborrheic keratosis (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.02-6.25, p = 0.001) and, in those older than 75 years, actinic keratosis was more frequent (OR 5.43, 95% CI 2.17-13.6, p <0.001). The results of the study show that it is fundamental to dermatologically evaluate and monitor these patients, aiming at diagnosis and early treatment of lesions, especially of skin cancer.


RESUMO Parkinsonismo é caracterizado por bradicinesia e/ou tremor de repouso, além de sintomas não motores, entre os quais se destacam as manifestações dermatológicas. O objetivo desse trabalho é conhecer as principais dermatoses em pacientes portadores de parkinsonismo atendidos em uma associação filantrópica de Curitiba/PR. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo transversal com aplicação de questionário e avaliação dermatológica dos pacientes. A amostra estudada consistiu de 386 pacientes e foi composta principalmente por homens brancos (55,4%), entre 60-74 anos (51,6%), ensino fundamental completo (45,3%), tempo de diagnóstico da doença entre 5-10 anos (35%) e em uso de medicação (96,6%). As dermatoses mais encontradas na inspeção dermatológica foram manchas pigmentadas (36,3%), verrugas (25,1%), ceratose actínica (22%), ceratose seborreica (21,5%), dermatite seborreica (20,5%) e rosácea (19,2%). Entre os 11 casos (2,8%) de neoplasias cutâneas malignas confirmados por biópsia, dois eram melanomas. Em relação ao sexo, houve prevalência em homens de dermatoses inflamatórias (OR 1,64, IC 95% 1,08-2,51; p=0,025) e neoplasias cutâneas benignas (OR 1,77, IC 95% 1,16-2,69; p=0,01). Quanto à idade, pacientes entre 60-74 anos apresentaram mais lesões cutâneas pré-malignas (OR 2,60, IC 95% 1,05-6,44; p<0,001) e a ceratose seborreica (OR 2,52, IC 95% 1,02-6,25; p=0,001); naqueles acima de 75 anos foi mais frequente a ceratose actínica (OR 5,43, IC 95% 2,17-13,6; p<0,001). Os resultados encontrados no estudo evidenciam que são fundamentais a avaliação e o monitoramento dermatológico desses pacientes, visando diagnóstico e tratamento precoce das lesões, em especial do câncer de pele.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Parkinsonian Disorders/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Follow-Up Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Parkinsonian Disorders/diagnosis , Middle Aged
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766766

ABSTRACT

Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis is one of the paraneoplastic limbic and brainstem encephalitis characterized by decreased consciousness, parkinsonism and the limitation of vertical eye movement. It is usually associated with non-small cell lung cancer in male and female or germ cell tumor in male. Herein, we report a case of atypical anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis which presented with axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Axons , Brain Stem , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Consciousness , Encephalitis , Eye Movements , Female , Humans , Limbic Encephalitis , Male , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Paraneoplastic Syndromes , Parkinsonian Disorders , Polyneuropathies
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. However, the history of PD and famous persons with PD have not been described in detail yet. METHODS: We summarized the history of PD before the first description of James Parkinson's. The four famous patients who were suspected or diagnosed with PD were reviewed through peer-reviewed journals as well as biographies, books, and media. RESULTS: Before the definition of PD was established, there were descriptions of various Parkinsonian symptoms in several literatures. The diagnoses of Adolf Hitler and Na Hyeseok are not certain and we only suspect that they had parkinsonism. The diagnoses of PD of the Pope John Paul II and Muhammad Ali are certain as they had medical records as well as video records that shows progressive deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: Even before James Parkinson, PD have been recognized and described focusing on the bradykinesia and tremor. We should keep in mind that detailed examination as well as transcriptions are important, and that long-term follow-up is needed to document or differentiate PD and its mimics.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Famous Persons , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypokinesia , Medical Records , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Tremor
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764122

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the urodynamic findings in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with overactive bladder symptoms. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all PD patients who were seen in an outpatient clinic for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) between 2010 and 2017 in a single-institution. Only patients who complained of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and underwent a video-urodynamic study for these symptoms were included. We excluded patients with neurological disorders other than PD and patients with voiding LUTS but without OAB symptoms. RESULTS: We included 42 patients (29 men, 13 women, 74.5±8.1 years old). Seven patients (16.7%) had a postvoid residual (PVR) bladder volume >100 mL and only one reported incomplete bladder emptying. Detrusor overactivity (DO) was found in all 42 patients (100%) and was terminal in 19 (45.2%) and phasic in 22 patients (52.4%). Eighteen patients had detrusor underactivity (DU) (42.3%). Later age of PD diagnosis was the only parameter associated with DU (P=0.02). Patients with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) were younger than patients without BOO (70.1 years vs. 76.5 years, P=0.004), had later first sensation of bladder filling (173.5 mL vs. 120.3 mL, P=0.02) and first involuntary detrusor contraction (226.4 mL vs. 130.4 mL, P=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: DO is almost universal in all patients with PD complaining of OAB symptoms (97.1%). However, a significant percentage of patients also had BOO (36.8%), DU (47%), and increased PVR (16.7%) indicating that neurogenic DO may not be the only cause of OAB symptoms in PD patients.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Male , Nervous System Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Retrospective Studies , Sensation , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urinary Incontinence , Urodynamics
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763085

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to compare and quantify the spatiotemporal and gait parameters obtained by foot pressure analysis during the gait in a group of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared with other Parkinsonism diseases, especially multiple system atrophy (MSA). Thirty-seven out of ninety-three patients who visited the center of neurology or rehabilitation with features of Parkinsonism were recruited. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were collected using gait analysis system. The results did not differ in terms of the stride length, step width, double stance phase, stride time, cadence, velocity, gait line and single support line differences, anterior-posterior position of center of pressure, and maximal gait line velocity; the lateral symmetry showed a significant difference between the PD and the MSA groups (p < 0.05). The study evaluated the differences in terms of spatiotemporal parameters between the PD and MSA along with other Parkinsonism diseases; it showed that the PD patients had a gait tendency to deviate laterally compared to the MSA patients. The result suggests conducting the gait foot pressure analysis might help distinguish PD from other Parkinsonism diseases in early stage, aiding the early decision for the treatment plans.


Subject(s)
Foot , Gait , Humans , Multiple System Atrophy , Neurology , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Rehabilitation
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 760-767, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762109

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Discontinuation of offending drugs can prevent drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) before it occurs and reverse or cure it afterwards. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DIP and the utilization of offending drugs through an analysis of representative nationwide claims data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected DIP patients of ages ranging from 40 to 100 years old with the G21.1 code from the Korean National Service Health Insurance Claims database from 2009 to 2015. The annual standardized prevalence of DIP was explored from 2009 to 2015. Trends were estimated using the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) and the Cochran-Armitage test for DIP over the course of 6 years. Additionally, the utilization of offending drugs was analyzed. RESULTS: The annual prevalence of DIP was 4.09 per 100000 people in 2009 and 7.02 in 2015 (CAGR: 9.42%, p<0.001). Levosulpiride use before and after DIP diagnosis showed a clear trend for decreasing utilization (CAGR: −5.4%, −4.3% respectively), whereas the CAGR for itopride and metoclopramide increased by 12.7% and 6.4%, respectively. In 2015, approximately 46.6% (858/1840 persons) of DIP patients were prescribed offending drugs after DIP diagnosis. The most commonly prescribed causative drug after DIP diagnosis was levosulpiride. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DIP has increased. To prevent or decrease DIP, we suggest that physicians reduce prescriptions of benzamide derivatives that have been most commonly used, and that attempts be made to find other alternative drugs. Additionally, the need for continuing education about offending drugs should be emphasized.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Education, Continuing , Humans , Insurance, Health , Korea , Metoclopramide , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Prescriptions , Prevalence
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 315-324, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775449

ABSTRACT

The thalamostriatal pathway is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, PD-related changes in the relationship between oscillatory activity in the centromedian-parafascicular complex (CM/Pf, or the Pf in rodents) and the dorsal striatum (DS) remain unclear. Therefore, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in both the Pf and DS of hemiparkinsonian and control rats during epochs of rest or treadmill walking. The dopamine-lesioned rats showed increased LFP power in the beta band (12 Hz-35 Hz) in the Pf and DS during both epochs, but decreased LFP power in the delta (0.5 Hz-3 Hz) band in the Pf during rest epochs and in the DS during both epochs, compared to control rats. In addition, exaggerated low gamma (35 Hz-70 Hz) oscillations after dopamine loss were restricted to the Pf regardless of the behavioral state. Furthermore, enhanced synchronization of LFP oscillations was found between the Pf and DS after the dopamine lesion. Significant increases occurred in the mean coherence in both theta (3 Hz-7 Hz) and beta bands, and a significant increase was also noted in the phase coherence in the beta band between the Pf and DS during rest epochs. During the treadmill walking epochs, significant increases were found in both the alpha (7 Hz-12 Hz) and beta bands for two coherence measures. Collectively, dramatic changes in the relative LFP power and coherence in the thalamostriatal pathway may underlie the dysfunction of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network circuits in PD, contributing to some of the motor and non-motor symptoms of the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Waves , Physiology , Corpus Striatum , Cortical Synchronization , Physiology , Dopaminergic Neurons , Physiology , Electrocorticography , Male , Neural Pathways , Oxidopamine , Parkinsonian Disorders , Rats, Wistar , Thalamic Nuclei , Walking , Physiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765865

ABSTRACT

Oro-pharyngeal dysphagia is a common symptom in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders, even in their early stage of diseases. Dysphagia in these patients has been underdiagnosed, probably due to poor the self-awareness of the conditions and the underuse of validated tools and objective instruments for assessment. The early detection and intervention of dysphagia are closely related to improving the quality of life and decreasing the mortality rate in these patients. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the characteristics of dysphagia, including the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical symptomatology, in patients with PD compared with other parkinsonian disorders and movement disorders. The management of dysphagia and future research directions related to these disorders are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Dystonia , Epidemiology , Humans , Mortality , Movement Disorders , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Quality of Life
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765863

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The provisional diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) depends on a combination of typical clinical features and specific MRI findings, such as atrophy of the tegmentum in the midbrain. Atrophy of the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) distinguishes PSP from other types of parkinsonism. Histological factors affect the conventional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signals, such as the extent of neuronal loss and gliosis. METHODS: We investigated patients with PSP to verify the percentage of patients with various PSP phenotypes presenting a high signal intensity in the SCP. Three interviewers, who were not informed about the clinical data, visually inspected the presence or absence of a high signal intensity in the SCP on the FLAIR images. We measured the pixel value in the SCP of each patient. Clinical characteristics were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney test, followed by the χ² test. RESULTS: Ten of the 51 patients with PSP showed a high signal intensity in the SCP on FLAIR MRI. Higher pixel values were observed within the SCP of patients with a high signal intensity in the SCP than in patients without a high signal intensity (p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the high signal intensity in the SCP of patients with PSP was 19.6% and 100%, respectively. This finding was more frequently observed in patients with PSP with Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS) (25.7%) than other phenotypes (6.2%). CONCLUSION: The high signal intensity in the SCP on FLAIR MRI might be an effective diagnostic tool for PSP-RS.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Diagnosis , Gliosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mesencephalon , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Parkinsonian Disorders , Phenotype , Sensitivity and Specificity , Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765861

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are rapidly progressive forms of degenerative Parkinsonism. The difficulties of diagnosing MSA and PSP in their early stages may lead to delayed referral to appropriate specialists and distress to patients, as well as delaying symptomatic treatment and participation in clinical trials. This work aimed to describe the symptoms that patients with MSA and PSP developed and plot their emergence relative to final diagnosis using a median onset in months. METHODS: Forty-seven patients from the United Kingdom with MSA or PSP diagnosed by a movement disorder specialist were interviewed with carers or relatives to establish milestone onset. This was corroborated using clinical notes and letters. RESULTS: In the MSA cohort (n = 23), autonomic symptoms (median 5.5 months before diagnosis) and falls (median 1 month before diagnosis) were the two clinical milestones which occurred before diagnosis. In the PSP cohort (n = 24), falling was the only milestone which occurred before diagnosis (median of 18.5 months). CONCLUSION: This study shows that PSP patients experience falling more than a year and a half an average before receiving a diagnosis and although MSA patients also tended to fall, this was much closer to the time of diagnosis. Further work with larger cohorts may illustrate whether these preliminary findings can be generalised to guide diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Advance Care Planning , Caregivers , Cohort Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , United Kingdom , Humans , Movement Disorders , Multiple System Atrophy , Parkinsonian Disorders , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Specialization , Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765843

ABSTRACT

Abnormal eye movements are commonly observed in movement disorders. Ocular motility examination should include bedside evaluation and laboratory recording of ocular misalignment, involuntary eye movements, including nystagmus and saccadic intrusions/oscillations, triggered nystagmus, saccades, smooth pursuit (SP), and the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) mostly show hypometric saccades, especially for the self-paced saccades, and impaired SP. Early vertical saccadic palsy is characteristic of progressive supranuclear palsy-Richardson's syndrome. Patients with cortico-basal syndrome typically show a delayed onset of saccades. Downbeat and gaze-evoked nystagmus and hypermetric saccades are characteristic ocular motor findings in ataxic disorders due to cerebellar dysfunction. In this review, we discuss various ocular motor findings in movement disorders, including PD and related disorders, ataxic syndromes, and hyperkinetic movement disorders. Systemic evaluation of the ocular motor functions may provide valuable information for early detection and monitoring of movement disorders, despite an overlap in the abnormal eye movements among different movement disorders.


Subject(s)
Ataxia , Cerebellar Diseases , Eye Movements , Humans , Hyperkinesis , Movement Disorders , Paralysis , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Pursuit, Smooth , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Saccades
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765842

ABSTRACT

Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a neurological symptom of inappropriate and uncontrollable laughter or crying that occurs secondary to a variety of neurological conditions, including parkinsonian disorders. PBA is a socially and emotionally debilitating symptom that has been estimated to affect 3.6% to 42.5% of the population with Parkinson’s disease. While indexing measures and treatment options for PBA have been extensively studied in neurological conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, there has been considerably less attention given in the literature to PBA in parkinsonian disorders. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of PBA, its prevalence and impact on quality of life in parkinsonian disorders, and the treatment options currently available. Areas requiring further study, including the development of standardized, cross-culturally validated methods of symptom assessment, and evidence-based studies exploring the efficacy of current treatment options in parkinsonian disorders, are also highlighted.


Subject(s)
Abstracting and Indexing , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Crying , Laughter , Multiple Sclerosis , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Symptom Assessment
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the specificity of the ‘hot cross bun’ sign (HCBS) for multiple system atrophy (MSA) in adult cerebellar ataxia or parkinsonism. METHODS: The radiologic information systems at an academic center and affiliated veterans' hospital were queried using the keywords ‘hot cross bun,’ ‘pontocerebellar,’ ‘cruciate,’ ‘cruciform,’ ‘MSA,’ ‘multiple system atrophy,’ and ‘multisystem atrophy.’ Scans were reviewed by a neurologist and neuroradiologist to identify the HCBS. Subjects with the HCBS were reviewed by 2 neurologists to identify the most likely etiology of the patient's neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: Eleven cases were identified. Etiologies included MSA (4 probable, 2 possible), hereditary cerebellar ataxia (3/11), probable dementia with Lewy bodies (1/11), and uncertain despite autopsy (1/11). CONCLUSION: MSA was the most common etiology. However, 5 of the 11 patients did not have MSA. The most common alternate etiology was an undefined hereditary cerebellar ataxia (3/11).


Subject(s)
Adult , Autopsy , Cerebellar Ataxia , Dementia , Hexachlorobenzene , Humans , Lewy Bodies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple System Atrophy , Neurologic Manifestations , Olivopontocerebellar Atrophies , Parkinsonian Disorders , Radiology Information Systems , Sensitivity and Specificity
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