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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Pakistan , Smog , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256190, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364523

ABSTRACT

Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant causing serious health problems. The aim of the present study was to find out concentration of PM in ambient air and its associated health risk in Haripur city, Pakistan. Twenty-three samples were taken at various educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries in Haripur city. Concentration of PM2.5 (µg/m3) and PM10 (µg/m3) was measured with Youngteng YT-HPC 3000A portable PM counter. The results revealed that values of both PM2.5 and PM10 were above the permissible limits (35 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 150 µg/m3 for PM10) set by Environmental Protection Agency Pakistan (Pak-EPA) in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries investigated. Furthermore, significant (p<0.05) variation was found in the concentration of both PM2.5 and PM10 in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas, and industries studied. The concentration of PM2.5 was positively correlated with the concentration of PM10 in all the sampling sites. Therefore, from 1-14 scale standard of health index, the values of PM2.5 and PM10 exhibited that the ambient air quality of Haripur city Pakistan is under high risk. If the regulatory authorities such as Environmental Protection Agency, Health Department and Local Government monitor PM pollution in different settings of Haripur city, then a decrease can be possible in the pollution level. The remedies that can be taken to overcome the problem of ambient air pollution such as PM are plantation of trees at the sites where there are higher levels of air pollutants and use of masks on personal protection basis along with implementation of pollution control system in industries of Hattar Industrial Estate Haripur city, Pakistan.


O material particulado (MP) é um importante poluente do ar que causa sérios problemas de saúde. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descobrir a concentração de MP no ar ambiente e sua associação com o risco à saúde na cidade de Haripur, Paquistão. Vinte e três amostras foram coletadas em várias instituições de ensino, hospitais, áreas recreativas e indústrias na cidade de Haripur. A concentração de MP2,5 (µg/m3) e MP10 (µg/m3) foi medida por meio do contador de MP portátil Youngteng YT-HPC 3000A. Os resultados revelaram que os valores de MP2,5 e MP10 estavam acima dos limites permitidos (35 µg/m3 para MP2,5 e 150 µg/m3 para MP10) estabelecidos pela Agência de Proteção Ambiental do Paquistão (Pak-EPA) em todas as instituições de ensino, hospitais, áreas recreativas e indústrias investigadas. Além disso, foi encontrada variação significativa (p < 0,05) na concentração de MP2,5 e MP10 em todos os locais estudados. A concentração de MP2,5 correlacionou-se positivamente com a concentração de MP10 em todos os locais de amostragem. Portanto, a partir da escala padrão 1-14 do índice de saúde, os valores de MP2,5 e MP10 mostraram que a qualidade do ar ambiente na cidade de Haripur, Paquistão, está sob alto risco. Se as autoridades reguladoras, como a Pak-EPA, o Departamento de Saúde e o governo local, monitorarem a poluição por MP em diferentes configurações da cidade de Haripur, pode ser que haja uma diminuição no nível de poluição. As medidas que podem ser tomadas para superar o problema da poluição do ar ambiente, como o MP, são o plantio de árvores nos locais onde há maiores níveis de poluentes atmosféricos, o uso de máscaras e a implantação de sistema de controle de poluição nas propriedades industriais de Hattar, na cidade Haripur, Paquistão.


Subject(s)
Health Risk , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Particulate Matter , Pakistan
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(1): e202202588, feb. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1412864

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El material particulado (PM) es uno de los contaminantes del aire que mayor implicación tienen en la aparición o exacerbación de cuadros respiratorios en niños. Objetivo. Describir las características de las consultas por enfermedades respiratorias agudas en menores de 15 años, los niveles de PM en el aire, y analizar la asociación existente entre ellos en un sector de Bahía Blanca entre abril de 2019 y marzo de 2020. Población y métodos. Estudio ecológico de series temporales y grupos múltiples. Análisis descriptivo de consultas totales, por área, diagnóstico, y del PM. Modelo de correlación y regresión lineal generalizado para determinar la relación entre las variables. Se utilizó el programa SPSS®. Resultados. Se recopilaron 4787 consultas. Un 38,6 % (1846) correspondieron a rinitis y un 21,1 % (1011) a broncoespasmo. El PM de 10 nm (PM10) superó su valor límite el 31 % (115) de los días de estudio y el de 2,5 nm (PM2,5) un 3 % (8). Un aumento del 10 % del PM2,5 demostró incrementos de 1,3 % en las consultas totales; el incremento llegó al 2,1 % en el área más cercana al sector industrial (p <0,05). En esta última, el aumento del 10 % de los valores de PM10 se asoció al aumento del 1,8 % de las consultas (p <0,05). Conclusión. Se demostró asociación positiva entre las consultas por enfermedad respiratoria aguda y los niveles de PM del aire, sobre todo con el PM2,5 y en el área más cercana al sector industrial.


Introduction. Particulate matter (PM) is one of the air pollutants most involved in the onset or exacerbation of respiratory conditions in children. Objective. To describe the characteristics of consultations for acute respiratory diseases in children younger than 15 years and the levels of PM in the air and to analyze their association in a sector of Bahía Blanca between April 2019 and March 2020. Population and methods. Ecological, time-series study with multiple groups. Descriptive analysis of total number of consultations, by area, diagnosis, and PM. Generalized linear correlation and regression model to determine the relationship among variables. The SPSS® software was used. Results. Data from 4787 consultations were collected. Of these, 38.6% (1846) were related to rhinitis and 21.1% (1011), to bronchospasm. PM of 10 nm (PM10) exceeded its limit value on 31% (115) of the study days, and PM of 2.5 nm (PM2.5), on 3% (8). A 10% increase in PM2.5 showed increases of 1.3% in total consultations; the increase reached 2.1% in the area closest to the industrial sector (p < 0.05). In the latter, a 10% increase in PM10 was associated with an increase of 1.8% in consultations (p < 0.05). Conclusion. A positive association was evidenced between consultations for acute respiratory diseases and PM levels in the air, especially with PM2.5 and in the area closest to the industrial sector.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Argentina , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the association between short-term exposure to indoor total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) among young female adults.@*METHODS@#This panel study recruited 50 young females from one university in Beijing, China from December 2021 to April 2022. All the participants underwent two sequential visits. During each visit, real time indoor TVOC concentration was monitored using an indoor air quality detector. The real time levels of indoor temperature, relative humidity, noise, carbon dioxide and fine particulate matter were monitored using a temperature and humidity meter, a noise meter, a carbon dioxide meter and a particulate counter, respectively. HRV parameters were measured using a 12-lead Holter. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association between the TVOC and HRV parameters and establish the exposure-response relationships, and two-pollutant models were applied to examine the robustness of the results.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of the 50 female subjects was (22.5±2.3) years, and the mean body mass index was (20.4±1.9) kg/m2. During this study, the median (interquartile range) of indoor TVOC concentrations was 0.069 (0.046) mg/m3, the median (interquartile range) of indoor temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, noise level and fine particulate matter concentration were 24.3 (2.7) ℃, 38.5% (15.0%), 0.1% (0.1%), 52.7 (5.8) dB(A) and 10.3 (21.5) μg/m3, respectively. Short-term exposure to indoor TVOC was associated with significant changes in time-domain and frequency-domain HRV parameters, and the exposure metric for most HRV parameters with the most significant changes was 1 h-moving average. Along with a 0.01 mg/m3 increment in 1 h-moving average concentration of indoor TVOC, this study observed decreases of 1.89% (95%CI: -2.28%, -1.50%) in standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals (SDNN), 1.92% (95%CI: -2.32%, -1.51%) in standard deviation of average normal to normal intervals (SDANN), 0.64% (95%CI: -1.13%, -0.14%) in percentage of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms (pNN50), 3.52% (95%CI: -4.30%, -2.74%) in total power (TP), 5.01% (95%CI: -6.21%, -3.79%) in very low frequency (VLF) power, and 4.36% (95%CI: -5.16%, -3.55%) in low frequency (LF) power. The exposure-response curves showed that indoor TVOC was negatively correlated with SDNN, SDANN, TP, and VLF when the concentration exceeded 0.1 mg/m3. The two-pollutant models indicated that the results were generally robust after controlling indoor noise and fine particulate matter.@*CONCLUSION@#Short-term exposure to indoor TVOC was associated with significant negative changes in nocturnal HRV of young women. This study provides an important scientific basis for relevant prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Air Pollutants/analysis , Heart Rate/physiology , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Carbon Dioxide , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common congenital malformations in humans. Inconsistent results emerged in the existed studies on associations between air pollution and congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of gestational exposure to air pollutants with congenital heart disease, and to explore the critical exposure windows for congenital heart disease.@*METHODS@#The nested case-control study collected birth records and the following health data in Tianjin Women and Children's Health Center, China. All of the cases of congenital heart disease from 2013 to 2015 were selected matching five healthy controls for each case. Inverse distance weighting was used to estimate individual exposure based on daily air pollution data. Furthermore, the conditional logistic regression with distributed lag non-linear model was performed to identify the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and congenital heart disease.@*RESULTS@#A total of 8,748 mother-infant pairs were entered into the analysis, of which 1,458 infants suffered from congenital heart disease. For each 10 µg/m3 increase of gestational exposure to PM2.5, the ORs (95% confidence interval, 95%CI) ranged from 1.008 (1.001-1.016) to 1.013 (1.001-1.024) during the 1st-2nd gestation weeks. Similar weak but increased risks of congenital heart disease were associated with O3 exposure during the 1st week and SO2 exposure during 6th-7th weeks in the first trimester, while no significant findings for other air pollutants.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study highlighted that gestational exposure to PM2.5, O3, and SO2 had lag effects on congenital heart disease. Our results support potential benefits for pregnancy women to the mitigation of air pollution exposure in the early stage, especially when a critical exposure time window of air pollutants may precede heart development.


Subject(s)
Infant , Pregnancy , Child , Humans , Female , Air Pollutants/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , China/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Weather conditions are a possible contributing factor to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of irreversible loss of vision. The present study evaluated the joint effects of meteorological factors and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on AMD.@*METHODS@#Data was extracted from a national cross-sectional survey conducted across 10 provinces in rural China. A total of 36,081 participants aged 40 and older were recruited. AMD was diagnosed clinically by slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Meteorological data were calculated by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis and were matched to participants' home addresses by latitude and longitude. Participants' individual PM2.5 exposure concentrations were calculated by a satellite-based model at a 1-km resolution level. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models paired with interaction analysis were performed to investigate the joint effects of meteorological factors and PM2.5 on AMD.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of AMD in the study population was 2.6% (95% CI 2.42-2.76%). The average annual PM2.5 level during the study period was 63.1 ± 15.3 µg/m3. A significant positive association was detected between AMD and PM2.5 level, temperature (T), and relative humidity (RH), in both the independent and the combined effect models. For PM2.5, compared with the lowest quartile, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across increasing quartiles were 0.828 (0.674,1.018), 1.105 (0.799,1.528), and 2.602 (1.516,4.468). Positive associations were observed between AMD and temperature, with ORs (95% CI) of 1.625 (1.059,2.494), 1.619 (1.026,2.553), and 3.276 (1.841,5.830), across increasing quartiles. In the interaction analysis, the estimated relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and the attributable proportion (AP) for combined atmospheric pressure and PM2.5 was 0.864 (0.586,1.141) and 1.180 (0.768,1.592), respectively, indicating a synergistic effect between PM2.5 and atmospheric pressure.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study is among the first to characterize the coordinated effects of meteorological factors and PM2.5 on AMD. The findings warrant further investigation to elucidate the relationship between ambient environment and AMD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , China/epidemiology , Macular Degeneration/etiology , Meteorological Concepts
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to investigate the association of ambient PM2.5 exposure with blood pressure (BP) at the population level in China.@*METHODS@#A total of 14,080 participants who had at least two valid blood pressure records were selected from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey during 2011-2015. Their long-term PM2.5 exposure was assessed at the geographical level, on the basis of a regular 0.1° × 0.1° grid over China. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess associations.@*RESULTS@#Each decrease of 10 μg/m3 in the 1 year-mean PM2.5 concentration (FPM1Y) was associated with a decrease of 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84-1.64] mmHg systolic BP (SBP) and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.25-0.75) mmHg diastolic BP (DBP), respectively. A robust association was observed between the long-term decrease in PM2.5 and decreased BP in the middle-aged and older population. Using a generalized additive mixed model, we further found that SBP increased nonlinearly overall with FPM1Y but in an approximately linear range when the FPM1Y concentration was < 70 µg/m3; In contrast, DBP increased approximately linearly without a clear threshold.@*CONCLUSION@#Efficient control of PM2.5 air pollution may promote vascular health in China. Our study provides robust scientific support for making the related air pollution control policies.


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Humans , Aged , Particulate Matter/analysis , Blood Pressure , Air Pollutants/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension/etiology , East Asian People , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 287-294, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970049

ABSTRACT

In China, the level of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution far exceeds the air quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization. Moreover, the health effects of PM 2.5 exposure have become a major public health issue. More than half of PM 2.5 -related excess deaths are caused by cardiopulmonary disease, which has become a major health risk associated with PM 2.5 pollution. In this review, we discussed the latest epidemiological advances relating to the health effects of PM 2.5 on cardiopulmonary diseases in China, including studies relating to the effects of PM 2.5 on mortality, morbidity, and risk factors for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. These data provided important evidence to highlight the cardiopulmonary risk associated with PM 2.5 across the world. In the future, further studies need to be carried out to investigate the specific relationship between the constituents and sources of PM 2.5 and cardiopulmonary disease. These studies provided scientific evidence for precise reduction measurement of pollution sources and public health risks. It is also necessary to identify effective biomarkers and elucidate the biological mechanisms and pathways involved; this may help us to take steps to reduce PM 2.5 pollution and reduce the incidence of cardiopulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Respiratory Tract Diseases , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969861

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common pregnancy complications and has serious implications for the health of mothers and their offspring. In recent years, studies have confirmed that air pollution is one of the main risk factors for diabetes, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution exposure is closely related to the occurrence of gestational diabetes. However, current studies on the association between air pollutant exposure and the incidence of gestational diabetes are inconsistent, and the window period of pollutant exposure is still unclear. Limited mechanistic studies suggest that airborne particulate matter and gaseous pollutants may affect GDM through multiple mechanisms, including inflammation, oxidative stress, disruption of adipokine secretion, and imbalance of intestinal flora. This review summarizes the relationship between air pollutant exposure and the incidence of GDM in recent years, as well as the possible molecular mechanism of the occurrence and development of GDM caused by air pollutants, in order to provide scientific basis for preventing pollutant exposure, reducing the risk of GDM, improving maternal and fetal outcomes and improving the quality of the birth population.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Risk Factors , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982763

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the impact of PM 2.5 concentration in Shanghai on the incidence of allergic rhinitis(AR) in the population, and provide strategies for early warning and prevention of AR. Methods:Collect daily average concentrations of atmospheric pollutants monitored in Shanghai from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019, and clinical data of AR patients from five hospitals in Shanghai during the same period. We used a time-series analysis additive Poisson regression model to analyze the correlation between PM 2.5 levels and outpatient attendance for AR patients. Results:During the study period, a total of 56 500 AR patients were included, and the daily average concentration of PM 2.5 was(35.28±23.07)μg/m³. There is a correlation between the concentration of PM 2.5 and the number of outpatient attendance for AR cases. There is a positive correlation between the daily average number of outpatient for AR and levels of PM 2.5 air pollution((P<0.05)) . We found that every 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 2.5, the impact of on the number of AR visits was statistically significant on the same day, the first day behind, and the second day behind, with the strongest impact being the exposure on the same day. Every 10 μg/m³ increases in PM 2.5, the number of outpatient visits increased by 0.526% on the same day(95%CI 1.000 50-1.010 04). Conclusion:The atmospheric PM 2.5 concentration in Shanghai is positively correlated with the number of outpatient for AR, and PM 2.5 exposure is an independent factor in the onset of AR. This provides an important theoretical basis for AR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Incidence , China/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Rhinitis, Allergic/etiology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985476

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the short-term effect of individual atmospheric PM2.5 exposure on the diversity, enterotype, and community structure of gut microbiome in healthy elderly people in Jinan, Shandong province. Methods: The present panel study recruited 76 healthy elderly people aged 60-69 years old in Dianliu Street, Lixia District, Jinan, Shandong Province, and followed them up five times from September 2018 to January 2019. The relevant information was collected by questionnaire, physical examination, precise monitoring of individual PM2.5 exposure, fecal sample collection and gut microbiome 16S rDNA sequencing. The Dirichlet multinomial mixtures (DMM) model was used to analyze the enterotype. Linear mixed effect model and generalized linear mixed effect model were used to analyze the effect of PM2.5 exposure on gut microbiome α diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson, Chao1, and ACE indices), enterotype and abundance of core species. Results: Each of the 76 subjects participated in at least two follow-up visits, resulting in a total of 352 person-visits. The age of 76 subjects was (65.0±2.8) years old with BMI (25.0±2.4) kg/m2. There were 38 males accounting for 50% of the subjects. People with an educational level of primary school or below accounted for 10.5% of the 76 subjects, and those with secondary school and junior college or above accounting for 71.1% and 18.4%. The individual PM2.5 exposure concentration of 76 subjects during the study period was (58.7±53.7) μg/m3. DMM model showed that the subjects could be divided into four enterotypes, which were mainly driven by Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae, and Ruminococcaceae. Linear mixed effects model showed that different lag periods of PM2.5 exposure were significantly associated with a lower gut α diversity index (FDR<0.05 after correction). Further analysis showed that PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with changes in the abundances of Firmicutes (Megamonas, Blautia, Streptococcus, etc.) and Bacteroidetes (Alistipes) (FDR<0.05 after correction). Conclusion: Short-term PM2.5 exposure is significantly associated with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity and changes in the abundance of several species of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the elderly. It is necessary to further explore the underlying mechanisms between PM2.5 exposure and the gut microbiome, so as to provide a scientific basis for promoting the intestinal health of the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Particulate Matter , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985456

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the association of mixed exposure to greenness and nitrogen dioxide(NO2) and hypertension among the older adults aged 65 years and over in China. Methods: The study subjects were from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2017 to 2018. A total of 15 423 older adults aged 65 years and over meeting the criteria were finally included in the study. A questionnaire survey was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits and self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Blood pressure values were obtained through physical examination. The level of normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) was measured by the Medium-resolution Imaging Spectral Radiator(MODIS) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA). The concentration of NO2 was from China's surface air pollutant data set. Meteorological data was from NASA MERRA-2. The exposure to NDVI and NO2 for each study subject was calculated based on the area within a 1 km radius around their residence. The association between mixed exposure of NDVI and NO2 as well as their interaction and hypertension in older adults was analyzed by using the multivariate logistic regression model. The restrictive cubic spline(RCS) function was used to explore the exposure-response relationship between greenness and NO2 and the risk of hypertension in study subjects. Results: The mean age of 15 423 older adults were (85.6±11.6). Women accounted for 56.3%(8 685/15 423) and 55.6%(8 578/15 423) lived in urban areas. The mean time of residence was (60.9±28.5) years. 59.8% of participants were with hypertension. The mean NDVI level was 0.41±0.13, and the mean NO2 concentration was (32.18±10.36) μg/cm3. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that NDVI was inversely and linearly associated with the hypertension in older adults, with the OR(95%CI) value of 0.959(0.928-0.992). Compared with the T1 group of NDVI, the risk of hypertension was lower in the T3 group, with the OR(95%CI) value of 0.852(0.769-0.944), and the trend test was statistically significant(P<0.05). Compared with the T1 group of NO2, the risk of hypertension was higher in the T2 and T3 groups, with OR(95%CI) values of 1.160(1.055-1.275) and 1.244(1.111-1.393), and the trend test was statistically significant (P<0.05). The result of the RCS showed that NDVI was inversely and linearly associated with hypertension in older adults. NO2 was nonlinearly associated with hypertension in older adults. The interaction analysis showed that NDVI and NO2 had a negative multiplicative interaction on the risk of hypertension, with OR(95%CI) value of 0.995(0.992-0.997). Conclusion: Exposure to greenness and NO2 are associated with hypertension in older adults.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Female , Nitrogen Dioxide , Air Pollution , Prevalence , Hypertension/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986052

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the occupational protective effect of different protective devices on the operators during manual cleaning and oiling of dental handpieces, and to provide a basis for the selection of appropriate protective methods. Methods: From November 2020 to December 2021, 20 high-speed dental handpieces of the same brand were selected and randomly divided into disposable protective bag group and small aerosol safety cabinet group by drawing lots, with 10 in each group. After recording the model, they were distributed to the clinical fixed consulting room for use, and were collected by specially-assigned personnel every day for manual cleaning under the protection of the two devices. By measuring the number of airborne colonies, the concentrations of particulate matter and the satisfaction of operators, the occupational protection effect of the two protective devices on operators was evaluated. Results: Under the protection of the two devices, the average number of airborne colonies after operation was less than 1 CFU/ml. When no protective device was used, the number concentration of particulate matter produced during operation was (21595.70±8164.26) pieces/cm(3). The number concentrations of particles produced by disposable protective bag group [ (6800.24±515.05) pieces/cm(3)] and small aerosol safety cabinet group [ (5797.15±790.50) pieces/cm(3)] were significantly lower than those without any protective device (P<0.001). The number concentration of particle matter of small aerosol safety cabinet group was significantly lower than that of disposable protective bag group (P<0.001). In the satisfaction evaluation of operators, small aerosol safety cabinet group [ (3.53±0.82) points] was significantly better than disposable protective bag group [ (2.23±1.10) points] (P<0.001) . Conclusion: The use of small aerosol safety cabinet during manual cleaning and oiling of dental handpieces has good protective effect, superior safety performance and strong clinical applicability, and has advantages in occupational protection of clinical operators.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Particulate Matter , Protective Devices
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981277

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the overall level,distribution characteristics,and differences in household fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution caused by fuel burning in urban and rural areas in China. Methods The relevant articles published from 1991 to 2021 were retrieved and included in this study.The data including the average concentration of household PM2.5 and urban and rural areas were extracted,and the stoves and fuel types were reclassified.The average concentration of PM2.5 in different areas was calculated and analyzed by nonparametric test. Results The average household PM2.5 concentration in China was (178.81±249.91) μg/m3.The mean household PM2.5 concentration was higher in rural areas than in urban areas[(206.08±279.40) μg/m3 vs. (110.63±131.16) μg/m3;Z=-5.45,P<0.001] and higher in northern areas than in southern areas[(224.27±301.66) μg/m3 vs.(130.11±140.61) μg/m3;Z=-2.38,P=0.017].The north-south difference in household PM2.5 concentration was more significant in rural areas than in urban areas[(324.19±367.94) μg/m3 vs.(141.20±151.05) μg/m3,χ2=-5.06,P<0.001].The PM2.5 pollution level showed differences between urban and rural households using different fuel types (χ2=92.85,P<0.001),stove types (χ2=74.42,P<0.001),and whether they were heating (Z=-4.43,P<0.001).Specifically,rural households mainly used solid fuels (manure,charcoal,coal) and traditional or improved stoves,while urban households mainly used clean fuels (gas) and clean stoves.The PM2.5 concentrations in heated households were higher than those in non-heated households in both rural and urban areas (Z=-4.43,P<0.001). Conclusions The household PM2.5 pollution caused by fuel combustion in China remains a high level.The PM2.5 concentration shows a significant difference between urban and rural households,and the PM2.5 pollution is more serious in rural households.The difference in the household PM2.5 concentration between urban and rural areas is more significant in northern China.PM2.5 pollution in the households using solid fuel,traditional stoves,and heating is serious,and thus targeted measures should be taken to control PM2.5 pollution in these households.


Subject(s)
Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Cooking , Environmental Exposure/analysis , China , Rural Population
15.
Med. lab ; 27(1): 13-24, 2023. ilus, Grafs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412739

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El cáncer de mama es el tipo de cáncer que genera más muertes en mujeres en el mundo. Aunque se reconoce el aporte de factores genéticos, hormonales y de estilos de vida como sus principales causas, las hipótesis que señalan que la contaminación del ambiente juega un papel importante en su desarrollo, han tomado mucha fuerza en los últimos años. Estas hipótesis surgen debido a que el aumento en la incidencia del cáncer de mama coincide con procesos de industrialización, además de mayor presencia en regiones urbanas y con altos niveles de contaminación. El objetivo de este artículo fue consolidar información sobre los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que puedan explicar la relación entre cáncer de mama y la contaminación por material particulado. Metodología. Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura en PubMed, Google Académico y Epistemonikos para documentos publicados sobre el tema desde enero de 2016 hasta el 3 de agosto de 2022. Resultados. Se encontró que algunos de los mecanismos que podrían explicar dicha relación incluyen: alteraciones endocrinas que favorecen cambios hormonales, induciendo el crecimiento mamario; cambios en las características histológicas del tejido normal, como involución reducida de unidades lobulares ductales terminales; formación de aductos de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos-ácido desoxirribonucleico (HAP-ADN), con mutación específica del gen TP53; activación de la proliferación en la línea celular MCF-7; y, alteraciones en la metilación del ADN. Conclusión. Si bien órganos distales como la mama no son la primera entrada de los contaminantes ambientales al cuerpo, estos sí pueden verse afectados tras la exposición a largo plazo, a través de diferentes mecanismos de disrupción endocrina y daño al ADN principalmente


Breast cancer is the type of cancer that causes the most deaths in women worldwide. Although the contribution of genetic, hormonal and lifestyle factors are recognized as its main causes, the hypotheses that indicate that environmental pollution has an important role in its development have taken on great strength during the last years. These hypotheses are based on the increase in the incidence of breast cancer that coincides with industrialization processes, in addition to its greater presence in urban regions with high levels of pollution. The aim of this study was to consolidate information on the pathophysiological mechanisms that can explain the relationship between breast cancer and air pollution by particulate matter. Methodology. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, Google Scholar and Epistemonikos for documents published on this topic from January 2016 until August 3rd 2022. Results. Some of the mechanisms that could explain this association include endocrine alterations that favor hormonal changes, inducing breast growth; changes in the histological characteristics of normal tissue such as reduced involution of terminal duct lobular units; formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-deoxyribonucleic acid (PAH-DNA) adducts, with specific mutation of the TP53 gene; an increase in cell proliferation in the MCF-7 cell line; and alterations in DNA methylation. Conclusion. Although distal organs such as the breast are not the entry site of environmental pollutants into the body, they can be affected after prolonged exposure, mainly through different mechanisms of endocrine disruption and DNA damage


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/etiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Breast Neoplasms/physiopathology , Air Pollution
16.
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 34(2): 47-58, July-Dec. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412777

ABSTRACT

Mediante la disminución de los niveles de contaminación del aire los países pueden reducir la carga en morbilidad derivada de accidentes cerebrovasculares, cáncer de pulmón y neumopatías crónicas y agudas. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar los efectos a corto y largo plazo que tiene la contaminación ambiental sobre la salud de la población por medio de una revisión narrativa de tipo cualitativo y descriptivo. El método de búsqueda e identificación de los estudios se realizó por medio de las siguientes bases de datos electrónicas: Medline, Pubmed, Science Direct, entre otras; con un estado del arte de máximo 5 años posteriores a su fecha de publicación. De acuerdo con la búsqueda realizada en las bases de datos, se seleccionaron un total de 10 artículos en los cuales se encontraron diferentes efectos de la contaminación ambiental en la salud humana a nivel respiratorio, cardiovascular, hepático, neurológico, gestacional, inmunológico, entre otros sistemas a causa del material particulado encontrado en el ambiente como los son del PM 2.5, PM10 Y otros gases relacionados con la contaminación y los efectos sobre la salud. Los resultados de esta revisión narrativa confirman los efectos asociados a la contaminación ambiental a corto plazo y largo plazo del aumento de las concentraciones de las partículas contaminantes encontradas en el ambiente. Palabras claves: contaminación ambiental, partículas contaminantes, efectos corto plazo, efectos largo plazo, material particulado.


By lowering air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from strokes, lung cancer, and chronic and acute lung diseases. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the short and long-term effects of environmental pollution on the health of the population through a qualitative and descriptive narrative review. The search and identification method of the studies was carried out through the following electronic databases: Medline, Pubmed, Science Direct, among others; with a state of the art of a maximum of 5 years after its publication date. According to the search carried out in the databases, a total of 10 were selected in which different effects of environmental pollution on human health were found at the respiratory, cardiovascular, liver, neurological, gestational, and immune levels, among other systems. due to particulate matter found in the environment such as PM 2.5, PM10 and other gases related to pollution and health effects. The results of this narrative review confirm the short-term and long-term effects associated with environmental pollution of increased concentrations of polluting particles found in the environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Pollutants , Environmental Pollution , Particulate Matter , Lung Diseases , Morbidity , Stroke , Lung Neoplasms
17.
Univ. salud ; 24(1): 45-54, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361185

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El efecto deletéreo de material particulado fino exterior sobre la salud respiratoria de la población de niños y de adultos mayores, es de interés en salud pública. Objetivo: Establecer el efecto de la contaminación por Material Particulado de menos de 2,5 μm de diámetro (PM2,5), sobre la Enfermedad Respiratoria Aguda (ERA) en los menores de 5 y personas de mínimo 65 años, ajustado por variables meteorológicas y climáticas, en los municipios del Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (Colombia), 2008 a 2015. Materiales y métodos: Estudio ecológico con información de la red de vigilancia de calidad del aire y de registros de prestación de servicios de salud. Se construyeron Modelos Aditivos Generalizados con función de enlace Poisson y suavización spline. Para cada rezago distribuido se calculó la medida de la asociación e intervalo de confianza. Resultados: Los casos de ERA aumentaron significativamente en los menores de 5 años en Envigado y Caldas (43,3% vs 29,6%) y en los de 65 y más años, en Medellín (13,2%) por cada incremento de 10 µg/m3 en PM2,5 al día quince a partir de la exposición. Conclusiones: Los eventos diarios respiratorios tuvieron especial frecuencia en Medellín y en municipios de la zona sur.


Introduction: The harmful effect of fine particulate matter on the respiratory health of child and elderly populations is a concern for public health. Objective: To establish the effect of pollution by less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) particulate matter on Acute Respiratory Disease (ARD) during 2008-2015 in children younger than 5 and adults older than 65 from the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (Colombia), adjusting for meteorological and climate variables. Materials and methods: Ecological study with information from the air quality surveillance network and individual records of health providers. Generalized Additive Models were developed using smoothing spline Poisson models. The assessment of the association and confidence intervals were calculated for each distributed lag. Results: For each 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2,5 and the day 15 post-exposure, ARD cases increased significantly in populations who are younger than 5 and older than 65 in Envigado and Caldas (43.3% vs. 29.6%) and Medellín (13.2%), respectively. Conclusions: Daily respiratory events had a special frequency in Medellín and the municipalities of the southern region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health , Environment , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Public Health , Disease , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollution , Particulate Matter
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939585

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) is an air pollutant that has become of great concern in recent years. Numerous studies have found that PM 2.5 may contribute to lung cancer, but the pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we explored the roles of exosomes from bronchial epithelial cells in PM 2.5-promoted lung cancer metastasis.@*Methods@#Exosomes were isolated from cell supernatants. An animal model of lung metastasis (established by tail vein injection of A549-luc) and in vitro studies with lung cancer cell lines were used to investigate the effects of exosomes derived from PM 2.5-treated human bronchial epithelial cells (PHBE-exo).@*Results@#The animal experiments revealed that PHBE-exo-treated mice showed stronger luciferase activity and a larger relative metastatic region in the lungs, thus indicating that PHBE-exo promoted the metastatic potential of lung cancer. Additionally, PHBE-exo promoted the migration, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells, in a manner mediated by activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.@*Conclusion@#These results implied that PM 2.5 may promote the development of lung cancer through exosomes derived from bronchial epithelial cells, thus providing a potential interventional target for lung cancer. These findings broadened our understanding of cancer-promoting mechanisms of environmental pollutants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Exosomes/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Particulate Matter/toxicity
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936139

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the effects of ozone (O3) concentrations measured with different approaches across different seasons on the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits, as well as the differentiation of such effects across different groups of patients.@*METHODS@#The outpatient data of three grade A tertiary hospitals in Lanzhou City spanning from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017, as well as air pollution and meteorological data during the same period were collected. Considering the nonlinear relationship between O3 concentrations and the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits and meteorological factors, a generalized additive temporal sequence model was employed to analyze the short-term association between changes in O3 concentrations and the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits. Taking into account of the variations in O3 concentrations within 1 day, this study adopted different measurement approaches to address the three types of O3 exposures, namely, the maximum 1 h daily concentration (O3max1h), the maximum 8 h daily concentration (O38h) and the mean 24 h daily concentration (O324h) as the short term exposure indicators to O3, followed by a model-based analysis.@*RESULTS@#The increase in short-term exposure levels to O3 in summer had a significant effect on the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits. With lag0 for the current day, every 10 μg/m3 increase in atmospheric concentration of O3max1h was associated with an increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits by 3.351% (95%CI: 1.231%-5.516%); for every 10 μg/m3 increase in O38h concentration, the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits increased by 3.320% (95%CI: 0.197%-3.829%); for every 10 μg/m3increase in O324h concentration, the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits in summer increased by 6.600% (95%CI: 0.914%-12.607%); moreover, an increase in exposure to O3max1h also led to a significant rise in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits among the males.@*CONCLUSION@#The increase in short-term exposure levels to O3 in summer in Lanzhou City has a significant effect on the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits; O3max1h is more closely correlated with the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Asthma/etiology , China/epidemiology , Outpatients , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter , Seasons , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935770

ABSTRACT

Objective: To screen the differential methylation sites, genes and pathways of air pollution fine particles (PM(2.5)) on human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells by methylation chip and bioinformation technology, so as to provide scientific basis for further study of the toxicological mechanism of PM(2.5) on HBE cells. Methods: In August 2020, HBE cells were infected with 10 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml PM(2.5) aqueous solution for 24 h, namely PM(2.5) 10 μg/ml exposure group (low dose group) and PM(2.5) 50 μg/ml exposure group (high dose group) ; uninfected HBE cells were used as control group. The DNA fragments were hybridized with the chip, the chip scanned and read the data, analyzed the data, screened the differential methylation sites, carried out GO analysis and KEGG analysis of the differential methylation sites, and analyzed the interaction relationship of the overall differential methylation sites by functional epigenetic modules (FEMs). Results: Compared with the control group, 127 differential methylation sites were screened in the low-dose group, including 89 genes, including 55 sites with increased methylation level and 72 sites with decreased methylation level. The differential methylation sites were mainly concentrated in the Body region and UTR region. Compared with the control group, 238 differential methylation sites were screened in the high-dose group, including 168 genes, of which 127 sites had increased methylation level and 111 sites had decreased methylation level. The differential heterotopic sites were mainly concentrated in the Body region and UTR region. Through FEMs analysis, 8 genes with the most interaction were screened, of which 6 genes had significant changes in methylation level. MALT1 gene related to apoptosis was found in the heterotopic site of methylation difference in low-dose group; PIK3CA and ARID1A genes related to carcinogenesis were found in the heterotopic sites of methylation difference in high-dose group; TNF genes related to tumor inhibition were found in the results of FEMs analysis. Conclusion: After PM(2.5) exposure to HBE cells, the DNA methylation level is significantly changed, and genes related to apoptosis and carcinogenesis are screened out, suggesting that the carcinogenic mutagenic effect of PM(2.5) may be related to DNA methylation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/analysis , Carcinogenesis , DNA Methylation , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Technology
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