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1.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 61(1): [9], jul. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1118905

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: informar acerca de un caso de endocarditis bacteriana. Paciente varón de 34 años de edad, con único antecedente de rinitis alérgica con tratamiento irregular. Él es procedente de Valparaiso Chile, se encuentra en sus vacaciones en la ciudad de La Paz, acude al servicio de medicina interna ­ emergencias, con clínica compatible con edema agudo de pulmón de la altura y edema cerebral de la altura, asociado a sepsis de foco pulmonar, que progresa a choque séptico, durante su internación intercurre con alzas térmicas continuas, asociado a hallazgo ecocardiográfico de vegetación en ventrículo derecho con hemocultivo positivo, por lo que se llega al diagnóstico de endocarditis bacteriana, se realizó el tratamiento correspondiente, y resolución del cuadro.


OBJECTIVE: to report a case of bacterial endocarditis A 34-year-old male patient with a unique history of allergic rhinitis with irregular treatment. He comes from Valparaiso Chile, is on vacation in the city of La Paz, goes to the service of internal medicine - emergencies with compatible clinical with acute pulmonary edema of height and cerebral edema of height, associated with sepsis of focus pulmonary disease, which progresses to septic shock, during internment with continuous hyperthermia, associated vegetation in right ventricle for echocardiography, also positive blood culture, so that a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis is reached, Corresponding treatment was carried out, and resolution of pathology..


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Pulmonary Edema , Shock, Septic , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Pathology , Echocardiography , Lung
2.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 61(1): [12], jul. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1118976

ABSTRACT

PROPÓSITO: este artículo se realizó para contribuir con la difusión del conocimiento sobre el COVID-19 en la lengua hispana. HALLAZGOS: el SARS-CoV-2 fue descubierto en diciembre del 2019 y se difundió mundialmente desde entonces; el 11 de marzo de 2020 la OMS declaró globalmente estado de pandemia. Mientras fue incrementando la gravedad y frecuencia del COVID-19 en el mundo, la comunidad científica trabajó arduamente produciendo evidencia capaz de dilucidar los detalles de esta patología. Esta serie de artículos pretende agregar información lo más actualizada posible, interpretándola y adaptándola a la realidad boliviana. SUMARIO: la elaboración de este artículo está basado en información conocida sobre la historia de la aparición de esta nueva enfermedad e información vigente y actualizada sobre las características fisiopatológicas descritas en la literatura mundial


Subject(s)
Disease , Coronavirus Infections , History , Pathology , Information , Literature
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 38-42, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1056394

ABSTRACT

Students' perceptions and feedback have a significant impact on academic progress. The aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of medical students regarding the cumulative effects of the first year general histology course and the sophomore pathology introductory course, in addition to their perceptions regarding the curricular integration of histology and pathology. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was given to second-year and third-year medical students in the middle of second semester. The questionnaire comprised several items on students' attitudes toward anatomic pathology, their feedback on the first year general histology and the sophomore pathology courses, and their perceptions regarding the integration of histology and pathology courses. A five-point Likert scale was used. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) v 20 software. Two hundreds and fourteen of the 236 questionnaires distributed were analyzed (response rate = 90.7 %). More than 51 % of the respondents reported that they couldn't identify the normal tissue counterpart of most practical pathology cases. Only 31.3 % thought their practical histology knowledge was beneficial for them in practical pathology. More than 87 % agreed or strongly agreed that pathology cases need to be copresented with normal tissue examples. A significant proportion of the respondents (60.7 %) were with merging histology and pathology in integrated courses. Pathology was of career choices for only 15.4 % of the participants. The curricular integration of histology and pathology in the first year needs to be tested, and much effort is needed to increase students' affinity for anatomic pathology.


Las percepciones y comentarios de los estudiantes tienen un impacto significativo en el progreso académico. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las percepciones de los estudiantes de medicina con respecto a los efectos acumulativos del curso de Histología general de primer año y del curso introductorio de Patología de segundo año, además de sus percepciones con respecto a la integración curricular de Histología y Patología. En este estudio transversal, se entregó un cuestionario a estudiantes de medicina de segundo y tercer año, a mediados del segundo semestre. Asimismo, el cuestionario comprendió varios aspectos referente a la actitud de los estudiantes hacia Patología Anatómica, sus comentarios sobre la Histología general en el primer año y los cursos de Patología de segundo año. Además se incorporaron las percepciones de los estudiantes con respecto a la integración de los cursos de Histología y Patología. Se utilizó una escala de Likert de cinco puntos. Los datos se analizaron utilizando el paquete Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) v 20. Se analizaron 214 de los 236 cuestionarios distribuidos (tasa de respuesta = 90,7 %). Más del 51 % de los encuestados indicaron estar de acuerdo o totalmente de acuerdo, en que no lograron identificar el tejido normal, en la mayoría de los casos de Patología práctica. Solo el 31,3 % observó que su conocimiento de Histología práctica era beneficioso para ellos durante la Patología práctica. Más del 87 % estuvo de acuerdo o muy de acuerdo en que los casos de Patología deben ser analizados con muestras de tejido normal. Un grupo importante de los encuestados (60,7 %) consideraba incorporar la Histología y la Patología en cursos integrados. Patología fue de elección en la carrera para el 15,4 % de los participantes. La integración curricular de Histología y Patología en el primer año, debe ser evaluada con el propósito de incrementar la afinidad de los estudiantes con la Patología Anatómica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pathology/education , Students, Medical/psychology , Curriculum , Histology/education , Perception , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Educational Measurement
4.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811416

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) in one of the most common genetic causes of liver disease in children. We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with A1ATD.METHODS: This study included patients with A1ATD from five pediatric hepatology units. Demographics, clinical findings, genetics, and outcome of the patients were recorded (n=25).RESULTS: Eight patients (32.0%) had homozygous PiZZ genotype while 17 (68.0%) had heterozygous genotype. Patients with PiZZ genotype had lower alpha-1 antitrypsin levels than patients with PiMZ genotype (37.6±7.7 mg/dL vs. 66.5±22.7 mg/dL, p=0.0001). Patients with PiZZ genotype were diagnosed earlier than patients with PiMZ genotype, but this was not significant (13±6.8 months vs. 23.7±30.1 months, p=0.192). Follow-up revealed the death of one patient (12.5%) with a homozygous mutation, and revealed that one patient had child A cirrhosis, five patients (62.5%) had chronic hepatitis, and one patient (12.5%) was asymptomatic. Nine of the 17 patients with a heterozygous mutation had chronic hepatitis (52.9%), two (11.7%) had child A cirrhosis, and six (35.2%) were asymptomatic. Overall, 18 (72%) of the 25 children had liver pathology in the long-term.CONCLUSION: Although prevalence is rare, patients with liver disorders should be checked for alpha-1 antitrypsin levels. Moreover, long-term follow-up is essential because most patients have a liver pathology.


Subject(s)
Child , Demography , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Gastroenterology , Genetics , Genotype , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Liver Diseases , Liver , Pathology , Prevalence , Prognosis
5.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811272

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The need for proper wound closure is of paramount importance after any intra-oral surgery. Various wound closure techniques have been described in literature using traditional non-absorbable suture materials. These include like synthetic absorbable sutures, surgical staples and tissue adhesives. Cyanoacrylates are among the most commonly used biocompatible tissue adhesives. To evaluate and compare intraoral wound healing using 3-0 silk sutures and n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate after alveoloplasty.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 patients requiring bilateral alveoloplasty in the same arch (upper or lower) were included in this study. Patients with any pre-existing pathology or systemic disease were excluded. After alveoloplasty was performed, the wound was closed using 3-0 braided silk sutures on one side, and using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate bio adhesive on the other side. Patients were evaluated based on the following parameters: time required to achieve wound closure; the incidence of immediate and postoperative hemostasis; the time to the use of the first rescue medication; the side where pain first arises; and the side where wound healing begins first.RESULTS: Compared to 3-0 silk sutures, cyanoacrylate demonstrated better hemostatic properties, reduced operative time, reduced postoperative pain and better wound healing.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that cyanoacrylate glue is an adequate alternative to conventional sutures to close the surgical wound after alveoloplasty, and better than are 3-0 silk sutures.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Alveoloplasty , Cyanoacrylates , Enbucrilate , Hemostasis , Humans , Incidence , Operative Time , Pain, Postoperative , Pathology , Silk , Sutures , Tissue Adhesives , Wound Closure Techniques , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
6.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Korea, to investigate the casual relationship between humidifier disinfectant and lung disease, four rounds of investigation and judgment were conducted. During this investigation, two adults who performed lung biopsy were recognized for their relevance between humidifier disinfectants and lung disease. At first, we did not think of the relationship to humidifier disinfectant because chest computed tomography (CT) finding of 2 cases were improved. However, they performed lung biopsy and it showed typical humidifier disinfectant lung injury (HDLI) pathologic findings, they could be recognized as HDLI. We report these cases here.CASE PRESENTATION: We selected 2 cases from the fourth-round investigation at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Patient of case 1 used humidifier disinfectants since September 2010. The patient was admitted 6 months later to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to severe dyspnea. Pathology following a lung biopsy revealed typical HDLI finding which was determined to be due to humidifier disinfectant exposure. Patient of case 2 used humidifier disinfectant from 2001 to 2008 for about 3 months each winter. The patient's cough and sputum production symptoms began in December of 2007. The patient was admitted to the respiratory medicine department due to worsening dyspnea. Pathology following a lung biopsy revealed typical HDLI finding. This was determined to have been caused by humidifier disinfectant exposure.CONCLUSIONS: Because the typical radiologic findings associated with HDLI can improve over time, it is necessary to consider the revision of current diagnostic criteria that the presence of radiologic findings is important.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Cough , Disinfectants , Dyspnea , Humans , Humidifiers , Intensive Care Units , Judgment , Korea , Lung Diseases , Lung Injury , Lung , Pathology , Pulmonary Medicine , Sputum , Thorax
7.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated the prevalence of amyloid positivity and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in subjects with cognitive complaints with the aim of identifying differences in clinical parameters and cognitive function according to the pattern of coexistence.METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 200 subjects with memory impairment and applied both standardized ¹⁸F-florbetaben PET and brain MRI, including susceptibility-weighted imaging. The amyloid burden was visually classified as positive or negative, and the number and location of CMBs were also analyzed visually. Descriptive analysis was performed for the prevalence of amyloid positivity and CMBs. The relationship between the coexisting pattern of those two findings and clinical parameters including the results of neuropsychiatric tests was analyzed.RESULTS: Positive amyloid PET scans were exhibited by 102 (51.5%) of the 200 patients, and 51 (25.5%) of them had CMBs, which were mostly located in lobar areas in the patients with positive amyloid scans. The patients with CMBs were older and had a higher burden of white-matter hyperintensities than the patients without CMBs. The patients with CMBs also performed worse in confrontation naming and frontal/executive function. When classified by topographical region, parietal CMBs (odds ratio=3.739, p=0.024) were significantly associated with amyloid positivity.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CMBs was higher in patients with cognitive decline than in the general population. CMBs play distinctive roles in affecting clinical parameters and neuropsychological profiles according to the coexistence of amyloid pathology.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Brain , Cognition , Dementia , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Memory , Parietal Lobe , Pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
8.
Hip & Pelvis ; : 35-41, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811156

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Arthroscopy for repair of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and related conditions is technically challenging, but remains the preferred approach for management of these hip pathologies. The incidence of this procedure has increased steadily for the past few years, but little is known about its potential long-term effects on future interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether prior arthroscopic correction of FAI pathology impacts postoperative complication rates in patients receiving subsequent ipsilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) on a national scale.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A commercially available national database – PearlDiver Patients Records Database – identified primary THA patients from 2005 to 2014. Patients who had prior arthroscopic FAI repair (post arthroscopy group) were separated from those who did not (native hip group). Prior FAI repair was examined as a risk factor for complications following THA and a multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors for complications following THA.RESULTS: A total of 11,061 patients met all inclusion and exclusion criteria; 10,951 in the native hip group and 110 in the post arthroscopy group. Prior FAI repair was not significantly associated with higher rates of 90-day readmission (P=0.585), aseptic dislocation/revision within 3 years (P=0.409), surgical site infection within 3 years (P=0.796), or hip stiffness within 3 years (P=0.977) after THA.CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic FAI repair is not an independent risk factor for complications following subsequent ipsilateral THA (level of evidence: III).


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroscopy , Femoracetabular Impingement , Hip , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Pathology , Postoperative Complications , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection
9.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported what patients value while choosing their surgeon, but there are no studies exploring the patterns of referral to spine surgeons among primary care physicians (PCPs). This study aims to identify any trends in PCPs' referral to orthopedic surgery versus neurosurgery for spinal pathology.METHODS: In total, 450 internal medicine, family medicine, emergency medicine, neurology, and pain management physicians who practice at one of three locations (suburban community hospital, urban academic university hospital, and urban private practice) were asked to participate in the study. Consenting physicians completed our 24-question survey addressing their beliefs according to pathologies, locations of pathologies, and surgical interventions.RESULTS: Overall, 108 physicians (24%) completed our survey. Fifty-seven physicians (52.8%) felt that neurosurgeons would provide better long-term comprehensive spinal care. Overall, 66.7% of physicians would refer to neurosurgery for cervical spine radiculopathy; 52.8%, to neurosurgery for thoracic spine radiculopathy; and 56.5%, to orthopedics for lumbar spine radiculopathy. Most physicians would refer all spine fractures to orthopedics for treatment except cervical spine fractures (56.5% to neurosurgeons). Most physicians would refer to neurosurgery for extradural tumors (91.7%) and intradural tumors (96.3%). Most would refer to orthopedic surgeons for chronic pain. Finally, physicians would refer to orthopedics for spine fusion (61.1%) and discectomy (58.3%) and to neurosurgery for minimally invasive surgery (59.3%).CONCLUSIONS: Even though both orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons are intensively trained to treat a similar breath of spinal pathology, physicians vary in their referring patterns according to spinal pathology, location of pathology, and intended surgery. Education on the role of spine surgeons among PCPs is essential in ensuring unbiased referral patterns.


Subject(s)
Chronic Pain , Diskectomy , Education , Emergency Medicine , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Internal Medicine , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Neurology , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgery , Orthopedics , Pain Management , Pathology , Physicians, Primary Care , Radiculopathy , Referral and Consultation , Spine , Surgeons
10.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811109

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Appendiceal tumoral lesions can occur as benign, malignant, or borderline disease. Determination of the extent of surgery through accurate diagnosis is important in these tumoral lesions. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of preoperative CT and identified the factors affecting diagnosis.METHODS: Patients diagnosed or strongly suspected from July 2016 to June 2019 with appendiceal mucocele or mucinous neoplasm using abdominal CT were included in the study. All the patients underwent single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy with the margin of cecum secured at least 2 cm from the appendiceal base. To compare blood test results and CT findings, the patients were divided into a mucinous and a nonmucinous group according to pathology.RESULTS: The total number of patients included in this study was 54 and biopsy confirmed appendiceal mucinous neoplasms in 39 of them. With CT, the accuracy of diagnosis was 89.7%. The mean age of the mucinous group was greater than that of the nonmucinous group (P = 0.035). CT showed that the maximum diameter of appendiceal tumor in the mucinous group was greater than that in the nonmucinous group (P < 0.001). Calcification was found only in the appendix of patients in the mucinous group (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis revealed that lager tumor diameter was a factor of diagnosis for appendiceal mucinous neoplasm.CONCLUSION: The accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms in this study was 89.7%. Blood test results did not provide differential diagnosis, and the larger the diameter of appendiceal tumor on CT, the more accurate the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Appendix , Biopsy , Cecum , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Mucins , Mucocele , Multivariate Analysis , Pathology , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811107

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Radical lymph node dissection for right-sided colon cancer is technically challenging. No clear guideline is available for surgical resection of clinical stage I right-sided colon cancer. This study was designed to review the pathologic stage of clinical stage I right-sided colon cancer and determine the relevant extent of surgical resection.METHODS: Patients were treated for clinical stage I right-sided colon cancers (cecal, ascending, hepatic flexure, and proximal transverse colon) between July 2006 and December 2014 at a tertiary teaching hospital. Open surgery was not included because laparoscopic surgery is an initial major procedure in the institution.RESULTS: During the study period, 80 patients diagnosed with clinical stage I right-sided colon cancer were classified into 2 groups according to the pathology: stage 0/I and II/III. Tumor sizes were larger in the stage II/III group (P = 0.003). The stage II/III group had higher rates of vascular (P = 0.023) and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.023) and lower rates of well differentiation (P = 0.022). During follow-up, 1 case of local and 4 cases of systemic recurrences were found. Multivariate analysis to confirm odds ratios affecting change from clinical stage I to pathological stage II/III showed that tumor size (P = 0.010) and the number of retrieved lymph nodes (P = 0.046) were risk factors.CONCLUSION: For right-sided colon cancer, even with clinical stage I included, radical lymph node dissection should be performed for exact staging with sufficient number of lymph nodes. This will help determine appropriate adjuvant treatment, especially in large tumor sizes.


Subject(s)
Colon , Colon, Ascending , Colon, Transverse , Colonic Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Laparoscopy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Pathology , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Cuenca; s.n; Universidad de Cuenca; 2020. 44 p. ilus; tab. CD-ROM.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1102644

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: la Apendicitis Aguda (A.A) es una urgencia quirúrgica que requiere un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno. Muchas veces puede ser un gran reto para el cirujano por su relación con otras patologías, de allí la importancia de precisar su diagnóstico. Objetivo: validar la precisión diagnóstica del score RIPASA en apendicitis aguda comparándolo con el examen histopatológico. Metodología: se realizó un estudio de validación de pruebas diagnósticas con la información de 300 historias clínicas de pacientes apendicectomizados, atendidos en el Hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso durante el año 2018. Se evaluó mediante el score RIPASA al ingreso y se comparó con los resultados de histopatología como prueba gold standar. Se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo, además se obtuvo Odds Ratio con su IC al 95% para establecer la validez predictiva de esta escala. Resultados: la media de edad fue de 32 años ± 13,7 (DS), más de la mitad fueron: sexo femenino 52%, área urbana 74.7% y bachillerato 62.7%, predominó la etnia mestiza 99.7%. Hubo una asociación de riesgo entre una alta probabilidad de apendicitis según el score RIPASA con A.A (OR 96,36; IC95%: 16,03­578,68; p= 0,000). El score RIPASA tiene una sensibilidad de 98.97%, especificidad 50.0%, VPP 98.63%, VPN 57,14%, RVP 1.98% Y RVN 0.2%. Conclusiones: RIPASA tiene alta probabilidad para detectar a personas con apendicitis aguda, pero no así a las sanas, por lo cual se requiere continuar con más estudios para establecer tal validez


Background: Acute Appendicitis (A.A) is a surgical emergency that requires timely diagnosis and treatment. Many times it can be a great challenge for the surgeon because of its relationship with other pathologies, hence the importance of specifying its diagnosis. Objective: To validate the diagnostic accuracy of the RIPASA score in acute appendicitis by comparing it with the histopathological examination. Methodology: A study of validation of diagnostic tests was carried out with the information of 300 medical records of appendectomized patients, treated at the Vicente Corral Moscoso Hospital during 2018. It was evaluated by means of the RIPASA score at admission and compared with the histopathology results. as gold standard test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were calculated, in addition Odds Ratio was obtained with its 95% CI to establish the predictive validity of this scale. Results: The mean age was 32 years ± 13.7 (SD), more than half were: female 52%, urban area 74.7% and high school 62.7%, mixed race ethnicity predominated 99.7%. There was a risk association between a high probability of appendicitis according to the RIPASA score with A.A (OR 96.36; 95% CI: 16.03­578.68; p = 0.000). The RIPASA score has a sensitivity of 98.97%, specificity 50.0%, PPV 98.63%, NPV 57.14%, RVP 1.8% and RVN 0.2% Conclusions: RIPASA has a high probability of detecting people with acute appendicitis, but not healthy ones, so it is necessary to continue with more studies to find such validity


Subject(s)
Pathology/methods , Appendicitis/complications , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Pathologists/classification
13.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-786217

ABSTRACT

The interventional cardiology is growing and evolving. Many complex procedures are now performed outside the operating room to manage cardiovascular pathologies which had been traditionally treated with cardiac surgery. Appropriate sedation strategy is crucial for improved patient comfort and successful procedure while ensuring safety. Sedation for cardiovascular intervention is frequently challenging, especially in critically-ill, high-risk patients. This review addresses pre-procedure evaluation and preparation of patients, proper monitoring, commonly used sedatives and analgesics, and considerations for specific procedures. Appropriate depth of sedation and analgesia should be balanced with patient, procedural and institutional factors. Understanding of the pharmacology of sedatives/analgesics, vigilant monitoring, ability and proper preparation for management of potential complications may improve outcomes in patients undergoing sedation for cardiovascular procedures.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Analgesics , Anesthesia , Cardiology , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Operating Rooms , Pathology , Pharmacology , Thoracic Surgery
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-786083

ABSTRACT

Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. While the causes of cardiomyopathy continue to be elucidated, current evidence suggests that aberrant bioactive lipid signaling plays a crucial role as a component of cardiac pathophysiology. Sphingolipids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, as they regulate numerous cellular processes that occur in primary and secondary cardiomyopathies. Experimental evidence gathered over the last few decades from both in vitro and in vivo model systems indicates that inhibitors of sphingolipid synthesis attenuate a variety of cardiomyopathic symptoms. In this review, we focus on various cardiomyopathies in which sphingolipids have been implicated and the potential therapeutic benefits that could be gained by targeting sphingolipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Cardiovascular Diseases , Ceramides , In Vitro Techniques , Metabolism , Mortality , Myocytes, Cardiac , Pathology , Receptors, Lysosphingolipid , Sphingolipids
15.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-785434

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula's definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) has recently been updated. This study aimed to identify risk factors for POPF in patients having pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and to generate a nomogram to predict POPF.METHODS: Data on 298 patients who underwent PD from March 2012 to October 2017 was retrospectively reviewed and POPF statuses were redefined. A nomogram was constructed using data from 220 patients and validated using the remaining 78 patients. Independent risk factors for POPF were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. A predictive nomogram was established based on the independent risk factors and was compared with existing models.RESULTS: Texture of the pancreas, size of the main pancreatic duct, portal vein invasion, and definitive pathology were the identified risk factors. The nomogram had a C-index of 0.793 and was internally validated. The nomogram performed better (C-index of 0.816) than the other most cited models (C-indexes of 0.728 and 0.735) in the validation cohort. In addition, the nomogram can assign patients into low- (less than 10%), intermediate- (10% to 30%), and high-risk (equal or higher than 30%) groups to facilitate personalized management.CONCLUSION: The nomogram accurately predicted POPF in patients having PD.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Nomograms , Pancreas , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Fistula , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Pathology , Portal Vein , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Med. UIS ; 32(3): 11-17, Sep.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1114972

ABSTRACT

Resumen La cicatriz uterina es un defecto en la pared anterior del miometrio secundario a la cesárea. Su prevalencia es muy variable, llegando hasta el 84% en algunos estudios, y aumenta según el número de cesáreas previas. La mayoría de las pacientes pueden ser asintomáticas, pero cuando se manifiesta es principalmente con hemorragia uterina anormal. El manejo de esta patología se ha descrito mediante técnicas farmacológicas y quirúrgicas, siendo más estudiadas las técnicas quirúrgicas, dentro de las que se encuentran la histeroscopía, laparoscopia, laparoscopia asistida con histeroscopía, laparotomía y el abordaje vaginal. Se realizó una revisión en PubMed-MEDLINE y LILACS respecto al manejo de este defecto, tomándose artículos publicados en los últimos cinco años, en la cual se encontraron 37 artículos. El manejo depende principalmente de factores como la sintomatología de la paciente, si tiene paridad satisfecha o no, la profundidad del defecto y las preferencias de la paciente. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):11-7


Abstract The postcesarean scar defect is a defect in the anterior wall of the myometrium secondary to the cesarean section. Its prevalence is variable, reaching up to 84% in some studies, increasing with the number of previous cesarean sections. Most of the patients can be asymptomatic, but when it manifests, is mostly with abnormal uterine bleeding. Its management has been described with pharmacological and surgical techniques, the latter being the most researched. They include the hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, laparotomy, and the vaginal approach. A revision in PubMed-MEDLINE and LILACS about the management of this defect was done, including articles published in the last five years, resulting in 37 articles. The selection of the treatment depends on different factors such as the patient's symptoms, if she has satisfied parity or not, the depth of the defect and the patient's preferences. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):11-7


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Cesarean Section , Cicatrix , Parity , Pathology , Patients , Therapeutics , Uterine Hemorrhage , Hysteroscopy , Laparoscopy , Gynecology , Laparotomy , Myometrium
17.
Med. UIS ; 32(3): 19-25, Sep.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1114973

ABSTRACT

Resumen La terapia con oxígeno a largo plazo mejoró la supervivencia de los pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Las medidas propuestas en las guías clínicas para evaluar la indicación y seguimiento de esta terapia son la presión arterial de oxígeno y la saturación arterial de oxígeno. Se ha generalizado el uso de la oximetría de pulso, pero la información para determinar si estas medidas son intercambiables es insuficiente. El objetivo es revisar los fundamentos fisiológicos de las variables relacionadas con la oxigenación y sus formas de medición. En la evaluación del paciente con patología respiratoria, la saturación de pulso es una ayuda clínica valiosa, sin embargo, sus limitaciones no le permiten, en ciertos rangos, reemplazar la valoración directa en sangre arterial (gasometría arterial) de la saturación arterial y la presión arterial de oxígeno, para determinar la indicación de la oxigenoterapia. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):19-25


Abstract Long-term oxygen therapy improves the survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Measures proposed in clinical clinics to evaluate the indication and monitoring of arterial blood pressure therapy and arterial oxygen saturation. The use of pulse oximetry has been widespread, but the information to determine if these measures are interchangeable is insufficient. The objective is to review the physiological foundations of variables related to oxygenation and their forms of measurement. In the assessment of the patient with respiratory pathology, pulse saturation is a valuable clinical aid., however, its limitations do not allow, in certain ranges, to replace direct arterial blood pressure (arterial blood gas) measurement of arterial saturation and arterial oxygen pressure, to determine the indication of oxygen therapy. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):19-25


Subject(s)
Humans , Oximetry , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Oxygen , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pathology , Patients , Pressure , Pulse , Survival , Therapeutics , Weights and Measures , Blood , Blood Gas Analysis , Pulmonary Medicine , Oxygenation , Monitoring , Arterial Pressure , Survivorship
18.
Med. UIS ; 32(3): 49-54, Sep.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1114976

ABSTRACT

Resumen La luxación temporomandibular es infrecuente, pero genera gran repercusión en el esqueleto facial. En ocasiones el cuadro clínico inicial es inespecífico y puede confundirse con otras patologías si no se tiene un adecuado conocimiento del tema, o se realiza una anamnesis incorrecta. Este artículo presenta el caso de una paciente que consultó al servicio de urgencias por disartria y desviación de la comisura labial hacia la izquierda, asociado a dolor severo y parestesia en hemicara derecha. No obstante, al ingreso la paciente refirió síntomas ambiguos, que para el médico evaluador sugirieron una causa neurológica. Durante la observación se solicitó valoración por servicio de cirugía plástica, se logró orientación de la anamnesis y examen físico, obteniendo una impresión diagnóstica de luxación de articulación temporomandibular derecha, confirmada por imagenología, y por ende un tratamiento oportuno con reducción e inmovilización en el servicio de urgencias. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):49-54


Abstract The temporomandibular joint dislocation is uncommon, but it causes a great repercussion on the facial skeleton. Occasionally, the initial symptoms can be unspecific and confuse with other pathologies if there are not an adequate knowledge of the topic and the anamnesis is incorrect. This article presents a clinical case of a patient with dysarthria and left deviation of the labial commissure, associated with severe pain and paresthesia in the right side of the face. Nevertheless, the patient initially referred ambiguous symptoms, suggesting a neurological cause. During observation in the emergency room, plastic surgery service valorated the patient, with subsequent orientation of the anamnesis and physical examination, achieving a satisfactory management of the acute dislocation. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):49-54


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Joint Dislocations , Pain , Paresthesia , Pathology , Physical Examination , Printing , Skeleton , Surgery, Plastic , Temporomandibular Joint , Dysarthria , Face , Immobilization , Medical History Taking
19.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 37(2): 31-39, Septiembre 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1025023

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la patología dual (PD) es la superposición de un trastorno por consumo de sustancias (TCS) y un trastorno psiquiátrico (TP). Diferentes estudios realizados reportan una prevalencia de PD entre el 15% al 80%. El factor causal del consumo de drogas es desconocido y puede estar relacionado con factores intervinientes como la genética, acción de las sustancias, presión de grupo, problemas emocionales, ansiedad, y estrés ambiental. Las comorbilidades psiquiátricas más asociadas al TCS son los trastornos de ansiedad, estado de ánimo, trastornos psicóticos es-trés postraumático, trastornos de conducta, trastornos de personalidad (en especial la personalidad antisocial), trastornos adaptativos, trastornos de los impulsos y trastorno negativista desafiante. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de patología dual (PD) en personas con trastornos por consumo de sustancias. Método: es un estudio descriptivo de prevalencia, que aplicó la entrevista diagnóstica estructurada MINI a 133 pacientes con trastorno por consumo de sustancias entre abril a diciembre del 2016. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva. Resultados: la prevalencia de patología dual es del 74.4%, los trastornos más prevalentes fueron: T. ansiedad 56.4%, T. del humor 51.9%. T. anti-social 37.6% y T. psicótico 21.1%; el 91.6% tienen consumo de alcohol (TCA), 51.1 % consumo de otras sustancias (TCS) y 46.6% combinación de ambas. Conclusiones: existe una elevada prevalencia de PT en la Institución, los trastornos más prevalentes son de ansiedad, del humor y antisocial de personalidad.


Introduction: dual pathology (DP) is the superposition of a substance use disorder (SUD) and a psychiatric disorder (PD). Different studies have reported a prevalence of PD between 15% and 80%. The causal factor of drug use is unknown and may be related to intervening factors such as genetics, action of substances, group pressure, emotional problems, anxiety, and environmental stress.The psychiatric comorbidities most associated with the SUD are anxiety disorders, mood, post-traumatic stress psychotic disorders, behavioral disorders, personality disorders (especially antisocial personality), adaptive disorders, impulse disorders and oppositional defiant disorder. Objective: to determine the prevalence of dual pathology (DP) in people with substance use disorders. Method: this is a descriptive prevalence study, which applied the MINI structured diagnostic interview to 133 patients with substance use disorder from April to December 2016. Descriptive statistics were applied. Results: the prevalence of dual pathology is 74.4%, the most prevalent disorders were: T. anxiety 56.4%, T. of humor 51.9%. T. antisocial 37.6% and T. psychotic 21.1%; the 91.6% have alcohol consumption (ACT), 51.1% consumption of other substances (SUD) and 46.6% combination of both. Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of PT in the Institution; the most prevalent disorders are anxiety, humor and antisocial personality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pathology , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders , Anxiety , Psychotic Disorders , Affect , Antisocial Personality Disorder
20.
Cambios rev. méd ; 18(1): 111-118, 28/06/2019. tabs, grafs
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1015169

ABSTRACT

La rehabilitación cardiometabólica es un programa multifactorial útil para el tratamiento de las principales patologías que tienen una relación directa con el sedentarismo, como patologías cardiovasculares, metabólicas y sus complicaciones. En mayo de 2004, durante la 57ª Asamblea Mundial de la Salud, se aprobó "La estrategia mundial de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) que aborda sobre el régimen alimentario, la actividad física y la salud" con la finalidad de disminuir la inactividad física, los malos hábitos de alimentación que de forma directa llevan al exceso de peso, y que están asociadas al riesgo cardiovascular (RCV), a las enfermedades cardiovasculares, a la diabetes mellitus (DM) del tipo 2 y a otras diferentes enfermedades degenerativas crónicas. En base a la cual se orienta a implementar una correcta prescripción del ejercicio tanto preventiva como terapéutica. Este protocolo de atención clínico-terapeútico va dirigido a profesionales de la salud para el control de enfermedades cardiometabólicas. Los profesionales sanitarios podrán ofertar una terapéutica integral a sus pacientes para dosificar el ejercicio de forma personalizada, a partir del estado de salud, conocimiento de patologías preexistentes, edad y condición física inicial del paciente, así como proporcionar un seguimiento mediante programas individualizados. Cuyo principal fin es mejorar la condición cardiovascular, evitar nuevas complicaciones y reducir la mortalidad.


Cardiometabolic rehabilitation is a multifactorial program useful for the treatment of the main pathologies that have a direct relationship with sedentary lifestyle, such as cardiovascular, metabolic pathologies and their complications. In May 2004, during the 57th World Health Assembly, "The World Strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO) that addresses the diet, physical activity and health" was approved in order to reduce the physical inactivity, poor eating habits that directly lead to excess weight, and that are associated with cardiovascular risk (CVR), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2 and other different chronic degenerative diseases . Based on which it is oriented to implement a correct prescription of both preventive and therapeutic exercise.This protocol of clinical-therapeutic care is aimed at health professionals for the control of cardiometabolic diseases. Health professionals may offer a comprehensive therapy to their patients to dose the exercise in a personalized way, based on the state of health, knowledge of preexisting pathologies, age and initial physical condition of the patient, as well as providing follow-up through individualized programs. Whose main purpose is to improve the cardiovascular condition, avoid new complications and reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rehabilitation , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Metabolic Syndrome , Exercise Therapy , Sedentary Behavior , Pathology , Therapeutics , World Health Organization
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