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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Pakistan , Smog , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 675-683, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278351

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to evaluate losses, production and polluting potential of the effluent, nutritional value and aerobic stability of silages of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Paiaguás grass, in different particle sizes and compaction density in silage. Three theoretical particle sizes (TTP 5; 8 and 12mm) and three compaction densities (DC 550; 600 and 650kg/m3) were evaluated, distributed in a factorial design (3 x 3), with four repetitions. The highest volume of effluent was found in silages with higher compaction densities (600 and 650kg/m3) and lower TTP (5 and 8mm). The highest chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand were registered in the treatment with TTP of 5mm and higher DC (600 and 650kg/m3). Greater in vitro digestibility of DM was verified in the silage chopped at 5 and 8mm. There was no break in aerobic stability for 216 hours. Silage with a low compaction density 550kg/m3 and processing with a theoretical particle size of 12mm reduces effluent losses. In general, the nutritional value of Paiaguás grass was not influenced by the treatments. Different particle sizes and compaction density did not change the aerobic stability of silages.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar perdas, produção e potencial poluidor do efluente, valor nutricional e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens do capim Brachiaria brizantha cv. Paiaguás, em diferentes tamanhos de partícula e densidade de compactação na ensilagem. Foram avaliados três tamanhos teóricos de partícula (TTP 5; 8 e 12mm) e três densidades de compactação (DC 550; 600 e 650kg/m3), distribuídos em arranjo fatorial (3 x 3), com quatro repetições. O maior volume de efluente foi verificado nas silagens com maiores densidades de compactação (600 e 650kg/m3) e menores TTP (5 e 8mm). As maiores demanda química de oxigênio e demanda bioquímica de oxigênio foram registradas no tratamento com TTP de 5mm e nas maiores DC (600 e 650kg/m3). Maior digestibilidade in vitro da MS (média de 57,2%) foi verificada na silagem picada a 5 e 8mm. Não houve quebra da estabilidade aeróbia durante 216 horas. A ensilagem com baixa densidade de compactação (550kg/m3) e o processamento com tamanho teórico de partículas 12mm reduzem as perdas por efluente. O valor nutricional da silagem de capim-paiaguás, em geral, não foi influenciado pelos tratamentos. Diferentes tamanhos de partícula e densidade de compactação não alteraram a estabilidade aeróbia das silagens.(AU)


Subject(s)
Solid Waste Compaction/analysis , Waste Management/methods , Brachiaria , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Particulate Matter , Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis/methods
3.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-8, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1283061

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En los estudios espirométricos se recomienda que cada población cuente con sus propios valores de referencia debido a condiciones regionales y a características de tipo étnico, etario, social, geográfico y climático. Estudios previos muestran elevados niveles de material particulado, hidrocarburos policíclicos y compuestos volátiles en el aire de La Plata y alrededores, con correlación entre exposición crónica a contaminantes y efectos adversos sobre desarrollo y función pulmonar. El objetivo fue establecer valores de referencia regionales para parámetros espirométricos en jóvenes de La Plata, siguiendo las recomendaciones de la American Thoracic Society (ATS) y la European Respiratory Society (ERS). MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, observacional y descriptivo. Se realizaron y analizaron 171 espirometrías a jóvenes sanos de 13-17 años. Se llevaron a cabo medidas de correlación, identificando las variables predictoras. Para las ecuaciones de predicción se ajustaron modelos de regresión en función del sexo. RESULTADOS: La mayor correlación se encontró con talla y peso. Se desarrollaron ecuaciones para capacidad vital forzada (FVC) y volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (FEV1) según género. DISCUSIÓN: El cálculo de nuevos parámetros con valores menores a los propuestos por un estudio en Barcelona y adaptados por la Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica (SEPAR) confirmó la importancia de contar con valores de referencia regionales.


Subject(s)
Spirometry , Air Pollution , Particulate Matter , Volatile Organic Compounds
4.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(4): 167-171, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362145

ABSTRACT

La exposición a las emanaciones de incendios forestales es un importante problema de salud pública nacional e internacional. El cambio climático que conlleva sequía y aumento de la temperatura estival aumenta el riesgo y magnitud de los episodios de incendios forestales, generándose grandes incendios cuyas emanaciones pueden afectar a poblaciones distanciadas del epicentro. La asociación entre la exposición a las emanaciones de los incendios forestales, el aumento de las concentraciones de material particulado aéreo y la morbilidad respiratoria (exacerbación de asma y enfermedades respiratorias crónicas) ha sido evidenciada en diversos estudios. Sin embargo, es difícil realizar un metaanálisis de ellos, ya que la metodología empleada es muy disímil. Entre los principales mecanismos de morbilidad se encontrarían: la producción de citoquinas proinflamatorias, la activación endotelial y la disfunción del sistema nervioso autónomo. Ante la exposición al humo de incendios forestales, se produce daño tisular, aumento de los mecanismos protrombóticos, aumento de la presión arterial y cambios en el ritmo cardiaco, que explicaría los efectos cardiovasculares. Los sujetos con patología cardiovascular preexistente podrían tener mayor riesgo cardiovascular; sin embargo, existen factores confundentes en esta asociación. Por otra parte, el posible riesgo cancerígeno con la exposición a estas emanaciones requiere mayores estudios poblacionales.


Exposure to forest fire fumes is a major national and international public health issue. Climate change that leads to drought and increased summer temperature increases the risk and magnitude of wildfires episodes, generating mega-fires whose fumes not only affect the boundary population, but they may become transcontinental. Association between exposure to forest fire fumes, mainly increased concentrations of air born particulate matter and respiratory morbidity (exacerbation of asthma and chronic respiratory diseases) has been evidenced by diverse studies. However, it is difficult to carry out meta-analysis with them since the methodology used is dissimilar. Among the main causes of morbidity have been postulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelial activation and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Occurrence of tissue damage, increased prothrombotic mechanisms, increased blood pressure and changes in heart rate, would explain the cardiovascular effects associated with exposure to smoke from these fires. However, epidemiological outcomes have not been entirely consistent, as the association between cardiovascular morbidity and exposure to wildfire fumes may be mixed with confounding factors. Despite this, patients with pre-existing cardiovascular pathology may be at increased risk. Finally, the potential risk of carcinogen with exposure to these fumes requires further population studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Wildfires , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Public Health
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposure to air pollution may increase stroke risk, but the results remain inconsistent. Evidence of more recent studies is highly warranted, especially gas air pollutants.@*METHODS@#We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify studies till February 2020 and conducted a meta-analysis on the association between air pollution (PM@*RESULTS@#A total of 68 studies conducted from more than 23 million participants were included in our meta-analysis. Meta-analyses showed significant associations of all six air pollutants and stroke hospital admission (e.g., PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#Exposure to air pollution was positively associated with an increased risk of stroke hospital admission (PM


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Stroke/mortality
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878359

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to use an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system to simulate the inhalation exposure of motorcycle exhaust particulates (MEPs) and then investigate the benchmark dose (BMD) of MEPs by evaluating cell relative viability (CRV) in lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells.@*Methods@#The MEPs dose was characterized by measuring the number concentration (NC), surface area concentration (SAC), and mass concentration (MC). BEAS-2B cells were exposed to MEPs at different concentrations @*Results@#Our results reveal that BMD of NC and SAC were estimated by the best-fitting Hill model, while MC was estimated by Polynomial model. The BMDL for CRV following ALI exposure to MEPs were as follows: 364.2#/cm @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that MEPs exposure


Subject(s)
Benchmarking/statistics & numerical data , Bronchi/physiology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Humans , Motorcycles , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878319

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Epidemiological studies reveal that exposure to fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM @*Methods@#EVs were isolated from the serum of healthy subjects, quantified @*Results@#PM @*Conclusions@#EVs treatment promotes cell survival and attenuates PM


Subject(s)
A549 Cells , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Ambient fine particle (PM@*METHODS@#A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to analyze YLL from respiratory diseases in the elderly related to ambient PM@*RESULTS@#Each 10 μg/m@*CONCLUSIONS@#Birth season which reflects the early-life PM


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Air Pollutants/analysis , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Cross-Over Studies , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Life Expectancy , Particulate Matter/analysis , Respiration Disorders/mortality , Seasons
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development.@*METHOD@#In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM@*RESULTS@#Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health.@*CONCLUSION@#Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Disease Models, Animal , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Epigenomics , Female , Humans , Immune System Diseases/chemically induced , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Oxidative Stress , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Young Adult
11.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 750-766, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922505

ABSTRACT

Exposure to particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) potentially triggers airway inflammation by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a key modulator in inflammation. However, the function and specific mechanisms of SIRT2 in PM2.5-induced airway inflammation are largely understudied. Therefore, this work investigated the mechanisms of SIRT2 in regulating the phosphorylation and acetylation of p65 influenced by PM2.5-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Results revealed that PM2.5 exposure lowered the expression and activity of SIRT2 in bronchial tissues. Subsequently, SIRT2 impairment promoted the phosphorylation and acetylation of p65 and activated the NF-κB signaling pathway. The activation of p65 triggered airway inflammation, increment of mucus secretion by goblet cells, and acceleration of tracheal stenosis. Meanwhile, p65 phosphorylation and acetylation, airway inflammation, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were deteriorated in SIRT2 knockout mice exposed to PM2.5. Triptolide (a specific p65 inhibitor) reversed p65 activation and ameliorated PM2.5-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of PM2.5 exposure. Triptolide inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and acetylation could be an effective therapeutic approach in averting PM2.5-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Inflammation , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Signal Transduction , Sirtuin 2/metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1478-1484, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922282

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the toxic damage and possible mechanism of chronic exposure of ambient particulate matter (PM@*METHODS@#Mice were treated with different doses (150, 300, 600 mg/kg) of chitosan after exposure to PM@*RESULTS@#Compared with the mice in control group, IL-2 secretion and CXCL12 expression were decreased in the bone marrow of PM@*CONCLUSION@#Chronic exposure of PM


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow , Chitosan , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic System , Mice , Particulate Matter/toxicity
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#International Labour Organization (ILO) report indicates more than 2.4 million workers die from work-related diseases and accidents each year. Work-related respiratory ailments related to airborne particulate matter such as flour dust are responsible for about 386,000 deaths and 6.6 million illness-adjusted life years. Even though exposure to flour dust together with the extreme expansions of flour mill sectors is a priority health concern, extent of the problem is little investigated in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude and risk factors of work-related respiratory symptoms among flour mill workers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.@*METHODS@#This study employed a comparative cross-sectional survey of 560 samples (280 exposed group from flour mill workers and 280 unexposed group from office workers) with a stratified random sampling technique. The study was conducted from March to April 2019 in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. We used the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) questionnaire to assess work-related respiratory symptoms. The questionnaire was pretested and interview administered to collect data. Binary logistic regression analysis was fitted to evaluate significant factors of respiratory symptoms at a < 0.05 p value. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95% was calculated to determine a strength of association.@*RESULTS@#All the sampled participants had fully responded to the interview. The median age of exposed and unexposed groups was 28.5 interquartile range (IQR, 20) and 31 (IQR, 15) years, respectively. The prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms among flour mill workers was substantially higher than that of among controls, 63.9% and 20.7%, respectively (Χ@*CONCLUSION@#Respiratory symptoms emanating from exposure to various flour dusts were significantly higher among flour mill workers than among the control group. Therefore, we recommend the need to effectively implement health and safety programs that account for the reduction of dust at a source, use of engineering controls (e.g., provision of adequate ventilation systems), use of administrative measures (e.g., training program and health surveillance) and provision of a suitable personal protective equipment (PPE). Furthermore, it is vital to integrate workplace health and safety programs to the wider public health policies and strategies to effectively mitigate the burden of work-related respiratory conditions. We also encourage future studies to evaluate concentration of flour dusts combined with physical examinations to establish plausible associations of respiratory symptoms with dusts of flour mill-related origin.


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dust , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Flour , Humans , Male , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Prevalence , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM) is recognized as the most harmful air pollutant to the human health. The Yangon city indeed suffers much from PM-related air pollution. Recent research has interestingly been focused on the novel subject of changes in the air quality associated with the restrictive measures in place during the current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The first case of COVID-19 in Myanmar was diagnosed on March 23, 2020. In this article, we report on our attempt to evaluate any effects of the COVID-19-restrictive measures on the ambient PM pollution in Yangon.@*METHODS@#We measured the PM concentrations every second for 1 week on four occasions at three study sites with different characteristics; the first occasion was before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and the remaining three occasions were while the COVID-19-restrictive measures were in place, including Stay-At-Home and Work-From-Home orders. The Pocket PM@*RESULTS@#The results showed that there was a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in both the PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#We concluded that the restrictive measures which were in effect to combat the COVID-19 pandemic had a positive impact on the ambient PM concentrations. The changes in the PM concentrations are considered to be largely attributable to reduction in anthropogenic emissions as a result of the restrictive measures, although seasonal influences could also have contributed in part. Thus, frequent, once- or twice-weekly Stay-At-Home or Telework campaigns, may be feasible measures to reduce PM-related air pollution. When devising such an action plan, it would be essential to raise the awareness of public about the health risks associated with air pollution and create a social environment in which Telework can be carried out, in order to ensure active compliance by the citizens.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1250-1257, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134433

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Residential heating with wood is an important source of ambient air pollution. Evidence links air pollution to serious health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to wood smoke pollution causes morphological changes in the development of the rat lung, leading to altered lung structure and function during later life. We presumed that analysis of the fetal lung stereology provides novel insights into the underlying processes mediating particulate matter associated developmental changes and damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure during gestational period to wood smoke pollution on lung fetal morphology. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution. Complete lungs samples were obtained from 24 fetus from healthy female G3 rats subjected to cesarean at 19 days post-fecundation. The lungs were prepared for histological and stereological analysis. The volume fraction of terminal bronchioles VV [tb, lung] and volume fraction of parenchyma VV [par, lung], surface density of terminal bronchioles SV [tb, lung] as well as numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung] were calculated by light microscopy. Statistical analysis detected significant differences between groups in volume density VV [tb, lung; %] (p=0.0012) and surface density SV [tb, lung; mm2/mm3] (p<0.0001) of the terminal bronchioles. However, it did not show differences between groups in the stereological parameter volume density VV [par, lung; %] (p=0.0838) and numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung; nº/mm2] (p=0.0705). The analysis of the evidence obtained indicates that exposure to environmental pollution was affects lung maturation, and particularly the proportion and area of terminal bronchioles in the fetal lung. In conclusion, maternal exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the lower conducting airways of lungs, which, according to urban pollution studies, could be related to early childhood lower respiratory illness. The public health implications of this study are that reducing or avoiding exposure to wood smoke is important before and during pregnancy.


RESUMEN: La calefacción residencial con leña es una fuente importante de contaminación ambiental. La evidencia vincula la contaminación del aire con graves efectos sobre la salud, como la mortalidad y la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular. Hipotetizamos que la exposición prenatal a la contaminación por humo de leña causa cambios en el desarrollo del pulmón de rata, lo que conduce a una morfo-función pulmonar alteradas durante la vida posterior, creemos que el análisis de la estereología pulmonar fetal proporcionará nuevos conocimientos sobre los procesos subyacentes que median esos cambios. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición prenatal a la contaminación ambiental por humo de leña sobre la morfología pulmonar fetal. Ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña. En fetos de 19 días post-fecundación fue obtenido el pulmón para análisis histológico y estereológico. Fue determinado la fracción de volumen de bronquiolos terminales VV [tb, pulmón], fracción de volumen del parénquima VV [par, pulmón], densidad superficial de los bronquiolos terminales SV [tb, pulmón] así como la densidad numérica de exocrinocitos NA [ec, pulmón]. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias significativas entre grupos en la densidad de volumen V [tb, pulmón; %] (p=0,0012) y densidad superficial SV [tb, pulmón; mm2/mm3] (p<0,0001) de los bronquiolos terminales. Sin embargo, no demostró diferencias entre grupos en la densidad de volumen VV [par, pulmón; %] (p=0,0838) y numérica de exocrinocitos bronquiolares NA [ec, pulmón; nº / mm ] (p=0,0705). El análisis de la evidencia obtenida indica que la exposición a la contaminación ambiental afectó la maduración pulmonar, y particularmente la proporción y área de bronquiolos terminales en el pulmón fetal. En conclusión, la exposición materna a la contaminación por humo de leña durante la gestación se asoció a una disminución de las vías respiratorias conductoras de aire en pulmón, lo que, según estudios de contaminación urbana, podría estar relacionado con enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en la primera infancia. Las implicaciones para la salud pública de este estudio son que reducir o evitar la exposición al humo de leña es importante previo y durante la gestación. Por otro lado, la contaminación por humo de leña tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública que, en teoría, es posible prevenir.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Wood , Analysis of Variance , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Heating , Lung/pathology
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1356-1364, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134448

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Studies in humans showed that prenatal exposure to urban air pollution (AP) influences fetal development, and increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and some diseases in postnatal life. However, most of these were performed in environments where the main source of environmental particulate matters (PM) emission is diesel combustion by motor vehicles and industries, thereby ignoring the effects produced by wood smoke pollution. We hypothesized that morphological changes in the placenta could contribute to the reduction in fetal size associated with different periods of exposure to AP produced by wood smoke pollution prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to investigate the quantitative effects of long-term exposure to environmental levels of wood smoke pollution on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the placenta in rats. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution in indoor and outdoor environments. At 19 days of gestation, the placentas were obtained by caesarean and were prepared for histological, planimetric and stereological analysis. The volume and proportions of the placental compartments were estimated. In addition, stereological estimators in fetal capillaries were calculated in the labyrinth region. Crown rump length, fetus weight and litter weight were influenced by pregestational and gestational exposure periods. Exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregestational period has significant effect on the volume of the placenta, and consequently on fetal height. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that long-term outdoor exposure to wood smoke pollution from residential heating affects fetal health, decreasing the absolute volume of the entire placenta and the placental interface between the mother and fetus, decreasing the total volume of blood vessels present in the labyrinth region ofthe placenta and affecting the size of the fetus.


RESUMEN: Estudios en humanos demostraron que la exposición prenatal a la polución del aire urbano influye en el desarrollo fetal y aumenta la incidencia de resultados adversos de la gestación y algunas enfermedades postnatales. Sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos fueron realizados en entornos donde la principal fuente de emisión de material particulado, fue la combustión de petróleo por vehículos a motor e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de leña producido por la calefacción intradomiciliaria. Hipotetizamos respecto a que los cambios de la placenta contribuirían a la disminución del tamaño fetal relacionado a los períodos de exposición al humo de leña durante los periodos pregestacional y gestacional. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos cuantitativos de la exposición al humo de leña sobre la morfología macroscópica y microscópica en placenta de ratas. Para probar esto, ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña en ambientes interiores y exteriores. A los 19 días de gestación, las placentas fueron obtenidas por cesárea y fueron preparadas para un análisis histológico, planimétrico y estereológico. Fue estimado el volumen absoluto y las proporciones de los compartimentos placentarios. Además, fueron calculados estimadores estereológicos en capilares fetales del laberinto y trofoblasto. La longitud, el peso del feto y el peso de la camada fueron influenciados por los períodos de exposición pregestacional y gestacional. La exposición a la contaminación por humo de leñá durante el período pregestacional tuvo un efecto significativo en el volumen de la placenta y, en consecuencia, en la altura del feto. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que la exposición a largo plazo al humo de leña afecta la salud del feto, disminuyendo el volumen absoluto de la placenta, además, afecta la interfaz placentaria entre la madre y feto, disminuyendo el volumen total de vasos sanguíneos presentes en la región del laberinto placentario y por consecuente afectando el tamaño del feto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Placenta/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Wood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Combustion/adverse effects , Body Size , Fetal Development/drug effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(2): 126-132, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139673

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate material produced as a result of increased agricultural activity may increase the number of pneumonia hospitalizations among children. We hope to contribute to the knowledge base through highlighting the environmental mechanisms involved in this outcome and optimizing pollutant control policies. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between pneumonia hospitalizations among children and presence of environmental pollutants in a town in the Brazilian Legal Amazon region. DESIGN AND SETTING: Time series study conducted in the town of Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. METHODS: A total of 158 children aged 0 to 10 years participated in the study. Data on environmental variables and pollutants were extracted daily through the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model coupled to Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS). Meteorological data were provided by the Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies Center (CPTEC). RESULTS: There was greater frequency of pneumonia hospitalizations in the months of transition between the rainy and dry seasons, with a prevalence ratio 2.4 times higher than in other periods. For environmental pollutants, there was a significant positive correlation between particulate matter (PM2.5) and pneumonia hospitalizations (correlation 0.11), with more admissions on the days when PM2.5 levels were highest (averages of 6.6 µg/m3 when there were no admissions and 13.11 µg/m3 on days with two or more admissions). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the PM2.5 level was, the greater the frequency of hospitalizations also was. Children living in peripheral areas had higher prevalence of pneumonia hospitalizations in the dry period than those who were living in the town center.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Particulate Matter , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
18.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 11(1): e870, Ene.-2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1118232

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La contaminación atmosférica es un problema medioambiental que afecta de manera negativa a la salud. Objetivo: Asociar los niveles de contaminación atmosférica y la morbilidad respiratoria. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio ecológico, observacional realizado a la población urbana de la ciudad de Cochabamba, del 1 de enero de 2012 al 31 de diciembre de 2016. Los datos se recolectaron a través de la Red de Monitoreo de la Calidad de Aire de Cochabamba (estaciones de Semapa, Coña Coña y Parque Kanata) y el Hospital Clínico Viedma. El análisis estadístico se realizó con la prueba de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: El promedio de casos semanales de enfermedades respiratorias presentó una correlación positiva muy baja con el promedio semanal de PM10 de las tres estaciones de monitoreo atmosférico (r = 0,181, p < 0,004; r = 0,242, p < 0,001;r = 0,183, p < 0,011) y una correlación positiva baja o muy baja con el promedio semanal de NO2 registrada cada hora (r = 0,365, p < 0,000; r = 0,127, p < 0,05). También de forma consistente se observó una correlación negativa baja con el promedio semanal de HR (r = -0,388, p < 0,000) y muy baja con el promedio semanal de precipitaciones (r = -0,250, p < 0,000). Discusión y Conclusiones: Se observó una correlación lineal positiva baja o muy baja entre los ingresos semanales por enfermedades respiratorias y el promedio de contaminantes atmosféricos en el periodo 2012-2016.


Introduction: Atmospheric pollution is an environmental problem that negatively affects health. Objective: To associate the levels of atmospheric pollution with respiratory morbidity. Materials and Methods: An ecological observational study was conducted with the urban population of the city of Cochabamba from January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2016. Data was collected through the Cochabamba Air Quality Monitoring Network (Semapa, Coña Coña and Kanata Park stations) and the Viedma Clinical Hospital. The statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: The average number of weekly cases of respiratory diseases showed a very weak positive correlation with a weekly average of PM10 in the three atmospheric monitoring stations (r = 0.181, p < 0.004; r = 0.242, p < 0.001; r = 0.183, p < 0.011) and a weak or very weak positive correlation with a weekly average of NO2 recorded every hour (r = 0.365, p < 0.000; r = 0.127, p < 0.05). A weak negative correlation with the weekly average of RH (r = -0.388, p < 0.000) and a very weak correlation with the weekly average of precipitations (r = -0.250, p < 0.000) was also consistently observed. Discussion and Conclusions: A weak or very weak positive linear correlation was observed between the weekly admissions due to respiratory diseases and the average of atmospheric pollutants over the period 2012-2016.


Introdução: A contaminação atmosférica é um problema meio ambiental que afeta negativamente à saúde. Objetivo: Associar os níveis de contaminação atmosférica e a morbilidade respiratória. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo ecológico, observacional realizado na população urbana da cidade de Cochabamba, de 1 de janeiro de 2012 à 31 de dezembro de 2016. Os dados foram coletados através da Rede de Monitoramento da Qualidade do Ar de Cochabamba (estações de Semapa, Coña Coña e Parque Kanata) e o Hospital Clínico Viedma. A análise estatística foi realizada através do teste de correlação de Spearman. Resultados: A média de casos semanais de doenças respiratórias apresentou uma correlação positiva muito baixa a respeito da média semanal de PM10 das três estacoes de monitoramento atmosférico (r = 0,181, p < 0,004; r = 0,242, p < 0,001;r = 0,183, p < 0,011) e uma correlação positiva baixa ou muito baixa a respeito da média semanal de NO2 registrada cada hora (r = 0,365, p < 0,000; r = 0,127, p < 0,05). Verificou-se também de forma consistente uma correlação negativa baixa a respeito da média semanal de HR (r = -0,388, p < 0,000) e muito baixa com a média semanal de precipitações (r = -0,250, p < 0,000). Discussão e Conclusões: Observou-se uma correlação lineal positiva baixa ou muito baixa entre a renda semanal por doenças respiratórias e a média de contaminantes atmosféricos no período 2012-2016.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Air Pollution , Particulate Matter
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(6): e00246118, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124289

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Coyhaique, en el sur de Chile, es una de las ciudades más contaminadas de América, debido a la quema de leña. En 2016, se lanzó una sustitución masiva de la tecnología de calefacción residencial para disminuir las concentraciones de partículas de aire en el invierno. Basado en análisis de series de tiempo, el artículo analiza el efecto de esta medida en los niveles de MP2,5 y en las hospitalizaciones por afecciones respiratorias agudas en personas menores de 15 años.


Abstract: Coyhaique (Southern Chile) is one of the most polluted cities in the Americas due to the burning of firewood. In 2016, a mass substitution of residential heating technology was launched to decrease the air concentrations of particulate matter in the winter. Based on time series analyses, the article discusses the effect of this measure on PM2.5 levels and hospitalizations for acute respiratory conditions in individuals under 15 years of age.


Resumo: Coyhaique, no sul de Chile, é uma das cidades mais poluídas devido a queima de lenha nas Américas. Em 2016 se deu início a uma massiva substituição da tecnologia de aquecimento do interior das vivendas para diminuir as concentrações atmosféricas de material particulado no inverno. Através de análises de séries temporais, o artigo discute o efeito desta medida nos níveis de MP2,5 e nas internações por urgências respiratórias em menores de 15 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Seasons , Technology , Brazil , Chile , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis , Heating , Hospitalization
20.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(7): e00177719, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124301

ABSTRACT

A exposição ao material particulado fino (MP2,5) está associada a inúmeros desfechos à saúde. Desta forma, monitoramento da concentração ambiental do MP2,5 é importante, especialmente em áreas amplamente industrializadas, pois abrigam potenciais emissores do MP2,5 e de substâncias com potencial de aumentar a toxicidade de partículas já suspensas. O objetivo desta pesquisa é estimar a concentração diária do MP2,5 em três áreas de influência do Complexo Industrial e Portuário do Pecém (CIPP), Ceará, Brasil. Foi aplicado um modelo de regressão não linear para a estimativa do MP2,5, por meio de dados de profundidade óptica monitorados por satélite. As estimativas foram realizadas em três áreas de influência (Ai) do CIPP (São Gonçalo do Amarante - Ai I, Paracuru e Paraipaba - Ai II e Caucaia - Ai III, no período de 2006 a 2017. As médias anuais das concentrações estimadas foram inferiores ao estabelecido pela legislação nacional em todas as Ai (8µg m-3). Em todas as Ai, os meses referentes ao período de seca (setembro a fevereiro) apresentaram as maiores concentrações e uma predominância de ventos leste para oeste. Os meses que compreendem o período de chuva (março a agosto) apresentaram as menores concentrações e ventos menos definidos. As condições meteorológicas podem exercer um papel importante nos processos de remoção, dispersão ou manutenção das concentrações do material particulado na região. Mesmo com baixas concentrações estimadas, é importante avaliar a constituição das partículas finas dessa região, bem como sua possível associação a efeitos adversos à saúde da população local.


Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. Thus, monitoring the environmental concentration of PM2.5 is important, especially in heavily industrialized areas, since they harbor potential emitters of PM2.5 and substances with the potential to increase the toxicity of already suspended particles. This study aims to estimate daily concentrations of PM2.5 in three areas under the influence of the Industrial and Port Complex of Pecém (CIPP), Ceará State, Brazil. A nonlinear regression model was applied to estimate PM2.5, using satellite-monitored optical depth data. Estimates were performed in three areas of influence (Ai) of the CIPP (São Gonçalo do Amarante - AiI, Paracuru and Paraipaba - AiII, and Caucaia - AiIII), from 2006 to 2017. Estimated mean annual concentrations were lower than established by Brazil's national legislation in all three Ai (8µg m-³). In all the Ai, the months of the dry season (September to February) showed the highest concentrations and a predominance of east winds, while the months of the rainy season (March to August) showed the lowest concentrations and less defined winds Weather conditions can play an important role in the removal, dispersal, or maintenance of concentrations of particulate matter in the region. Even at low estimated concentrations, it is important to assess the composition of fine participles in this region and their possible association with adverse health outcomes in the local population.


La exposición al material particulado fino (MP2,5) está asociada a innumerables problemas de salud. Por ello, la supervisión de la concentración ambiental del MP2,5 es importante, especialmente en áreas ampliamente industrializadas, puesto que albergan potenciales emisores de MP2,5 y de sustancias con potencial de aumentar la toxicidad de partículas ya suspendidas. El objetivo de esta investigación es estimar la concentración diaria del MP2,5 en tres áreas de influencia del Complejo Industrial y Portuario de Pecém (CIPP), Ceará, Brasil. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión no lineal para la estimación del MP2,5, mediante datos de profundidad óptica supervisados por satélite. Las estimaciones fueron realizadas en tres áreas de influencia (Ai) del CIPP (São Gonçalo do Amarante - Ai I, Paracuru y Paraipaba - Ai II y Caucaia - Ai III en el período de 2006 a 2017. Las medias anuales de las concentraciones estimadas fueron inferiores a lo establecido por la legislación nacional en todas las Ai (8µg m-³). En todas las Ai, los meses referentes al período de sequía (de setiembre a febrero) presentaron las mayores concentraciones y una predominancia de vientos este a oeste, los meses que comprenden el período de lluvia (marzo a agosto) presentaron las menores concentraciones y vientos menos definidos. Las condiciones meteorológicas pueden ejercer un papel importante en los procesos de eliminación, dispersión o mantenimiento de las concentraciones del material particulado en la región. Incluso con bajas concentraciones estimadas es importante que se evalúe la constitución de las partículas finas de esta región, así como su posible asociación con efectos adversos para la salud de la población local.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution/analysis , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Particulate Matter/analysis
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