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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Pakistan , Smog , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(1): e202202588, feb. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1412864

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El material particulado (PM) es uno de los contaminantes del aire que mayor implicación tienen en la aparición o exacerbación de cuadros respiratorios en niños. Objetivo. Describir las características de las consultas por enfermedades respiratorias agudas en menores de 15 años, los niveles de PM en el aire, y analizar la asociación existente entre ellos en un sector de Bahía Blanca entre abril de 2019 y marzo de 2020. Población y métodos. Estudio ecológico de series temporales y grupos múltiples. Análisis descriptivo de consultas totales, por área, diagnóstico, y del PM. Modelo de correlación y regresión lineal generalizado para determinar la relación entre las variables. Se utilizó el programa SPSS®. Resultados. Se recopilaron 4787 consultas. Un 38,6 % (1846) correspondieron a rinitis y un 21,1 % (1011) a broncoespasmo. El PM de 10 nm (PM10) superó su valor límite el 31 % (115) de los días de estudio y el de 2,5 nm (PM2,5) un 3 % (8). Un aumento del 10 % del PM2,5 demostró incrementos de 1,3 % en las consultas totales; el incremento llegó al 2,1 % en el área más cercana al sector industrial (p <0,05). En esta última, el aumento del 10 % de los valores de PM10 se asoció al aumento del 1,8 % de las consultas (p <0,05). Conclusión. Se demostró asociación positiva entre las consultas por enfermedad respiratoria aguda y los niveles de PM del aire, sobre todo con el PM2,5 y en el área más cercana al sector industrial.


Introduction. Particulate matter (PM) is one of the air pollutants most involved in the onset or exacerbation of respiratory conditions in children. Objective. To describe the characteristics of consultations for acute respiratory diseases in children younger than 15 years and the levels of PM in the air and to analyze their association in a sector of Bahía Blanca between April 2019 and March 2020. Population and methods. Ecological, time-series study with multiple groups. Descriptive analysis of total number of consultations, by area, diagnosis, and PM. Generalized linear correlation and regression model to determine the relationship among variables. The SPSS® software was used. Results. Data from 4787 consultations were collected. Of these, 38.6% (1846) were related to rhinitis and 21.1% (1011), to bronchospasm. PM of 10 nm (PM10) exceeded its limit value on 31% (115) of the study days, and PM of 2.5 nm (PM2.5), on 3% (8). A 10% increase in PM2.5 showed increases of 1.3% in total consultations; the increase reached 2.1% in the area closest to the industrial sector (p < 0.05). In the latter, a 10% increase in PM10 was associated with an increase of 1.8% in consultations (p < 0.05). Conclusion. A positive association was evidenced between consultations for acute respiratory diseases and PM levels in the air, especially with PM2.5 and in the area closest to the industrial sector.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Argentina , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
3.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 641-648, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985456

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the association of mixed exposure to greenness and nitrogen dioxide(NO2) and hypertension among the older adults aged 65 years and over in China. Methods: The study subjects were from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2017 to 2018. A total of 15 423 older adults aged 65 years and over meeting the criteria were finally included in the study. A questionnaire survey was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits and self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Blood pressure values were obtained through physical examination. The level of normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) was measured by the Medium-resolution Imaging Spectral Radiator(MODIS) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA). The concentration of NO2 was from China's surface air pollutant data set. Meteorological data was from NASA MERRA-2. The exposure to NDVI and NO2 for each study subject was calculated based on the area within a 1 km radius around their residence. The association between mixed exposure of NDVI and NO2 as well as their interaction and hypertension in older adults was analyzed by using the multivariate logistic regression model. The restrictive cubic spline(RCS) function was used to explore the exposure-response relationship between greenness and NO2 and the risk of hypertension in study subjects. Results: The mean age of 15 423 older adults were (85.6±11.6). Women accounted for 56.3%(8 685/15 423) and 55.6%(8 578/15 423) lived in urban areas. The mean time of residence was (60.9±28.5) years. 59.8% of participants were with hypertension. The mean NDVI level was 0.41±0.13, and the mean NO2 concentration was (32.18±10.36) μg/cm3. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that NDVI was inversely and linearly associated with the hypertension in older adults, with the OR(95%CI) value of 0.959(0.928-0.992). Compared with the T1 group of NDVI, the risk of hypertension was lower in the T3 group, with the OR(95%CI) value of 0.852(0.769-0.944), and the trend test was statistically significant(P<0.05). Compared with the T1 group of NO2, the risk of hypertension was higher in the T2 and T3 groups, with OR(95%CI) values of 1.160(1.055-1.275) and 1.244(1.111-1.393), and the trend test was statistically significant (P<0.05). The result of the RCS showed that NDVI was inversely and linearly associated with hypertension in older adults. NO2 was nonlinearly associated with hypertension in older adults. The interaction analysis showed that NDVI and NO2 had a negative multiplicative interaction on the risk of hypertension, with OR(95%CI) value of 0.995(0.992-0.997). Conclusion: Exposure to greenness and NO2 are associated with hypertension in older adults.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Female , Nitrogen Dioxide , Air Pollution , Prevalence , Hypertension/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis
4.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 382-389, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981277

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the overall level,distribution characteristics,and differences in household fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution caused by fuel burning in urban and rural areas in China. Methods The relevant articles published from 1991 to 2021 were retrieved and included in this study.The data including the average concentration of household PM2.5 and urban and rural areas were extracted,and the stoves and fuel types were reclassified.The average concentration of PM2.5 in different areas was calculated and analyzed by nonparametric test. Results The average household PM2.5 concentration in China was (178.81±249.91) μg/m3.The mean household PM2.5 concentration was higher in rural areas than in urban areas[(206.08±279.40) μg/m3 vs. (110.63±131.16) μg/m3;Z=-5.45,P<0.001] and higher in northern areas than in southern areas[(224.27±301.66) μg/m3 vs.(130.11±140.61) μg/m3;Z=-2.38,P=0.017].The north-south difference in household PM2.5 concentration was more significant in rural areas than in urban areas[(324.19±367.94) μg/m3 vs.(141.20±151.05) μg/m3,χ2=-5.06,P<0.001].The PM2.5 pollution level showed differences between urban and rural households using different fuel types (χ2=92.85,P<0.001),stove types (χ2=74.42,P<0.001),and whether they were heating (Z=-4.43,P<0.001).Specifically,rural households mainly used solid fuels (manure,charcoal,coal) and traditional or improved stoves,while urban households mainly used clean fuels (gas) and clean stoves.The PM2.5 concentrations in heated households were higher than those in non-heated households in both rural and urban areas (Z=-4.43,P<0.001). Conclusions The household PM2.5 pollution caused by fuel combustion in China remains a high level.The PM2.5 concentration shows a significant difference between urban and rural households,and the PM2.5 pollution is more serious in rural households.The difference in the household PM2.5 concentration between urban and rural areas is more significant in northern China.PM2.5 pollution in the households using solid fuel,traditional stoves,and heating is serious,and thus targeted measures should be taken to control PM2.5 pollution in these households.


Subject(s)
Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Cooking , Environmental Exposure/analysis , China , Rural Population
5.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 3-3, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Weather conditions are a possible contributing factor to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of irreversible loss of vision. The present study evaluated the joint effects of meteorological factors and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on AMD.@*METHODS@#Data was extracted from a national cross-sectional survey conducted across 10 provinces in rural China. A total of 36,081 participants aged 40 and older were recruited. AMD was diagnosed clinically by slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Meteorological data were calculated by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis and were matched to participants' home addresses by latitude and longitude. Participants' individual PM2.5 exposure concentrations were calculated by a satellite-based model at a 1-km resolution level. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models paired with interaction analysis were performed to investigate the joint effects of meteorological factors and PM2.5 on AMD.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of AMD in the study population was 2.6% (95% CI 2.42-2.76%). The average annual PM2.5 level during the study period was 63.1 ± 15.3 µg/m3. A significant positive association was detected between AMD and PM2.5 level, temperature (T), and relative humidity (RH), in both the independent and the combined effect models. For PM2.5, compared with the lowest quartile, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across increasing quartiles were 0.828 (0.674,1.018), 1.105 (0.799,1.528), and 2.602 (1.516,4.468). Positive associations were observed between AMD and temperature, with ORs (95% CI) of 1.625 (1.059,2.494), 1.619 (1.026,2.553), and 3.276 (1.841,5.830), across increasing quartiles. In the interaction analysis, the estimated relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and the attributable proportion (AP) for combined atmospheric pressure and PM2.5 was 0.864 (0.586,1.141) and 1.180 (0.768,1.592), respectively, indicating a synergistic effect between PM2.5 and atmospheric pressure.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study is among the first to characterize the coordinated effects of meteorological factors and PM2.5 on AMD. The findings warrant further investigation to elucidate the relationship between ambient environment and AMD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , China/epidemiology , Macular Degeneration/etiology , Meteorological Concepts
6.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 38-49, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to investigate the association of ambient PM2.5 exposure with blood pressure (BP) at the population level in China.@*METHODS@#A total of 14,080 participants who had at least two valid blood pressure records were selected from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey during 2011-2015. Their long-term PM2.5 exposure was assessed at the geographical level, on the basis of a regular 0.1° × 0.1° grid over China. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess associations.@*RESULTS@#Each decrease of 10 μg/m3 in the 1 year-mean PM2.5 concentration (FPM1Y) was associated with a decrease of 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84-1.64] mmHg systolic BP (SBP) and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.25-0.75) mmHg diastolic BP (DBP), respectively. A robust association was observed between the long-term decrease in PM2.5 and decreased BP in the middle-aged and older population. Using a generalized additive mixed model, we further found that SBP increased nonlinearly overall with FPM1Y but in an approximately linear range when the FPM1Y concentration was < 70 µg/m3; In contrast, DBP increased approximately linearly without a clear threshold.@*CONCLUSION@#Efficient control of PM2.5 air pollution may promote vascular health in China. Our study provides robust scientific support for making the related air pollution control policies.


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Humans , Aged , Particulate Matter/analysis , Blood Pressure , Air Pollutants/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension/etiology , East Asian People , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 287-294, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970049

ABSTRACT

In China, the level of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution far exceeds the air quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization. Moreover, the health effects of PM 2.5 exposure have become a major public health issue. More than half of PM 2.5 -related excess deaths are caused by cardiopulmonary disease, which has become a major health risk associated with PM 2.5 pollution. In this review, we discussed the latest epidemiological advances relating to the health effects of PM 2.5 on cardiopulmonary diseases in China, including studies relating to the effects of PM 2.5 on mortality, morbidity, and risk factors for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. These data provided important evidence to highlight the cardiopulmonary risk associated with PM 2.5 across the world. In the future, further studies need to be carried out to investigate the specific relationship between the constituents and sources of PM 2.5 and cardiopulmonary disease. These studies provided scientific evidence for precise reduction measurement of pollution sources and public health risks. It is also necessary to identify effective biomarkers and elucidate the biological mechanisms and pathways involved; this may help us to take steps to reduce PM 2.5 pollution and reduce the incidence of cardiopulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Respiratory Tract Diseases , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
8.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 159-165, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969861

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common pregnancy complications and has serious implications for the health of mothers and their offspring. In recent years, studies have confirmed that air pollution is one of the main risk factors for diabetes, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution exposure is closely related to the occurrence of gestational diabetes. However, current studies on the association between air pollutant exposure and the incidence of gestational diabetes are inconsistent, and the window period of pollutant exposure is still unclear. Limited mechanistic studies suggest that airborne particulate matter and gaseous pollutants may affect GDM through multiple mechanisms, including inflammation, oxidative stress, disruption of adipokine secretion, and imbalance of intestinal flora. This review summarizes the relationship between air pollutant exposure and the incidence of GDM in recent years, as well as the possible molecular mechanism of the occurrence and development of GDM caused by air pollutants, in order to provide scientific basis for preventing pollutant exposure, reducing the risk of GDM, improving maternal and fetal outcomes and improving the quality of the birth population.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Risk Factors , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects
9.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 434-441, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982763

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the impact of PM 2.5 concentration in Shanghai on the incidence of allergic rhinitis(AR) in the population, and provide strategies for early warning and prevention of AR. Methods:Collect daily average concentrations of atmospheric pollutants monitored in Shanghai from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019, and clinical data of AR patients from five hospitals in Shanghai during the same period. We used a time-series analysis additive Poisson regression model to analyze the correlation between PM 2.5 levels and outpatient attendance for AR patients. Results:During the study period, a total of 56 500 AR patients were included, and the daily average concentration of PM 2.5 was(35.28±23.07)μg/m³. There is a correlation between the concentration of PM 2.5 and the number of outpatient attendance for AR cases. There is a positive correlation between the daily average number of outpatient for AR and levels of PM 2.5 air pollution((P<0.05)) . We found that every 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 2.5, the impact of on the number of AR visits was statistically significant on the same day, the first day behind, and the second day behind, with the strongest impact being the exposure on the same day. Every 10 μg/m³ increases in PM 2.5, the number of outpatient visits increased by 0.526% on the same day(95%CI 1.000 50-1.010 04). Conclusion:The atmospheric PM 2.5 concentration in Shanghai is positively correlated with the number of outpatient for AR, and PM 2.5 exposure is an independent factor in the onset of AR. This provides an important theoretical basis for AR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Incidence , China/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Rhinitis, Allergic/etiology
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 201-206, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935371

ABSTRACT

Objective: To forecast the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China by 2030 and evaluate the effectiveness of controlling risk factors based on the predictive model. Methods: Based on the relationship between the death of COPD and exposure to risk factors and the theory of comparative risk assessment, we used the estimates of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD2015) for China, targets for controlling risk factors, and proportion change model to project the number of deaths, standardized mortality rate, and probability of premature mortality from chronic respiratory diseases by 2030 in different scenarios and to evaluate the impact of controlling the included risk factors to the disease burden of COPD in 2030. Results: If the trends in exposure to risk factors from 1990 to 2015 continued, the number of deaths and the mortality for COPD would be 1.06 million and 73.85 per 100 000 population in China by 2030, respectively, with an increase of 15.81% and 10.69% compared to those in 2015. Compared to 2015, the age-standardized mortality rate would decrease by 38.88%, and the premature mortality would reduce by 52.73% by 2030. If the smoking rate and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration separately achieve their control targets by 2030, there would be 0.34 and 0.27 million deaths that could be avoided compared to the predicted numbers based on the natural trends in exposure to risk factors and the probability of premature death would reduce to 0.59% and 0.52%, respectively. If the control targets of all included risk factors were achieved by 2030, a total of 0.53 million deaths would be averted, and the probability of premature death would decrease to 0.44%. Conclusions: If the exposures to risk factors continued as showed from 1990 to 2015, the number of deaths and mortality for COPD would increase by 2030 compared to 2015, and the standardized mortality and the probability of premature death would decrease significantly, which would achieve the targets of preventing and controlling COPD. If the exposure to the included risk factors all achieved the targets by 2030, the burden of COPD would be reduced, suggesting that the control of tobacco use and air pollution should be enhanced to prevent and control COPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/prevention & control , Risk Factors
11.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 561-566, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935325

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution on depression hospitalization cost and length of stay in 57 cities of China. Methods: A total of 84 207 patients with depression in 57 cities of China from January 2013 to December 2017 were selected as the subjects. The demographic characteristics and hospitalization status of the patients were obtained from the database of basic medical insurance for urban workers and urban residents in China. The environmental exposure data of the same period were obtained from the national air quality real-time release platform of China Environmental Monitoring Station. A generalized additive model based on quasi-Poisson distribution was used to analyze PM2.5 exposure effect in each city, and the nonlinear mixing of moving average temperature, relative humidity and date was controlled by natural smooth spline function. Results: Among the included cities, southern cities accounted for 50.88% (29), and the number of female inpatients, hospitalization costs and hospitalization days accounted for 62.65%, 63.50% and 60.85% (42 735 cases, 567.78 million yuan and 1.14 million days, respectively). The proportion of hospitalized cases, hospitalization cost and length of stay in the age group of 40 to 64 years old were 59.15% (40 346 cases), 53.92% (482.15 million yuan) and 52.07% (0.98 million days), respectively. PM2.5 level was positively correlated with the number of hospitalized cases with depression, hospitalization cost and length of stay. When the 3-day moving average of PM2.5 exposure level increased by 10 μg/m3, the number of hospitalization cases increased by 0.64%. The attributed percentage (95%CI) of hospitalized cases, hospitalization costs and length of stay were 3.35% (0.57%-6.04%), 3.04% (0.52%-5.48%) and 3.07% (0.49%-5.56%), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the attributed percentage of hospitalization cases, hospitalization cost and length of stay to PM2.5 exposure ranged from 3.97% to 4.68%, 4.04% to 4.33% and 4.13% to 4.30% in northern China, male and cold season, respectively. Conclusion: PM2.5 exposure is associated with the increase of hospitalization cost and length of stay among Chinese urban population with depression.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Depression , Dust/analysis , Hospitalization , Particulate Matter/analysis
12.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 328-333, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935288

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the association between short-term exposure level of nitrogen dioxide and the hospitalization risk of heart failure. Methods: Based on China-PEACE Retrospective Heart Failure Study, 117 364 hospitalized patients with heart failure were recruited from 92 hospitals in 62 cities throughout China between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015. The daily exposure level of nitrogen dioxide, temperature, and humidity in the same cities during the same period were also collected. We applied the generalized additive model and Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify the lagged effect and cumulative effect of short-term (0-3 days) exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide on the hospitalization risk of heart failure. We further conducted stratified analyses by age, region, and season to identify any difference in the associations between short-term nitrogen dioxide exposure and heart failure among subgroups. Results: The mean age for participants in the analysis was (70.32±12.22) years. The median, minimum and maximum of daily nitrogen dioxide concentration in 62 cities from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015 was 26.4 μg/m3, 2.33 μg/m3 and 150.25 μg/m3, respectively. The exposure level of nitrogen dioxide at the same day was associated with the hospitalization risk of heart failure (OR=1.022, 95%CI: 1.012, 1.031). Significant effects were also observed in the moving average concentrations from lag 0-1 to lag 0-3 day (OR=1.020, 95%CI: 1.009, 1.030; OR=1.016, 95%CI: 1.004, 1.028; OR=1.013, 95%CI: 1.001, 1.026). Moreover, all of the associations between short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide and the risk of heart failure hospitalization were statistically significant, with no significant difference in all subgroups stratified by age, region, and season. Conclusion: A higher level of short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide could trigger more hospitalizations with heart failure.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
13.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 318-323, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927882

ABSTRACT

Air pollution has severe detrimental effects on public health.A substantial number of studies have demonstrated that air pollution exposure is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and a cause of non-communicable diseases.Both long-term and short-term exposure to air pollution are associated with respiratory diseases,stroke,coronary artery disease,and diabetes.Aiming to better understand the association,we reviewed the latest studies about the association of air pollution with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases,especially stroke,coronary heart disease,arrhythmia,hypertension,and heart failure,and summarized the underlying mechanisms of the health damage caused by long-term and short-term exposure to air pollution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Stroke/complications
14.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-9, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377219

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between ambient air pollutants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in relatively low-polluted areas in China. METHODS Atmospheric pollutants levels and meteorological data were obtained from January 2016 to December 2020. The medical database including daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD10: J44) was derived from the First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University. The generalized additive model was used to analyze the percentage change with 95% confidence interval in daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in atmospheric pollutants levels. RESULTS In total, occurred 4,980 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions (not including emergency department visits) during 2016-2020. The mean concentrations of daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO were 37.5 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 18.7 μg/m3, 23.5 μg/m3, 70.0 μg/m3, and 1.2 mg/m3 in Ganzhou. Each 10 µg/m3 increment of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were significantly associated with 2.8% (95%CI: 1.0-4.7), 1.3% (95%CI: 0.3-2.4), 2.8% (95%CI: 0.4-5.4), and 1.5% (95%CI: 0.2-2.7) elevation in daily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions. The estimates of delayed effects of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were observed at lag6, lag6, lag8, lag1, respectively. The health effects of particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10) may be independent of other pollutants. The adverse effects of air pollutants were more evident in the warm season (May-Oct) than in the cold season (Nov-Apr). CONCLUSION Our study demonstrated that elevated concentrations of atmospheric pollutant (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3), especially particulate pollutants, can be associated with increased daily count of hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , which may promote further understanding of the potential hazards of relatively low levels of air pollution on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/chemically induced , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollutants , Brazil , China/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitals , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects
15.
São Paulo med. j ; 139(6): 591-597, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352300

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollutants is associated with hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases and premature deaths. OBJECTIVE: To estimate years of life lost (YLL) due to premature deaths and their financial costs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological time-series study carried out in São José dos Campos, Brazil, in 2016. METHODS: Data on deaths among residents of this city in 2016 were assessed to estimate the financial cost of premature deaths associated with air pollution. The diagnoses studied were ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure and cerebrovascular disease, according to YLL. The fractions attributable to deaths associated with air pollutant exposure and to each potential year of life lost were calculated using negative binomial regression with lags of 0-7 days between exposure and outcome. Nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM10) and ozone concentrations were included in the model and adjusted for temperature, humidity and seasonality. RESULTS: Exposure to particulate matter was significant at lag 3 days. There were 2177 hospitalizations over the study period, with 201 deaths (9.2%). Premature deaths led to 2035.69 years of life lost. A 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations was correlated with 8.0% of the hospitalizations, which corresponded to 152.67 YLL (81.67 for males and 71.00 for females). The cost generated was approximately US$ 9.1 million in 2016. CONCLUSION: In this first study conducted in a medium-sized Brazilian city, using the YLL methodology, we identified an excess expense attributable to air pollution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Air Pollutants , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Seasons , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Mortality, Premature
16.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 521-530, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887889

ABSTRACT

Objective To quantitatively evaluate the associations of PM


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , China , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Outpatients , Particulate Matter/analysis
17.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 74-74, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Ambient fine particle (PM@*METHODS@#A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to analyze YLL from respiratory diseases in the elderly related to ambient PM@*RESULTS@#Each 10 μg/m@*CONCLUSIONS@#Birth season which reflects the early-life PM


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Cross-Over Studies , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Life Expectancy , Particulate Matter/analysis , Respiration Disorders/mortality , Seasons
18.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 92-92, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM) is recognized as the most harmful air pollutant to the human health. The Yangon city indeed suffers much from PM-related air pollution. Recent research has interestingly been focused on the novel subject of changes in the air quality associated with the restrictive measures in place during the current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The first case of COVID-19 in Myanmar was diagnosed on March 23, 2020. In this article, we report on our attempt to evaluate any effects of the COVID-19-restrictive measures on the ambient PM pollution in Yangon.@*METHODS@#We measured the PM concentrations every second for 1 week on four occasions at three study sites with different characteristics; the first occasion was before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and the remaining three occasions were while the COVID-19-restrictive measures were in place, including Stay-At-Home and Work-From-Home orders. The Pocket PM@*RESULTS@#The results showed that there was a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in both the PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#We concluded that the restrictive measures which were in effect to combat the COVID-19 pandemic had a positive impact on the ambient PM concentrations. The changes in the PM concentrations are considered to be largely attributable to reduction in anthropogenic emissions as a result of the restrictive measures, although seasonal influences could also have contributed in part. Thus, frequent, once- or twice-weekly Stay-At-Home or Telework campaigns, may be feasible measures to reduce PM-related air pollution. When devising such an action plan, it would be essential to raise the awareness of public about the health risks associated with air pollution and create a social environment in which Telework can be carried out, in order to ensure active compliance by the citizens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(5): 468-476, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390309

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Estimar el riesgo de mortalidad asociado con la exposición a partículas finas (PM2.5) y gruesas (PM2.5-10) en la Zona Metropolitana de Monterrey (ZMM). Material y métodos: Estudio ecológico con análisis retrospectivo de series de tiempo (2004-2014) de mortalidad total y específica diaria, y promedio de PM2.5y PM2.5-10. Modelos aditivos generalizados Poisson con rezagos distribuidos ajustados por tendencia, estacionalidad, día de la semana, condiciones meteorológicas y contaminantes gaseosos. Resultados: El promedio (DE) de PM2.5y PM2.5-10fue 26.59 (11.06) y 48.83 (21.15) μg/m3. Cada 10 μg/m3de aumento de PM2.5(lag 0) incrementó el riesgo de mortalidad respiratoria en menores de cinco años 11.16٪ (IC95% 1.03-21.39) y de neumonía e influenza en mayores de cinco años 11.16٪ (IC95% 3.91-9.37). El riesgo de mortalidad asociado con las PM2.5-10fue menor. Conclusiones: Se observaron asociaciones positivas y significativas entre exposición a material particulado y la mortalidad diaria en población de la ZMM.


Abstract Objective: To estimate the mortality risk of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey (MAM). Materials and methods: A retrospective ecological time-series analysis (2000-2014) was conducted using total and specific causes of mortality, and daily mean PM2.5and PM2.5-10. Generalized additive distributed lag models controlling for trend, seasonality, day of the week, meteorological conditions and gaseous pollutants. Results: Mean (SD) PM2.5and PM2.5-10concentrations were 26.59 μg/m3 (11.06 μg/m3) and 48.83 μg/m3(21.15 μg/m3). An increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 (lag 0) was associated with 11.16% (95%CI:1.03-21.39) increased risk of respiratory mortality in children <=5 years old and 6.6% (95%CI 3.31-9.37) increased risk of pneumonia-influenza in adults >=65 years old. The risk of mortality associated with the concentration of coarse particles was lower. Conclusions: Positive and significant associations were observed between exposure to particulate matter and daily mortality in the MAM´s population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Child, Preschool , Humans , Mortality , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Retrospective Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Mexico/epidemiology
20.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 77-77, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is a predictor of autonomic system dysfunction, and is considered as a potential mechanism of increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) induced by exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM@*METHODS@#An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of panel studies till November 1, 2019 was conducted to evaluate the acute effect of exposure to ambient PM@*RESULTS@#A total of 33 panel studies were included in our meta-analysis, with 16 studies conducted in North America, 12 studies in Asia, and 5 studies in Europe. The pooled results showed a 10 μg/m@*CONCLUSION@#Short-term exposure to PM


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Heart Rate/drug effects , Particulate Matter/analysis
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