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Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 750-766, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922505


Exposure to particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) potentially triggers airway inflammation by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a key modulator in inflammation. However, the function and specific mechanisms of SIRT2 in PM2.5-induced airway inflammation are largely understudied. Therefore, this work investigated the mechanisms of SIRT2 in regulating the phosphorylation and acetylation of p65 influenced by PM2.5-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Results revealed that PM2.5 exposure lowered the expression and activity of SIRT2 in bronchial tissues. Subsequently, SIRT2 impairment promoted the phosphorylation and acetylation of p65 and activated the NF-κB signaling pathway. The activation of p65 triggered airway inflammation, increment of mucus secretion by goblet cells, and acceleration of tracheal stenosis. Meanwhile, p65 phosphorylation and acetylation, airway inflammation, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were deteriorated in SIRT2 knockout mice exposed to PM2.5. Triptolide (a specific p65 inhibitor) reversed p65 activation and ameliorated PM2.5-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of PM2.5 exposure. Triptolide inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and acetylation could be an effective therapeutic approach in averting PM2.5-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

Animals , Inflammation , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Signal Transduction , Sirtuin 2/metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1478-1484, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922282


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the toxic damage and possible mechanism of chronic exposure of ambient particulate matter (PM@*METHODS@#Mice were treated with different doses (150, 300, 600 mg/kg) of chitosan after exposure to PM@*RESULTS@#Compared with the mice in control group, IL-2 secretion and CXCL12 expression were decreased in the bone marrow of PM@*CONCLUSION@#Chronic exposure of PM

Animals , Bone Marrow , Chitosan , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic System , Mice , Particulate Matter/toxicity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878319


Objective@#Epidemiological studies reveal that exposure to fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM @*Methods@#EVs were isolated from the serum of healthy subjects, quantified @*Results@#PM @*Conclusions@#EVs treatment promotes cell survival and attenuates PM

A549 Cells , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1250-1257, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134433


SUMMARY: Residential heating with wood is an important source of ambient air pollution. Evidence links air pollution to serious health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to wood smoke pollution causes morphological changes in the development of the rat lung, leading to altered lung structure and function during later life. We presumed that analysis of the fetal lung stereology provides novel insights into the underlying processes mediating particulate matter associated developmental changes and damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure during gestational period to wood smoke pollution on lung fetal morphology. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution. Complete lungs samples were obtained from 24 fetus from healthy female G3 rats subjected to cesarean at 19 days post-fecundation. The lungs were prepared for histological and stereological analysis. The volume fraction of terminal bronchioles VV [tb, lung] and volume fraction of parenchyma VV [par, lung], surface density of terminal bronchioles SV [tb, lung] as well as numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung] were calculated by light microscopy. Statistical analysis detected significant differences between groups in volume density VV [tb, lung; %] (p=0.0012) and surface density SV [tb, lung; mm2/mm3] (p<0.0001) of the terminal bronchioles. However, it did not show differences between groups in the stereological parameter volume density VV [par, lung; %] (p=0.0838) and numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung; nº/mm2] (p=0.0705). The analysis of the evidence obtained indicates that exposure to environmental pollution was affects lung maturation, and particularly the proportion and area of terminal bronchioles in the fetal lung. In conclusion, maternal exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the lower conducting airways of lungs, which, according to urban pollution studies, could be related to early childhood lower respiratory illness. The public health implications of this study are that reducing or avoiding exposure to wood smoke is important before and during pregnancy.

RESUMEN: La calefacción residencial con leña es una fuente importante de contaminación ambiental. La evidencia vincula la contaminación del aire con graves efectos sobre la salud, como la mortalidad y la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular. Hipotetizamos que la exposición prenatal a la contaminación por humo de leña causa cambios en el desarrollo del pulmón de rata, lo que conduce a una morfo-función pulmonar alteradas durante la vida posterior, creemos que el análisis de la estereología pulmonar fetal proporcionará nuevos conocimientos sobre los procesos subyacentes que median esos cambios. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición prenatal a la contaminación ambiental por humo de leña sobre la morfología pulmonar fetal. Ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña. En fetos de 19 días post-fecundación fue obtenido el pulmón para análisis histológico y estereológico. Fue determinado la fracción de volumen de bronquiolos terminales VV [tb, pulmón], fracción de volumen del parénquima VV [par, pulmón], densidad superficial de los bronquiolos terminales SV [tb, pulmón] así como la densidad numérica de exocrinocitos NA [ec, pulmón]. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias significativas entre grupos en la densidad de volumen V [tb, pulmón; %] (p=0,0012) y densidad superficial SV [tb, pulmón; mm2/mm3] (p<0,0001) de los bronquiolos terminales. Sin embargo, no demostró diferencias entre grupos en la densidad de volumen VV [par, pulmón; %] (p=0,0838) y numérica de exocrinocitos bronquiolares NA [ec, pulmón; nº / mm ] (p=0,0705). El análisis de la evidencia obtenida indica que la exposición a la contaminación ambiental afectó la maduración pulmonar, y particularmente la proporción y área de bronquiolos terminales en el pulmón fetal. En conclusión, la exposición materna a la contaminación por humo de leña durante la gestación se asoció a una disminución de las vías respiratorias conductoras de aire en pulmón, lo que, según estudios de contaminación urbana, podría estar relacionado con enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en la primera infancia. Las implicaciones para la salud pública de este estudio son que reducir o evitar la exposición al humo de leña es importante previo y durante la gestación. Por otro lado, la contaminación por humo de leña tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública que, en teoría, es posible prevenir.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Wood , Analysis of Variance , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Heating , Lung/pathology
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(11): 4133-4140, nov. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039528


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar o impacto das emissões da queima da cana-de-açúcar sobre o número de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias em uma região canavieira. Registros de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias foram adquiridas a partir da base de dados referentes ao sistema de informações hospitalares do sistema único de saúde (SIH-SUS), no período de 28 de março de 2011 a 28 de dezembro de 2012. Níveis de MP10, NO2, O3, temperatura e umidade relativa foram registradas. Modelos de regressão logística foram construídos para analisar a associação entre o número total de internações, poluentes atmosféricos e variáveis meteorológicas. Foram registradas 1.179 internações, dentre elas a pneumonia mostrou aumento significativo no período de queima (p = 0,005). Neste mesmo período observou-se que o cluster MP10 e NO2 influenciou 67,9% (IC95%: 11,111-2,537), seguido do cluster MP10, NO2, O3 e temperatura que influenciou 91,1% (IC95%: 1,116; 3,271) no número total de internações. Durante o período de queima houve maior número de internações por doenças respiratórias, principalmente de pneumonia, quando foi observada a influência dos poluentes e temperatura no processo de adoecimento da população.

Abstract The scope of this article is to evaluate the impact of emissions from sugarcane burning on hospital admission numbers for respiratory diseases in a sugarcane region. Hospital admission records for respiratory diseases were acquired from the database of the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH-SUS) in the period from March 28, 2011 to December 28, 2012. Levels of PM10, NO2, O3, Temperature and Relative Humidity were recorded. Logistic regression models were created to analyze the association between the total number of hospitalizations, atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables. A total of 1,179 hospitalization admissions were recorded, with a significant increase in cases of pneumonia in the burning period (p = 0.005). Likewise, it was observed that the cluster of PM10 and NO2 was influenced 67.9% (95% CI: 11.111-2.537) followed by cluster PM10, NO2, O3 and Temperature that influenced 91.1% (95% CI: 1.116; 3.271) in the total number of hospitalization admissions. During the sugarcane burning period there were more hospitalization admissions due to respiratory tract diseases, mainly pneumonia, where the influence of air pollutants and temperature in the process of illness in the population was detected.

Humans , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Saccharum , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Temperature , Brazil , Databases, Factual , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fires , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humidity , National Health Programs
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(2): 166-174, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003734


INTRODUCCIÓN: Santiago de Chile con 7 millones de habitantes alcanza elevados niveles de contaminación atmosférica en invierno, el material particulado habitualmente excede los estándares de la OMS. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la influencia de la contaminación atmosférica por material particulado en las hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias en niños, entre 2001 y 2005 en la Región Metropolitana de Chile, independientemente de la presencia ambiental de virus sincicial respiratorio (VRS). MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: 72.479 hospitalizaciones públicas y privadas por enfermedades respiratorias de niños menores de 15 años residentes en la región del estudio se analizaron con un diseño de caso control alternante, con estratificación temporal. Se evaluó principalmente: hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias (J00-J99), neumonía (J12-J18); asma (J21.0 - J21.9) y bronquiolitis (J45 - J46). Recopilándose diariamente temperatura, MP10, MP2,5, ozono, virus respiratorios (VRS) y humedad ambientales. RESULTADOS: Los promedios de MP10 y MP2,5 fueron 81,5 y 41,2 pg/m3 respectivamente. El promedio de temperatura fue 12,8 °C y de la humedad del aire 72,6 %. Un aumento de 10 pg/m3 de MP25 con 1 y 2 días de rezago se asoció con un incremento de las hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias cercano a 2%, este porcentaje aumentó a 5% cuando la exposición fue con 8 días de rezago, reflejando sinergismo entre material particulado y virus respiratorio (VRS). CONCLUSIÓN: La exposición breve a contaminación atmosférica puede provocar hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias en niños.

INTRODUCTION: With seven million inhabitants, Santiago de Chile reaches high levels of air pollution in winter, the particulate matter usually exceeds WHO standards. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of air pollution caused by particulate matter on children's hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases between 2001 and 2005 in the Metropolitan Region of Chile, independently from the environmental presence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). MATERIAL AND METHOD: 72,479 public and private hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases of children under 15 years of age residing in the study region were analyzed using a time-stratified alternating case-control design. The main evaluations were: hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases (J00-J99), pneumonia (J12-J18); asthma (J21.0 - J21.9), and bronchiolitis (J45 - J46). Daily compilation of temperature data, PM10, PM2,5, ozone, respiratory virus (RSV), and environmental humidity. RESULTS: Mean values of PM10 and PM2.5 were 81.5 and 41.2 pg/m3 respec tively. The average temperature was 12.8 °C and air humidity 72.6%. An increase of 10 pg/m3 of PM25 with one and two days of lag was associated with an hospitalizations increase due to respiratory diseases close to 2%, this percentage increased to 5% when the exposure was with eight days of lag, reflecting synergism between particulate matter and respiratory viruses (RSV). CONCLUSION: Short air pollution exposure can lead to children's hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cross-Over Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/analysis
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 1083-1090, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989593


Abstract Hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases generate financial costs for the Health System in addition to social costs. Objective of this study was to develop and validate a fuzzy linguistic model for prediction of hospitalization due to respiratory diseases. We constructed a fuzzy model for prediction of hospitalizations due to pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchiolitis and asthma second exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in residents of Volta Redonda, RJ, in 2012. The model contains two inputs, PM2.5 and temperature, with three membership functions for each input, and an output with three membership functions for admissions, which were obtained from DATASUS. There were 752 hospitalizations in the period, the average concentration of PM2.5 was 17.1 µg/m3 (SD = 4.4). The model showed a good accuracy with PM2.5, the result was between 90% and 76.5% for lags 1, 2 and 3, a sensitivity of up to 95%. This study provides support for creating executable software with a low investment, along with the use of a portable instrument could allow number of hospital admission due to respiratory diseases and provide support to local health managers. Furthermore, the fuzzy model is very simple and involves low computational costs, an implementation making possible.

Resumo Internações por doenças respiratórias geram custos financeiros para o Sistema de Saúde além de custos sociais. O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar e validar um modelo linguístico "fuzzy" para previsão do número de internações por doenças respiratórias. Foi construído um modelo "fuzzy" para predição de internações por pneumonias, bronquite, bronquiolite e asma segundo exposição ao material particulado fino (PM2,5) em residentes de Volta Redonda, RJ, em 2012. O modelo contém duas entradas PM2,5 e temperatura, com três funções de pertinência para cada entrada, e uma saída com três funções de pertinência para internações, que foram obtidas do DATASUS. Foram 752 internações no período, a concentração média do PM2,5 foi 17,1 µg/m3 (dp = 4,4). O modelo mostrou uma boa acurácia com PM2,5, o resultado foi entre 90% e 76,5% para os lags 1, 2 e 3, com sensibilidade de até 95%. Este estudo fornece subsídios para a criação de programa executável, que não exige um grande investimento, juntamente com o uso de um instrumento portátil pode permitir uma estimativa do número de internações e prestar apoio aos gestores municipais de saúde. Além disso, o modelo "fuzzy" é muito simples e implica em baixas despesas computacionais, tornando possível uma implementação.

Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Fuzzy Logic , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization/economics
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(3): 245-250, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962716


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases among children. DESIGN AND SETTING: An ecological time series study was carried out to identify the role of coarse fractions of particulate matter (PM10-2.5) in hospitalizations among children up to 10 years of age, in Piracicaba (SP) in the year 2015. METHODS: A generalized additive model of Poisson regression was used to estimate the risk of hospitalization due to acute laryngitis and tracheitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchiolitis and asthma. Lags of 0 to 7 days were considered, and the model was adjusted for the temperature and relative humidity of the air and controlled for short and long-term exposure. Proportional attributable ratios, population-attributable fractions and hospital costs were calculated with increasing concentrations of these pollutants. RESULTS: 638 hospitalizations were evaluated during this period, with a mean of 1.75 cases per day (standard deviation, SD = 1.86). The daily averages were 22.45 µg/m3 (SD = 13.25) for the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) and 13.32 µg/m3 (SD = 6.38) for the fine fraction. Significant risks of PM10-2.5 exposure were only observed at lag 0, with relative risk (RR) = 1.012, and at lag 6, with RR = 1.011. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in the coarse fraction concentration implied an increase in the relative risk of hospitalizations of up to 4.8%, with an excess of 72 hospitalizations and excess expenditure of US$ 17,000 per year. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the impact of coarse-fraction exposure on hospital admissions among children due to respiratory diseases.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Patient Admission/economics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Seasons , Temperature , Time Factors , Brazil , Poisson Distribution , Risk , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humidity
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(3): e00006617, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-889900


Exposição a poluentes do ar, que costumam ser quantificados por agências ambientais que não estão presentes em todos os estados, pode estar associada a internações por doenças respiratórias de crianças. Foi desenvolvido um estudo ecológico de séries temporais com dados referentes às internações por algumas doenças respiratórias de crianças menores de dez anos de idade, em 2012, na cidade de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Os níveis médios de material particulado fino (PM2,5) foram estimados por modelo matemático, os dados de temperatura mínima e umidade relativa do ar foram obtidos do Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia, e número de focos de queimadas do Sistema de Informações Ambientais. A abordagem estatística utilizou o modelo aditivo generalizado da regressão de Poisson com defasagens de 0 a 7 dias. Foram estimados os custos financeiros e aumentos do número de internações decorrentes de elevações de PM2,5. Foram 565 internações (média de 1,54/dia; DP = 1,52) e concentração de PM2,5 de 15,7µg/m3 (DP = 3,2). Foram encontradas associações entre exposição e internações no segundo semestre, nos lags 2 e 3, e quando analisado o ano todo, no lag 2. Uma elevação de 5µg/m3 do PM2,5 implicou o aumento de 89 internações e custos acima dos R$ 95 mil para o Sistema Único de Saúde. Dados estimados por modelo matemático podem ser utilizados em locais onde não há monitoramento de poluentes.

La exposición a contaminantes del aire, que suelen ser cuantificados por agencias ambientales que no están presentes en todos los estados, puede estar asociada a internamientos por enfermedades respiratorias de niños. Se desarrolló un estudio ecológico de series temporales con datos referentes a los internamientos por algunas enfermedades respiratorias de niños menores de 10 años de edad, en 2012, en la ciudad de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Los niveles medios de material particulado fino (PM2,5) se estimaron mediante un modelo matemático, los datos de temperatura mínima y humedad relativa del aire se obtuvieron del Instituto Nacional de Meteorología, y el número de focos de incendios del Sistema de Información Ambiental. El enfoque estadístico usó el modelo aditivo generalizado de la regresión de Poisson con desfases de 0 a 7 días. Se estimaron los costes financieros y aumentos del número de internamientos derivados de elevaciones de PM2,5. Fueron 565 internamientos (media de 1,54/día; DE = 1,52) y concentración de PM2,5 de 15,7µg/m3 (DE = 3,2). Se encontraron asociaciones entre exposición e internamientos en el segundo semestre, en los lags 2 y 3, y cuando se analizó todo el año, en el lag 2. Una elevación de 5µg/m3 del PM2,5 implicó el aumento de 89 internamientos y costes por encima de los BRL 95 mil para el Sistema Único de Salud. Los datos estimados por el modelo matemático pueden ser utilizados en lugares, donde no existe un monitoreo de contaminantes.

Exposure to air pollutants, usually measured by environmental agencies that are not present in all states, may be associated with respiratory admissions in children. An ecological time series study was conducted with data on hospitalizations due to selected respiratory diseases in children under 10 years of age in 2012 in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Mean levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were estimated with a mathematical model, data on low temperatures and relative humidity were obtained from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology, and the numbers of brush burnings were obtained from the Environmental Information System. The statistical approach used the Poisson regression generalized additive model with lags of 0 to 7 days. The financial costs and increases in hospitalizations due to increments in PM2.5 were estimated. There were 565 hospitalizations (mean 1.54 admissions/day; SD = 1.52), and mean PM2.5 concentration was 15.7µg/m3 (SD = 3.2). Associations were observed between exposure and hospitalizations in the second semester at lags 2 and 3, and at lag 2 when the entire year was analyzed. An increment of 5µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with an increase of 89 hospitalizations and costs exceeding BRL 95,000 (≈ USD 38,000) for the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Data estimated by mathematical models can be used in locations where pollutants are not monitored.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Respiration Disorders/etiology , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiration Disorders/physiopathology , Brazil , Poisson Distribution , Child Health , Risk Factors , Inhalation Exposure/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Hospitalization/economics
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(4): 347-354, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904097


ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Several effects of exposure to air pollutants on human health are known. The aim of this study was to identify whether exposure of pregnant women to air pollutants contributes towards low birth weight and which sex is more affected. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study using data on newborns from mothers living in São José do Rio Preto (SP) who were exposed to air pollutants in 2012-2013. METHODS: A hierarchical model on three levels was built using maternal and newborn variables and environmental concentrations of particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide in quartiles. Preterm new-borns, twins and newborns with birth defects were excluded and exposure windows of 30, 60 and 90 days before delivery were considered. RESULTS: 8,948 newborns were included: 4,491 males (50.2%) and 4,457 females (49.8%); 301 newborns presented low birth weight (3.4%). The mean weight differed between males (3281.0 g) and females (3146.4 g) (P < 0.001). Exposure to ozone was significantly associated with low birth weight in both sexes in the 30-day window (odds ratio, OR = 1.38) and 90-day window (OR = 1.48); and among females, in the 30-day window (OR = 1.58) and 90-day window (OR = 1.59). Exposure to particulate matter had a paradoxical protective effect. No association was found among male newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Female newborns showed greater susceptibility to maternal exposure to air pollutants. Studies on low birth weight in relation to maternal exposure to air pollutants should deal with males and females separately.

RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: São vários os efeitos da exposição a poluentes do ar na saúde humana. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar se a exposição da gestante contribui para o baixo peso ao nascer e qual o sexo mais acometido. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Estudo longitudinal com dados de recém-nascidos de mães residentes em São José do Rio Preto (SP) com exposição a poluentes do ar em 2012 e 2013. MÉTODOS: Foi construído modelo hierarquizado em três níveis com variáveis maternas, do recém-nascido e concentrações de material particulado, ozônio e dióxido de nitrogênio, em quartis. Foram excluídos recém-nascidos prematuros, gemelares ou com malformações e consideradas janelas de exposição de 30, 60 e 90 dias anteriores ao parto. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 8.948 recém-nascidos, 4.491 do sexo masculino (50,2%) e 4.457 do feminino (49,8%), e identificados 301 recém-nascidos com baixo peso (3,4%). Os pesos médios foram diferentes entre o sexo masculino (3.281,0 g) e o feminino (3.146,4 g) (P < 0,001). Exposição ao ozônio esteve associada significativamente ao baixo peso ao nascer em ambos os sexos nas janelas de 30 dias (odds ratio, OR = 1,38) e 90 dias (OR = 1,48) e, no sexo feminino, nas janelas de 30 dias (OR = 1,58) e 90 dias (OR =1,59). Exposição ao material particulado teve efeito protetor paradoxal. Não houve associação no sexo masculino. CONCLUSÕES: Houve maior susceptibilidade do sexo feminino aos poluentes a partir da exposição materna. Estudos sobre baixo peso ao nascer segundo exposição materna a poluentes do ar devem separar sexo masculino e feminino.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Birth Weight/drug effects , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Maternal Exposure/statistics & numerical data
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(1): 9-16, ene. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845498


Background: Ozone exposure could increase lung damage induced by airborne particulate matter. Particulate matter lung toxicity has been attributed to its metallic content. Aim: To evaluate the acute effect of intratracheal administration of copper sulfate (CuSO4) on rat lungs previously damaged by a chronic intermittent ozone exposure. Material and Methods: Two-months-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone four h per day, five days a week, during two months. CuSO4 was intratracheally instilled 20 h after ozone exposure. Controls breathed filtered air or were instilled with 0.9% NaCl or with CuSO4 or were only exposed to ozone. We evaluated lung histopathology. F2 isoprostanes were determined in plasma. Cell count, total proteins, γ glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatases (AP) were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Results: Ozone increased total cell count, macrophages, proteins and AP in BALF (p < 0.05), and induced pulmonary neutrophil inflammation. CuSO4 plus air increased plasma F2 isoprostane levels and total cell count, neutrophils and proteins in BALF (p < 0.05). Histopathology showed foamy macrophages. Ozone plus CuSO4 exposed animals showed a neutrophil inflammatory lung response and an increase in total cell count, proteins, GGT and AP in BALF (p < 0.05). Foamy and pigmented alveolar macrophages were detected in all lungs of these animals (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Intratracheal instillation of a single dose of CuSO4 in rats previously subjected to a chronic and intermittent exposure to ozone induces a neutrophil pulmonary inflammatory response and cytoplasmic damage in macrophages.

Animals , Male , Rats , Ozone/toxicity , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Copper Sulfate/administration & dosage , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pneumonia/pathology , Time Factors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Models, Animal , Disease Models, Animal , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Lung/pathology
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 3, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845870


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between fine particulate matter concentration in the atmosphere and hospital care by acute respiratory diseases in children. METHODS Ecological study, carried out in the region of Grande Vitória, Espírito Santo, in the winter (June 21 to September 21, 2013) and summer (December 21, 2013 to March 19, 2014). We assessed data of daily count for outpatient care and hospitalization by respiratory diseases (ICD-10) in children from zero to 12 years in three hospitals in the Region of Grande Vitória. For collecting fine particulate matter, we used portable samplers of particles installed in six locations in the studied region. The Generalized Additive Model with Poisson distribution, fitted for the effects of predictor covariates, was used to evaluate the relationship between respiratory outcomes and concentration of fine particulate matter. RESULTS The increase of 4.2 µg/m3 (interquartile range) in the concentration of fine particulate matter increased in 3.8% and 5.6% the risk of medical care or hospitalization, respectively, on the same day and with six-day lag from the exposure. CONCLUSIONS We identified positive association between outpatient care and hospitalizations of children under 12 years due to acute respiratory diseases and the concentration of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a associação entre a concentração de material particulado fino na atmosfera e atendimento hospitalar por doenças respiratórias agudas em crianças. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico, realizado na Região da Grande Vitória, ES, no inverno (21 de junho a 21 de setembro de 2013) e no verão (21 de dezembro de 2013 a 19 de março de 2014). Foram avaliados dados de contagem diária de atendimentos ambulatoriais e hospitalizações por doenças respiratórias (CID-10) em crianças de zero a 12 anos em três hospitais da Região da Grande Vitoria. Para a coleta de material particulado fino foram utilizados amostradores portáteis de partículas instalados em seis locais na região estudada. O Modelo Aditivo Generalizado com distribuição de Poisson, ajustado para efeitos das covariáveis preditoras, foi utilizado para avaliar a relação entre os desfechos respiratórios e a concentração de material particulado fino. RESULTADOS O incremento de 4,2 µg/m3 (intervalo interquartílico) na concentração de material particulado fino aumentou em 3,8% e 5,6% o risco de atendimento ou internação, respectivamente, no mesmo dia e com seis dias de defasagem da exposição. CONCLUSÕES Foi identificada associação positiva entre atendimentos ambulatoriais e hospitalizações de crianças com até 12 anos devido a doenças respiratórias agudas e a concentração de material particulado fino na atmosfera.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Acute Disease , Brazil/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Inhalation Exposure , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Seasons , Time Factors
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 13, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845896


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of acute exposure to air pollutants (NO2 and PM10) on hospitalization of adults and older people with cardiovascular diseases in Western São Paulo. METHODS Daily cardiovascular-related hospitalization data (CID10 – I00 to I99) were acquired by the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (DATASUS) from January 2009 to December 2012. Daily levels of NO2 and PM10 and weather data were obtained from Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB – São Paulo State Environmental Agency). To estimate the effects of air pollutants exposure on hospital admissions, generalized linear Poisson regression models were used. RESULTS During the study period, 6,363 hospitalizations were analysed. On the day of NO2 exposure, an increase of 1.12% (95%CI 0.05–2.20) was observed in the interquartile range along with an increase in hospital admissions. For PM10, a pattern of similar effect was observed; however, results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Even though with values within established limits, NO2 is an important short-term risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Incineration , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Saccharum , Brazil , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/toxicity , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Seasons , Time Factors
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 51: 91, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903263


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study has been to analyze whether fine particulate matter (PM2.5), as well as its synergistic effect with maximum temperature, humidity, and seasons, is associated with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. METHODS This is an ecological study of time series. We have used as outcomes the daily death and hospitalization records of adults aged 45 years and over from 2009 to 2011 of the municipalities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We have used Poisson regression using generalized additive models, assuming a significance level of 5%. The model has been controlled for temporal trend, seasonality, average temperature, humidity, and season effects. Daily concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate material with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) have been obtained by converting the values of optical aerosol thickness. Maximum temperature, humidity, and seasons have been separately included in the model as dummy variables for the analysis of the synergistic effect of PM2.5 with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. We have calculated the percentage increase of relative risk (%RR) of deaths and hospitalizations for the linear increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5. RESULTS Between 2009 and 2011, the increase in PM2.5 was associated with a %RR 2.28 (95%CI 0.53-4.06) for hospitalizations on the same day of exposure and RR% 3.57 (95%CI 0.82-6.38) for deaths with a lag of three days. On hot days, %RR 4.90 (95%CI -0.61-9.38) was observed for deaths. No modification of the effect of PM2.5 was observed for maximum temperature in relation to hospitalizations. On days with low humidity, %RR was 5.35 (95%CI -0.20-11.22) for deaths and 2.71 (95%CI -0.39-5.92) for hospitalizations. In the dry season, %RR was 2.35 (95%CI 0.59-4.15) for hospitalizations and 3.43 (95%CI 0.58-6.35) for deaths. CONCLUSIONS The PM2.5 is associated with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and its effects may be potentiated by heat and low humidity and during the dry season.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar se o material particulado fino (PM2,5), bem como seu efeito sinérgico com a temperatura máxima, a umidade e as estações do ano estão associados à morbimortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico de séries temporais. Foram utilizados como desfechos os registros diários de óbito e internação em adultos com 45 anos ou mais de idade para os anos de 2009 a 2011 nos municípios de Cuiabá e Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson via modelos aditivos generalizados, assumindo-se um nível de significância de 5%. O modelo foi controlado para tendência temporal, sazonalidade, temperatura média, umidade e efeitos de calendário. Concentrações diárias de PM2,5 (material particulado com diâmetro aerodinâmico inferior a 2,5 micrômetros) foram obtidas por meio da conversão dos valores da espessura ótica de aerossóis. Temperatura máxima, umidade e estações do ano foram incluídas separadamente ao modelo como variáveis indicadoras para análise do efeito sinérgico do PM2,5 com a morbimortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares. Foi calculado o aumento percentual de risco relativo (%RR) dos óbitos e internações para o aumento linear de 10 μg/m3 de PM2,5. RESULTADOS Entre 2009 e 2011, o aumento de PM2,5 foi associado a um %RR 2,28 (IC95% 0,53-4,06) para internações no mesmo dia de exposição e %RR 3,57 (IC95% 0,82-6,38) para óbitos com uma defasagem de três dias. Em dias quentes, observou-se %RR 4,90 (IC95% -0,61-9,38) para óbitos. Não foi observada modificação de efeito do PM2,5 pela temperatura máxima relacionada as internações. Em dias com baixa umidade, o %RR foi 5,35 (IC95% -0,20-11,22) para óbitos e 2,71 (IC95% -0,39-5,92) para internações. Na estação seca, o %RR foi 2,35 (IC95% 0,59-4,15) para internações e 3,43 (IC95% 0,58-6,35) para óbitos. CONCLUSÕES O PM2,5 está associado à morbimortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares e seus efeitos podem ser potencializados pelo calor, pela baixa umidade e durante a estação seca.

Humans , Seasons , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Reference Values , Temperature , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/chemistry , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humidity , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(3): 216-222, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796032


Abstract Background: There is evidence of the effects of air pollution on hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction. Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to air pollutants and hospital admissions due to myocardial infarction according to gender, between January 1st 2012 and December 31st 2013, in São Jose dos Campos-SP. Methods: An ecological time series study was carried out with daily data of admissions due to AMI, pollutants CO, O3, PM10, SO2, and NO2, according to gender. We used the Poisson regression generalized linear model to estimate the relative risks of hospital admissions with lags of 0-5 days, adjusted for temperature, humidity, seasonality and days of the week. Results: There were 1837 admissions for ischemic heart diseases, with 636 women and 1201 men. For females, the risks were significant for CO in lag 0 (RR = 1,09), lag1 (RR = 1,08) and lag 5 (RR = 1,10) and SO2 in lag 0 (RR = 1,10) and 3 (RR = 1,09). For men there was significance of the CO in, lag 3 and lag 5 (RR = 1,05). There was significance, regardless of gender, for CO at lag 1 (RR = 1,05) and lag 5 (RR = 1,07) and lag 0 for SO2 (RR = 1,06). Conclusion: The data presented show the important role of CO and SO2 in the genesis of myocardial infarction admissions, and responses to pollutant exposure are different if analyzed by gender and together - hence the importance of a stratified analyses.

Resumo Fundamento: Existem evidências sobre os efeitos da poluição do ar nas internações por doenças cardiovasculares, entre elas o infarto do miocárdio. Objetivo: Estimar a associação entre exposição a poluentes do ar e internações por infarto segundo gêneros, entre 01 de Janeiro de 2012 e 31 de Dezembro de 2013, em São José dos Campos - SP. Métodos: Estudo ecológico de série temporal com dados diários de internações por IAM dos poluentes CO, O3, PM10, SO2, NO2, segundo gêneros. Utilizou-se modelo linear generalizado da Regressão de Poisson para estimar os riscos relativos para internações com defasagens de 0 a 5 dias, ajustados por temperatura, umidade, sazonalidade e dias da semana. Resultados: Foram 1837 internações por doenças isquêmicas do coração, sendo 636 mulheres e 1201 homens. Para o gênero feminino, os riscos foram significativos para o CO nos lag 0 (RR = 1,09), lag1 (RR = 1,08) e lag 5 (RR = 1,10) e para o SO2 no lag 0 (RR = 1,10) e 3 (RR = 1,09). Para o gênero masculino houve significância para o CO no lag 3 e lag 5 (RR = 1,05). Sem distinção de gênero houve significância para o CO no lag 1 (RR = 1,05) e lag 5 (RR = 1,07) e no lag 0 para o SO2 (RR = 1,06). Conclusão: Os dados apresentados mostram o importante papel do CO e do SO2 na gênese das internações por infarto e que as respostas à exposição aos poluentes são diferentes se analisadas por sexo e em conjunto, daí a importância de se estratificarem as análises.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Reference Values , Seasons , Temperature , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Humidity , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(2): 151-156, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780960


Summary Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the association between expo sure to air pollutants and hospitalization for pneumonia among children in a medium-sized city located in the sugar cane plantation region of São Paulo State. Methods: An ecological time-series study was conducted with daily data of hospi talization for pneumonia including children aged 10 years or younger living in Ar araquara, state of São Paulo, from January 1st, 2010, to November 30th, 2012. To es timate the association between hospitalization due to pneumonia and particulate pollutants with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm, nitrogen dioxide and ozone, relative risks for hospitalization according to a generalized additive model of Pois son regression, with Lags of up to five days, were calculated. A percentage increase (PI) was obtained for relative risk (IRR - increase on relative risk) of hospitalization at each 10 µg/m3 increment in each air pollutants adjusted for the remaining. Results: A total of 234 hospitalizations were recorded during these three years. There was a strong association between hospitalization and PM10 and NO2. The PI in relative risk was 15% to PM10 in Lag 0 and 7% points in Lag 1 for NO2. Conclusion: There was evidence of the action of air pollutants on hospitaliza tion for pneumonia in a medium-sized city located in a region affected by air pollution from sugarcane burning and the data presented here provide subsi dies for the implementation of public policies aiming to decrease this risk.

Resumo Objetivo: estimar a associação entre exposição a poluentes atmosféricos e internações por pneumonia em crianças de uma cidade de médio porte em região de plantio de cana-de-açúcar no Estado de São Paulo. Métodos: estudo ecológico de séries temporais com dados de internação por pneumonia em crianças com até 10 anos de idade residentes em Araraquara, SP, de 1 de janeiro de 2010 a 30 de novembro de 2012. Para estimar a associação entre internações por pneumonia e material particulado (MP) com diâmetro aerodinâmico inferior a 10 µm, dióxido de nitrogênio e ozônio, foram calculados os riscos relativos para internação segundo modelo aditivo generalizado de regressão de Poisson, com defasagens de até cinco dias. Foi obtido o aumento percentual (ppt) no risco relativo (ARR - aumento no risco relativo) para internação segundo aumento de 10 µg/m3 para cada poluente ajustado para os demais. Resultados: registraram-se 234 internações nos três anos de estudo. Houve forte associação entre as internações e o MP10 e o NO2. O ARR foi de 15 ppt para MP10 no mesmo dia da exposição e de 7 ppt no primeiro dia após a exposição ao NO2. Conclusão: houve evidências da ação de poluentes do ar sobre internações por pneumonia em uma cidade de médio porte em região afetada por poluição do ar decorrente de queima da palha da cana-de-açúcar. Os dados apresentados fornecem subsídios para implantação de políticas públicas visando à diminuição desses riscos.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/etiology , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Ozone/toxicity , Time Factors , Brazil , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Incineration , Risk Assessment , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Saccharum , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Nitrogen Dioxide/toxicity
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 32(11): e00032216, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828389


Recent discussion has focused on another form of exposure to tobacco - thirdhand smoke (THS) - consisting of residual pollutants from cigarette smoke that remain in environments. The main concern with THS is based on the presence and persistence of many toxic compounds, some specific nitrosamines from tobacco that have carcinogenic activity. Little is known about THS, and few people are aware of its existence and potential health repercussions, thus highlighting the need to shed light on the subject and incorporate it into the public health debate, as was done with passive smoking several years ago. THS is a form of passive smoking, together with secondary or involuntary exposure to cigarette smoke.

Recientemente comenzó a ser discutida otra forma de exposición al tabaco -thirdhand smoke (THS)- que consta de contaminantes residuales de humo de cigarrillo que permanecen en el medio ambiente. La principal preocupación con la THS se basa en la presencia y larga persistencia de muchos compuestos tóxicos, como algunas nitrosaminas específicas que tienen actividad cancerígena. Pocos saben de la existencia de los THS y su impacto preocupante en la salud. Se plantea la necesidad de sacarlo a la luz e incluirlo en las discusiones, como se hizo con el tabaquismo pasivo hace unos años, incluso porque el THS se caracteriza como una forma de tabaquismo pasivo por la exposición secundaria o involuntaria de humo de cigarrillo.

Recentemente, passou a ser discutida mais uma forma de exposição ao tabaco - thirdhand smoke (THS) - que consiste nos poluentes residuais da fumaça de cigarro que permanecem nos ambientes. A principal preocupação com o THS é embasada na presença e longa persistência de muitos compostos tóxicos, algumas nitrosaminas específicas do tabaco que têm atividade carcinogênica. Além de se saber pouco sobre o THS, poucos sabem de sua existência e preocupante repercussão na saúde. Coloca-se em destaque a necessidade de trazê-lo à luz e incluí-lo nas discussões, assim como foi feito com o tabagismo passivo alguns anos atrás, até mesmo porque o THS se caracteriza como uma forma de tabagismo passivo junto à exposição secundária ou involuntária da fumaça de cigarro.

Humans , Smoke/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 50: 4, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962202


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity of children and adults in the city of Vitoria, state of Espirito Santo. METHODS A study was carried out using time-series models via Poisson regression from hospitalization and pollutant data in Vitoria, ES, Southeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2006. Fine particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) were tested as independent variables in simple and cumulative lags of up to five days. Temperature, humidity and variables indicating weekdays and city holidays were added as control variables in the models. RESULTS For each increment of 10 µg/m3 of the pollutants PM10, SO2, and O3, the percentage of relative risk (%RR) for hospitalizations due to total respiratory diseases increased 9.67 (95%CI 11.84-7.54), 6.98 (95%CI 9.98-4.17) and 1.93 (95%CI 2.95-0.93), respectively. We found %RR = 6.60 (95%CI 9.53-3.75), %RR = 5.19 (95%CI 9.01-1.5), and %RR = 3.68 (95%CI 5.07-2.31) for respiratory diseases in children under the age of five years for PM10, SO2, and O3, respectively. Cardiovascular diseases showed a significant relationship with O3, with %RR = 2.11 (95%CI 3.18-1.06). CONCLUSIONS Respiratory diseases presented a stronger and more consistent relationship with the pollutants researched in Vitoria. A better dose-response relationship was observed when using cumulative lags in polynomial distributed lag models.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o impacto da poluição atmosférica na morbidade respiratória e cardiovascular de crianças e adultos em Vitória. MÉTODOS Foi realizado estudo utilizando modelos de séries temporais via regressão de Poisson a partir de dados de hospitalizações e poluentes em Vitória, ES, de 2001 a 2006. Foram testadas como variáveis independentes o material particulado fino (PM10); o dióxido de enxofre (SO2) e o ozônio (O3) em defasagem simples e acumulada até cinco dias. Introduziu-se temperatura, umidade e variáveis indicadoras dos dias da semana e feriados da cidade como variáveis de controle nos modelos. RESULTADOS Para cada incremento de 10 µg/m3 dos poluentes PM10, SO2 e O3, foram observados aumentos no risco relativo percentual (RR%) para as hospitalizações por doenças respiratórias totais de 9,67 (IC95% 11,84-7,54), 6,98 (IC95% 9,98-4,17) e 1,93 (IC95% 2,95-0,93), respectivamente. Encontrou-se RR% = 6,60 (IC95% 9,53-3,75), RR% = 5,19 (IC95% 9,01-1,5) e RR% = 3,68 (IC95% 5,07-2,31) para doenças respiratórias em menores de cinco anos para o PM10, SO2 e O3, respectivamente. As doenças cardiovasculares apresentaram relação significativa com o O3 com RR% = 2,11 (IC95% 3,18-1,06). CONCLUSÕES As doenças respiratórias apresentaram relação mais forte e consistente com os poluentes pesquisados em Vitória. Observou-se melhor relação dose-resposta quando se utilizou defasagens acumuladas em modelos de distribuição polinomial.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Hospitalization
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 50: 29, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962233


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the toxicological risk of exposure to ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) among schoolchildren.. METHODS Toxicological risk assessment was used to evaluate the risk of exposure to O3 and PM2.5 from biomass burning among schoolchildren aged six to 14 years, residents of Rio Branco, Acre, Southern Amazon, Brazil. We used Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the potential intake dose of both pollutants. RESULTS During the slash-and-burn periods, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations reached 119.4 µg/m3 and 51.1 µg/m3, respectively. The schoolchildren incorporated medium potential doses regarding exposure to O3 (2.83 μg/, 95%CI 2.72-2.94). For exposure to PM2.5, we did not find toxicological risk (0.93 μg/, 95%CI 0.86-0.99). The toxicological risk for exposure to O3 was greater than 1 for all children (QR = 2.75; 95%CI 2.64-2.86). CONCLUSIONS Schoolchildren were exposed to high doses of O3 during the dry season of the region. This posed a toxicological risk, especially to those who had previous diseases.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar os riscos toxicológicos da exposição ao ozônio (O3) e a partículas finas (PM2,5) em escolares. MÉTODOS Avaliação do risco toxicológico foi aplicada para verificar o risco de exposição ao O3 e PM2,5 a partir da queima de biomassa, em escolares de seis a 14 anos, moradores de Rio Branco, Acre, no sul da Amazônia. Nós usamos a simulação de Monte Carlo para estimar a dose potencial de ingresso do poluente. RESULTADOS As concentrações de O3 e PM2,5 atingiram 119,4 mg/m3 e 51,1 mg/m3, respectivamente, durante os períodos de queimadas. Os escolares incorporaram doses potenciais médias relativas à exposição ao O3 (2,83 μg/kg.dia, IC95% 2,72-2,94). Para a exposição a PM2,5, não encontramos risco toxicológico (0,93 μg/kg.dia; IC95% 0,86-0,99). O O3 apresentou risco toxicológico maior que 1 para todas as crianças (Quociente de Risco [QR] = 2,75; IC95% 2,64-2,86). CONCLUSÕES Escolares são expostos a altas doses de O3 durante a estação seca. Isso representa risco toxicológico, principalmente para aqueles com agravos à saúde pregressa.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Fires , Ozone/analysis , Ozone/toxicity , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/toxicity