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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310064, abr. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537219

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil constituyen un problema de salud pública. El inicio de la pandemia por COVID-19 pudo haber favorecido esta patología. El puntaje Z del índice de masa corporal (Z-IMC) es un indicador aceptado para su diagnóstico y seguimiento. Objetivo. Evaluar si la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó durante la pandemia. Población y métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes asistidos en efectores públicos de salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (GCABA), de 2 a 5 años de edad, con registro de peso y talla en dos consultas, antes y después de haber comenzado el aislamiento social preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO). Se registró estado nutricional (Z-IMC) y variación del Z-IMC entre ambas consultas. Resultados. Se evaluaron 3866 sujetos, edad promedio 3,4 ± 0,8 años; el 48,1 % fueron mujeres. El intervalo promedio entre consultas fue 14,3 ± 2,5 meses. La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad aumentó del 12,6 % (IC95% 11,6-13,6) al 20,9 % (IC95% 19,6-22-2); p <0,001, al igual que el Z-IMC (0,4 ± 1,1 vs. 0,8 ± 1,3; p <0,001). Conclusión. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó significativamente durante la pandemia.


Introduction. Childhood overweight and obesity are a public health problem. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to this condition. The body mass index (BMI) Z-score has been accepted as an indicator for overweight and obesity diagnosis and follow-up. Objective. To assess whether the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased during the pandemic. Population and methods. Retrospective, cohort study. Patients included were those seen at public health care facilities in the City of Buenos Aires (CABA), who were aged 2 to 5 years, had weight and height values recorded at 2 different visits, before and after the establishment of the preventive and mandatory social isolation policy. Patients' nutritional status (BMI Z-score) and the variation in this indicator between both visits were recorded. Results. A total of 3866 subjects were assessed; their average age was 3.4 ± 0.8 years; 48.1% were girls. The average interval between both visits was 14.3 ± 2.5 months. The prevalence of overweight/ obesity increased from 12.6% (95% CI: 11.6­13.6) to 20.9% (95% CI: 19.6­22.2), p < 0.001, and so did the BMI Z-score (0.4 ± 1.1 versus 0.8 ± 1.3, p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased significantly during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 843-873, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425128

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar na literatura científica a efetividade das intervenções não farmacológicas para o manejo da obesidade infantil. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática do tipo overview. As bases científicas para coleta de dados foram: Cinahl, Cochrane, Lilacs, Medline, Scopus, Scielo e Science direct, e todo o processo de seleção foi feito por pares e avaliado pelo teste Kappa. A análise dos estudos utilizou os instrumentos: AMSTAR para avaliação da qualidade metodológica, Robis 2.0 para avaliação do risco de viés, e o Sistema Grade para classificar nível de evidência. Resultado: 17 estudos foram considerados elegíveis, e avaliação das evidências demonstrou que as intervenções não farmacológicas são efetivas para o manejo da obesidade infantil, sendo classificadas pelo Sistema Grade com alto e moderado nível de evidência. Essas intervenções são caracterizadas como: comportamentais, educacional, familiar, nutricional e tecnológica e são capazes de promover mudanças no Índice de Massa Corporal e estilo de vida. Conclusão: As intervenções não farmacológicas são capazes de promover mudanças positivas quanto ao comportamento alimentar e manejo da obesidade, entretanto os resultados não são imediatos.


Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for the management of childhood obesity in the scientific literature. Method: This is a systematic review of the overview type. The scientific databases for data collection were: Cinahl, Cochrane, Lilacs, Medline, Scopus, Scielo and Science direct, and the entire selection process was done by pairs and evaluated by Kappa test. The analysis of the studies used the instruments: AMSTAR to assess methodological quality, Robis 2.0 to assess risk of bias, and the Grade System to rank level of evidence. Results: 17 studies were considered eligible, and evaluation of the evidence showed that non- pharmacological interventions are effective for the management of childhood obesity, being classified by the Grade System with high and moderate level of evidence. These interventions are characterized as: behavioral, educational, family, nutritional, and technological, and are able to promote changes in Body Mass Index and lifestyle. Conclusion: Non-pharmacological interventions are able to promote positive changes in eating behavior and obesity management, but the results are not immediate.


Objetivo: Analizar la efectividad de las intervenciones no farmacológicas para el manejo de la obesidad infantil en la literatura científica. Método: Se trata de una revisión sistemática de tipo panorámica. Las bases de datos científicas para la recogida de datos fueron: Cinahl, Cochrane, Lilacs, Medline, Scopus, Scielo y Science direct, y todo el proceso de selección se realizó por parejas y se evaluó mediante el test de Kappa. En el análisis de los estudios se utilizaron los instrumentos AMSTAR para evaluar la calidad metodológica, Robis 2.0 para evaluar el riesgo de sesgo y el Grade System para clasificar el nivel de evidencia. Resultados: Se consideraron elegibles 17 estudios, y la evaluación de la evidencia mostró que las intervenciones no farmacológicas son efectivas para el manejo de la obesidad infantil, siendo clasificadas por el Sistema Grade con nivel de evidencia alto y moderado. Estas intervenciones se caracterizan por ser: conductuales, educativas, familiares, nutricionales y tecnológicas, y son capaces de promover cambios en el Índice de Masa Corporal y en el estilo de vida. Conclusiones: Las intervenciones no farmacológicas son capaces de promover cambios positivos en la conducta alimentaria y en el manejo de la obesidad, pero los resultados no son inmediatos.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Obesity Management , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Healthcare Models , Effectiveness , Body Mass Index , Child Nutrition Sciences , Feeding Behavior
3.
Rev Enferm UFPI ; 12(1): e4139, 2023-12-12. tab e graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1523670

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Construir e validar um protocolo de intervenções nutricionais para o manejo da obesidade infantil no âmbito da Atenção Primária à Saúde. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo metodológico, organizado em três fases: elaboração de uma revisão sistemática do tipo overview, com uso das recomendações PRISMA, construção do protocolo clínico e validação do conteúdo com uso dos instrumentos AGREE II e AGREE-REX. Resultados: Foram incluídos 17 estudos para a construção do protocolo, indicando efetividade em intervenções com desfechos na redução significativa do IMC, mudança no comportamento e hábitos alimentares, aumento no nível de conhecimento sobre alimentação saudável. A avaliação do protocolo clínico obteve uma pontuação >70% e, conforme o parâmetro utilizado (≥50% qualidade alta), foi considerado adequado para implementação no campo da saúde da criança, mais especificamente no manejo da obesidade infantil. Conclusão: Um protocolo assistencial para o manejo da obesidade infantil no âmbito da Atenção Primária à Saúde representa de forma positiva uma estratégia sustentável e flexível com atuação de diversos atores sociais como profissionais da saúde e familiares, dentre outros, contribuindo para a redução de riscos de comorbidades associadas à obesidade e custos de saúde, bem como para promover comportamentos mais saudáveis na população pediátrica. Descritores: Atenção Primária à Saúde; Obesidade Infantil; Manejo da Obesidade; Protocolos Clínicos.


Objective: To create and validate a protocol to implement nutritional interventions for the management of childhood obesity in the Primary Health Care scope.Methods: This is a methodological study organized into three phases: elaboration of a systematic review of the "overview" type using the PRISMA recommendations; preparation of the clinical protocol; and content validation using the AGREE II and AGREE-REX instruments.Results: A total of 17 studies were included to create the protocol, indicating effectiveness in interventions with outcomes in a significant BMI reduction, change in eating behaviors and habits, and increase in the knowledge level about healthy eating. The clinical protocol assessment obtained a score >70% and, according to the parameter used (≥50% high quality), it was considered adequate for implementation in the children's health field, more specifically in the management of childhood obesity.Conclusion: A care protocol for the management of childhood obesity in the Primary Health Care scope positively represents a sustainable and flexible strategy with performance of several social actors such as health professionals and family members, among others, contributing to reducing risks of comorbidities associated with obesity and health costs, as well as to promoting healthier behaviors in the pediatric population. Descriptors: Primary Health Care; Pediatric Obesity; Obesity Management; Clinical Protocols.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Clinical Protocols , Pediatric Obesity , Obesity Management
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202202854, oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1452090

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de sobrepeso y obesidad es alarmante en el mundo. En Argentina son escasos los estudios multifactoriales a pesar de los altos índices de sobrepeso y obesidad en la población infantil (SOI). En este estudio evaluamos la prevalencia de SOI y sus factores de riesgo asociados desde una perspectiva multicausal: analizamos hábitos de sueño, uso de pantallas, estrés crónico en niños y sus cuidadores, problemas de relación social, alimentación y actividad física. De los 397 niños de primer y séptimo grado que completaron los cuestionarios, el 41 % presentó SOI. Los niños con obesidad mostraron realizar menos actividad física, tener un menor consumo de alimentos protectores, más riesgos de trastornos del sueño, mayores niveles de estrés crónico (tanto en los niños como en sus cuidadores) y mayor índice de rechazo entre pares. En la mayoría de los niños se encontró un uso generalizado de pantallas antes de acostarse. El presente estudio evidencia la diversidad de factores asociados a esta problemática y destaca la conveniencia de utilizar un enfoque multidimensional para abordar la obesidad en la infancia. Asimismo, los resultados de este trabajo sugieren la necesidad de considerar los hábitos de vida como estrategia preventiva y terapéutica para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad desde etapas tempranas.


The incidence of overweight and obesity is alarming worldwide. In Argentina, multifactorial studies are scarce despite the high rates of childhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB). In this study we assessed the prevalence of childhood OW/OB and the associated risk factors from a multicausal perspective: we analyzed sleep habits, screen use, chronic stress in children and their caregivers, social relationship problems, eating habits, and physical activity. Of the 397 first and seventh graders who completed the questionnaires, 41% had childhood OW/OB. In children with obesity, a lower level of physical activity, a lower consumption of protective foods, a higher risk for sleep disorders, higher levels of chronic stress (in both children and their caregivers), and higher rates of peer rejection were observed. Widespread use of screens before bedtime was noted in most children. This study evidences the diversity of factors associated with childhood OW/OB and highlights the convenience of a multidimensional approach to address it. In addition, the results of this study suggest the need to consider lifestyle habits as a preventive and therapeutic strategy for the management of OW/OB from early stages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior
5.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 58-64, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1532918

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Mundialmente se observaron consecuencias negativas en la salud por el aislamiento social durante la pandemia de COVID-19; el sobrepeso y la obesidad mostraron tendencias crecientes. Objetivo. Analizar los cambios en el sobrepeso, obesidad y alimentación de escolares del noroeste de México antes y después del aislamiento por COVID-19. Materiales y métodos. Se colectaron y analizaron el peso, talla y circunferencia de cintura de escolares del noroeste de México pre y post pandemia por COVID 19 (n=479 y n=820). Además, se analizaron los cambios en la alimentación en una submuestra de 203 y 179 escolares pre y post pandemia, respectivamente. Resultados. La edad promedio de los escolares en 2019 fue 8,9 ±1,75 y en el 2022 de 9,1 ± 1,54 años. Se observó un aumento de 6,2 puntos porcentuales en la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad y diferencias en la distribución de las categorías del estado nutricio (p=0,049) entre los dos periodos. También, se observaron cambios en la adiposidad central con un aumento de 3 centímetros en la circunferencia de cintura (p=0,001; 62,6 y 65,6 cm). El índice de alimentación saludable (IAS) mostró una alimentación poco saludable durante los dos periodos. Conclusiones. El aumento en las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad, así como de obesidad central durante la emergencia epidemiológica, indicaron un deterioro del estado nutricio de los escolares, que coincide con los reportes en poblaciones a nivel mundial y en Latinoamérica; los resultados resultan preocupantes dada la problemática antes de la emergencia(AU)


Introduction. Negative health consequences due to social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic were observed worldwide; overweight and obesity showed increasing trends. Objective. To analyze the changes in overweight, obesity and diet of schoolchildren in northwest Mexico before and after lockdown due to COVID-19. Materials and methods. Weight, height, and waist circumference of schoolchildren (n=479 pre-pandemic and n=820 post-pandemic) were collected in public schools located in medium to high marginalization neighborhoods. In the same periods dietary data was collected from a subsample of 203 and 179 schoolchildren, respectively. Results. The average age of schoolchildren in 2019 was 8,9 ±1,75 and 9,1 ± 1,54 in 2022. An increase in percentage of 6,2 was observed in the overweight plus obesity prevalence and a significant difference in the distribution of nutritional status (p=0,049) between the two periods. In addition, changes in central adiposity were observed, with an increase of 3 centimeters in waist circumference (p=0,001; 62,6 and 65,6 cm). The healthy eating index (HAI) classified the diet of schoolchildren as unhealthy during both periods. Conclusions. The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as central adiposity is worrying given that they were already a health problem before the COVID 19 confinement(AU)


Subject(s)
Child , Nutritional Status , Pediatric Obesity , COVID-19 , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Malnutrition , Overweight , Waist Circumference , Sedentary Behavior , Pandemics , Diet, Healthy
6.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514489

ABSTRACT

El diagnóstico de un niño o adolescente como hipertenso no es tarea fácil. El principal medio para el diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial sigue siendo la presión arterial tomada en el consultorio, pero por su escasa reproducibilidad, este método tiene algunas limitaciones. Existen otros menos usados en el medio pediátrico, pero más reproducibles y confiables, como el monitoreo ambulatorio de la presión arterial, el cual permite disminuir el subdiagnóstico de hipertensión arterial. La investigación se realizó a partir de un pesquisaje efectuado con el objetivo de identificar la morbilidad oculta de hipertensión arterial en adolescentes con exceso de peso, en el área de salud del Policlínico «Chiqui Gómez Lubián», Santa Clara, Villa Clara. El caso reviste importancia para la Atención Primaria de Salud, promueve la utilización de un método diagnóstico que mejora la correcta clasificación y tratamiento de la hipertensión en edades tempranas para contribuir a la prevención de complicaciones posteriores


Diagnosing a child or an adolescent as hypertensive is not an easy task. The main way to diagnose arterial hypertension continues to be at the doctor´s office, but due to its poor reproducibility, this method has some limitations. There are other less used methods in the pediatric setting, but are more reproducible and reliable, such as ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, which makes it possible to reduce the underdiagnosis of arterial hypertension. We present a case of a male adolescent who was detected during a screening, with the objective of identifying hidden morbidity of arterial hypertension in overweight adolescents, in the health area at "Chiqui Gómez Lubián" Polyclinic, in Santa Clara, Villa Clara. The case is of great important for primary health care, promotes the use of a diagnosis method that improves the correct classification and treatment of hypertension at an early age and contributes to the prevention of subsequent complications


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Pediatric Obesity , Hypertension
7.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(3): 180-190, sept 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1516062

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En Chile la prevalencia de obesidad total en población escolar alcanza al 31% y la obesidad severa al 10,8%. La Región de Magallanes y Antártica Chilena, es una de las más afectadas por esta epidemia. El diagnóstico nutricional confiable y una intervención oportuna pueden evitar que los niños enfermen y deterioren su calidad de vida. Objetivo: Analizar la tendencia del estado nutricional de escolares de la Región de Magallanes, según datos reportados por la Junta Nacional de Auxilio Escolar y Becas, JUNAEB, entre 2009-2019 y comparar resultados del año 2010 con un estudio propio. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó el estado nutricional de 71.334 escolares de la Región de Magallanes y Antártica Chilena por nivel educacional y variables demográficas, según información de JUNAEB. Luego se compararon los resultados de escolares de 1º básico del año 2010, obtenidos a través de dos metodologías: fuente secundaria, Encuesta JUNAEB, y fuente primaria, estudio antropométrico realizado en la misma región y año. Resultados. Según datos de JUNAEB el exceso ponderal se incrementó en escolares de la región en 4,4 % entre 2009 y 2019, el grupo más afectado fue 1º básico. En el año 2010 la prevalencia de obesidad para escolares de 1º básico según JUNAEB fue 21,8% y según estudio regional propio fue 25,7%. Conclusiones. La malnutrición por exceso afecta al 53,8% de los escolares de la Región de Magallanes y podría ser mayor, considerando que la información censal podría estar subestimando el sobrepeso y obesidad. Es urgente intervenir para evitar perpetuar esta epidemia(AU)


Introduction. In Chile the prevalence of total obesity in school population reaches 31% and severe obesity 10.8%. The Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica Region is one of the most affected by this epidemic. Reliable nutritional diagnosis and timely intervention can prevent children from getting sick and deteriorating their quality of life. Objective. To analyze the trend of nutritional status of schoolchildren in the Magallanes Region, according to data reported by the National Board of School Aid and Scholarships, JUNAEB between 2009-2019 and compare results from 2010 with our own study. Materials and methods. The nutritional status of 71,334 schoolchildren in the Magallanes Region and Chilean Antarctica was analyzed by educational level and demographic variables, according to information from JUNAEB. Then, the results of schoolchildren in 1st grade in 2010 were compared, obtained through two methods: secondary source, JUNAEB survey, and primary source, anthropometric study carried out in the same region and year. Results. According to JUNAEB data, overweight increased in school children in the region by 4.4% between 2009 and 2019, the most affected group was 1st grade. In 2010 the prevalence of obesity for 1st grade schoolchildren according to JUNAEB was 21.8% and according to our own regional study it was 25.7%. Conclusions. Excess malnutrition affects 53.8% of school children in the Magallanes Region and could be higher, considering that census information could be underestimating overweight and obesity. It is urgent to intervene to avoid perpetuating this epidemic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Nutritional Status , Feeding Behavior , Pediatric Obesity , Malnutrition , Overweight
8.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 22(1): 5-11, jun 22, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442362

ABSTRACT

Introduction: childhood obesity is one of the main public health problems worldwide, leading to health status repercussions and growth and maturation process implications in both children and adolescents. Objective: the aim of this study was to verify body morphology and bone age variations in girls with obesity and without obesity. Methodology: this comprises a cross-sectional study conducted with 140 girls aged 8 to 15 years old, 70 with obesity and 70 without obesity. Hip and waist circumferences, body mass, height and and Body Mass Index (BMI) were determined. For maturation status determinations, bone ages were determined by a left wrist and hand radiography employing the Fels method. Results: the findigs indicate significant correlations between nutritional and maturation statuses (r=0.80; p˂0.01). Girls with obesity presented higher weight and BMI values, larger waist and hip circumferences and more advanced bone age compared to girls without obesity (p˂0.01). The same significant differences (p˂0.01) were noted in the contrasting maturational group analysis, where girls presenting advanced maturation always exhibited the highest parameter values. Conclusion: nutritional status is associated to maturation status, and girls with obesity exhibit more advanced bone age than girls without obesity.


Introdução: a obesidade infantil é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública mundial, com repercussões no estado de saúde e implicações no processo de crescimento e maturação de crianças e adolescentes. Objetivo: verificar a variação da morfologia corporal e da idade óssea em meninas com e sem obesidade. Metodologia: estudo transversal conduzido com 140 meninas de 8 a 15 anos de idade, sendo 70 meninas com obesidade e 70 sem obesidade. Foram mensuradas as circunferências do quadril e da cintura, massa corporal, altura e o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC). Para o status maturacional foi determinada a idade óssea por meio de radiografia de punho e mão esquerdos pelo Método Fels. Resultados: os resultados apontaram a existência de correlação entre o status nutricional e o status maturacional (r=0,80; p˂0,01). As meninas com obesidade apresentaram maior peso, IMC mais elevado, circunferências maiores e idade óssea mais avançada quando comparadas às meninas sem obesidade (p˂0,01). Na análise dos grupos maturacionais contrastantes as mesmas diferenças se apresentaram com valores significativos (p˂0,01), sendo as meninas avançadas maturacionalmente sempre com valores superiores. Conclusão: o status nutricional apresentou correlação com o status maturacional, e as meninas com obesidade apresentam idade óssea mais avançada que aquelas sem obesidade


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Public Health , Failure to Thrive , Waist Circumference , Pediatric Obesity , Growth , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
s.l; Ministerio de Salud y Desarrollo Social;Ministerio de Educación, Cultura, Ciencia y Tecnología; mar. 2023. 30 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1418679

ABSTRACT

El sobrepeso y la obesidad en niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNyA) así como en adultos, es una epidemia en aumento que está tomando proporciones alarmantes en todo el mundo y representa uno de los principales problemas de salud pública que requiere respuestas de los Estados en forma urgente1 . El sobrepeso y la obesidad muestran una curva ascendente especialmente preocupante en NNyA, en quienes el crecimiento es más acelerado que en personas adultas. El sobrepeso y la obesidad afectan tanto la salud psico-física inmediata de NNyA, como el nivel educativo que pueden alcanzar y su calidad de vida. Asimismo, los NNyA con sobrepeso y obesidad tienen mayores probabilidades de seguir siendo personas obesas en la edad adulta y presentan mayor riesgo de sufrir enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT), como las cardiovasculares, la diabetes o el cáncer2. Más información detallada sobre la evolución de la epidemia de obesidad en NNyA a nivel internacional y en Argentina, así como su impacto en la salud y en la economía de los países se desarrolló en el reciente informe publicado por la Secretaria de Gobierno de Salud en colaboración con UNICEF3. En dicho informe se analizaron el peso y la talla de NNyA de 0 a 18 años que accedieron a la atención del sistema público de salud del país y se concluyó que en Argentina, en sintonía con la reconocida "transición nutricional" global, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en NNyA representa la forma más prevalente de malnutrición. Esto se evidencia en el hecho de que entre los más de 3 millones de NNyA atendidos en el sector público del sistema de salud argentino en 2016, 31,1% tenían malnutrición por exceso (sobrepeso y obesidad) y 8,1% malnutrición por carencia (bajo peso). En la actualidad, y como consecuencia de numerosos cambios sociales, culturales y económicos, como por ejemplo los cambios en los modelos de producción de alimentos, su disponibilidad, asequibilidad, comercialización y marketing, así como por la escasa práctica de actividad física, los NNyA crecen y se desarrollan a menudo en entornos obesogénicos. Un entorno obesogénico es aquel que fomenta el consumo excesivo de kilocalorías y nutrientes críticos como azúcares, grasas y sodio, además de ofrecer múltiples barreras para el desarrollo de actividad física y fomentar el comportamiento sedentario4. Así, la falta de regulación que promueva entornos más saludables, ha favorecido en las últimas décadas al crecimiento del sobrepeso y la obesidad. Las respuestas conductuales y biológicas de NNyA ante un entorno obesogénico pueden estar determinadas por procesos anteriores incluso a su nacimiento, lo que empuja a un número cada vez mayor de NNyA hacia la obesidad, si siguen una alimentación de baja calidad nutricional y no realizan la actividad física recomendada1 . Existen pruebas convincentes de que la publicidad y la comercialización de alimentos y bebidas con alto contenido de sodio, grasas, azúcares y kilocalorías, pero deficientes en micronutrientes, pueden repercutir en las preferencias alimentarias, el comportamiento de compra y el consumo de NNyA. La comercialización y provisión en las escuelas de alimentos y bebidas con altos niveles de azúcar, grasa, sal y bajo valor nutricional, también influyen en los patrones y hábitos de consumo en niños y niñas5, 6, 7, 8. La prevención y el tratamiento de la obesidad exige un enfoque intersectorial e intergubernamental y en el que las políticas de todos los sectores tengan en cuenta sistemáticamente la salud, eviten los efectos sanitarios nocivos y, por tanto, mejoren la salud de la población y la equidad. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y otros organismos internacionales han publicado en los últimos años, numerosos documentos que, en base a evidencia científica, establecen un conjunto de medidas para regular los entornos obesogénicos y los productos, de modo de fomentar hábitos saludables y así detener el crecimiento de esta epidemia2, 9, 10. Dentro de estas medidas recomendadas, una que resulta clave y que cuenta con alto consenso a nivel internacional es la regulación de los entornos escolares para promover la nutrición adecuada y la actividad física. Sólo a través de una serie de medidas (intervención multicomponente) de demostrada eficacia que aborde integralmente aspectos nutricionales y de actividad física en las instituciones escolares, se conseguirán las transformaciones necesarias para fomentar hábitos saludables y mejorar los patrones de conducta de NNyA. El objetivo del presente documento es establecer un conjunto de recomendaciones que, basadas en las mejores evidencias científicas disponibles, constituyan los estándares para guiar el proceso de sanción de leyes e implementación de programas efectivos, para transformar los entornos obesogénicos en entornos escolares saludables. Estos estándares están dirigidos a legisladores y decisores políticos tanto del nivel nacional como provincial y municipal así como también a organizaciones académicas y de la sociedad civil que trabajen en la temática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Schools , Education, Primary and Secondary , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy , Health Promotion , Argentina/epidemiology , Exercise , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Healthy Lifestyle
11.
Goiânia; SES-GO; jan. 2023. 10 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1416554

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é um transtorno crônico, complexo e multifatorial, envolve fatores ambientais, estilo de vida, hormonais e genéticos, acomete indivíduos de todas as idades e quanto mais cedo ocorre, maiores são os riscos à saúde. Uma criança com obesidade tem 80% chance de tornar-se um adulto com obesidade (FREEDMAN et al., 2007). Tratamento medicamentoso está aprovado a partir do IMC> 27 kg/m2 associado a comorbidades ou ≥ 30 kg/m2 mesmo na ausência de comorbidades. Liraglutida é o único medicamento aprovada para uso em adolescentes a partir dos 12 anos de idade com peso corporal maior que 60 kg e IMC correspondendo a 30 kg/m² para adultos


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Pediatric Obesity/drug therapy , Liraglutide
12.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 436-441, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the association between rs2587552 polymorphism (has a strong lin-kage disequilibrium with rs1800497 which had been found in many studies to be related to obesity, r2=0.85) of DRD2 gene and the effect of a childhood obesity intervention in Chinese population, and provide a scientific basis for future personalized childhood obesity intervention based on genetic background.@*METHODS@#From a multi-center cluster randomized controlled trial studying the effect of a childhood obesity intervention, we enrolled 382 children from 8 primary schools (192 and 190 children from intervention and control groups, respectively) in Beijing as study subjects. Saliva was collected and DNA was extracted to detect the rs2587552 polymorphism of DRD2 gene, and the interactions between the gene and study arms on childhood obesity indicators [including body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, and body fat percentage] were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#No association was found between rs2587552 polymorphism and the changes in hip circumference or body fat percentage in the intervention group (P>0.05). However, in the control group, children carrying the A allele at DRD2 rs2587552 locus showed a greater increase in hip circumference and body fat percentage compared with those not carrying A allele (P < 0.001). There were interactions between rs2587552 polymorphism of DRD2 gene and study arms on the changes in hip circumference and body fat percentage (P=0.007 and 0.015, respectively). Compared with the control group, children in the intervention group carrying the A allele at DRD2 rs2587552 locus showed decrease in hip circumference by (-1.30 cm, 95%CI: -2.25 to -0.35, P=0.007) and decrease in body fat percentage by (-1.34%, 95%CI: -2.42 to -0.27, P=0.015) compared with those not carrying A allele. The results were consistent between the dominant model and the additive model (hip circumfe-rence: -0.66 cm, 95%CI: -1.28 to -0.03, P=0.041; body fat percentage: -0.69%, 95%CI: -1.40 to 0.02, P=0.056). No interaction was found between rs2587552 polymorphism and study arms on the changes in other childhood obesity-related indicators (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Children carrying the A allele at rs2587552 polymorphism of DRD2 gene are more sensitive to intervention and showed more improvement in hip circumference and body fat percentage after the intervention, suggesting that future personalized childhood obesity lifestyle intervention can be carried out based on the rs2587552 polymorphism of DRD2 gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Prospective Studies , Polymorphism, Genetic , Body Mass Index , Waist Circumference , Receptors, Dopamine D2/genetics
13.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 421-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the association between outdoor artificial light-at-night (ALAN) exposure and overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years in China.@*METHODS@#Using follow-up data of 5 540 children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years conducted from November 2019 to November 2020 in eight provinces of China, latitude and longitude were determined based on school addresses, and the mean monthly average nighttime irradiance at the location of 116 schools was extracted by the nearest neighbor method to obtain the mean outdoor ALAN exposure [unit: nW/(cm2·sr)] for each school. Four indicators of overweight and obesity outcomes were included: Baseline overweight and obesity, persistent overweight and obesity, overweight and obesity progression and overweight and obesity incidence. Mixed effects Logistic regression was used to explore the association between ALAN exposure levels (divided into quintiles Q1-Q5) and baseline overweight and obesity, persistent overweight and obesity, overweight and obesity progression and overweight and obesity incidence. In addition, a natural cubic spline function was used to explore the exposure response association between ALAN exposure (a continuous variable) and the outcomes.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of baseline overweight and obesity, persistent overweight and obesity, overweight and obesity progression and overweight and obesity incidence among the children and adolescents in this study were 21.6%, 16.3%, 2.9% and 12.8%, respectively. The OR value for the association between ALAN exposure and baseline overweight and obesity was statistically significant when ALAN exposure levels reached Q4 or Q5, 1.90 (95%CI: 1.26-2.86) and 1.77 (95%CI: 1.11-2.83), respectively, compared with the children and adolescents in the Q1 group of ALAN exposure. Similar to the results for baseline overweight and obesity, the OR values for the association with persistent overweight and obesity were 1.89 (95%CI: 1.20-2.99) and 1.82 (95%CI: 1.08-3.06) when ALAN exposure levels reached Q4 or Q5, respectively, but none of the OR values for the association between ALAN and overweight and obesity progression and overweight and obesity incidence were statistically significant. Fitting a natural cubic spline function showed a non-linear trend between ALAN exposure and persistent overweight and obesity.@*CONCLUSION@#There is a positive association between ALAN exposure and overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, and the promotion of overweight obesity in children and adolescents by ALAN tends to have a cumulative effect rather than an immediate effect. In the future, while focusing on the common risk factors for overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, there is a need to improve the overweight and obesity-causing nighttime light exposure environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Child , Overweight/etiology , Pediatric Obesity/etiology , Light Pollution , Risk Factors , China/epidemiology
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1339-1348, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Tri-ponderal mass index (TMI) has been reported to be a more accurate estimate of body fat than body mass index (BMI). This study aims to compare the effectiveness of TMI and BMI in identifying hypertension, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), abdominal obesity, and clustered cardio-metabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in 3- to 17-year-old children.@*METHODS@#A total of 1587 children aged 3 to 17 years were included. Logistic regression was used to evaluate correlations between BMI and TMI. Area under the curves (AUCs) were used to compare discriminative capability among indicators. BMI was converted to BMI- z scores, and accuracy was compared by false-positive rate, false-negative rate, and total misclassification rate.@*RESULTS@#Among children aged 3 to 17 years, the mean TMI was 13.57 ± 2.50 kg/m 3 for boys and 13.3 ± 2.33 kg/m 3 for girls. Odds ratios (ORs) of TMI for hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, and clustered CMRFs ranged from 1.13 to 3.15, higher than BMI, whose ORs ranged from 1.08 to 2.98. AUCs showed similar ability of TMI (AUC: 0.83) and BMI (AUC: 0.85) in identifying clustered CMRFs. For abdominal obesity and hypertension, the AUC of TMI was 0.92 and 0.64, respectively, which was significantly better than that of BMI, 0.85 and 0.61. AUCs of TMI for dyslipidemia and IFG were 0.58 and 0.49. When 85th and 95th of TMI were set as thresholds, total misclassification rates of TMI for clustered CMRFs ranged from 6.5% to 16.4%, which was not significantly different from that of BMI- z scores standardized according to World Health Organization criteria.@*CONCLUSIONS@#TMI was found to have equal or even better effectiveness in comparison with BMI in identifying hypertension, abdominal obesity, and clustered CMRFs TMI was more stable than BMI in 3- to 17-year-old children, while it failed to identify dyslipidemia and IFG. It is worth considering the use of TMI for screening CMRFs in children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Body Mass Index , Dyslipidemias , East Asian People , Hypertension , Obesity, Abdominal , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors
15.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 318-322, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982741

ABSTRACT

Prevalence of childhood obesity is progressively increasing, reaching worldwide levels of 5.6% in girls and of 7.8% in boys. This also leads to a corresponding increase in the prevalence of obesity-associated morbidities particularly those involving obstructive sleep apnea(OSA). Obesity is an independent risk factor and regulator of OSA in children. There is a bidirectional causal relationship between OSA and obesity in children. The factors involved in the association between OSA and obesity are systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and gut microbiota etc. However, a causal link between obesity-related inflammatory state and OSA pathogenesis still needs to be properly confirmed. The present review aimed to investigate the links between childhood obesity and OSA.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Inflammation
16.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 516-525, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Insulin signaling pathway plays an important role in metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), however, the association between polymorphisms of genes related to insulin signaling pathway and MAFLD remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the association between insulin signaling pathway-related gene polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions with MAFLD susceptibility in obese children so as to provide scientific basis for further study of genetic mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 502 obese children with MAFLD who admitted to Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital from September 2019 to October 2021, were recruited as a case group, and 421 obese children with non-MAFLD admitted during the same period were recruited as a control group. Socio-demographic information, preterm birth history, eating habits, and exercise status of the subjects were collected by inquiry survey, and anthropometric information was collected by physical measurement. At the same time, 2 mL of venous blood was collected to extract DNA, and the polymorphism of insulin signaling pathway-related genes (5 representative candidate genes, 12 variants) was detected. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between insulin signaling pathway-related gene polymorphisms and MAFLD in obese children.@*RESULTS@#After adjusting for confounder factors, INS rs3842748 was significantly associated with the risk of MAFLD in obese children in allele, heterozygous, and dominant models [OR and 95% CI 1.749 (1.053 to 2.905), 1.909 (1.115 to 3.267), 1.862 (1.098 to 3.157), all P<0.05]; INS rs3842752 was significantly associated with the risk of MAFLD in obese children in heterozygous and dominant models [OR and 95% CI 1.736 (1.028 to 2.932), 1.700 (1.015 to 2.846), all P<0.05]. NR1H3 rs3758674 was significantly correlated with the risk of MAFLD in obese children in allele model [OR and 95% CI 0.716 (0.514 to 0.997), P<0.05]. SREBP-1c rs2297508 was significantly associated with the risk of MAFLD in obese children in allele and dominant models [OR and 95% CI 0.772 (0.602 to 0.991) and 0.743 (0.557 to 0.991), all P<0.05]. SREBP-1c rs8066560 was significantly associated with the risk of MAFLD in obese children in allele, heterozygous, and dominant models [OR and 95% CI 0.759 (0.589 to 0.980), 0.733 (0.541 to 0.992), 0.727 (0.543 to 0.974), all P<0.05]. NR1H3 rs3758674 mutant C and SREBP-1c rs2297508 mutant G had interaction in the development of MAFLD in obese children [OR and 95% CI 0.407 (0.173 to 0.954), P<0.05].@*CONCLUSIONS@#The INS, NR1H3, and SREBP-1c gene polymorphisms in the insulin signaling pathway are associated with the susceptibility of MAFLD in obese children, but the functions and mechanisms of these genes need to be further studied.


Subject(s)
Child , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , Pediatric Obesity/genetics , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Premature Birth , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Signal Transduction/genetics , Insulins
17.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 711-717, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982017

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the physical growth and dietary characteristics of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to analyze their relationship with core symptoms of ADHD.@*METHODS@#A total of 268 children who were newly diagnosed with ADHD in Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from June to December 2020 were included in the ADHD group, and 102 healthy children who underwent physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group. Physical evaluations and dietary surveys were conducted for both groups. ADHD diagnosis and scoring were performed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition). Factor analysis, Spearman correlation analysis, and mediation analysis were used to study the relationship between core symptoms of ADHD, dietary patterns, and physical growth.@*RESULTS@#The rate of overweight/obesity in the ADHD group was significantly higher than that in the control group (35.8% vs 21.6%, P<0.05). Three dietary patterns were extracted from the food frequency questionnaire: vegetarian dietary pattern, traditional dietary pattern, and snack/fast food pattern. The factor score for the snack/fast food pattern in the ADHD group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between ADHD symptom scores, snack/fast food pattern factor scores, and body fat percentage (P<0.05). The mediation analysis showed that the snack/fast food pattern played a partial mediating role in the relationship between ADHD symptom scores and body fat percentage, with a mediation proportion of 26.66%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The rate of overweight/obesity in children with ADHD is higher than that in non-ADHD children. Core symptoms of ADHD are related to dietary patterns and physical growth, with the snack/fast food pattern playing a partial mediating role in the relationship between core symptoms of ADHD and physical growth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity , Diet
18.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 457-462, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the relationship between skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and metabolic phenotypes of obesity in adolescents, and to provide a basis for the prevention and control of adolescent obesity and related metabolic diseases.@*METHODS@#A total of 1 352 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years were randomly selected by stratified cluster sampling in Yinchuan City from October 2017 to September 2020, and they were surveyed using questionnaires, physical measurements, body composition measurements, and laboratory tests. According to the diagnostic criteria for metabolic abnormalities and the definition of obesity based on the body mass index, the subjects were divided into four metabolic phenotypes: metabolically healthy normal weight, metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically unhealthy normal weight, and metabolically unhealthy obesity. The association between SMI and the metabolic phenotypes was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.@*RESULTS@#The SMI level in the metabolically unhealthy normal weight, metabolically healthy obesity, and metabolically unhealthy obesity groups was lower than that in the metabolically healthy normal weight group (P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for gender and age, a higher SMI level was a protective factors for adolescents to develop metabolic unhealthy normal weight, metabolically healthy obesity, and metabolically unhealthy obesity phenotypes (OR=0.74, 0.60, and 0.54, respectively; P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Increasing SMI can reduce the risk of the development of metabolic unhealthy/obesity.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Child , Body Mass Index , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Obesity, Metabolically Benign/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity , Phenotype , Risk Factors
19.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 448-456, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the prevalence rate of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in overweight/obese children who visit a hospital, and to explore the influencing factors of NAFLD, in order to provide a basis for the prevention of NAFLD in overweight/obese children.@*METHODS@#Overweight/obese children who visited Hunan Children's Hospital from June 2019 to September 2021 were recruited. The prevalence rate of NAFLD was examined. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors influencing the development of NAFLD [non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of the influencing factors for NAFL and NASH.@*RESULTS@#A total of 844 overweight/obese children aged 6-17 years were enrolled. The prevalence rate of NAFLD in overweight/obese children was 38.2% (322/844), among which the prevalence rates of NAFL and NASH were 28.8% (243/844) and 9.4% (79/844), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the increase of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with the development of NAFL and NASH (P<0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the combined measurement of WHR and HDL-C had a predictive value for NAFL (area under the curve: 0.653, 95%CI: 0.613-0.694), and for NASH (area under the curve: 0.771, 95%CI: 0.723-0.819).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The prevalence rate of NAFLD in overweight/obese children who visit a hospital is high. WHR and HDL-C are associated with the development of NAFLD and the combined measurement of WHR and HDL-C has a certain value for predicating the development of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Adolescent , Cholesterol, HDL , Cross-Sectional Studies , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Overweight/complications , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence
20.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 760-765, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985469

ABSTRACT

Childhood and adolescent obesity has become a global epidemic. The interventions mainly include lifestyle intervention, medication treatment and bariatric surgery. Among them, lifestyle intervention, especially intensive lifestyle intervention with participation of family members, is the first-line treatment for obesity in children and adolescents. Both medication and bariatric surgery are adjuvant treatments for severely obese children and adolescents. Currently, metformin is the most widely used drug for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents in both China and other countries; orlistat and liraglutide are also the drugs that are safe and often used in other countries; other drugs are not recommended. As a tertiary prevention and treatment strategy for obesity, bariatric surgery should be carried out on the basis of good compliance from both the children and their family members, with the cooperation of multiple disciplines. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are the most common types of procedure performed. Meanwhile, as a new treatment method, intra-gastric balloon procedure needs to be paid more attention to its efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Child , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Gastric Bypass/methods , Metformin , Gastrectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies
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