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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(1): 31-42, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1368363

ABSTRACT

El índice de masa corporal (IMC) es una eficaz herramienta para detectar la sobrecarga ponderal en niños y adolescentes, asociado a la adiposidad corporal. Objetivo. Analizar la concordancia, sensibilidad y especificidad de tres referencias internacionales de IMC/edad (OMS, IOTF y CDC) para diagnosticar el exceso ponderal y conocer su precisión diagnóstica para identificar el exceso de adiposidad con relación al área grasa braquial (AGB) en población infanto juvenil de Argentina. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio multicéntrico, descriptivo-comparativo y transversal entre 2003 y 2008, en 22.658 niños y adolescentes argentinos de 4 a 13 años de edad. A partir del peso, talla, circunferencia del brazo y pliegue tricipital, se calcularon IMC y AGB. Se analizó la concordancia, sensibilidad y especificidad de referencias de IMC/edad (OMS, CDC, IOTF) y la precisión diagnóstica (curvas ROC) para identificar exceso de adiposidad, a partir del AGB, así como el punto de corte óptimo (PCO). Resultados. Las tres referencias tuvieron buena concordancia. La mayor sensibilidad correspondió a OMS y la mayor especificidad a IOTF. El área bajo la curva (ABC) fue mayor en Z-IMC/IOTF en varones y en Z-IMC/OMS en mujeres. Los PCO mostraron discrepancias, siendo mayores con OMS. Conclusión. Las tres referencias muestran similar precisión diagnóstica para detectar alta reserva calórica, con puntos de corte óptimo para las puntuaciones Z-IMC menores a 2 Z scores. Esto resulta relevante para la identificación de exceso de adiposidad en poblaciones, en relación con la implementación de políticas públicas de prevención de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles(AU)


The body mass index (BMI) is an effective tool to detect weight overload in children and adolescents, associated with body adiposity. Objective. To analyze the concordance, sensitivity and specificity of three international BMI/age references (WHO, IOTF and CDC) to diagnose excess weight and to know their diagnostic accuracy to identify excess adiposity in relation to the brachial fat area (BFA) in Argentine child-youth population. Materials and methods. A multicenter, descriptive- comparative and cross-sectional study was carried out between 2003 and 2008 in 22.658 Argentine children and adolescents between aged 4 to 13 years. From the weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital fold, BMI and BFA were calculated. The concordance, sensitivity, and specificity of BMI / age references (WHO, IOTF, CDC,) were analyzed and the diagnostic precision (ROC curves) to identify excess adiposity, from the BFA, as well as the optimal cut-off point (OCP). Results. The three references had good agreement, the highest sensitivity corresponded to WHO and the highest specificity to IOTF. The area under the curve (AUC) was greater in Z-BMI/IOTF in men and in Z-BMI/WHO in women. The OCPs showed discrepancies, being higher with WHO. Conclusion. The three references show similar diagnostic accuracy to detect high caloric reserve, but with cut-off points for Z-BMI scores less than 2 Z scores. This is relevant for the identification of excess adiposity in populations in relation to the implementation of public policies for the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Mid-Upper Arm Circumference , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Body Fat Distribution , Students , Weight by Height , Malnutrition , Pediatric Obesity
2.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 104-110, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360562

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity development in adolescents with early diagnosed phenylketonuria treated exclusively by diet. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study anthropometric measurements, serum phenylalanine levels, and 10 metabolites associated with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were analyzed in 101 adolescents aged 10-20 years. Adolescents were categorized into overweight/obesity and eutrophic/low body mass index groups. These patients were compared using Student's t-test, Pearson's chi-square test, Wald's chi-square test for multivariate analysis. Further, to verify whether the prevalence of overweight/obesity found in the study population was similar to that in the general population, the authors compared the nutritional status of 46 patients aged 13-17 years with that of healthy students of the same age from the National School Health Survey using the chi-square test for adherence. The significance threshold was p < 0.5. Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity in adolescents was 27.7%. There was no difference in prevalence between sexes. Older age was a protective factor and Increased Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance index and high phenylalanine and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were predictive factors for overweight/obesity. The equality hypothesis was not rejected in the comparison of nutritional states of 46 patients aged 13-17 years and healthy students of the same age. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight/obesity in phenylketonuria adolescents was similar to what is found in healthy adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Phenylketonurias/complications , Phenylketonurias/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Causality , Overweight/complications , Overweight/diagnosis , Overweight/epidemiology
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(1): 363-375, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356041

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a tendência temporal da prevalência de excesso de peso (EP) em crianças menores de cinco anos assistidas pelo Programa Bolsa Família (PBF) entre 2008 e 2018. O painel de dados foi baseado nos relatórios de estado nutricional do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional (SISVAN) (n=30.574.118) e analisado por meio de modelos de regressão joinpoint específicos para idade (lactentes e pré-escolares) e macrorregião. Ainda, calculou-se a cobertura do SISVAN para o PBF e a representatividade nacional, segundo projeção censitária. Na década analisada, o EP em lactentes reduziu de 11,9% (11,8; 12,0 IC95%) para 8,5% (8,4; 8,6 IC95%) (-3,6%/ano [-5,1; -2,0 IC95%]); quanto aos pré-escolares, a prevalência EP aumentou em 3,1%/ano (2,0; 4,2 IC95%) até 2015, seguida por uma retração até 2018 (-6,4%/ano [-10,1; -2,6 IC95%]). Em ambos os grupos etários, a região Norte apresentou a menor prevalência em toda série histórica e a Nordeste o pior desempenho no controle do EP infantil. A cobertura do SISVAN no PBF foi elevada e a representatividade dos dados variou entre 13,9% (Sul) e 42,2% (Nordeste). Apesar da prevalência estar acima do esperado, após 2014, identificou-se redução linear no EP em lactentes e desaceleração na taxa de crescimento nos pré-escolares.


Abstract This study aimed to analyze the overweight (OW) prevalence trends from 2008 to 2018 among under-five-year-old children assisted by the conditional cash transfer program entitled Programa Bolsa Família (PBF). The panel was based on the Food and Nutritional Surveillance System (SISVAN) (n=30,574,118) nutritional status reports. Age- (infants and preschoolers) and region-specific joinpoint regression models were used to analyze OW's prevalence temporal changes. Besides, the coverage of SISVAN for PBF and national representativity were calculated according to census projection. In the decade analyzed, OW in infants decreased from 11.9% (11.8; 12.0 95%CI) to 8.5% (8.4; 8.6 95%CI) (-3.6%/year [-5.1; -2.0 95%CI]); for preschool children, the prevalence of OW increased by 3.1%/year (2.0; 4.2 95%CI) until 2015, followed by a decrease until 2018 (-6.4%/year [-10.1; -2.6 95%CI]). In both age groups, the North region had the lowest prevalence in all time-series, and the Northeast had the worst performance in managing childhood obesity. The SISVAN's coverage in the PBF was high, and the data representativity varied between 13.9% (South) and 42.2% (Northeast). Although the prevalence was higher than expected, after 2014, it was detected a linear reduction in OW in infants and a deceleration in the growth rate in preschoolers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Poverty , Nutritional Status , Prevalence
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 68-74, jan. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360106

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Apesar da grande proporção de octogenários com embolia pulmonar aguda, há pouca informação indicando a estratégia de manejo ideal, especialmente medidas terapêuticas, como a terapia lítica. Objetivos O número de pacientes idosos diagnosticados com embolia pulmonar aguda aumenta constantemente. Porém, o papel do tratamento trombolítico não está claramente definido entre os octogenários. Nosso objetivo é avaliar a efetividade da terapia lítica em pacientes octogenários diagnosticados com embolia pulmonar. Métodos Cento e quarenta e oito indivíduos (70,3% de mulheres, n=104) com mais de 80 anos foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: tratamento trombolítico versus não-trombolítico. As taxas de mortalidade hospitalar e episódios de sangramento foram definidos como desfechos do estudo. Valor de p <0,05 foi considerado como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados A mortalidade hospitalar reduziu significativamente no grupo trombolítico em comparação ao não-trombolítico (10,5% vs. 24,2%; p=0,03). Episódios de sangramento menores foram mais comuns no braço que recebeu o tratamento trombolítico, mas grandes hemorragias não diferiram entre os grupos (35,1% vs. 13,2%, p<0,01; 7% vs. 5,5% p=0,71, respectivamente). O escore de PESI alto (OR: 1,03 IC95%; 1,01-1,04 p<0,01), a terapia trombolítica (OR: 0,15 IC95%; 0,01-0,25, p< 0,01) e níveis altos de troponina (OR: 1,20 IC95%; 1,01-1,43, p=0,03) estiveram independentemente associados a taxas de mortalidade hospitalar na análise de regressão multivariada. Conclusão A terapia trombolítica esteve associada à mortalidade hospitalar reduzida em detrimento do aumento geral das complicações de sangramento em octogenários.


Abstract Background Despite the high proportion of octogenarians with acute pulmonary embolism, there is little information indicating the optimal management strategy, mainly therapeutic measures, such as lytic therapy. Objectives The number of elderly patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism increases constantly. However, the role of thrombolytic treatment is not clearly defined among octogenarians. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of lytic therapy in octogenarian patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. Methods One hundred and forty eight subjects (70.3% women, n=104) aged more than eighty years were included in the study. The patients were divided in two groups: thrombolytic versus non-thrombolytic treatment. In-hospital mortality rates and bleeding events were defined as study outcomes. P-value <0.05 was considered as statistical significance. Results In-hospital mortality decreased significantly in the thrombolytic group compared to the non-thrombolytic group (10.5% vs. 24.2% p=0.03). Minor bleeding events were more common in the arm that received thrombolytic treatment, but major hemorrhage did not differ between the groups (35.1% vs. 13.2%, p<0.01; 7% vs. 5.5% p=0.71, respectively). High PESI score (OR: 1.03 95%CI; 1.01-1.04 p<0.01), thrombolytic therapy (OR: 0.15 95%CI; 0.01-0.25, p< 0.01) and high troponin levels (OR: 1.20 95%CI; 1.01-1.43, p=0.03) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality rates in the multivariate regression analysis. Conclusion Thrombolytic therapy was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality at the expense of increased overall bleeding complications in octogenarians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Body Composition , Weight Loss/physiology , Body Mass Index , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 33-40, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360114

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A ação do peptídeo natriurético atrial (ANP) na natriurese, diurese e vasodilatação, resistência à insulina, fígado, rim e tecido adiposo pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento metabólico e cardiovascular saudável. Embora o nível circulante de ANP seja reduzido em pacientes com obesidade, sua resposta à perda de peso ainda é pouco explorada em populações pediátricas. Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos das variações do ANP em resposta à intervenção interdisciplinar para perda de peso na Síndrome Metabólica (SMet) e nos riscos cardiometabólicos em adolescentes com obesidade. Métodos 73 adolescentes com obesidade participaram de uma terapia interdisciplinar para perda de peso de 20 semanas, incluindo uma abordagem clínica, nutricional, psicológica e de exercícios físicos. A composição corporal, análises bioquímicas e pressão sanguínea foram avaliadas. A SMet foi classificada de acordo com a Federação Internacional de Diabetes (IDF) (2007). Após o tratamento, os voluntários foram divididos de acordo com os níveis de plasma do ANP aumento (n=31) ou ANP redução (n=19). Resultados Ambos os grupos apresentaram redução significativa de peso corporal, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e circunferências de cintura, pescoço e quadril (CC, CP e CQ, respectivamente), e aumento da massa livre de gordura (MLG). É interessante observar que houve uma redução significativa na gordura corporal, na razão de TG/HDL-c e na prevalência de SMet (de 23% para 6%) somente no grupo com ANP aumento. Conclusão Este estudo sugere que o aumento nos níveis séricos de ANP após a terapia para perda de peso pode estar associado a melhorias nos riscos cardiometabólicos e na prevalência reduzida de SMet em adolescentes com obesidade.


Abstract Background The action of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on natriuresis, diuresis and vasodilatation, insulin resistance, liver, kidney, and adipose tissue may contribute to the healthy metabolic and cardiovascular development. Even though the circulating level of ANP is reduced in patients with obesity, its response to weight loss remains poorly explored in pediatric populations. Objective To evaluate the effects of ANP variations in response to interdisciplinary weight loss intervention on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiometabolic risks in adolescents with obesity. Methods 73 adolescents with obesity attended a 20-week clinical interdisciplinary weight loss therapy including clinical, nutritional, psychological and exercise training approach. Body composition, biochemical analyses and blood pressure were evaluated. MetS was classified according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) (2007). After the treatment, volunteers were divided according to Increasing (n=31) or Decreasing (n=19) ANP plasma levels. Results Both groups present significant reduction of body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist, neck and hip circumferences (WC, NC and HC, respectively) and increasing fat-free mass (FFM). Interestingly, a significant reduction in body fat, TG/HDL-c ratio and MetS prevalence (from 23% to 6%) was observed in the Increased ANP group only. Conclusion This study suggests that an increase in ANP serum levels after weight loss therapy could be associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risks and the reduced prevalence of MetS in adolescents with obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Body Composition , Weight Loss/physiology , Body Mass Index , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism
6.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 259-279, 20220316. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362965

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La obesidad en la población pediátrica ha ido aumentando de manera progresiva y el manejo médico de la obesidad mórbida en esta población se ha mostrado insuficiente. El objetivo de este artículo fue describir el estado actual de la literatura científica publicada hasta abril 15 de 2021 sobre el impacto de la cirugía bariátrica en la población pediátrica. Métodos. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura que evaluó dos bases de datos, donde se incluyeron revisiones sistemáticas, reportes de casos, series de casos y ensayos clínicos, publicados desde el 1 de enero de 2010 hasta el 15 de abril de 2021, en español, inglés y francés. Resultados. Se incluyeron 56 documentos y 18 estudios clínicos, en los que se encontró que la cirugía bariátrica (bypass gástrico por Y de Roux, gastrectomía en manga, plicatura gástrica y banda gástrica) alcanzó una pérdida de peso significativa en el primer año, con un adecuado sostenimiento de dicha pérdida al quinto año, además de una resolución completa de las comorbilidades metabólicas y cardiovasculares en la mayoría de los pacientes. Conclusión. La cirugía bariátrica se presenta como una alternativa eficaz en el manejo de la obesidad mórbida y sus complicaciones en el paciente pediátrico.


Introduction. Obesity in the pediatric population has been increasing progressively and the medical management of morbid obesity in this population has proven insufficient. The objective of this article was to describe the current state of scientific literature published until April 15, 2021 on the impact of bariatric surgery in the pediatric population. Methods: A literature review was performed searching into two databases, including systematic reviews, case reports, case series and clinical trials from January 1, 2010 to April 15, 2021, in Spanish, English, and French languages. Results: 56 documents and 18 clinical trials were included. It was found that bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, gastric plication, and gastric band) achieved significant weight loss in the first year, and adequate maintenance of weight loss at the fifth year, in addition to a complete resolution of metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities in most patients.Conclusion: Bariatric surgery is an effective alternative in the management of morbid obesity and its complications in pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastric Bypass , Pediatric Obesity , Review , Bariatric Surgery , Obesity Management
7.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO5609, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360398

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the maternal and early childhood factors associated with asthma and obesity in children aged 6 to 7 years. Methods A case-control study conducted with children aged 6 to 7 years. Applications with questions about asthma symptoms in the last 12 months, maternal and childhood data in the first 2 years of life, and anthropometric data were collected. Children who presented asthma symptoms were considered as cases and those without asthma symptoms were considered as controls, later divided into two subgroups that were eutrophic or overweight/obesity. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the association between asthma symptoms (adequate weight and overweight/obesity) and gestational and personal factors, calculating odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Values of p<0.05 were considered significant. Results Two hundred and one children were evaluated, 25.4% had asthma symptoms, 37.2% of them were overweight/obesity. Waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and body mass index were higher in the group with overweight/obesity asthma symptoms compared to no asthma symptoms (p<0.05). Factors significantly associated with asthma and overweight/obesity symptoms included: the maternal history of asthma (odds ratio of 3.73; 95%CI: 1.10-12.6) and hypertension during pregnancy (odds ratio of 3.29; 95%CI: 1.08-9.94). Conclusion Maternal history of asthma and hypertension during pregnancy increased the chances of children, at 6 and 7 years of age, having symptoms of asthma and obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child, Preschool , Child , Asthma/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Overweight
8.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1362984

ABSTRACT

Background: Overnutrition has been documented at epidemic levels in children and adults. The associated risk factors may include poor dietary habits, sedentary behaviour, inadequate sleep and low parental education. Objective: To describe dietary habits, physical activity and sleep patterns among secondary school adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 1,120 adolescents recruited from public and private secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria, was carried out to study the dietary habits, sleep patterns and physical activity in relation to nutritional status. Results: Ten per cent of the adolescents skipped breakfast, while 28% had fruits on up to five days of the week. Eleven per cent had a sweetened drink every day, while 20 % had a sweetened drink on most days of the week. One out of four (26%) adolescents had more than two hours of screen time daily, and only 5% engaged in sporting activities up to five times weekly. One-third of the students slept for less than six hours daily and experienced sleeping difficulties. Multivariate analysis showed that females were twice as likely not to participate in sports (OR = 2.38, CI = 1.3-4.37, p = 0.002 and to have a higher intake of confectionaries (OR = 1.47, CI = 1.07-2.04, p = 0.01. Conclusion: Poor dietary habits, inadequate physical activity and insufficient sleep were observed among secondary school adolescents. A multi-pronged approach to improve these behaviours is recommended


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Sleep , Exercise , Overnutrition , Feeding Behavior , Pediatric Obesity
9.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(4): 1109-1118, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360725

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate feeding practices in the first year of life and their association with the development of overweight and obesity in children in Mexico. Methods: the association between overweight and obesity with different feeding practices were evaluated. The data was processed using the statistical package Stata version 14 using logistic regression models. Results: 396 children were evaluated; the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6% and 7.7% presented a possible risk of overweight. 6.9% had exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life and 71.7% were fed infant formula. The variables significantly associated with the development of overweight and obesity in the first year of life were the age of the child (p =0.043, RR=0.57), the introduction of fluids in the first three days of life (p=0.02, RR=2.90), consumption of foods with a high sugar content (p =0.01, RR=0.25), consumption of milk other than breast (p =0.02, RR3.25) and egg consumption (p =0.05; RR=0.28). Conclusions: our results show that it is essential to attend complementary feeding practices and reinforce exclusive breastfeeding in the first year of life, as measures to prevent overweight and obesity to improve health in childhood.


Resumen Objetivos: evaluar las prácticas de lactancia y alimentación en el primer año de vida y su asociación con desarrollo del sobrepeso y obesidad de niños en México. Métodos: estudio transversal, analítico, y explicativo, se evaluó la asociación entre sobrepeso y obesidad con las distintas prácticas de alimentación en menores de un año de edad. Resultados: se evaluaron 396 menores, la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 6% y 7.7% presentaba posible riesgo de sobrepeso. El 6.9% tuvo lactancia materna exclusiva en los primeros 6 meses de vida; 71.7% fueron alimentados con fórmula infantil. Las variables asociadas significativamente con el desarrollo de sobrepeso y obesidad en el primer año de vida fueron: la edad del menor (p =0.043; RR=0.57), introducción de líquidos en los tres primeros días de vida (p=0.02; RR=2.90), consumo de alimentos con alto contenido de azúcar (p = 0.01; RR=0.25), consumo de leches distintas al pecho (p = 0.02; RR=3.25) y consumo de huevo (p =0.05; RR=0.28). Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que es fundamental atender las prácticas de alimentación complementaria y reforzar la lactancia materna exclusiva en el primer año de vida, como medidas de prevención del sobrepeso y obesidad para mejorar la salud en la infancia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Breast Feeding , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Maternal Behavior , Mexico/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 4871-4884, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345750

ABSTRACT

Resumo Os fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento da obesidade na adolescência constituem o objeto deste estudo. Por meio de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, buscou-se identificar os fatores de risco da obesidade nos adolescentes. Utilizou-se a estratégia PICO para se formular a seguinte pergunta norteadora: quais são os fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento da obesidade na adolescência? Os portais de pesquisa consultados foram: BVS e EBSCOhost, com o corpus do estudo ficando com 25 artigos. O fenômeno da obesidade foi entendido como resultante de fatores biológicos, sociais, psicológicos e nutricionais. Constatou-se que não existe um consenso sobre riscos e benefícios, o que dificulta recomendações de evidência. Foram identificadas, ainda, propostas passíveis de serem implementadas: a modificação de hábitos alimentares, o controle de peso e a prática de exercícios físicos. Tais modificações comportamentais podem ser recomendadas para os contextos familiares, escolares e dos serviços de saúde. A revisão recomenda estratégias de prevenção e pensar a escola como um espaço rico para promoção da saúde por intermédio da educação. Do ponto de vista político e social, é preciso enfrentar as propagandas da indústria alimentícia, que seduzem os adolescentes a consumirem alimentos processados e ricos em gordura e açúcar.


Abstract The scope of this study was to examine the risk factors for the development of obesity in adolescence. The objective was to identify risk factors for adolescent obesity by means of an Integrative Review of the Literature. The PICO strategy was used to formulate the following central line of inquiry: What are the risk factors for the development of obesity during adolescence? The VHL and EBSCOhost research databases were consulted, resulting in a selection of 25 articles for in-depth study. The phenomenon of obesity was understood as the result of biological, social, psychological, and nutritional factors. The research revealed a lack of consensus on the risks and benefits, which makes evidence-based recommendations difficult. The study identified proposals that can be implemented, such as a change in eating habits, weight control and the practice of physical exercise. Such behavioral changes can be recommended within the context of the family, schools, and health services. The review recommends prevention strategies and the recognition of school as the ideal medium for health promotion through education. From a political and social standpoint, it is necessary to challenge the prevalence of publicity of the food industry that entices adolescents to consume processed foods with high fat and sugar content.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Schools , Exercise , Risk Factors , Health Promotion
11.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 490-499, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340153

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of childhood obesity in Brazil by means of a systematic review of representative studies. Sources: We searched for population-based studies that assessed obesity in Brazilian children aged < 10 years in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and other sources up to September, 2019. Paired researchers selected studies, extracted data and assessed the quality of these studies. Meta-analysis of prevalence and confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated, weighted by the population sizes using Freeman-Tukey double-arccosine transformation. Heterogeneity (I2) and publication bias were investigated by meta-regression and Egger's test, respectively. Summary of the findings: 53 studies were included (n = 122,395), which were held from 1986 to 2015 and limited mainly due to inadequate response rates. Prevalence of obesity in the threedecade period was of 8.2% ([95% CI]: 8.1-8.4%, I2 = 98.5%). Higher prevalence was observed in boys (9.7% [9.4-9.9%], I2 = 97.4%) than girls (7.3% [7.1 7.5%], I2 = 96.1%). Prevalence increased according to the decade (1990: 6.5% [6.0-7.0 %], I2 = 96.8%; 2000: 7.9% [7.7-8.0 %], I2 = 98.8%; 2010: 12.0% [11.5-12.6 %], I2 = 95.8%), and Brazilian region (Northeast: 6.4% [6.2−6.7%], I2 = 98.1%; North: 6.7% [6.3−7.2%], I2 = 98.8%; Southeast:10.6% [10.2−11.0%], I2 = 98.2%; South: 10.1 [9.7−10.4%], I2 = 97.7%). Heterogeneity was affected by age and region (p < 0.05) and publication bias was discarded (p = 0.746). Conclusion: For every 100 Brazilian children, over eight had obesity in the three-decade period and 12 in each 100 had childhood obesity in more recent estimates. Higher prevalence occurred in boys, recent decades and more developed Brazilian regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence
12.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(3): 178-188, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1353191

ABSTRACT

Los problemas relacionados con los trastornos metabólicos se han incrementado en la actualidad en población joven. Promover un estilo de vida saludable en estudiantes universitarios puede ayudar a prevenir diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares y diferentes tipos de cáncer. Objetivo. Calcular el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) de universitarios para identificar la prevalencia de obesidad e hipertensión como factores de riesgo metabólico. Materiales y método. Se utilizó muestreo probabilístico aleatorio simple (n= 282, edad 19,1 ± 1,8, 54,6% mujeres, 48,5% hombres). Se realizaron mediciones de peso y estatura para calcular el IMC, circunferencia de cintura y presión arterial. Resultados. Los resultados promedio para mujeres y hombres respectivamente fueron: IMC 24,0 ±5,5 y 25,2 ±5,2 kg/m2 (p= 0,25); cintura 76,25 ± 11,87 y 82,32 ± 15,85 cm (p= 0,001), indicando un riesgo bajo en 73,1% de mujeres y 82,5% de hombres; y presión arterial 127,73/86,03 y 142,3/94,2 mmHg (p= 0,001). La probabilidad de tener hipertensión arterial fue mayor al tener una relación cintura/estatura (RCE) alterada en mujeres y hombres (OR=3,037; IC95% 1,385-6,657 y OR=3,664; IC95% 1,249-2,179, respectivamente). Conclusiones. La población universitaria presenta factores de riesgo que pueden derivar en enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en un futuro próximo, por lo cual es necesario modificar sus estilos de vida. La RCE es un buen predictor de riesgo de hipertensión en esta población(AU)


The problems related to metabolic disorders have now increased in the young population. Promoting a healthy lifestyle in college students can help prevent diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and different types of cancer. Objective. To calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI) in college students to identify the prevalence of obesity and hypertension as metabolic risk factors. Materials and methods. Simple random probability sampling was used (n = 282, age 19,1 ± 1,8, 54,6% women, 48,5% men). BMI was calculated with weight and height, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Results. The average results for women and men respectively were: BMI 24,0 ± 5,5 and 25,2 ± 5,2 kg/m2 (p = 0,25); waist 76,25 ± 11,87 and 82,32 ± 15,85 cm (p = 0,001), indicating a low risk in 73,1% of women and 82,5% of men; and blood pressure 127,73 / 86,03 and 142,3 / 94,2 mm Hg (p = 0,001). The probability of having arterial hypertension was higher when there was an altered waist / height ratio (WHR) in women and men (OR = 3,037; 95% CI 1,385-6,657 and OR = 3,664; 95% CI 1,249-2,179, respectively). Conclusions. The university population presents risk factors that could lead to chronic diseases. It is necessary to modify their lifestyles to prevent future diseases. WHR is a good predictor of hypertension risk in this population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , Chronic Disease , Waist Circumference , Atrial Pressure , Waist-Height Ratio , Noncommunicable Diseases , Students , Universities , Risk Factors , Pediatric Obesity , Life Style
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(3): 189-198, sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1353209

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la asociación de valores de presión arterial (PA) con parámetros de adiposidad y nivel de actividad física (NAF) en escolares y adolescentes en la región de la Araucanía en Chile. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, transversal y correlacional que consideró una muestra de 1.125 niños, niñas y adolescentes de 6 a 13 años. Se analizaron parámetros de adiposidad: índice de masa corporal, perímetro de cintura y del brazo, pliegue bicipital, tricipital, subescapular y suprailíaco y porcentaje de masa grasa, PA sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD) y NAF. Resultados. 60,4% de la muestra esta normotenso; 23,6% pre HTA y 16,0% HTA, sin asociación significativa entre la PA con el sexo (p>0,05). Se encontró para el total de la muestra una correlación significativa entre la PAS con todos los parámetros de adiposidad estudiados (p<0,001; p<0,050). Para la PAD solo el grupo de 6 a 8 años presentó asociación significativa con todos estos parámetros (p<0,001; p<0,050). El NAF se asoció con la clasificación de la PA. Esta asociación tuvo significancia estadística en el grupo de 6 a 8 años (p<0,05). Conclusiones. Se evidencia una elevada frecuencia de PA alta en escolares de una región de Chile. Se identifican asociaciones significativas entre la PA con algunas medidas de adiposidad corporal y el NAF en la muestra de estudio. Esta información puede ser de gran importancia para la predicción de la hipertensión en la infancia en el contexto de atención primaria en salud(AU)


The objective of the study was to determine the association of blood pressure (BP) values with parameters of adiposity and level of physical activity (NAF) in schoolchildren and adolescents in the Araucanía region of Chile. Materials and methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational study that considered a sample of 1.125 subjects, boys and girls between 6 and 13 years old. Adiposity parameters were analyzed: body mass index, waist and arm circumference, bicipital, tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac fold and% fat mass. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) and NAF were also analyzed. Results. 60.4% of the sample is normotensive; 23.6% preHTA and 16.0% HT, without significant association between BP and sex (p> 0.05). For the entire sample, there is a significant correlation between SBP and all the adiposity parameters studied (p <0.001; p <0.050). For DBP, only the 6 to 8-year-old group presented a significant association with all these parameters (p <0.001; p <0.050). The NAF was associated with the PA classification. This association is statistically significant in the 6 to 8-year-old group (p <0.050). Conclusions. A high frequency of high BP is evidenced in schoolchildren from a region of Chile. Significant associations were identified between BP with some measures of body adiposity and NAF in the study sample. This information can be of great importance for the prediction of hypertension in childhood in the context of primary health care(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Body Mass Index , Arterial Pressure , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Exercise , Anthropometry , Adiposity , Waist-Height Ratio
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(3): 228-235, sept. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1353323

ABSTRACT

The objective of this review is to present the impact of nutritional education, physical activity and support network interventions on the nutritional status, cognitive and academic achievement of students under 18 years of age. According to the literature, multicomponent interventions that address diet, physical activity, and involve parents concluded to be more effective in combating obesity and enhancing academic achievement in young people. Therefore, the implementation of public policies that commit to intervene in a timely manner in the first stages of the life cycle, would have a considerably beneficial impact on health(AU)


El objetivo de esta revisión es dar a conocer el impacto de las intervenciones de educación nutricional, actividad física y redes de apoyo en el estado nutricional, rendimiento cognitivo y académico de estudiantes menores de 18 años. De acuerdo con la literatura, las intervenciones de carácter multicomponente que abordan alimentación, actividad física, e involucran a los padres concluyeron ser más efectivas para combatir la obesidad y potenciar el rendimiento académico en jóvenes. Por lo tanto, la implementación de políticas públicas que permitan intervenir de forma oportuna las primeras etapas del ciclo vital, tendrían un impacto considerablemente beneficioso para la salud(AU)


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Child , Food and Nutrition Education , Exercise , Malnutrition/complications , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity , Nutritional Status , Chronic Disease , Academic Performance
15.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(4): 420-425, July-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287045

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to investigate human adenovirus 36 (Adv36) as an associated factor for adiposity in children and adolescents aged 9-12 years. Methods This was a case-control study comparing overweight (cases) and eutrophic (controls) children and adolescents aged 9-12 years based on their body mass index in relation to human adenovirus 36 serology. Human adenovirus 36-specific neutralizing antibodies were assessed using the serum neutralization assay, and a questionnaire regarding the subjects' personal backgrounds, breastfeed history, age of starting daycare, and eating and exercise habits was also applied. Results A total of 101 (51, eutrophic; 50, overweight) children were included in the study. The Adv36 seropositivity rate was of 15.8%, which increased the chance of being overweight by 3.17 times (p = 0.049). Enrollment in a full-time daycare center before the age of 24 months increased the chance of being overweight by 2.78 times (p = 0.027). Metabolic parameters (total cholesterol and blood glucose) were insignificantly different among children who were seropositive or seronegative for human adenovirus 36. Conclusion This study concluded that excessive weight was positively associated with seropositivity for human adenovirus 36. Early enrollment in a full-time daycare was also an associated factor for obesity. Such data, confirmed in new studies, reinforces the role of human adenovirus 36 in the increase of childhood adiposity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adenoviruses, Human , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Adenoviridae , Adiposity
17.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 104-113, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290827

ABSTRACT

Con el fin de identificar la asociación entre factores familiares (estructura, funcionalidad y contexto socioeconómico) y la presencia de sobrepeso y obesidad abdominal en escolares, se realizó un estudio transversal analítico en 120 niños escolares (5-11 años) y sus madres que acudieron a un servicio de atención pediátrica en la ciudad de Colima, México. El sobrepeso se definió con el indicador IMC con un puntaje Z > +1 desviación estándar y la obesidad abdominal como circunferencia de cintura > del percentil 75 por sexo y edad. Se evaluó tamaño y tipo de familia, tipo de hogar, relación de los padres y funcionalidad familiar. Las asociaciones se analizaron con regresión logística múltiple. Se encontró 33% de sobrepeso y 33,7% de obesidad abdominal. El menor tamaño de la familia, la mayor marginalidad de la colonia (barrio) de residencia, la percepción de problemas en la economía familiar, el mayor peso al nacer y la mayor edad se asociaron con el sobrepeso. Mientras que el menor tamaño de la familia, el mayor peso al nacer y la mayor edad se asociaron con obesidad abdominal. Para programas de prevención de sobrepeso y obesidad abdominal, sugerimos incluir un enfoque de sistemas familiares que considere el tamaño de la familia y variables del contexto socioeconómico, ya que condicionan su dinámica de interacción(AU)


To identify the association between family factors (structure, functionality, and socioeconomic context) and the presence of overweight and abdominal obesity in school children, an analytical cross-sectional study was performed in 120 schoolchildren (5-11 years old) and their mothers assisting to a pediatric care service at Colima City, Mexico. Overweight was defined with the BMI indicator with a Z-score > +1 standard deviation and abdominal obesity as a waist circumference > 75th percentile by sex and age. Family size and type, type of home, parents' relationship, and family functionality were evaluated. Associations were analyzed with multiple logistic regression. Overweight was present in 33%, and abdominal obesity in 33.7% of the children. A smaller family size, greater neighborhood marginality, a perception of problems in the family economy, a larger birth weight and older age were associated with overweight. A smaller family size, higher birth weight and older age were associated with abdominal obesity. We suggest a family systems approach, including family size and variables of socioeconomic context -which determine their interaction dynamics-, in programs for overweight and abdominal obesity prevention(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Overweight , Feeding Behavior , Obesity, Abdominal , Socioeconomic Factors , Body Mass Index , Pediatric Obesity
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 85-93, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290813

ABSTRACT

Tradicionalmente se han utilizado algunos índices antropométricos para el diagnóstico de exceso de peso en niños y adolescentes que han mostrado algunas desventajas por lo que se han postulado otros indicadores. En ese sentido, se plantea estimar el nivel de asociación entre indicadores antropométricos y la presencia de dislipidemia en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. Se realizó una investigación observacional, descriptiva y de corte transversal en 123 adolescentes (68,2% mujeres, edad promedio 14,5 años) y 122 adultos jóvenes (70,5% mujeres, edad promedio 21 años) de la ciudad de Caracas. Se calcularon Índices de Masa Corporal (IMC), Índice Cintura­Talla (ICT), Índice de Masa Corporal Abdominal (IMCA) e Índice de Masa Tri-Ponderal (IMT). Se obtuvo una muestra de sangre por punción venosa, en ayuno de 12 a 14 horas, a partir de la cual se cuantificó Colesterol Total, Lipoproteína de alta densidad y Triglicéridos. Se calculó la concentración de Lipoproteína de baja densidad por la fórmula de Friedewald, así como el índice LDL-C/HDL-C y el índice LogTg/HDL. Para el análisis e interpretación de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva univariante y multivariante. Los resultados revelaron que los índices antropométricos IMCA e IMT no mostraron mejor desempeño en predecir dislipidemia que los indicadores IMC, Circunferencia de Cintura (CC) e ICT en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. Los indicadores antropométricos de adiposidad abdominal, CC e ICT, tendieron a presentar mayores OR, ABC, sensibilidad y especificidad independientemente del grupo de estudio. En general, la capacidad de los indicadores antropométricos evaluados en predecir la presencia de dislipidemia en adultos jóvenes fue adecuada, situación que no se presentó en los adolescentes(AU)


Traditionally, some anthropometric indices have been used for the diagnosis of excess weight in children and adolescents, which have shown some disadvantages for which other indicators have been postulated. In this sense, it is proposed to estimate the level of association between anthropometric indicators and the presence of dyslipidemia in adolescents and young adults. An observational, descriptive cross-sectional investigation was carried out in 123 adolescents (68,2% women, media age 14,5 years) and 122 young adults (70,5% women, media age 21 years) from the city of Caracas. Body Mass Indices (BMI), Waist-Height Ratio (WHR), Abdominal Body Mass Index (BMAI) and Tri-Ponderal Mass Index (TMI) were calculated. A blood sample was obtained by venipuncture, fasting for 12 to 14 hours, from which Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein and Triglycerides were quantified. The low-density lipoprotein concentration was calculated by the FriedEwald formula, as well as the LDL-C / HDL-C index and the LogTg / HDL index. Univariate and multivariate descriptive statistics were used for the analysis and interpretation of the data. The results revealed that the BMI and TMI anthropometric indices did not show better performance in predicting dyslipidemia than the BMI, Waist Circumference (WC) and WHR indicators in adolescents and young adults. The anthropometric indicators of abdominal adiposity, WC and WHR, tended to present higher OR, AUC, sensitivity and specificity regardless of the study group. In general, the capacity of the anthropometric indicators evaluated to predict the presence of dyslipidemia in young adults was adequate, a situation that did not occur in adolescents(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Dyslipidemias/physiopathology , Waist Circumference , Waist-Height Ratio , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry , Obesity, Abdominal , Pediatric Obesity
19.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(3): 269-278, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252249

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity is a worldwide public health concern. The New Moves program aims to change eating behavior (EB) and physical activity (PA). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention and predictors of better outcomes relating to EB and PA levels. DESIGN AND SETTING: Secondary data from a cluster randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 270 female adolescents, aged 12 to 14 years, were analyzed. Participation levels were categorized as presence in 1 to 9 sessions or 10 to 17 sessions, or control. Effectiveness was evaluated through improvement in disordered EB (DEB) and EB. Predictors of better outcomes relating to PA levels were evaluated through clustering of individual characteristics that affected changes in PA scores. RESULTS: Participation level was not significantly associated with changes in DEB or EB. Girls with higher body mass index percentile (BMI-P) percentile tended to have increases in sedentary lifestyles through the program. Girls with less body image dissatisfaction presented higher increases in daily PA. Girls with higher BMI-P percentile and higher self-esteem showed reductions in sedentary lifestyles. The program seemed to have more effect on daily PA among older girls than among younger girls. CONCLUSIONS: This program could be used as a structured action plan in schools, with the aims of improving eating behaviors and physical activity, in addition to promoting self-acceptance. The results indicate the importance of evaluating determinants of adherence, as these metrics might influence the effectiveness and future design of lifestyle programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Brazil , Exercise , Feeding Behavior
20.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(2): 105-110, maio-ago. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252353

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o estado nutricional em relação à presença de cáries dentárias em crianças de 4 a 6 anos de idade, do município de Cajamar, São Paulo. Trata-se de estudo transversal com crianças entre 4 a 6 anos (n=1642), acompanhadas pelo Programa Saúde na Escola (PSE) do Município de Cajamar, São Paulo. A classificação do estado nutricional foi baseada no Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) e a avaliação das condições bucais, por meio do índice ceo-d e critério para Risco de Cárie. A análise do estado nutricional, faixa etária e sexo conforme o número de cáries, foi feita por meio dos testes Mann-Whitney U e Kruskal-Wallis (p<0,05). Observou-se maior prevalência de meninos entre 4 a 6 anos. Em todas as faixas etárias a prevalência de excesso de peso foi de aproximadamente 30% e eutrofia em torno de 70%. 65% (n=1068) das crianças não apresentavam risco de cárie (A) e 28,8% (n=475), alto risco (D, E e F). Das 1162 crianças sem cáries, 0,2% eram magras (n=2), 67,2% (n=781) eutróficas e 32,7% (n=380) possuíam excesso de peso. A frequência de 1 a 5 cáries maior entre meninas e de 6 ou mais cáries, entre meninos. Segundo estado nutricional, o número médio do número de cáries foi de 2,17 para magreza, 0,93 para eutrofia e 0,65 para excesso de peso (p<0,010). Conclui-se que houve diferença entre número cáries e estado nutricional, na qual crianças com déficit nutricional apresentavam maior número de cáries dentárias comparadas às eutróficas ou com excesso de peso, sugerindo-se a inclusão do estado nutricional na avaliação odontológica.


This article aims at evaluating the nutritional status in relation to the presence of dental caries in children aged 4 to 6 years in the city of Cajamar, in the state of São Paulo. It is a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 6 years (n=1642) accompanied by the School Health Program of the City of Cajamar, São Paulo. The nutritional status classification was based on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the evaluation of oral conditions, through the ceo-d index, and criteria for risk for caries. The analysis of the nutritional status, age, and sex according to the number of caries was made through the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p<0.05). A higher prevalence was observed among boys aged 4 to 6 years. In all age groups, there was a prevalence of 30% of overweight children, and eutrophy of approximately 70%. A total of 65% (n=1068) of the children presented no risk of caries (A), whereas 28.8% (n=475) showed high risk (D, E, and F). Among the 1162 children with no caries, 0.2% were thin (n=2); 67.2% (n=781) eutrophic; and 32.7% (n=380) were overweight. Girls presented a higher frequency of 1 to 5 caries while boys presented frequency of having 6 or more caries. According to the nutritional status, the average number of caries was 2.17 for thin individuals; 0.93 for eutrophic individuals; and 0.65 for overweight individuals (p<0.010). It could be concluded that there was a difference between the number of caries and the nutritional status, in which children with nutritional deficit presented a higher number of dental caries when compared to eutrophic or overweight ones, suggesting the inclusion of the nutritional status in the dental evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Nutrition Assessment , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Thinness , Nutrition Programs/organization & administration , Body Mass Index , Public Health/education , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/diagnosis , Dentistry , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity , Diet, Healthy
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