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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256354, 2024.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364518

ABSTRACT

Termites are known as social insects worldwide. Presently in China 473 species, 44 genera and 4 families of termites have been reported. Of them, 111 Reticulitermes species are widely spread in different zones of China. The dispersion flight season of these Chinese Reticulitermes species are usually started from February to June, but in some regions different species are distributed, sharing their boundaries and having overlapping flight seasons. These reasons become important sources of hybridization between two different heterospecific populations of termites. It was confirmed that the fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs of some Reticulitermes termites have the capacity of cleavage. While the unfertilized eggs of R. aculabialis, R. chinensis and R. labralis cleaved normally and the only R. aculabialis unfertilized eggs develop in embryos. While, the R. flaviceps and R. chinensis were observed with their abnormal embryonic development, and not hatching of eggs parthenogenetically. They were reported more threatening to Chinese resources as they propagate with parthenogenesis, hybridization and sexual reproduction. Eggshell and macrophiles of eggs play important roles in species identification and control. Although, they are severe pests and cause a wide range of damages to wooden structures and products in homes, buildings, building materials, trees, crops, and forests in China's Mainland.


Os cupins são conhecidos como insetos sociais em todo o mundo. Atualmente na China foram relatadas 473 espécies, 44 gêneros e 4 famílias de cupins. Destas, 111 espécies de Reticulitermes estão amplamente distribuídas em diferentes zonas da China. A temporada de voo de dispersão dessas espécies chinesas de Reticulitermes geralmente começa de fevereiro a junho, mas em algumas regiões diferentes espécies são distribuídas, compartilhando seus limites e tendo temporadas de voo sobrepostas. Essas razões tornam-se importantes fontes de hibridização entre duas populações heteroespecíficas de cupins. Foi confirmado que os ovos fertilizados e não fertilizados de alguns cupins Reticulitermes possuem capacidade de clivagem. Já os ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis, R. chinensis e R. labralis clivaram normalmente, e os únicos ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis se desenvolvem em embriões. R. flaviceps e R. chinensis foram observados com desenvolvimento embrionário anormal, e não eclosão de ovos por partenogênese. Eles foram relatados como mais ameaçadores para os recursos chineses à medida que se propagam com partenogênese, hibridização e reprodução sexual. Casca de ovo e macrófilos de ovos desempenham papéis importantes na identificação e controle de espécies, embora sejam pragas graves e causem uma ampla gama de danos a estruturas e produtos de madeira em residências, edifícios, materiais de construção, árvores, plantações e florestas na China continental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parthenogenesis , Reproduction , Isoptera/growth & development , China , Hybridization, Genetic
2.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20220016, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1386127

ABSTRACT

A synopsis on the historical, geographical and ecological aspects related to the most conspicuous scorpion species of the genus Tityus known from Brazil is proposed. Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 was described precisely one century ago, nevertheless many questions related to its ecological adaptations and geographical expansion remain without a precise response. This species, well known for its infamous reputation of noxious species, is also known for its capacity to reproduce asexually, by parthenogenesis. Although the individuals of a given population are considered clones, a new hypothesis could suggest the occurrence of mutations within isolated individuals, leading to distinct subpopulations that could present better phenotypic performances in ecological habitats distinct from those of the original area of distribution of the species.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parthenogenesis/physiology , Scorpions/classification , Scorpions/genetics , Ecosystem , Animal Distribution , Biological Variation, Population
3.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 947-964, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922496

ABSTRACT

Parthenogenetic embryos, created by activation and diploidization of oocytes, arrest at mid-gestation for defective paternal imprints, which impair placental development. Also, viable offspring has not been obtained without genetic manipulation from parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) derived from parthenogenetic embryos, presumably attributable to their aberrant imprinting. We show that an unlimited number of oocytes can be derived from pESCs and produce healthy offspring. Moreover, normal expression of imprinted genes is found in the germ cells and the mice. pESCs exhibited imprinting consistent with exclusively maternal lineage, and higher X-chromosome activation compared to female ESCs derived from the same mouse genetic background. pESCs differentiated into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) and formed oocytes following in vivo transplantation into kidney capsule that produced fertile pups and reconstituted ovarian endocrine function. The transcriptome and methylation of imprinted and X-linked genes in pESC-PGCLCs closely resembled those of in vivo produced PGCs, consistent with efficient reprogramming of methylation and genomic imprinting. These results demonstrate that amplification of germ cells through parthenogenesis faithfully maintains maternal imprinting, offering a promising route for deriving functional oocytes and having potential in rebuilding ovarian endocrine function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Oocytes/metabolism , Parthenogenesis
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 443-451, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128368

ABSTRACT

O objetivo foi avaliar protocolos de maturação in vitro (MIV) para oócitos de cutias, seguida de fertilização in vitro (FIV) e ativação partenogenética (AP). Os oócitos imaturos (CCOs) foram obtidos por fatiamento do ovário, após OSH, e submetidos a três grupos: MAT - 16 (16 horas de maturação), MAT - 20 (20 horas de maturação) e MAT - 24 (24 horas de maturação), em incubadora de cultivo a 38,8°C, com atmosfera de 5% de CO2 e 95% de umidade relativa. A maturação foi analisada pela presença do primeiro corpúsculo polar. Em seguida, os CCOs maduros foram submetidos à FIV, com período de coincubação dos CCOs e dos espermatozoides de 15h, a 38,8ºC e 5% de CO2, e AP com ionomicina. Os grupos de MIV foram analisados utilizando-se o teste qui-quadrado e, nos experimentos de FIV e AP, foram analisadas a taxa de clivagem e a proporção de desenvolvimento embrionário. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o programa SAS. Houve diferença significativa entre os grupos de maturação, tendo os grupos MAT - 20 e MAT - 24 apresentado maior porcentagem de oócitos maturados in vitro. As taxas de clivagem e de desenvolvimento embrionário foram de 8,6% e 2,9%, respectivamente, na FIV, e de 63,6% e 15,1%, na AP. Entretanto, nos dois casos, o embrião não passou do estágio de mórula.(AU)


The objective was to evaluate IVM protocols for agouti oocytes, followed by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA). The immature oocytes (CCOs) were obtained by slicing the ovary after OSH and submitted to three groups: MAT - 16 (16 hours maturation), MAT - 20 (20 hours maturation) and MAT - (24 hours maturation), in a culture incubator at 38.8°C, with an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% relative humidity. The maturation was analyzed by the presence of the first polar corpuscle. Then, mature CCOs were submitted to IVF, with co-incubation period of CCOs and spermatozoa from 15h to 38.8°C and 5% of CO2, and PA with inomycin. The IVM groups were analyzed using the chi-square test and in the FIV and PA experiment the rate of cleavage and the rate of embryonic development were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS program. There was a significant difference between the maturation groups, and the MAT - 20 and MAT - 24 groups showed a higher percentage of matured oocytes in vitro. The rates of cleavage and embryonic development were 8.6% and 2.9%, respectively in FIV and 63.6% and 15.1% in PA. However, in both cases the embryo did not pass beyond the morula stage.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oocytes , Fertilization in Vitro/veterinary , In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques/veterinary , Dasyproctidae , Parthenogenesis , Ionomycin
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 910-918, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771835

ABSTRACT

Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) derived from bi-maternal genomes do not have competency of tetraploid complementation, due to lacking of paternal imprinting genes. To make pESCs possess fully development potentials and similar pluripotency to zygote-derived ESCs, we knocked out one allelic gene of the two essential maternal imprinting genes (H19 and IG) in their differentially methylated regions (DMR) via CRISPR/Cas9 system and obtained double knock out (DKO) pESCs. Maternal pESCs had similar morphology, expression levels of pluripotent makers and in vitro neural differentiation potentials to zygotes-derived ESCs. Besides that, DKO pESCs could contribute to full-term fetuses through tetraploid complementation, proving that they held fully development potentials. Derivation of DKO pESCs provided a type of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matched pluripotent stem cells, which would benefit research in regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Embryonic Stem Cells , Gene Knockout Techniques , Genomic Imprinting , Mice , Parthenogenesis , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Regenerative Medicine , Tetraploidy
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760351

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to examine the effects of various macromolecules in in vitro growth (IVG) media on the growth, maturation, and parthenogenesis (PA) of pig oocytes derived from small antral follicles (SAF). Immature oocytes were cultured for two days in IVG medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% (v/v) pig follicular fluid (PFF), 0.4% (w/v) bovine serum albumin (BSA), or 0.1% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and then maintained for 44 h for maturation. After IVG, the mean diameters of the SAF treated with FBS, PVA, and no IVG-MAF (113.0–114.8 µm) were significantly larger than that of no IVG-SAF (111.8 µm). The proportion of metaphase II oocytes was higher in PFF (73.6%) than in BSA (43.5%) and PVA (53.7%) but similar to that in the FBS treatment (61.5%). FBS and PFF increased cumulus expansion significantly compared to PVA and BSA while the intraoocyte glutathione content was not influenced by the macromolecules. Blastocyst formation of PA oocytes treated with FBS (51.8%), PFF (50.4%), and PVA (45.2%) was significantly higher than that of the BSA-treated oocytes (20.6%). These results show that the PFF and FBS treatments during IVG improved the growth, maturation, and embryonic development of SAF.


Subject(s)
Blastocyst , Embryonic Development , Female , Follicular Fluid , Glutathione , In Vitro Techniques , Metaphase , Oocytes , Parthenogenesis , Polyvinyl Alcohol , Pregnancy , Serum Albumin, Bovine
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54729

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the effects of biophoton treatment during in vitro maturation (IVM) and/or in vitro culture (IVC) on oocyte maturation and embryonic development in pigs. An apparatus capable of generating homogeneous biophoton energy emissions was placed in an incubator. Initially, immature pig oocytes were matured in the biophoton-equipped incubator in medium 199 supplemented with cysteine, epidermal growth factor, insulin, and gonadotrophic hormones for 22 h, after which they were matured in hormone-free medium for an additional 22 hr. Next, IVM oocytes were induced for parthenogenesis (PA) or provided as cytoplasts for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Treatment of oocytes with biophoton energy during IVM did not improve cumulus cell expansion, nuclear maturation, intraoocyte glutathione content, or mitochondrial distribution of oocytes. However, biophoton-treated oocytes showed higher (p < 0.05) blastocyst formation after PA than that in untreated oocytes (50.7% vs. 42.7%). In an additional experiment, SCNT embryos produced from biophoton-treated oocytes showed a greater (p < 0.05) number of cells in blastocysts (52.6 vs. 43.9) than that in untreated oocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that biophoton treatment during IVM improves developmental competence of PA- and SCNT-derived embryos.


Subject(s)
Blastocyst , Cumulus Cells , Cysteine , Embryonic Development , Embryonic Structures , Epidermal Growth Factor , Female , Glutathione , Gonadotrophs , In Vitro Techniques , Incubators , Insulin , Mental Competency , Oocytes , Parthenogenesis , Pregnancy , Swine
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(6): 1483-1491, nov.-dez. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768158

ABSTRACT

In cattle, embryo development is characterized by the appearance of two distinct cell layers, the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass. The latter will undergo differentiation to form the embryonic disc consisting of the epiblast and hypoblast. The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally characterize the bovine embryo from different in vitro production techniques, with emphasis on trophectoderm and inner cell mass cells. Bovine embryos on day 7 (conception = D1) of pregnancy, derived via in vitro production techniques, were fixed for light and transmission electron microscopy processing. Results suggested that embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cells and parthenogenesis showed significant changes in macroscopic and microscopic structure. Size was reduced, and the inner cell mass had no defined shape. Furthermore, organelles responsible for the absorption processes, communication, growth, and cellular metabolism were fewer and had changes in shape, when compared to results in embryos produced by in vitrofertilization. We concluded that embryos produced by parthenogenesis and SCNT exhibit morphological differences when compared with IVF embryos, such as undeveloped blastocoel, poorly defined distribution of ICM, and morphological differences in organelles.


Em bovinos, o desenvolvimento embrionário é caracterizado pelo surgimento de duas camadas distintas, o trofectoderma e a massa celular interna. Este último irá sofrer diferenciação para formar o disco embrionário, o qual consiste em epiblasto e hipoblasto. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar ultraestruturalmente o embrião bovino proveniente de diferentes técnicas de produção in vitro, com ênfase no trofectoderma e na massa celular interna. Embriões bovinos com sete dias de gestação (fecundação = D1), derivados de técnicas de produção in vitro, foram fixados para processamento de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de transmissão. Os resultados sugerem que os embriões produzidos por transferência nuclear de células somáticas e partenogênese apresentaram alterações significativas em suas estruturas macro e microscópica. O tamanho foi reduzido, e a massa celular interna não tinha uma forma definida. Além disso, organelas responsáveis por processos de absorção, comunicação, crescimento e metabolismo celular estavam em menor número e tinham alterações na forma quando comparadas aos resultados em embriões produzidos por fertilização in vitro. Conclui-se que os embriões produzidos por SCNT e partenogênese apresentam diferenças morfológicas quando comparados aos embriões de fertilização in vitro, tais como blastocele pouco desenvolvida, massa celular interna pouco definida e diferenças morfológicas nas organelas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Blastocyst/physiology , Embryonic Development , Embryo, Mammalian/ultrastructure , Cloning, Organism/veterinary , Embryo, Mammalian/anatomy & histology , Parthenogenesis , In Vitro Techniques/veterinary
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 974-982, Nov. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768195

ABSTRACT

Abstract ITS2 (Internal transcribed spacer 2) sequences have been used in systematic studies and proved to be useful in providing a reliable identification of Trichogramma species. DNAr sequences ranged in size from 379 to 632 bp. In eleven T. pretiosum lines Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis was found for the first time. These thelytokous lines were collected in Peru (9), Colombia (1) and USA (1). A dichotomous key for species identification was built based on the size of the ITS2 PCR product and restriction analysis using three endonucleases (EcoRI, MseI and MaeI). This molecular technique was successfully used to distinguish among seventeen native/introduced Trichogramma species collected in South America.


Resumo Sequências do Espaço Transcrito Interno 2 (ITS2) têm sido utilizadas em estudos taxonômicos e sua utilidade constatada pela confiabilidade que o método confere à identificação das espécies de Trichogramma. Esta técnica molecular foi bem sucedida em distinguir dezessete espécies nativas e introduzidas de Trichogramma, coletadas na América do Sul. As sequências do DNAr variaram de 379 a 632 pb. Em 11 linhagens de T. pretiosum estudadas, o endosinbionte Wolbachia foi detectado pela primeira vez. Estas linhagens telítocas foram encontradas no Peru (9), Colômbia (1) e Estados Unidos (1). Uma chave dicotômica para identificação de espécies foi construída baseada no tamanho do produto da PCR do ITS2 e em análises de restrição utilizando-se três endonucleases (EcoRI, MseI and MaeI).


Subject(s)
Animals , Wasps/classification , Wasps/physiology , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Parthenogenesis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , South America , Wasps/genetics , Wasps/microbiology , Wolbachia/physiology
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(3): 771-781, jul.-sep. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-778083

ABSTRACT

Home range is defined as the area within which an individual moves to acquire resources necessary to increase their fitness and may vary inter and intra-specifically with biotic and abiotic factors. This study details the home range of the parthenogenic lizard, Aspidoscelis cozumela,an active forager microendemic to Cozumel Island, México, with high preference for open sand beaches. The home range of A. cozumelawas compared with other species of Aspidoscelis(gonochoric and parthenogenetic) and other lizards that occupy coastal habitats. Furthermore, the biotic and abiotic factors that may influence home range were analyzed. This study was conducted in the beach located on the East side of the island (area of 4 000 m2) that is composed primarily of halophyte vegetation with high levels of sunlight. From 1999 to 2001, nine samples were taken which included the dry, rainy, "nortes", and breeding seasons. During each sampling, capture-mark-recapture techniques were conducted and the date, time of day, and snout-vent length (SVL) were recorded to the nearest millimeter. Individuals were located in the study area using a bi-coordinate reference using 10 x 10 m subdivisions of the habitat. Home range and home range overlap were calculated using the convex polygon method in McPaal and home range/SVL correlation was tested using Pearson's correlation. To calculate females home range, three or more recaptures were considered. A total of 20 home ranges that averaged 45.1 ± 14.0 m2 were obtained and no correlation between SVL and home range size was detected (p = 0.9229, n = 20). However, removing individuals with outlier home ranges (females with home ranges > 100 m2, n = 2) resulted in a positive correlation with SVL (r = 0.61, p = 0.0072, n = 18). A 22.9 ± 5.7% overlap in home range was also detected. The small home range of A. cozumelarepresents the smallest home range within the Aspidoscelisgenus recorded to date (including both parthenogenetic and gonochoric species) and contrasts the theoretical predictions of broad home ranges for widely foraging species. Thermoregulatory benefits and a high population density may explain the small home range of A. cozumela.Although this species is highly adapted to the environmental conditions present on the open sand beaches, anthropogenic effects on these habitats by the development of tourism infrastructure may jeopardize their existence on Cozumel Island.


El ámbito hogareño es el área dentro de la cual un individuo se mueve para adquirir recursos que incrementen su supervivencia. El ámbito hogareño puede variar, intra e interespecíficamente, por factores bióticos y abióticos. En este trabajo se estudió el ámbito hogareño de la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis cozumela,una especie de forrajeo amplio, con alta preferencia por las playas y microendémica de Isla Cozumel, México. El ámbito hogareño de A. cozumelase comparó con otras especies de Aspidoscelis(gonocóricas y partenogenéticas) y con otras lagartijas que ocupan hábitats costeros. Además, se discuten los factores bióticos y abióticos que lo moldean. La zona de estudio fue una playa (con un área de 4 000 m2), que se encuentra al Este de la isla y que presenta vegetación halófita (expuesta a altos niveles de insolación). De 1999 al 2001 se realizaron nueve censos que cubrieron la época de sequía, de lluvias y la época de "nortes" de la zona y la temporada de reproducción de A. cozumela.Durante cada censo, se realizó captura-marcaje-recaptura y se registró: fecha, hora del día, longitud hocico-cloaca (LHC) al milímetro más cercano. Los individuos fueron ubicados en el área de estudio por bi-coordenadas usando estacas como referencia. El ámbito hogareño se calculó con el método del polígono convexo con el programa McPaal, adicional-mente se calculó el solapamiento del ámbito hogareño. Se relacionó la LHC con el ámbito hogareño. Para el cálculo del ámbito hogareño se consideraron las hembras con tres o más recapturas. Se obtuvieron 20 ámbitos hogareños, que promediaron 45.1 ± 14.0 m2. No se encontró relación de la LHC con el ámbito hogareño (p = 0.9229, n = 20). Sin embargo, un análisis que excluyó los individuos con los ámbitos hogareños extremos, mostró que el ámbito hogareño de A. cozumelase relacionó de manera positiva con la LHC (p = 0.0072, n = 18), las hembras más grandes tuvieron ámbitos hogareños más amplios. El solapamiento del ámbito hogareño fue de 22.9 ± 5.7%. El ámbito hogareño de A. cozumelaes el más pequeño que se ha documentado en el género Aspidoscelis(incluyendo especies partenoge-néticas y gonocóricas) y se contrapone con las predicciones teóricas que establecen ámbitos hogareños amplios para especies de forrajeo amplio. Beneficios térmicos y una elevada densidad poblacional pueden explicar la marcada residencia en las playas y ámbito hogareño reducido de A. cozumela.La lagartija partenogenética A. cozumelaestá bien adaptada a las condiciones ambientales en las playas, sin embargo las afectaciones severas en las playas por el desarrollo de la infraestructura turística pueden poner en riesgo su existencia en Isla Cozumel.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Ecosystem , Homing Behavior/physiology , Lizards/physiology , Lizards/classification , Mexico , Parthenogenesis , Population Density , Seasons
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66447

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rapamycin treatment during in vitro maturation (IVM) on oocyte maturation and embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pigs. Morphologically good (MGCOCs) and poor oocytes (MPCOCs) were untreated or treated with 1 nM rapamycin during 0-22 h, 22-42 h, or 0-42 h of IVM. Rapamycin had no significant effects on nuclear maturation and blastocyst formation after PA of MGCOCs. Blastocyst formation after PA was significantly increased by rapamycin treatment during 22-42 h and 0-42 h (46.6% and 46.5%, respectively) relative to the control (33.3%) and 0-22 h groups (38.6%) in MPCOCs. In SCNT, blastocyst formation tended to increase in MPCOCs treated with rapamycin during 0-42 h of IVM relative to untreated oocytes (20.3% vs. 14.3%, 0.05 < p < 0.1), while no improvement was observed in MGCOCs. Gene expression analysis revealed that transcript abundance of Beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 mRNAs was significantly increased in MPCOCs by rapamycin relative to the control. Our results demonstrated that autophagy induction by rapamycin during IVM improved developmental competence of oocytes derived from MPCOCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Female , In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques/veterinary , Nuclear Transfer Techniques/veterinary , Oocytes/growth & development , Parthenogenesis , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Sus scrofa/growth & development
12.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2015; 16 (1): 20-24
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-171835

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization [IVF] of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes [COC's] were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG [20 IU/ml], hCG [20 IUmicro g/ml], oestradiol-17beta [1 micro g/ml], BSA embryo tested [3 mg/ml] supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5[degree]C and 5% CO[2] in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86%. Morphological matured oocytes [n=749] were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 [n=223] in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 micro m calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR[2]aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 [n=526] in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR[2]aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36%, 23.07% and 9.23%, and 30.99%, 19.63% and 9.82%, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF


Subject(s)
Animals , Parthenogenesis , Fertilization in Vitro , Oocytes , Goats
13.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2015; 16 (1): 42-46
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-171839

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of different activation treatments for activation of in vitro matured oocytes and their developmental potency in mCR[2]aa medium so as to obtain maximum number of embryos. A total of 1090 cumulus oocyte complexes [COC's] were collected from 480 ovaries. In vitro matured oocytes were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 in vitro matured oocytes [n=226] were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP for 4 h in mCR[2]aa medium. Group 2 in vitro matured oocytes [n=294] were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 10 micro g/ml CHX for 4 h in mCR[2]aa medium. Group 3 in vitro matured oocytes [n=325] were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP and 10 micro g/ml CHX for 4 h in mCR[2]aa medium. Group 4 in vitro matured oocytes [n=108] were cultured for 4 h without any chemical treatment in mCR[2]aa medium [control]. The cleavage rate in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 54.42%, 44.55%, 51.69% and 0.00%, respectively. The percentage of morula and blastocyst production in group 1, group 2 and group 3 was 26.01%, 29.77% and 29.76% and 2.43%, 1.52% and 1.78%, respectively. These results suggest that the activation of in vitro matured oocytes by 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP for 4 h in mCR[2]aa is most favorable for parthenogenetic caprine embryos production


Subject(s)
Animals , Oocytes , Goats , Ethanol , Parthenogenesis , Morula , Blastocyst
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Oct; 52(10): 925-934
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153779

ABSTRACT

Pluripotent stem cells are possibly the best candidates for regenerative medicine, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is one of the viable options to make patient-specific embryonic stem cells. Till date efficacy of SCNT embryos is very low and requires further improvement like ideal oocyte activation and in vitro culture system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ideal oocyte activation using different stimulation protocols and to study the effect of cumulus co-culture conditions on embryo development. Results demonstrate that between electric stimulation and chemical stimulation using calcium ionomycin and ionophore, best oocyte activation was obtained using calcium ionomycin (5 μM for 5 min) which resulted in 83% cleavage followed by 7% of early blastocyst which further increased to 15% when a cumulus bed was also introduced during embryo culture. Sequential modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2) medium was used for embryo culture in which glucose levels were increased from 1 mM to 5 mM from Day 3 onwards. SCNT using cumulus cells as donor somatic cell, calcium ionomycin to activate the reconstructed oocyte and embryo culture on a cumulus bed in sequential mCR2 medium, resulted in the development of 6% embryos to early blastocyst stage. Such technological advances will make SCNT a viable option to make patient-specific pluripotent stem cell lines in near future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blastocyst/physiology , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Embryonic Development/physiology , Female , Male , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Oocytes/physiology , Parthenogenesis , Sheep
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191846

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the expression of three genes related to early embryonic development in bovine transgenic cloned embryos. To accomplish this, development of bovine transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was compared with non-transgenic embryos. Next, mRNA transcription of three specific genes (DNMT1, Hsp 70.1, and Mash2) related to early embryo development in transgenic SCNT embryos was compared between transgenic and non-transgenic SCNTs, parthenogenetic embryos, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Transgenic SCNT embryos showed significantly lower rates of development to the blastocyst stage than non-transgenic ones. To investigate normal gene expression, RNA was extracted from ten blastocysts derived from parthenogenesis, IVF, non-transgenic, and transgenic SCNT embryos and reverse-transcribed to synthesize cDNA. The cDNA was then subjected to PCR amplification and semi-quantified. More DNMT1 mRNA was detected in the transgenic SCNT group than the other three groups. Hsp 70.1 mRNA was detected in the IVF embryos, while lower levels were found in SCNT and parthenogenetic embryos. Mash2 mRNA was present at the highest levels in transgenic SCNT embryos. In conclusion, the higher levels of methylation and lower protein synthesis after heat shock in the transgenic SCNT embryos expected based on our results may cause lower embryonic development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Cattle/embryology , DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases/genetics , Embryo, Mammalian/embryology , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Transfer Techniques/veterinary , Parthenogenesis , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Transcription, Genetic
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24548

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to develop an effective method for establishment of porcine parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (ppESCs) from parthenogenetically activated oocyte-derived blastocysts. The addition of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the medium on the 3rd day of oocyte culturing improved the development of blastocysts, attachment of inner cell masses (ICMs) onto feeder cells, and formation of primitive ppESC colonies. ICM attachment was further enhanced by basic fibroblast growth factor, stem cell factor, and leukemia inhibitory factor. From these attached ICMs, seven ppESC lines were established. ppESC pluripotency was verified by strong enzymatic alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotent markers OCT3/4, Nanog, and SSEA4. Moreover, the ppESCs were induced to form an embryoid body and teratoma. Differentiation into three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) was confirmed by the expression of specific markers for the layers and histological analysis. In conclusion, data from the present study suggested that our modified culture conditions using FBS and cytokines are highly useful for improving the generation of pluripotent ppESCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blastocyst/cytology , Cell Culture Techniques/veterinary , Cell Differentiation , Cytokines/metabolism , Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Parthenogenesis , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Swine/physiology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92899

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to establish an in vitro maturation (IVM) system by selection of efficient porcine serum during porcine in vitro production. To investigate the efficient porcine serum (PS), different types of PS [newborn pig serum, prepubertal gilt serum (PGS), estrus sow serum, and pregnancy sow serum] were used to supplement IVM media with or without gonadotrophin (GTH) and development rates of parthenogenetic activation (PA) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos were then compared. The maturation rates of the PGS group was significantly higher when GTH was not added. Additionally, during development of PA embryos without GTH, the PGS group showed significantly higher cleavage and blastocyst formation rates. Moreover, the cleavage rates of IVF embryos were significantly higher in the PGS group, with no significant differences in the blastocyst formation. However, when GTH was supplemented into the IVM media, there were no significant differences among the four groups in the cleavage rates, development rates of the blastocyst, and cell number of the blastocyst after PA and IVF. In conclusion, PGS is an efficient macromolecule in porcine IVM, and GTH supplementation of the IVM media is beneficial when PS is used as macromolecule, regardless of its origin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blastocyst/drug effects , Embryo, Mammalian/drug effects , Fertilization in Vitro/veterinary , Gonadotropins/administration & dosage , In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques/methods , Parthenogenesis/drug effects , Sus scrofa/embryology
18.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 806-810, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757855

ABSTRACT

Identification of the function of all genes in the mammalian genome is critical in understanding basic mechanisms of biology. However, the diploidy of mammalian somatic cells has greatly hindered efforts to elucidate the gene function in numerous biological processes by mutagenesis-based genetic approaches. Recently, mouse haploid embryonic stem (haES) cells have been successfully isolated from parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryos, providing an ideal tool for genetic analyses. In these studies, mouse haES cells have already shown that they could be used in cell-based forward or reverse genetic screenings and in generating gene-targeting via homologous recombination. In particular, haES cells from androgenetic embryos can be employed as novel, renewable form of fertilization agent for yielding live-born mice via injection into oocytes, thus showing the possibility that genetic analysis can be extended from cellular level to organism level.


Subject(s)
Animals , Embryonic Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Genetic Techniques , Genome , Haploidy , Models, Animal , Mutagenesis , Parthenogenesis
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 71(2): 501-510, maio 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592587

ABSTRACT

Diplopods are very susceptible to various degrees of environmental disturbance, particularly climate, altitude and diet. In order to increase our understanding of millipede ecological plasticity, we used fertility tables to access and to compare the fertility and survival of two populations of the parthenogenetic species Poratia salvator from two areas with distinct characteristics. Collecting was conducted in two localities within the state of Mato Grosso, in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, municipality of Nossa Senhora do Livramento, and in the municipality of Várzea Grande. The specimens were maintained at room temperature. In the first generation, individuals from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso population reproduced early and also died earlier when compared with individuals from the Várzea Grande population. Furthermore, the population from the Pantanal had a lower net reproduction rate and a higher intrinsic growth rate than the population from the Várzea Grande. The generation time was lower for the Pantanal population than for the Várzea Grande population. In the second generation, the net reproduction rate observed for both populations was higher than that observed in the first generation, suggesting an increase in the reproductive potential of the females throughout their lives. The intrinsic growth rate of both populations decreased as a function of an increase in generation time observed in the second generation. As a result, the population growth rate in the second generation was slower when compared with the first generation, probably a result of the longer life expectancy of the second generation, which may have become adapted to the artificial conditions of the experiment.


Os Diplopoda demonstram forte sensibilidade às mudanças ambientais em diferentes escalas, sendo que fatores como clima, altitude e disponibilidade de alimento são os que mais influenciam o seu desenvolvimento biológico. Dessa maneira, este estudo objetivou estimar as taxas de sobrevivência e fertilidade da espécie partenogenética Poratia salvator através da elaboração de tabelas de fertilidade, a fim de caracterizar o crescimento populacional desta espécie, oriunda de diferentes ambientes. As coletas foram realizadas em duas localidades, uma no Pantanal de Mato Grosso, município de Nossa Senhora do Livramento, e outra no município de Várzea Grande-MT. Os indivíduos foram mantidos sob temperatura ambiente. Como resultado observou-se que a população proveniente do Pantanal apresentou aceleração da reprodução, na primeira geração, com mortalidade prematura das progenitoras. Para a população oriunda de Várzea Grande, a reprodução ocorreu em idades mais avançadas do período reprodutivo, e as fêmeas viveram por um maior período. Na primeira geração, a população do Pantanal teve menor taxa líquida de reprodução e maior taxa intrínseca de crescimento que a população de Várzea Grande. O tempo de geração da população do Pantanal foi menor que a de Várzea Grande. Na segunda geração, observou-se que a taxa líquida de reprodução das duas populações foi maior que a observada na primeira geração, evidenciando um incremento no potencial reprodutivo de cada uma das fêmeas ao longo da vida. A taxa intrínseca de crescimento diminuiu devido ao aumento no tempo de geração da segunda geração estudada. Com isso, a taxa de crescimento das populações, na segunda geração, foi mais lenta que a primeira, visto que houve um prolongamento na vida das progenitoras, aparentemente, devido à adaptação dos animais às condições artificiais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Arthropods/physiology , Life Cycle Stages/physiology , Parthenogenesis , Adaptation, Physiological , Arthropods/classification , Fertility/physiology , Population Growth
20.
Biocell ; 35(1): 1-7, Apr. 2011. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595004

ABSTRACT

Parthenogenetic embryos are an ethically acceptable alternative for the derivation of human embryonic stem cells. In this work, we propose a new strategy to produce bovine parthenogenetic embryos inhibiting the emission of the first polar body during in vitro maturation, and allowing the extrusion of the second polar body during oocyte activation. Cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of actin microfilaments, was employed during in vitro maturation to inhibit first polar body emission or during parthenogenetic activation to block second polar body emission. Only one polar body was inhibited in each strategy in order to keep the diploid chromosome set. In experiment 1, the effect of cytochalasin B on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes was evaluated. Most oocytes (77%) were arrested at a meiotic stage characterized by the presence of a large internal metaphase plate and absence of polar body. In experiment 2, development of embryos exposed to cytochalasin B during in vitro maturation (CytoB-IVM) or during activation (CytoB-ACT) was compared. Developmental rates did not differ between diploidization strategies, even when three agents were employed to induce activation. Both groups, CytoB-IVM and CytoB-ACT, tended to maintain diploidy. CytoB-IVM parthenogenesis could help to obtain embryos with a higher degree of homology to the oocyte donor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cattle , Animals , Female , Cytochalasin B/pharmacology , Embryo, Mammalian/cytology , Embryo, Mammalian , Embryo, Mammalian/physiology , Meiosis , Oocytes/cytology , Oocytes , Oocytes/metabolism , Parthenogenesis , Ploidies
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