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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 68-74, jan. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360106

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Apesar da grande proporção de octogenários com embolia pulmonar aguda, há pouca informação indicando a estratégia de manejo ideal, especialmente medidas terapêuticas, como a terapia lítica. Objetivos O número de pacientes idosos diagnosticados com embolia pulmonar aguda aumenta constantemente. Porém, o papel do tratamento trombolítico não está claramente definido entre os octogenários. Nosso objetivo é avaliar a efetividade da terapia lítica em pacientes octogenários diagnosticados com embolia pulmonar. Métodos Cento e quarenta e oito indivíduos (70,3% de mulheres, n=104) com mais de 80 anos foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: tratamento trombolítico versus não-trombolítico. As taxas de mortalidade hospitalar e episódios de sangramento foram definidos como desfechos do estudo. Valor de p <0,05 foi considerado como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados A mortalidade hospitalar reduziu significativamente no grupo trombolítico em comparação ao não-trombolítico (10,5% vs. 24,2%; p=0,03). Episódios de sangramento menores foram mais comuns no braço que recebeu o tratamento trombolítico, mas grandes hemorragias não diferiram entre os grupos (35,1% vs. 13,2%, p<0,01; 7% vs. 5,5% p=0,71, respectivamente). O escore de PESI alto (OR: 1,03 IC95%; 1,01-1,04 p<0,01), a terapia trombolítica (OR: 0,15 IC95%; 0,01-0,25, p< 0,01) e níveis altos de troponina (OR: 1,20 IC95%; 1,01-1,43, p=0,03) estiveram independentemente associados a taxas de mortalidade hospitalar na análise de regressão multivariada. Conclusão A terapia trombolítica esteve associada à mortalidade hospitalar reduzida em detrimento do aumento geral das complicações de sangramento em octogenários.


Abstract Background Despite the high proportion of octogenarians with acute pulmonary embolism, there is little information indicating the optimal management strategy, mainly therapeutic measures, such as lytic therapy. Objectives The number of elderly patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism increases constantly. However, the role of thrombolytic treatment is not clearly defined among octogenarians. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of lytic therapy in octogenarian patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. Methods One hundred and forty eight subjects (70.3% women, n=104) aged more than eighty years were included in the study. The patients were divided in two groups: thrombolytic versus non-thrombolytic treatment. In-hospital mortality rates and bleeding events were defined as study outcomes. P-value <0.05 was considered as statistical significance. Results In-hospital mortality decreased significantly in the thrombolytic group compared to the non-thrombolytic group (10.5% vs. 24.2% p=0.03). Minor bleeding events were more common in the arm that received thrombolytic treatment, but major hemorrhage did not differ between the groups (35.1% vs. 13.2%, p<0.01; 7% vs. 5.5% p=0.71, respectively). High PESI score (OR: 1.03 95%CI; 1.01-1.04 p<0.01), thrombolytic therapy (OR: 0.15 95%CI; 0.01-0.25, p< 0.01) and high troponin levels (OR: 1.20 95%CI; 1.01-1.43, p=0.03) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality rates in the multivariate regression analysis. Conclusion Thrombolytic therapy was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality at the expense of increased overall bleeding complications in octogenarians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Body Composition , Weight Loss/physiology , Body Mass Index , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 33-40, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360114

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A ação do peptídeo natriurético atrial (ANP) na natriurese, diurese e vasodilatação, resistência à insulina, fígado, rim e tecido adiposo pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento metabólico e cardiovascular saudável. Embora o nível circulante de ANP seja reduzido em pacientes com obesidade, sua resposta à perda de peso ainda é pouco explorada em populações pediátricas. Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos das variações do ANP em resposta à intervenção interdisciplinar para perda de peso na Síndrome Metabólica (SMet) e nos riscos cardiometabólicos em adolescentes com obesidade. Métodos 73 adolescentes com obesidade participaram de uma terapia interdisciplinar para perda de peso de 20 semanas, incluindo uma abordagem clínica, nutricional, psicológica e de exercícios físicos. A composição corporal, análises bioquímicas e pressão sanguínea foram avaliadas. A SMet foi classificada de acordo com a Federação Internacional de Diabetes (IDF) (2007). Após o tratamento, os voluntários foram divididos de acordo com os níveis de plasma do ANP aumento (n=31) ou ANP redução (n=19). Resultados Ambos os grupos apresentaram redução significativa de peso corporal, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e circunferências de cintura, pescoço e quadril (CC, CP e CQ, respectivamente), e aumento da massa livre de gordura (MLG). É interessante observar que houve uma redução significativa na gordura corporal, na razão de TG/HDL-c e na prevalência de SMet (de 23% para 6%) somente no grupo com ANP aumento. Conclusão Este estudo sugere que o aumento nos níveis séricos de ANP após a terapia para perda de peso pode estar associado a melhorias nos riscos cardiometabólicos e na prevalência reduzida de SMet em adolescentes com obesidade.


Abstract Background The action of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on natriuresis, diuresis and vasodilatation, insulin resistance, liver, kidney, and adipose tissue may contribute to the healthy metabolic and cardiovascular development. Even though the circulating level of ANP is reduced in patients with obesity, its response to weight loss remains poorly explored in pediatric populations. Objective To evaluate the effects of ANP variations in response to interdisciplinary weight loss intervention on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiometabolic risks in adolescents with obesity. Methods 73 adolescents with obesity attended a 20-week clinical interdisciplinary weight loss therapy including clinical, nutritional, psychological and exercise training approach. Body composition, biochemical analyses and blood pressure were evaluated. MetS was classified according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) (2007). After the treatment, volunteers were divided according to Increasing (n=31) or Decreasing (n=19) ANP plasma levels. Results Both groups present significant reduction of body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist, neck and hip circumferences (WC, NC and HC, respectively) and increasing fat-free mass (FFM). Interestingly, a significant reduction in body fat, TG/HDL-c ratio and MetS prevalence (from 23% to 6%) was observed in the Increased ANP group only. Conclusion This study suggests that an increase in ANP serum levels after weight loss therapy could be associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risks and the reduced prevalence of MetS in adolescents with obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Body Composition , Weight Loss/physiology , Body Mass Index , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 527-536, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345197

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease that is influenced by physiological, environmental, socioeconomic, and genetic factors. In recent decades, this serious disease has impacted a large number of adolescents as a result of lifestyle factors. A lack of exercise and the consumption of excessive calories from an inadequate diet are the main contributors to adolescent obesity. However, genetic and hormonal factors might also play a role. The short- and long-term consequences of this disease include chronic issues such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders and an increase in early mortality rates. Although it is a serious disease, obesity in adolescents can be controlled with diet and exercise. When these lifestyle changes do not obtain the expected results, we can intensify the treatment by adding medication to the practice of diet and exercise. Additionally, for more severe cases, bariatric surgery can be an option. The purpose of this review is to clarify the current epidemiology, risks, and comorbidities and discuss news about the main treatments and the necessary improvements in this context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Exercise , Diet , Life Style
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(4): 385-400, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040336

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: This study aimed to assess the quality of systematic reviews on prevention and non-pharmacological treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Data source: A search was done in electronic databases (Medline via PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials), including only systematic reviews with meta-analysis. Reviews were selected by two researchers, and a third one solved the divergences. PRISMA statement and checklist were followed. Summary of data: A total of 4574 records were retrieved, including 24 after selection. Six reviews were on obesity prevention, 17 on obesity treatment, and one on mixed interventions for prevention and treatment of obesity. The interventions were very heterogeneous and showed little or no effects on weight or body mass index. Mixed interventions that included dieting, exercise, actions to reduce sedentary behavior, and programs involving the school or families showed some short-term positive effects. Reviews that analyzed cardiovascular risk factors demonstrated significant improvements in the short-term. Conclusion: The systematic reviews of interventions to prevent or reduce obesity in children and adolescents generally showed little or no effects on weight or body mass index, although cardiovascular profile can be improved. Mixed interventions demonstrated better effects, but the long-term impact of obesity treatments of children and adolescents remains unclear.


Resumo Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade das revisões sistemáticas sobre prevenção e tratamento não farmacológico do sobrepeso e da obesidade em crianças e adolescentes. Fontes de dados: Foi realizada uma busca em bases de dados eletrônicas (Medline via Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS, The Cochrane Library e Ensaios Clínicos), incluindo apenas revisões sistemáticas com meta-análise. As revisões foram selecionadas por dois pesquisadores e um terceiro resolveu as divergências. A lista de recomendações do PRISMA foi seguida. Síntese dos dados: Foram identificados 4.574 publicações, e 24 foram incluídas após seleção. Seis publicações eram sobre prevenção da obesidade, 17 sobre tratamento da obesidade e 1 sobre intervenções mistas para prevenção e tratamento da obesidade. As intervenções eram muito heterogêneas e mostraram pouco ou nenhum efeito sobre o peso ou índice de massa corporal. Intervenções mistas que incluíam dieta, exercícios, ações para reduzir o comportamento sedentário e programas que envolviam a escola ou as famílias mostraram alguns efeitos positivos de curto prazo. Revisões que analisaram fatores de risco cardiovascular demonstraram melhoras significativas em curto prazo. Conclusão: As revisões sistemáticas de intervenções para prevenir ou reduzir a obesidade em crianças e adolescentes geralmente mostraram pouco ou nenhum efeito sobre o peso ou índice de massa corporal, embora o perfil cardiovascular possa ter melhorado. Intervenções mistas demonstraram melhores efeitos, mas o impacto em longo prazo dos tratamentos da obesidade de crianças e adolescentes ainda não está claro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Overweight/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Overweight/therapy , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Life Style
6.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 36(2): 186-191, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-957380

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Testar uma intervenção multidisciplinar e motivacional para o tratamento de adolescentes obesos brasileiros e de baixa renda (escore Z>2 IMC-para-idade) que utilizou o aconselhamento nutricional sem controle dietético. Métodos: Desenvolveu-se um protocolo de intervenção que incluiu a realização periódica de oficinas de educação nutricional, aconselhamento nutricional individual com auxílio do modelo transteórico de mudança do comportamento, prática de exercícios físicos, aconselhamento psicológico, atividades recreativas e acompanhamento clínico, durante 13 meses, em uma amostra de 21 adolescentes (11-17 anos). Resultados: A taxa de desistência do tratamento (9,5%) foi menor do que a verificada em estudos de controle dietético (30-60%). No início, 70% da amostra se encontrava no estágio de comportamento denominado pré-contemplação (sem intenção de mudança) e, ao final, 100% dos adolescentes que permaneceram passaram aos estágios de ação ou manutenção (mudaram o comportamento ou mantiveram a mudança por mais de seis meses). Observou-se diminuição média de IMC-para-idade (15%, p=0,038) e de gordura visceral (gordura inicial de 3,67±1,19 e final de 2,78±0,78 cm, p=0,02). O percentual de massa gorda diminuiu e o de massa magra aumentou, quando comparados os valores médios iniciais e finais (42±5% e 38±8%, p=0,04; 58±6% e 61±8%, p=0,03, respectivamente). Conclusões: A intervenção parece eficaz para gerar mudança de estilo de vida, acompanhada de melhoria do perfil antropométrico e de composição corporal. O protocolo de intervenção pode oferecer metodologia de fácil adaptação e baixo custo para serviços de saúde, com alta adesão e baixa taxa de abandono.


ABSTRACT Objective: To test a multidisciplinary and motivational intervention for the treatment of Brazilian obese and low-income adolescents (Z score>2 BMI-for-age) that used nutritional counseling without dietary control. Methods: An intervention protocol was developed including periodical nutritional education workshops, individual nutritional counseling guided by the stages of eating behavior of the Trans Theoretical Model of Behavior Change, physical exercise, psychological counseling, recreational activities, and clinical follow-up for 13 months in a sample of 21 adolescents (11-17 years old). Results: The rate of treatment withdrawal (9.5%) was lower than that seen in dietary control studies (30-60%). Initially, 70% of the sample was in the pre-contemplation behavior stage and, in the end, 100% of the remaining adolescents were in the stages of action or maintenance. There was a mean reduction in BMI-for-age (p=0.038) and visceral fat (M±SD=3.67±1.19 and 2.78±0.78 cm, p=0.02, initial and final, respectively). The percentage of fat mass decreased and that of lean mass increased (42±5 and 38±8, p=0.04, 58±6 and 61±8%, p=0.03, respectively). Conclusions: The intervention seems to be effective in generating a lifestyle change, accompanied by anthropometric profile and body composition improvement. The intervention protocol may offer easy adaptation and low-cost methodology for health services, with high adherence and low abandonment rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Motivation , Patient Care Team , Poverty , Brazil , Pilot Projects , Directive Counseling , Pediatric Obesity/psychology
7.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 16(4): 460-470, dez. 2017. ilus
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1120250

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: identificar como a família percebe a saúde da criança com obesidade e quais as estratégias adotadas para o seu enfrentamento. MÉTODO: pesquisa descritiva de abordagem qualitativa. Os dados foram coletados entre janeiro e maio de 2014 por meio de entrevistas com 14 mães de crianças obesas. As falas foram submetidas à Análise de Conteúdo, Modalidade Temática. RESULTADOS: observou-se que algumas famílias não reconheciam a obesidade como problema de saúde, enquanto que outras identificavam complicações. O estímulo a hábitos alimentares saudáveis e prática de atividades físicas constituíam as principais estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas pelas famílias. Entretanto, por vezes, algumas práticas prejudicavam a saúde. CONCLUSÃO: a família parece reconhecer a obesidade infantil como um problema de saúde quando a criança apresenta complicações, e, neste momento, passa a enfrentá-la. Profissionais de saúde devem estar atentos às diferentes formas de entendimento e enfrentamento da obesidade infantil para que possam atuar de maneira qualificada.


AIM: to identify how the family perceives the health of the child with obesity and what strategies are used to cope with it. METHOD: descriptive research of qualitative approach. Data were collected between January and May 2014 through interviews with 14 mothers of obese children. The speeches were submitted to Content Analysis and Thematic Modality. RESULTS: it was observed that some families did not recognize obesity as a health problem, while others identified complications. Encouraging healthy eating habits and practicing physical activities were the main coping strategies adopted by families. However, sometimes some practices harmed health. CONCLUSION: the family seems to recognize childhood obesity as a health problem when the child has complications and is now facing it. Health professionals should be aware of different ways of understanding and coping with childhood obesity so that they can act in a qualified manner.


OBJETIVO: identificar como la familia percibe la salud del niño con obesidad y cuáles son las estrategias adoptadas para su enfrentamiento. MÉTODO: investigación descriptiva de enfoque cualitativo. Los datos fueron colectados entre enero y mayo de 2014 por medio de entrevistas con 14 madres de niños obesos. Los discursos fueron sometidas a Análisis de Contenido, Modalidad Temática. RESULTADOS: Se observó que algunas familias no reconocían la obesidad como problema de salud, mientras que otras identificaban complicaciones. El estímulo a hábitos alimenticios saludables y la práctica de actividades físicas constituían las principales estrategias de enfrentamiento adoptadas por las familias. Sin embargo, a veces, algunas prácticas perjudicaban la salud. CONCLUSIÓN: la familia parece reconocer la obesidad infantil como un problema de salud cuando el niño presenta complicaciones, e, en este momento, pasa a enfrentarla. Profesionales de salud deben estar atentos a las diferentes formas de entendimiento y enfrentamiento de la obesidad infantil para que puedan actuar de forma calificada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Family , Child Health , Child Nutrition , Pediatric Obesity , Pediatric Obesity/therapy
8.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 39(12): 692-696, Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042310

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the effects of nutritional counseling on the dietary habits and anthropometric parameters of overweight and obese adolescentswith polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods This was a prospective, longitudinal and auto-controlled study. Thirty adolescents aged 13-19 years-old, diagnosed with PCOS received nutritional counseling and were followed-up for 6 months. After the follow-up period, the results were evaluated through body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Results Sixty-percent of the adolescents adhered to the nutritional counseling and, of these, 50% lost weight. Adolescents who lost weight changed their dietary habits by adopting hypocaloric diets and eating more meals per day, as per nutritional counseling. The waist circumference (WC) decreased significantly, although the body weight decreased non-significantly after adoption of a hypocaloric diet. Conclusion Although there was no significant weight loss, there was a considerable reduction in theWCassociated with hypocaloric diets and with eating a greater number of meals per day.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos do aconselhamento nutricional sobre os hábitos alimentares e os parâmetros antropométricos de adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade e com síndrome do ovário policístico (SOP). Métodos Este foi um estudo prospectivo, longitudinal e autocontrolado. Trinta adolescentes com idades entre 13 e 19 anos e diagnosticadas com SOP receberam aconselhamento nutricional. Após 6 meses de acompanhamento, os resultados foram avaliados através do peso corporal, índice demassa corporal (IMC) e a circunferência da cintura (CC). Resultados Sessenta por cento das adolescentes aderiram ao aconselhamento nutricional e, destas, 50% perderam peso. Adolescentes que perderam peso mudaram seus hábitos alimentares adotando dietas hipocalóricas e comendo mais refeições por dia, seguindo orientação nutricional. A circunferência da cintura (CC) diminuiu significativamente, embora o peso corporal tenha diminuído de forma não significativa após a adoção de uma dieta hipocalórica. Conclusão Embora a perda de peso não tenha sido significativa, houve redução considerável da CC associada a dietas hipocalóricas e à ingestão de um maior número de refeições por dia.


Subject(s)
Directive Counseling , Diet, Reducing , Feeding Behavior , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Pediatric Obesity/etiology
9.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 12(2): 61-65, abr. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999072

ABSTRACT

The progress of the obesity epidemic in children and adolescents and its close relationship with sleep and their comorbidities are a reason for growing concern. In this articule we review the epidemiology, prenantal, and postnatal risk factors of obesity, and associated comorbidities, such as: metabolic syndrome; chronic pro-inflammatory state and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), with the involved pathophysiological mechanisms. We also analyze the links between obesity and SDB, the consequences of this association, in terms of enhancing the damage to physical and psychological health and the main therapeutic available measures


El avance de la epidemia de la obesidad en niños y adolescentes, su estrecha relación con el sueño y sus comorbilidades son motivo de una preocupación creciente. En este artículo revisaremos la epidemiología y factores de riesgo prenatales y postnatales de la obesidad. y las comorbilidades asociadas, tales como: síndrome metabólico, estado pro-inflamatorio crónico y trastornos respiratorios del sueño (TRS), con los mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados. También analizaremod las interconexiones entre la obesidad y los TRS, las consecuencias de esta asociación, en cuanto a potenciarel daño a la salud física y psicológica y las principales medidad terapéuticas disponibles


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/therapy , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(2): 185-191, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841343

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the effects of multidisciplinary treatment with and without psychological counseling on obese adolescents' self-reported quality of life. Methods: Seventy-six obese adolescents (15.87 ± 1.53 y) were allocated into psychological counseling group (PCG; n = 36) or control group (CG; n = 40) for 12 weeks. All participants received the same supervised exercise training, nutritional and clinical counseling. Participants in PCG also received psychological counseling. QOL was measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention by Generic Questionnaire for the Evaluation of Quality of Life (SF-36). Results: The dropout rate was higher in GC (22.5%) when compared with PCG (0.0%) (p < 0.001). After 12 weeks, participants from PCG presents lower body weight, relative fat mass and higher free fat mass (p < 0.001 for all) compared to GC. QOL improved among adolescents from both groups (p < 0.05), however, a better QOL was reported from those adolescents enrolled in PCG. Conclusion: The inclusion of a psychological counseling component in multidisciplinary treatment for adolescent obesity appears to provide benefits observed for improved QOL as compared with treatment without psychological counseling.


Resumo Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos do tratamento multidisciplinar com e sem aconselhamento psicológico voltado para a qualidade de vida de adolescentes obesos. Métodos: Foram alocados 76 adolescentes obesos (15,87 ± 1,53 ano) em um grupo de aconselhamento psicológico (GAP; n = 36) e um grupo de controle (GC; n = 40) por 12 semanas. Todos receberam o mesmo treinamento físico supervisionado e aconselhamento nutricional e clínico. Os participantes no GAP também receberam aconselhamento psicológico. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada antes e depois das 12 semanas de intervenção por meio do Questionário Genérico de Avaliação da Qualidade de Vida (SF-36). Resultados: O abandono do tratamento foi maior no GC (22,5%) em comparação com o GAP (0,0%) (p < 0,001). Após 12 semanas, os participantes do GAP apresentam menor peso corporal, massa gorda relativa e maior massa livre de gordura (p < 0,001 para todos) em comparação com o GC. A qualidade de vida melhorou entre os adolescentes de ambos os grupos (p < 0,05); contudo, uma melhor qualidade de vida foi relatada pelos adolescentes incluídos no GAP. Conclusão: A inclusão de aconselhamento psicológico no tratamento multidisciplinar dos adolescentes obesos parece proporcionar benefícios observados na melhoria da qualidade de vida, em comparação com o tratamento sem aconselhamento psicológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Patient Compliance/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Combined Modality Therapy , Counseling
11.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(4): 495-501, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900008

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La familia tiene un rol fundamental en la adherencia y efectividad del tratamiento de la obesidad infantil; conocer la experiencia de los cuidadores es una herramienta valiosa a considerar. Objetivo: Describir las recomendaciones para el equipo de salud que efectúan los padres cuidadores de niños(as) en tratamiento por obesidad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio transversal, descriptivo, con enfoque cualitativo y muestreo intencionado. En el primer semestre del año 2015 se entrevistó a nueve padres de niños de 4 a 10 años de edad, en tratamiento por su obesidad y con al menos tres controles durante el año previo. El análisis de datos se basó en los planteamientos de la Grounded Theory, mediante codificación abierta. El estudio tuvo aprobación ética y se utilizó consentimiento informado. Resultados: Los datos fueron agrupados en cinco categorías principales: a) Relación equipo de salud-cuidador, b) Relación equipo de salud-niño(a), c) Promover la participación familiar, d) Motivar adherencia terapéutica en el niño(a) y e) Frecuencia de controles. Conclusiones: Desde la perspectiva de este grupo de padres de niños con obesidad, el rol del equipo de salud debe basarse en establecer un vínculo terapéutico cercano con los niños(as) y sus padres durante el proceso de tratamiento, además de promover la participación del grupo familiar. Se destaca la importancia de desarrollar intervenciones terapéuticas que consideren la perspectiva del sistema consultante.


Introduction: The family plays an essential role in the adherence and effectiveness in the treatment of childhood obesity. Caregivers’ experience is fundamental for proper guidance. Aim: To describe the recommendations for the health-care team made by parents of children that are being treated for obesity. Patients and Method: Cross-sectional and descriptive study with a qualitative approach and purposeful sampling. In the first semester of 2015, interviews were conducted with nine parents of children from 4 to 10 years old that were being treated for obesity ad who had at least three medical appointments in the previous year. The data analysis was based on the Grounded Theory Approach through open coding. The study was ethically approved and informed parental consent was obtained. Results: The results were grouped in the following main categories: a) Health-care team-caregiver relationship, b) Health-care team-child relationship, c) Encouraging family participation, d) Encouraging therapeutic adherence in the child and e) Frequency of medical appointments. Conclusion: From the perspective of this group of parents of obese children, the health-care team should establish a close therapeutic bond with the children and their parents during the treatment process, in addition to encouraging family participation. The importance of developing therapeutic interventions that consider the perspective of the patient’s system is emphasized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Parents , Patient Care Team , Professional-Family Relations , Professional-Patient Relations , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Attitude to Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Patient Compliance , Qualitative Research
12.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 42(2): 173-178, jun. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-755553

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify the competences and subcompetences required for providing diet therapy to children and adolescents with overweight and obesity which must be developed during the training of nutritionists. In order to identify them we utilized the advice of an expert in the subject. A semistructured survey using the technique of personal interview was applied to 16 nutritionists from several labor fields that were in charge of the diet therapy of overweight and obese children and adolescents. With the information obtained, a list of competences was elaborated which were then analyzed and categorized by a team of academics in order to define the respective sub-competences. We conclude that it is possible to identify competencies and sub-competences required by nutritionists to provide diet therapy attention to children and adolescent with overweight and obesity.


El objetivo de presente estudio fue identificar las competencias y las subcompetencias requeridas para brindar la atención dietoterapéutica a la población infanto juvenil con sobrepeso y obesidad, que se deben desarrollar en la formación de las nutricionistas. Para identificar las competencias se contó con la asesoría de una experta en el tema. Se aplicó una encuesta semi estructurada por técnica de entrevista personal, a 16 nutricionistas de diversos campos laborales que tenían a su cargo la atención dietoterapéutica de la población infanto juvenil con sobrepeso y obesidad. Con la información obtenida se elaboró un listado de competencias, las que fueron analizadas y categorizadas por un grupo de académicos con el fin de definir las respectivas subcompetencias. Se obtuvo un listado con 5 competencias específicas y 3 competencias generales, con sus respectivas subcompetencias. Se concluye que es posible identificar competencias y subcompetencias requeridos por nutricionistas para brindar la atención dietoterapéutica en población infanto juvenil con sobrepeso y/o obesidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Competency-Based Education , Overweight/therapy , Professional Training , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Nutritionists/education
13.
Salud pública Méx ; 55(supl.3): 434-440, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704830

ABSTRACT

Objective. The objective of this systematic literature review was to identify evidence-based strategies associated with effective healthcare interventions for prevention or treatment of childhood obesity in Latin America. Materials and methods. A systematic review of peer-reviewed, obesity-related interventions implemented in the healthcare setting was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: implementation in Latin America, aimed at overweight or obese children and evaluation of at least one obesity-related outcome (e.g., body mass index (BMI), z-score, weight, and waist circumference, and body fat). Results. Five interventions in the healthcare setting targeting obese children in Latin America were identified. All five studies showed significant changes in BMI, and the majority produced sufficient to large effect sizes through emphasizing physical activity and health eating. Conclusion. Despite the limited number of intervention studies that treat obesity in the healthcare setting, there is evidence that interventions in this setting can be effective in creating positive anthropometric changes in overweight and obese children.


Objetivo. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática de la literatura fue identificar estrategias basadas en evidencia asociadas con intervenciones en salud efectivas para la prevención y el tratamiento de la obesidad infantil en Latinoamérica. Material y métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática por pares de intervenciones relacionadas con la obesidad, que fueron llevadas a cabo en clínicas de atención para la salud. Criterios de inclusión: implementadas en Latinoamérica, dirigidas a niños con obesidad y sobrepeso y evaluación de por lo menos un resultado relacionado con obesidad (ej. índice de masa corporal (IMC), puntaje Z, peso, circunferencia de cintura o grasa corporal). Resultados. Se identificaron cinco intervenciones dirigidas a niños obesos en clínicas de salud en Latinoamérica. Todas las intervenciones mostraron cambios significativos en IMC y la mayoría obtuvo un tamaño del efecto grande a través de la promoción de actividad física y alimentación saludable. Conclusión. A pesar del número limitado de estudios de intervención para tratar la obesidad en clínicas de salud, existe evidencia que las intervenciones en estos lugares pueden ser efectivas en alcanzar cambios antropométricos positivos en los niños con obesidad y sobrepeso.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Adolescent Behavior , Anthropometry , Behavior Therapy , Body Mass Index , Child Behavior , Clinical Trial , Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Latin America/epidemiology , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Obesity, Abdominal/therapy , Program Evaluation , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Waist Circumference
14.
Salud pública Méx ; 55(supl.3): 441-446, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704831

ABSTRACT

Objective. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review of obesity interventions that focused on increasing physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico. Materials and methods. Data was taken from a larger literature review focused on obesity interventions for Latinos in Latin America and the United States. Study design suitability, quality of execution, and effect size were assessed for a subset of these articles. Results. There were six intervention studies included in the present review. Five studies showed reductions in obesity-related outcomes, while one study reported gains in body mass index (BMI). Conclusions. Physical activity and healthy eating remain constant components in obesity treatment interventions, which highlights the importance of understanding evidence-based strategies to guide future research to reduce childhood obesity in Mexico.


Objetivo. El propósito del presente estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura en intervenciones relacionadas con la obesidad enfocadas en incrementar la actividad física y alimentación saludable en niños mexicanos con obesidad y sobrepeso. Material y métodos. La información forma parte de una revisión sistemática de la literatura enfocada en intervenciones para prevenir o tratar la obesidad en población latina habitante de Latinoamérica y Estados Unidos. La adecuación del diseño del estudio, la calidad de ejecución y el efecto de la muestra fueron evaluados para una submuestra de estos artículos. Resultados. Se incluyeron seis estudios dentro de la revisión. Cinco estudios encontraron una reducción en los resultados relacionados con la obesidad, mientras que un estudio encontró ganancias en el índice de masa corporal (IMC). Conclusiones. La actividad física y alimentación saludables fueron componentes constantes de las intervenciones para tratamiento de la obesidad. Esto resalta la importancia de entender las estrategias basadas en evidencia para guiar futuras investigaciones en la reducción de la obesidad infantil en México.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Feeding Behavior , Motor Activity , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Body Mass Index , Feeding Behavior , Mexico/epidemiology , Overweight/diet therapy , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/prevention & control , Overweight/therapy , Program Evaluation , Pediatric Obesity/diet therapy , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , Treatment Outcome
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 55(supl.3): 415-421, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704838

ABSTRACT

Objective. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the impact of two exercise dosages on reducing adiposity in minority girls. Materials and methods. Sixty-two overweight Hispanic and African-American girls participated in one of two intense summer interventions in Houston, TX: Intervention A (exposure to about 40 hours physical activities) or Intervention B (exposure to 60 hours of physical activities). Adiposity indices (percent body fat, waist circumference, body mass index) were taken pre- and post-intervention. Results. Intervention B had a significantly greater decrease in adiposity indicators (p= 0.006) when compared to Intervention A. Waist circumference displayed the most significant decrease (p = 0.001). Both interventions significantly increased daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p= 0.020). Conclusions. Intense physical activity interventions may effectively reduce abdominal fat in minority girls.


Objetivo. Determinar el impacto de dos programas de ejercicio en la reducción de los índices de adiposidad en niñas de grupos minoritarios. Material y métodos. Sesenta y dos niñas latinas y africano-americanas participaron en una de dos intervenciones intensivas durante el verano: la intervención A (exposición a aproximadamente 40 horas de actividad física) o la intervención B (exposición a 60 horas de actividad física) en Houston, TX. Los indicadores de adiposidad (índice de masa corporal, porcentaje de grasa corporal y grasa abdominal) se midieron antes y después de cada intervención. Resultados. La intervención B tuvo una disminución más significativa en el nivel de adiposidad (p=0.006) comparado con la intervención A. La circunferencia abdominal fue la que más disminuyó (p=0.001). Ambas intervenciones aumentaron significativamente la actividad física moderada a intensa (p=0.020). Conclusiones. Las intervenciones cortas e intensas pueden ser efectivas en la reducción de la grasa abdominal en niñas de grupos minoritarios.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Adiposity , Exercise Therapy , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Body Mass Index , Clinical Trial , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Obesity, Abdominal/pathology , Obesity, Abdominal/therapy , Overweight/ethnology , Overweight/therapy , Patient Compliance , Physical Fitness , Poverty , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/ethnology , Texas/epidemiology , Waist Circumference
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