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1.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 192-203, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010527

ABSTRACT

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is currently the most common complication of diabetes. It is considered to be one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and affects many diabetic patients. The pathogenesis of DN is extremely complex and has not yet been clarified; however, in recent years, increasing evidence has shown the important role of innate immunity in DN pathogenesis. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are important components of the innate immune system and have a significant impact on the occurrence and development of DN. In this review, we classify PRRs into secretory, endocytic, and signal transduction PRRs according to the relationship between the PRRs and subcellular compartments. PRRs can recognize related pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), thus triggering a series of inflammatory responses, promoting renal fibrosis, and finally causing renal impairment. In this review, we describe the proposed role of each type of PRRs in the development and progression of DN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alarmins/physiology , C-Reactive Protein/physiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Endocytosis , Immunity, Innate , Mannose-Binding Lectin/physiology , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/physiology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/physiology , Signal Transduction
2.
Immune Network ; : e4-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740205

ABSTRACT

The initiation of cellular antiviral signaling depends on host pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs)-mediated recognition of viral nucleic acids that are known as classical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs recruit adaptor proteins and kinases to activate transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers to regulate transcription of hundreds of genes, the products of which collaborate to elicit antiviral responses. In addition, PRRs-triggered signaling induces activation of various inflammasomes which leads to the release of IL-1β and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that PRRs-triggered signaling is critically regulated by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules. In this review, we first summarize an updated understanding of cellular antiviral signaling and virus-induced activation of inflammasome and then focus on the regulation of key components by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules.


Subject(s)
Epigenomics , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Nucleic Acids , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Phosphotransferases , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors , Ubiquitin
3.
Immune Network ; : e10-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740202

ABSTRACT

Interaction between pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors triggers innate and adaptive immune responses. Several studies have reported that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation, and Ig class switch recombination (CSR). However, roles of TLRs in B cell activation and differentiation are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of stimulation of TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4 on mouse B cell viability, proliferation, activation, Ig production, and Ig CSR in vitro. Treatment with 0.5 µg/ml of Pam3CSK4 only barely induced IgG1 production although it enhanced B cell viability. In addition, high-dosage Pam3CSK4 diminished IgG1 production in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the production of other Igs, cell viability, and proliferation increased. Pam3CSK4 additively increased TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse B cell growth and activation. However, interestingly, Pam3CSK4 abrogated LPS-induced IgG1 production but enhanced LPS-induced IgG2a production. Further, Pam3CSK4 decreased LPS-induced germline γ1 transcripts (GLTγ1)/GLTε expression but increased GLTγ2a expression. On the other hand, Pam3CSK4 had no effect on LPS-induced plasma cell differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4 acts as a potent mouse B cell mitogen in combination with TLR4 agonist LPS, but these 2 different TLR agonists play diverse roles in regulating the Ig CSR of each isotype, particularly IgG1/IgE and IgG2a.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , B-Lymphocytes , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Hand , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , In Vitro Techniques , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Plasma Cells , Receptors, Pattern Recognition , Recombination, Genetic , Toll-Like Receptors
4.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 96-99, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-317723

ABSTRACT

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are conservative molecules associated with groups of pathogens or their products. These molecules are recognized by relevant receptors. PAMPs induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines through the signal cascade. The role of PAMPs in the initiation and development of periodontitis is recently attracting attention. PAMPs induce the expression of inflammatory mediators after they are recognized in the periodontium. This process damages the periodontal soft tissue and osseous tissue, thus resulting in periodontitis. The results of this study will provide an excellent resolution for the treatment of periodontitis by blocking the pathogenic pathway of PAMPs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Periodontitis , Periodontium
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 5-14, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199919

ABSTRACT

Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors similar to toll-like receptors (TLRs). While TLRs are transmembrane receptors, NLRs are cytoplasmic receptors that play a crucial role in the innate immune response by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Based on their N-terminal domain, NLRs are divided into four subfamilies: NLRA, NLRB, NLRC, and NLRP. NLRs can also be divided into four broad functional categories: inflammasome assembly, signaling transduction, transcription activation, and autophagy. In addition to recognizing PAMPs and DAMPs, NLRs act as a key regulator of apoptosis and early development. Therefore, there are significant associations between NLRs and various diseases related to infection and immunity. NLR studies have recently begun to unveil the roles of NLRs in diseases such as gout, cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes, and Crohn's disease. As these new associations between NRLs and diseases may improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis and lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of such diseases, NLRs are becoming increasingly relevant to clinicians. In this review, we provide a concise overview of NLRs and their role in infection, immunity, and disease, particularly from clinical perspectives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy/immunology , Carrier Proteins , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes , Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins/immunology , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/immunology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
6.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 352-359, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Keratinocytes are the major cells in epidermis, providing barrier components such as cornified cells through the sophisticated differentiation process. In addition, keratinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. It has been known that pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) including double-strand RNA and nucleotides can provoke inflammatory reaction in keratinocytes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ampelopsis japonica Makino extract (AE) on PAMPs-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes. METHODS: The effects of AE were determined using poly (I:C)-induced inflammation and imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis models. RESULTS: In cultured keratinocytes, AE significantly inhibited poly(I:C)-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α. AE significantly inhibited poly(I:C)-induced release of caspase-1 active form (p20), and down-regulated nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. In imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis model, topical application of AE resulted in significant reduction of epidermal hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that AE may be a potential candidate for the treatment of skin inflammation.


Subject(s)
Ampelopsis , Cytokines , Dermatitis , Epidermis , Hyperplasia , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Keratinocytes , Necrosis , Nucleotides , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , RNA , Skin
7.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial pathogens have many strategies for infecting and persisting in host cells. Adhesion, invasion and intracellular life are important features in the biology of mollicutes. The intracellular location ofUreaplasma diversum may trigger disturbances in the host cell. This includes activation or inhibition of pro and anti-apoptotic factors, which facilitate the development of host damage. The aim of the present study was to associate U. diversum infection in HEp-2 cells and apoptosis induction. Cells were infected for 72hs with four U. diversum clinical isolates and an ATCC strain. The U. diversuminvasion was analyzed by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and gentamicin invasion assay. The apoptosis was evaluated using pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression, and FITC Annexin V/Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit. RESULTS: The number of internalized ureaplasma in HEp-2 cells increased significantly throughout the infection. The flow cytometry analysis with fluorochromes to detect membrane depolarization and gene expression for caspase 2, 3 and 9 increased in infected cells after 24 hours. However, after 72 hours a considerable decrease of apoptotic cells was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggests that apoptosis may be initially induced by some isolates in association with HEp-2 cells, but over time, there was no evidence of apoptosis in the presence of ureaplasma and HEp-2 cells. The initial increase and then decrease in apoptosis could be related to bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPS). Moreover, the isolates of U. diversum presented differences in the studied parameters for apoptosis. It was also observed that the amount of microorganisms was not proportional to the induction of apoptosis in HEp-2 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Ureaplasma/pathogenicity , Ureaplasma Infections/physiopathology , Apoptosis/physiology , Time Factors , Ureaplasma/drug effects , Bacterial Adhesion , Actin Cytoskeleton/ultrastructure , Gentamicins/pharmacology , HeLa Cells/microbiology , Gene Expression , Cell Survival , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Confocal , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 2/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/metabolism
8.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 187-196, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750006

ABSTRACT

Human airways contact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns present in many environments. Asthmatic's airways may be more susceptible to these patterns and lead to inflammasome activation; however, the participation of inflammasome in the development and exacerbation of asthma is not fully understood and remains controversial. Asthma is a heterogeneous group composed of different airway inflammation patterns with different underlying immune mechanisms. One mechanism is neutrophilic airway inflammation based on the axis of inflammasome activation, interleukin (IL) 1β/IL-18 production, T helper 17 activation, IL-8/IL-6 overproduction, and neutrophilic inflammation. The role of inflammasome activation has been highlighted in experimental asthma models and some evidence of inflammasome activation has been recently demonstrated in human neutrophilic asthmatic airways. In addition to caspase-1 activation, proteinase 3 and other protease from activated neutrophils directly cleave pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to IL-1β and IL-18, which contribute to the phenotype of subsequent adaptive immune responses without inflammasome activation. Data suggests that neutrophilics in asthmatic airways may have an additional effect in initiating inflammasome activation and amplifying immune responses. Among the mediators from neutrophils, S100A9 seems to be one candidate mediator to explain the action of neutrophils in amplifying the airway inflammation in concert with inflammasome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Calgranulin B , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Interleukin-18 , Interleukins , Myeloblastin , Neutrophils , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Phenotype , Th17 Cells
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