Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 523
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the effect of etomidate on the neuronal activity of ventral thalamic reuniens nucleus and the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Whole-cell patch clamp method was used to explore the effect of etomidate on the activity of ventral thalamic reuniens neurons in the acute brain slices obtained from 4-5 weeks old C57BL/6J mice. The electrophysiological characteristics of ventral thalamic reuniens neurons were recorded in the current clamp mode, and then the effects of etomidate (0.5, 2.0, 8.0 μmol/L etomidate groups) and intralipid (intralipid group) on the discharge frequency and membrane potential of ventral thalamic reuniens neurons were recorded. During the experiment, the ventral thalamic reuniens neuron firing rates (RNFRs) were recorded as F@*RESULTS@#In the intralipid group, there was no significant difference among the F@*CONCLUSIONS@#Etomidate can inhibit the activity of ventral thalamic reuniens neurons in concentration-dependent manner, and which is reversible. Etomidate with sub-anesthetic concentration inhibits the activity of ventral thalamic reuniens neurons via targeting the GABA


Subject(s)
Animals , Etomidate/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neurons , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Receptors, GABA-A
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888229

ABSTRACT

Patch clamp is a technique that can measure weak current in the level of picoampere (pA). It has been widely used for cellular electrophysiological recording in fundamental medical researches, such as membrane potential and ion channel currents recording, etc. In order to obtain accurate measurement results, both the resistance and capacitance of the pipette are required to be compensated. Capacitance compensations are composed of slow and fast capacitance compensation. The slow compensation is determined by the lipid bilayer of cell membrane, and its magnitude usually ranges from a few picofarads (pF) to a few microfarads (μF), depending on the cell size. The fast capacitance is formed by the distributed capacitance of the glass pipette, wires and solution, mostly ranging in a few picofarads. After the pipette sucks the cells in the solution, the positions of the glass pipette and wire have been determined, and only taking once compensation for slow and fast capacitance will meet the recording requirements. However, when the study needs to deal with the temperature characteristics, it is still necessary to make a recognition on the temperature characteristic of the capacitance. We found that the time constant of fast capacitance discharge changed with increasing temperature of bath solution when we studied the photothermal effect on cell membrane by patch clamp. Based on this phenomenon, we proposed an equivalent circuit to calculate the temperature-dependent parameters. Experimental results showed that the fast capacitance increased in a positive rate of 0.04 pF/℃, while the pipette resistance decreased. The fine data analysis demonstrated that the temperature rises of bath solution determined the kinetics of the fast capacitance mainly by changing the inner solution resistance of the glass pipette. This result will provide a good reference for the fine temperature characteristic study related to cellular electrophysiology based on patch clamp technique.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane , Electric Capacitance , Membrane Potentials , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Temperature
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879269

ABSTRACT

As a noninvasive neuromodulation technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is widely used in the clinical treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases, but the mechanism of its action is still unclear. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of different frequencies of magnetic stimulation (MS) on neuronal excitability and voltage-gated potassium channels in the


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Magnetic Phenomena , Mental Disorders , Mice , Neurons , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of etomidate on electrophysiological properties and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of ventral horn neurons in the spinal cord.@*METHODS@#The spinal cord containing lumbosacral enlargement was isolated from 19 neonatal SD rats aged 7-12 days. The spinal cord were sliced and digested with papain (0.18 g/30 mL artificial cerebrospinal fluid) and incubated for 40 min. At the ventral horn, acute mechanical separation of neurons was performed with fire-polished Pasteur pipettes, and perforated patch-clamp recordings combined with pharmacological methods were employed on the adherent healthy neurons. In current-clamp mode, the spontaneous action potential (AP) of the ventral horn neurons in the spinal cord was recorded. The effects of pretreatment with different concentrations of etomidate on AP recorded in the ventral horn neurons were examined. In the voltage-clamp mode, nicotine was applied to induce inward currents in the ventral horn neurons, and the effect of pretreatment with etomidate on the inward currents induced by nicotine were examined with different etomidate concentrations, different holding potentials and different use time.@*RESULTS@#The isolated ventral horn neurons were in good condition with large diverse somata and intact processes. The isolated spinal ventral horn neurons (=21) had spontaneous action potentials, and were continuously perfused for 2 min with 0.3, 3.0 and 30.0 μmol/L etomidate. Compared with those before administration, the AP amplitude, spike potential amplitude and overshoot were concentration-dependently suppressed ( < 0.01), and spontaneous discharge frequency was obviously reduced ( < 0.01, =12). The APs of the other 9 neurons were completely abolished by etomidate at 3.0 or 30 μmol/L. At the same holding potential (VH=-70 mV), pretreatment with 0.3, 3.0 or 30.0 μmol/L etomidate for 2 min concentration-dependently suppressed the current amplitude induced by 0.4 mmol/L nicotine ( < 0.01, =7). At the holding potentials of - 30, - 50, and - 70 mV, pretreatment with 30.0 μmol/L etomidate for 2 min voltage-dependently suppressed the current amplitude induced by 0.4 mmol/L nicotine ( < 0.01, =6 for each holding potential). During the 6 min of 30.0 μmol/L etomidate pretreatment, the clamped cells were exposed to 0.4 mmol/L nicotine for 4 times at 0, 2, 4, and 6 min (each exposure time was 2 s), and the nicotinic current amplitude decreased gradually as the number of exposures increased. But at the same concentration, two nicotine exposures (one at the beginning and the other at the end of the 6 min pretreatment) resulted in a significantly lower inhibition rate compared with 4 nicotine exposures ( < 0.01, =6).@*CONCLUSIONS@#etomidate reduces the excitability of the spinal ventral neurons in a concentration-dependent manner and suppresses the function of nAChR in a concentration-, voltage-, and use-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Etomidate , Neurons , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Rats , Spinal Cord
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787133

ABSTRACT

In vascular smooth muscle, K⁺ channels, such as voltage-gated K⁺ channels (Kv), inward-rectifier K⁺ channels (Kir), and big-conductance Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channels (BK(Ca)), establish a hyperpolarized membrane potential and counterbalance the depolarizing vasoactive stimuli. Additionally, Kir mediates endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization and the active hyperemia response in various vessels, including the coronary artery. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induces right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), thereby elevating the risk of ischemia and right heart failure. Here, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we compared Kv and Kir current densities (I(Kv) and I(Kir)) in the left (LCSMCs), right (RCSMCs), and septal branches of coronary smooth muscle cells (SCSMCs) from control and monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats exhibiting RVH. In control rats, (1) I(Kv) was larger in RCSMCs than that in SCSMCs and LCSMCs, (2) I(Kv) inactivation occurred at more negative voltages in SCSMCs than those in RCSMCs and LCSMCs, (3) I(Kir) was smaller in SCSMCs than that in RCSMCs and LCSMCs, and (4) I(BKCa) did not differ between branches. Moreover, in PAH rats, I(Kir) and I(Kv) decreased in SCSMCs, but not in RCSMCs or LCSMCs, and I(BKCa) did not change in any of the branches. These results demonstrated that SCSMC-specific decreases in I(Kv) and I(Kir) occur in an MCT-induced PAH model, thereby offering insights into the potential pathophysiological implications of coronary blood flow regulation in right heart disease. Furthermore, the relatively smaller I(Kir) in SCSMCs suggested a less effective vasodilatory response in the septal region to the moderate increase in extracellular K⁺ concentration under increased activity of the myocardium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Vessels , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Hyperemia , Hypertension , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular , Ischemia , Membrane Potentials , Monocrotaline , Muscle, Smooth , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocardium , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels , Rats , Septum of Brain
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761815

ABSTRACT

Cordycepin exerts neuroprotective effects against excitotoxic neuronal death. However, its direct electrophysiological evidence in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the protective effect of cordycepin against the excitotoxic neuronal insult in AD using whole-cell patch clamp techniques. β-Amyloid (Aβ) and ibotenic acid (IBO)-induced injury model in cultured hippocampal neurons was used for the purpose. The results revealed that cordycepin significantly delayed Aβ + IBO-induced excessive neuronal membrane depolarization. It increased the onset time/latency, extended the duration, and reduced the slope in both slow and rapid depolarization. Additionally, cordycepin reversed the neuronal hyperactivity in Aβ + IBO-induced evoked action potential (AP) firing, including increase in repetitive firing frequency, shortening of evoked AP latency, decrease in the amplitude of fast afterhyperpolarization, and increase in membrane depolarization. Further, the suppressive effect of cordycepin against Aβ + IBO-induced excessive neuronal membrane depolarization and neuronal hyperactivity was blocked by DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an adenosine A₁ receptor-specific blocker). Collectively, these results revealed the suppressive effect of cordycepin against the Aβ + IBO-induced excitotoxic neuronal insult by attenuating excessive neuronal activity and membrane depolarization, and the mechanism through the activation of A₁R is strongly recommended, thus highlighting the therapeutic potential of cordycepin in AD.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Adenosine , Alzheimer Disease , Fires , Ibotenic Acid , Membranes , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Pyramidal Cells
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761789

ABSTRACT

The lamina II, also called the substantia gelatinosa (SG), of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), is thought to play an essential role in the control of orofacial nociception. Glycine and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) are the important neurotransmitters that have the individual parts on the modulation of nociceptive transmission. However, the electrophysiological effects of 5-HT on the glycine receptors on SG neurons of the Vc have not been well studied yet. For this reason, we applied the whole-cell patch clamp technique to explore the interaction of intracellular signal transduction between 5-HT and the glycine receptors on SG neurons of the Vc in mice. In nine of 13 neurons tested (69.2%), pretreatment with 5-HT potentiated glycine-induced current (I(Gly)). Firstly, we examined with a 5-HT₁ receptor agonist (8-OH-DPAT, 5-HT(1/7) agonist, co-applied with SB-269970, 5-HT₇ antagonist) and antagonist (WAY-100635), but 5-HT₁ receptor agonist did not increase IGly and in the presence of 5-HT₁ antagonist, the potentiation of 5-HT on I(Gly) still happened. However, an agonist (α-methyl-5-HT) and antagonist (ketanserin) of the 5-HT₂ receptor mimicked and inhibited the enhancing effect of 5-HT on I(Gly) in the SG neurons, respectively. We also verified the role of the 5-HT₇ receptor by using a 5-HT₇ antagonist (SB-269970) but it also did not block the enhancement of 5-HT on I(Gly). Our study demonstrated that 5-HT facilitated I(Gly) in the SG neurons of the Vc through the 5-HT₂ receptor. The interaction between 5-HT and glycine appears to have a significant role in modulating the transmission of the nociceptive pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Glycine , Mice , Neurons , Neurotransmitter Agents , Nociception , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Receptors, Glycine , Serotonin , Signal Transduction , Substantia Gelatinosa
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761782

ABSTRACT

Polycystic kidney disease 2-like-1 (PKD2L1), polycystin-L or transient receptor potential polycystin 3 (TRPP3) is a TRP superfamily member. It is a calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel that regulates intracellular calcium concentration and thereby calcium signaling. Although the calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor, calmidazolium, is an activator of the PKD2L1 channel, the activating mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to clarify whether CaM takes part in the regulation of the PKD2L1 channel, and if so, how. With patch clamp techniques, we observed the current amplitudes of PKD2L1 significantly reduced when coexpressed with CaM and CaMΔN. This result suggests that the N-lobe of CaM carries a more crucial role in regulating PKD2L1 and guides us into our next question on the different functions of two lobes of CaM. We also identified the predicted CaM binding site, and generated deletion and truncation mutants. The mutants showed significant reduction in currents losing PKD2L1 current-voltage curve, suggesting that the C-terminal region from 590 to 600 is crucial for maintaining the functionality of the PKD2L1 channel. With PKD2L1608Stop mutant showing increased current amplitudes, we further examined the functional importance of EF-hand domain. Along with co-expression of CaM, ΔEF-hand mutant also showed significant changes in current amplitudes and potentiation time. Our findings suggest that there is a constitutive inhibition of EF-hand and binding of CaM C-lobe on the channel in low calcium concentration. At higher calcium concentration, calcium ions occupy the N-lobe as well as the EF-hand domain, allowing the two to compete to bind to the channel.


Subject(s)
Binding Sites , Calcium , Calcium Signaling , Calmodulin , Ion Channels , Ions , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Polycystic Kidney Diseases , Transient Receptor Potential Channels
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773481

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of cinobufagin on transient outward potassium current () in rat dorsal root ganglion cells of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) and explore the possible analgesic mechanism of cinobufagin.@*METHODS@#Whole cell patch clamp technique was used to examine the effect of cionbufagin on in acutely isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells from normal SD rats and rats with bone cancer pain.@*RESULTS@#The DRG cells from rats with CIBP showed obviously decreased current density, an activation curve shift to the right, and an inactivation curve shift to the left. Cinobufagin treatment significantly increased the current density and reversed the changes in the activation and inactivation curves in the DRG cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@# current is decreased in DRG neurons from rats with CIBP. Cinobufagin can regulate the activation and inactivation of current in the DRG cells, which may be related to its analgesic mechanism.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Pharmacology , Animals , Bufanolides , Pharmacology , Cancer Pain , Drug Therapy , Cells, Cultured , Ganglia, Spinal , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 4-14, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775443

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of visceral pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome remains largely unknown. Our previous study showed that neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD) does not induce visceral hypersensitivity at the age of 6 weeks in rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether NMD followed by adult stress at the age of 6 weeks induces visceral pain in rats and to investigate the roles of adrenergic signaling in visceral pain. Here we showed that NMD rats exhibited visceral hypersensitivity 6 h and 24 h after the termination of adult multiple stressors (AMSs). The plasma level of norepinephrine was significantly increased in NMD rats after AMSs. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording showed that the excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from NMD rats with AMSs was remarkably increased. The expression of β adrenergic receptors at the protein and mRNA levels was markedly higher in NMD rats with AMSs than in rats with NMD alone. Inhibition of β adrenergic receptors with propranolol or butoxamine enhanced the colorectal distention threshold and application of butoxamine also reversed the enhanced hypersensitivity of DRG neurons. Overall, our data demonstrate that AMS induces visceral hypersensitivity in NMD rats, in part due to enhanced NE-β adrenergic signaling in DRGs.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic Agents , Pharmacology , Animals , Ganglia, Spinal , Hyperalgesia , Drug Therapy , Hypersensitivity , Drug Therapy , Male , Maternal Deprivation , Neurons , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Methods , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Stress, Physiological , Physiology , Visceral Pain , Metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758837

ABSTRACT

The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contains two types of neurons projecting to either the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN(RVLM)) or the intermediolateral horn (IML) of the spinal cord (PVN(IML)). These two neuron groups are intermingled in the same subdivisions of the PVN and differentially regulate sympathetic outflow. However, electrophysiological evidence supporting such functional differences is largely lacking. Herein, we compared the electrophysiological properties of these neurons by using patch-clamp and retrograde-tracing techniques. Most neurons (>70%) in both groups spontaneously fired in the cell-attached mode. When compared to the PVN(IML) neurons, the PVN(RVLM) neurons had a lower firing rate and a more irregular firing pattern (p < 0.05). The PVN(RVLM) neurons showed smaller resting membrane potential, slower rise and decay times, and greater duration of spontaneous action potentials (p < 0.05). The PVN(RVLM) neurons received greater inhibitory synaptic inputs (frequency, p < 0.05) with a shorter rise time (p < 0.05). Taken together, the results indicate that the two pre-sympathetic neurons differ in their intrinsic and extrinsic electrophysiological properties, which may explain the lower firing activity of the PVN(RVLM) neurons. The greater inhibitory synaptic inputs to the PVN(RVLM) neurons also imply that these neurons have more integrative roles in regulation of sympathetic activity.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Fires , Horns , Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials , Membrane Potentials , Neurons , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Lateral Horn
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758803

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that Korean red ginseng (KRG), a valuable and important traditional medicine, has varied effects on the central nervous system, suggesting its activities are complicated. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons of the hypothalamus has a critical role in stress responses and hormone secretions. Although the action mechanisms of KRG on various cells and systems have been reported, the direct membrane effects of KRG on PVN neurons have not been fully described. In this study, the direct membrane effects of KRG on PVN neuronal activity were investigated by using a perforated patch-clamp in ICR mice. In gramicidin perforated patch-clamp mode, KRG extract (KRGE) induced repeatable depolarization followed by hyperpolarization of PVN neurons. The KRGE-induced responses were concentration-dependent and persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin, a voltage sensitive Na+ channel blocker. The KRGE-induced responses were suppressed by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (10 µM), a non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, but not by picrotoxin, a type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist. The results indicate that KRG activates non-NMDA glutamate receptors of PVN neurons in mice, suggesting that KRG may be a candidate for use in regulation of stress responses by controlling autonomic nervous system and hormone secretion.


Subject(s)
6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione , Animals , Autonomic Nervous System , Central Nervous System , Glutamic Acid , Gramicidin , Hypothalamus , Medicine, Traditional , Membranes , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Neurons , Panax , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Picrotoxin , Receptors, GABA , Receptors, Glutamate , Tetrodotoxin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Propofol is an intravenously administered anesthetic that enhances γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition in the central nerve system. Other mechanisms may also be involved in general anesthesia. Propofol has been implicated in movement disorders. The cerebellum is important for motor coordination and motor learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the propofol effect on excitatory synaptic transmissions in cerebellar cortex. METHODS: Excitatory postsynaptic currents by parallel fiber stimulation and complex spikes by climbing fiber stimulation were monitored in Purkinje cells of Wister rat cerebellar slice using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. RESULTS: Decay time, rise time and amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents at parallel fiber Purkinje cell synapses and area of complex spikes at climbing fiber Purkinje cell synapses were significantly increased by propofol administration. CONCLUSION: The detected changes of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in cerebellar Purkinje cell, which determine cerebellar motor output, could explain cerebellar mechanism of motor deficits induced by propofol.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics , Animals , Cerebellar Cortex , Cerebellum , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Learning , Movement Disorders , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Propofol , Purkinje Cells , Rats , Synapses , Synaptic Transmission
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanisms through which myocyte large-conductance Ca-activated K (BK) channels mediate the vasodilation effects of melatonin on cerebral arteries (CAs).@*METHODS@#Middle cerebral arteries (MCA) were obtained from 8-week-old male Wistar rats after anaesthetized. Middle cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells were enzymatically isolated. Whole cell recording mode of patch clamp technique was used to measure the current density of BK channel and voltage-gated potassium (K) channel before and after adding melatonin. Currents density of melatonin on BK channels with melatonin receptor inhibitor 2-phenyl-N-acetyl (luzindole) was recorded using whole cell recording mode and open probability (Po) was recorded using single-channel attached recording mode. The conductance (G) and average open time (To) and off time (Tc) of the BK channel were detected before and after the addition of melatonin in the internal-outward mode.@*RESULTS@#① Melatonin markedly increased the whole-cell BK channel current density but not the voltage-gated potassium (K) channel current density. ② Luzindole (1 μmol/L) greatly suppressed melatonin-induced increase of BK channel current density. ③ The Po of BK channel was significantly increased by melatonin (100 μmol/L) under cell attached recording mode, which was markedly inhibited by luzindole (1 μmol/L). ④ In inside-outside recording mode, melatonin (1 μmol/L, 100 μmol/L) reduced both To and Tc of BK channel, and Tc was reduced much more than To.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Melatonin mediates vasodilation of MCA through the activation of BK channels both melatonin receptor dependent and independent mode.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Melatonin , Middle Cerebral Artery , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated , Rats , Rats, Wistar
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 4-12, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777078

ABSTRACT

Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play an important role in human pain sensation. However, the expression and role of Nav subtypes in native human sensory neurons are unclear. To address this issue, we obtained human dorsal root ganglion (hDRG) tissues from healthy donors. PCR analysis of seven DRG-expressed Nav subtypes revealed that the hDRG has higher expression of Nav1.7 (~50% of total Nav expression) and lower expression of Nav1.8 (~12%), whereas the mouse DRG has higher expression of Nav1.8 (~45%) and lower expression of Nav1.7 (~18%). To mimic Nav regulation in chronic pain, we treated hDRG neurons in primary cultures with paclitaxel (0.1-1 μmol/L) for 24 h. Paclitaxel increased the Nav1.7 but not Nav1.8 expression and also increased the transient Na currents and action potential firing frequency in small-diameter (<50 μm) hDRG neurons. Thus, the hDRG provides a translational model in which to study "human pain in a dish" and test new pain therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electric Stimulation , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Female , Ganglia, Spinal , Cell Biology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Mice , Genetics , Metabolism , Neurons , Metabolism , Paclitaxel , Pharmacology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Species Specificity
16.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 85-97, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777073

ABSTRACT

Injury to peripheral nerves can lead to neuropathic pain, along with well-studied effects on sensory neurons, including hyperexcitability, abnormal spontaneous activity, and neuroinflammation in the sensory ganglia. Neuropathic pain can be enhanced by sympathetic activity. Peripheral nerve injury may also damage sympathetic axons or expose them to an inflammatory environment. In this study, we examined the lumbar sympathetic ganglion responses to two rat pain models: ligation of the L5 spinal nerve, and local inflammation of the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which does not involve axotomy. Both models resulted in neuroinflammatory changes in the sympathetic ganglia, as indicated by macrophage responses, satellite glia activation, and increased numbers of T cells, along with very modest increases in sympathetic neuron excitability (but not spontaneous activity) measured in ex vivo recordings. The spinal nerve ligation model generally caused larger responses than DRG inflammation. Plasticity of the sympathetic system should be recognized in studies of sympathetic effects on pain.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Pathology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Hyperalgesia , Ligation , Macrophages , Pathology , Male , Neurogenic Inflammation , Pain , Pathology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta , Metabolism
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 759-768, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777023

ABSTRACT

Cyproheptadine (CPH), a first-generation antihistamine, enhances the delayed rectifier outward K current (I) in mouse cortical neurons through a sigma-1 receptor-mediated protein kinase A pathway. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of CPH on neuronal excitability in current-clamped pyramidal neurons in mouse medial prefrontal cortex slices. CPH (10 µmol/L) significantly reduced the current density required to generate action potentials (APs) and increased the instantaneous frequency evoked by a depolarizing current. CPH also depolarized the resting membrane potential (RMP), decreased the delay time to elicit an AP, and reduced the spike threshold potential. This effect of CPH was mimicked by a sigma-1 receptor agonist and eliminated by an antagonist. Application of tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block I channels hyperpolarized the RMP and reduced the instantaneous frequency of APs. TEA eliminated the effects of CPH on AP frequency and delay time, but had no effect on spike threshold or RMP. The current-voltage relationship showed that CPH increased the membrane depolarization in response to positive current pulses and hyperpolarization in response to negative current pulses, suggesting that other types of membrane ion channels might also be affected by CPH. These results suggest that CPH increases the excitability of medial prefrontal cortex neurons by regulating TEA-sensitive I channels as well as other TEA-insensitive K channels, probably I and inward-rectifier Kir channels. This effect of CPH may explain its apparent clinical efficacy as an antidepressant and antipsychotic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyproheptadine , Pharmacology , Female , Histamine H1 Antagonists , Pharmacology , Membrane Potentials , Physiology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Potassium Channels , Metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex , Physiology , Pyramidal Cells , Physiology , Receptors, sigma , Metabolism , Tetraethylammonium , Pharmacology , Tissue Culture Techniques
18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1029-1036, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775485

ABSTRACT

The ventral pallidum (VP) is a crucial component of the limbic loop of the basal ganglia and participates in the regulation of reward, motivation, and emotion. Although the VP receives afferent inputs from the central histaminergic system, little is known about the effect of histamine on the VP and the underlying receptor mechanism. Here, we showed that histamine, a hypothalamic-derived neuromodulator, directly depolarized and excited the GABAergic VP neurons which comprise a major cell type in the VP and are responsible for encoding cues of incentive salience and reward hedonics. Both postsynaptic histamine H1 and H2 receptors were found to be expressed in the GABAergic VP neurons and co-mediate the excitatory effect of histamine. These results suggested that the central histaminergic system may actively participate in VP-mediated motivational and emotional behaviors via direct modulation of the GABAergic VP neurons. Our findings also have implications for the role of histamine and the central histaminergic system in psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Basal Forebrain , Cell Biology , Dimaprit , Pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electric Stimulation , Female , GABAergic Neurons , Histamine , Pharmacology , Histamine Agonists , Pharmacology , Lysine , Metabolism , Male , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Pyridines , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Histamine H1 , Metabolism , Receptors, Histamine H2 , Metabolism , Sodium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Tetrodotoxin , Pharmacology , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Metabolism
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1067-1076, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775483

ABSTRACT

Restraint water-immersion stress (RWIS), a compound stress model, has been widely used to induce acute gastric ulceration in rats. A wealth of evidence suggests that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) is a focal region for mediating the biological response to stress. Different stressors induce distinct alterations of neuronal activity in the CEA; however, few studies have reported the characteristics of CEA neuronal activity induced by RWIS. Therefore, we explored this issue using immunohistochemistry and in vivo extracellular single-unit recording. Our results showed that RWIS and restraint stress (RS) differentially changed the c-Fos expression and firing properties of neurons in the medial CEA. In addition, RWIS, but not RS, induced the activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the CEA. These findings suggested that specific neuronal activation in the CEA is involved in the formation of RWIS-induced gastric ulcers. This study also provides a possible theoretical explanation for the different gastric dysfunctions induced by different stressors.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Central Amygdaloid Nucleus , Pathology , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Gastric Mucosa , Pathology , Gene Expression Regulation , Physiology , Neurons , Physiology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Stress, Physiological , Physiology , Stress, Psychological
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1047-1057, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775479

ABSTRACT

Cognition and pain share common neural substrates and interact reciprocally: chronic pain compromises cognitive performance, whereas cognitive processes modulate pain perception. In the present study, we established a non-drug-dependent rat model of context-based analgesia, where two different contexts (dark and bright) were matched with a high (52°C) or low (48°C) temperature in the hot-plate test during training. Before and after training, we set the temperature to the high level in both contexts. Rats showed longer paw licking latencies in trials with the context originally matched to a low temperature than those to a high temperature, indicating successful establishment of a context-based analgesic effect in rats. This effect was blocked by intraperitoneal injection of naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) before the probe. The context-based analgesic effect also disappeared after optogenetic activation or inhibition of the bilateral infralimbic or prelimbic sub-region of the prefrontal cortex. In brief, we established a context-based, non-drug dependent, placebo-like analgesia model in the rat. This model provides a new and useful tool for investigating the cognitive modulation of pain.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Analgesics , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Electric Stimulation , Female , In Vitro Techniques , Naloxone , Pharmacology , Narcotic Antagonists , Pharmacology , Optogenetics , Pain , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Pain Measurement , Pain Threshold , Physiology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Physical Stimulation , Prefrontal Cortex , Metabolism , Pathology , Pyramidal Cells , Physiology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Time Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL