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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1)feb. 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528825

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This review article will present an overview of biological profiles in forensic utilities. The biological profile of the skull in the existing literature can help to identify humans, especially if the condition of the victim found is a result of mutilation or a bomb explosion. When it comes to the precision of identifying skeletal remains, the human skull is frequently cited as being first in the estimation of age and ancestry and second in terms of sex and stature. It can be an alternative to assessing the following biological parameters: sex, age, stature, and ancestry. The implementation of biological profiles in the identification process is very important considering that some cases require the assistance of forensic anthropology. This review article shows the importance of the value of skulls. The method that can be applied is craniometry which can be used to determine sex, age, stature, and estimated ancestry. Different results will occur depending on the completeness of the skull. Therefore, estimation formulas have different accurate results. Discriminant function analysis has been performed on various measurement sets and its discriminant power has been validated by many researchers. Geometric morphometric analysis has become the main tool for shape analysis and many attempts have been made to use it in analyzing skulls. Several methods supported by technology have also been developed. It is hoped that the review article will show significant differences in results between studies in Thailand and Indonesia, even though they are in the same racial group.


Este artículo presenta una descripción general de los perfiles biológicos en las utilidades forenses. El perfil biológico del cráneo en la literatura existente puede ayudar a identificar a los humanos, especialmente si la condición en la que se encuentra la víctima es el resultado de una mutilación o la explosión de una bomba. Cuando se trata de la precisión en la identificación de restos óseos, el cráneo humano se cita con frecuencia como el primero en la estimación de edad y ascendencia y el segundo en términos de sexo y estatura. Puede ser una alternativa para evaluar los siguientes parámetros biológicos: sexo, edad, estatura y ascendencia. La implementación de perfiles biológicos en el proceso de identificación es importante considerando que algunos casos requieren la asistencia de la antropología forense. Este artículo de revisión muestra la importancia del valor de las cnezas óseas. El método que se puede aplicar es la craneometría para determinar el sexo, la edad, la estatura y la ascendencia estimada. Se pueden obtener diferentes resultados dependiendo de la integridad del cráneo. Por lo tanto, las fórmulas de estimación tienen resultados precisos diferentes. Se ha realizado un análisis de función discriminante en varios conjuntos de medidas y muchos investigadores han validado su poder discriminante. El análisis a través de la morfometría geométrica se ha convertido en la principal herramienta para el análisis de formas y se ha utilizado frecuentemente en el análisis de cráneos. También se han desarrollado varios métodos apoyados en la tecnología. Se espera que este trabajo muestre diferencias significativas en los resultados entre los estudios realizados en Tailandia e Indonesia, aunque pertenezcan al mismo grupo racial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skull/anatomy & histology , Age Determination by Skeleton , Sex Determination by Skeleton , Pedigree , Thailand , Body Height , Indonesia
2.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 716-721, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984709

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify and analyze 3D architecture of the mutational sites of susceptible genes in a pedigree with familial hypercholesterolemia-like phenotype (FHLP). Methods: This is a case series study. A pedigree with suspected familial hypercholesterolemia was surveyed. The proband admitted in Beijing Anzhen Hospital in April 2019. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to determine the mutational sites of susceptible genes in the proband. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing was used to verify the pathogenic variant on proband's relatives. The structural and functional changes of the proteins were analyzed and predicted by Discovery Studio 4.0 and PyMol 2.0. Results: The patients in the pedigree showed abnormal lipid profiles, especially elevated levels of total cholesterol(TC). The genetic screening detected the c.1330C>T SNP in the exon 8 of lipase C (LIPC) gene, this mutation leads to an amino acid substitution from arginine to cysteine at position 444 (Arg444Cys), in the proband and proband's father and brother. In this family, members with this mutation exhibited elevated TC, whereas lipid profile was normal from the proband's mother without this mutation. This finding indicated that LIPC: c.1330C>T mutation might be the mutational sites of susceptible genes. The analysis showed that Arg444Cys predominantly affected the ligand-binding property of the protein, but had a limited impact on catalytic function. Conclusion: LIPC: c.1330C>T is a new mutational site of susceptible genes in this FHLP pedigree.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/genetics , Lipase/genetics , Lipids , Mutation , Pedigree , Phenotype , Proteins
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 183-188, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanism of the disease based on the clinical characterization and genetic mutation analysis in a family with hereditary spherocytosis.@*METHODS@#The proband with jaundice and anemia was referred to Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang in May 2021. Peripheral blood samples were collected from six members of the family. Second-generation sequencing was used to screen the pathological mutations, and the clinically significant variant sites were selected. Then the relevant databases were used to analyze the variant sites, and RT-qPCR was used to detect the relative mRNA levels of candidate gene. The structure and function of SPTB protein were analyzed by UniProt and SMART databases.@*RESULTS@#We infer that the SPTB gene copy number variation (CNV) deletion was co-segregated with the phenotype of the patients in this family based on the results of second-generation sequencing (about 700 target genes). The UCSC Genome Browser demonstrated that the deleted region was mainly located in exon2-3 of SPTB gene. The results of RT-qPCR showed that the relative SPTB mRNA levels of all patients were lower than the healthy control. UniProt and SMART databases analysis showed that SPTB protein without CH1 and CH2 domains could not bind to erythrocyte membrane actin.@*CONCLUSION@#The CNV deletion of SPTB gene may be the reason for the hereditary spherocytosis in this family.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Copy Number Variations , East Asian People , Mutation , Pedigree , Spectrin/genetics , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/diagnosis
4.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 460-469, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986912

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the phenotypic-genotypic characteristics of hereditary deafness caused by OTOA gene variations. Methods: Family histories, clinical phenotypes and gene variations of six pedigrees were analyzed, which were diagnosed with hearing loss caused by OTOA gene variations at the PLA General Hospital from September 2015 to January 2022. The sequence variations were verified by Sanger sequencing and the copy number variations were validated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in the family members. Results: The hearing loss phenotype caused by OTOA variations ranged from mild to moderate in the low frequencies, and from moderate to severe in the high frequencies in the probands, which came from six sporadic pedigrees, among which a proband was diagnosed as congenital deafness and five were diagnosed as postlingual deafness. One proband carried homozygous variations and five probands carried compound heterozygous variations in OTOA gene. Nine pathogenic variations (six copy number variations, two deletion variations and one missense variation) and two variations with uncertain significance in OTOA were identified in total, including six copy number variations and five single nucleotide variants, and three of the five single nucleotide variants were firstly reported [c.1265G>T(p.Gly422Val),c.1534delG(p.Ala513Leufs*11) and c.3292C>T(p.Gln1098fs*)]. Conclusions: OTOA gene variations can lead to autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. In this study, the hearing loss caused by OTOA defects mostly presents as bilateral, symmetrical, and postlingual, and that of a few presents as congenital. The pathogenic variations of OTOA gene are mainly copy number variations followed by deletion variations and missense variations.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Copy Number Variations , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/genetics , Deafness/genetics , Hearing Loss/genetics , Phenotype , Genotype , Nucleotides , Pedigree , Mutation , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics
5.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 400-407, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986868

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To utilized the baseline data of the Beijing Fangshan Family Cohort Study, and to estimate whether the association between a healthy lifestyle and arterial stiffness might be modified by genetic effects.@*METHODS@#Probands and their relatives from 9 rural areas in Fangshan district, Beijing were included in this study. We developed a healthy lifestyle score based on five lifestyle behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), dietary pattern, and physical activity. The measurements of arterial stiffness were brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial index (ABI). A variance component model was used to determine the heritability of arterial stiffness. Genotype-environment interaction effects were performed by the maximum likelihood methods. Subsequently, 45 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the glycolipid metabolism pathway were selected, and generalized estimated equations were used to assess the gene-environment interaction effects between particular genetic loci and healthy lifestyles.@*RESULTS@#A total of 6 302 study subjects across 3 225 pedigrees were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 56.9 years and 45.1% male. Heritability of baPWV and ABI was 0.360 (95%CI: 0.302-0.418) and 0.243 (95%CI: 0.175-0.311), respectively. Significant genotype-healthy diet interaction on baPWV and genotype-BMI interaction on ABI were observed. Following the findings of genotype-environment interaction analysis, we further identified two SNPs located in ADAMTS9-AS2 and CDH13 might modify the association between healthy dietary pattern and arterial stiffness, indicating that adherence to a healthy dietary pattern might attenuate the genetic risk on arterial stiffness. Three SNPs in CDKAL1, ATP8B2 and SLC30A8 were shown to interact with BMI, implying that maintaining BMI within a healthy range might decrease the genetic risk of arterial stiffness.@*CONCLUSION@#The current study discovered that genotype-healthy dietary pattern and genotype-BMI interactions might affect the risk of arterial stiffness. Furthermore, we identified five genetic loci that might modify the relationship between healthy dietary pattern and BMI with arterial stiffness. Our findings suggested that a healthy lifestyle may reduce the genetic risk of arterial stiffness. This study has laid the groundwork for future research exploring mechanisms of arterial stiffness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Ankle Brachial Index , Cohort Studies , Gene-Environment Interaction , Vascular Stiffness/genetics , Pedigree , Pulse Wave Analysis/methods , Genotype
6.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 401-409, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985938

ABSTRACT

Objective: Clinical manifestations, imaging findings, pathologic features, and genetic mutations of Chinese adult patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) were analyzed in order to achieve a greater understanding of CTX that can improve early detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods: Clinical data including medical history, neurologic and auxiliary examinations, imaging findings, and genetic profile were collected for an adult patient with CTX admitted to the Sixth Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital in August 2020. Additionally, a systematic review of genetically diagnosed Chinese adult CTX cases reported in major databases in China and other countries was performed and age of onset, first symptoms, common signs and symptoms, pathologic findings, imaging changes, and gene mutations were analyzed. Results: The proband was a 39-year-old female with extensive, early-onset nervous system manifestations including cognitive dysfunction and ataxia. Systemic lesions included juvenile cataract and a tendon mass. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebral atrophy, symmetric white matter changes predominantly in the pyramidal tract, and lesions in the cerebellar dentate nucleus. A novel homozygous mutation in the sterol-27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) gene (c.1477-2A>C) was identified. There were no family members with similar clinical presentation although some were carriers of the c.1477-2A>C mutation. The patient showed a good response to deoxycholic acid treatment. Totally there were 56 cases of adult CTX patients in China, mostly in East China (31/56, 55.4%), at a male-to-female ratio of 1.8 to 1. Multiple organs and tissues including nervous system, tendon, lens, lung, and skeletal muscle were affected in these cases. The most common neurologic manifestations were cognitive dysfunction (44/52, 84.6%) and ataxia (44/51, 86.3%). The cases were characterized by early onset, chronic progressive damage of multiple systems, long disease course, and delayed diagnosis, making the disease difficult to manage clinically and resulting in poor prognosis. The 2 most common genetic mutations in Chinese adult CTX patients were c.1263+1G>A and c.379C>T. Exon 2 of the CYP27A1 gene was identified as a mutation hot spot. Conclusions: Chinese adult patients with CTX have complex clinical characteristics, a long diagnostic cycle, and various CYP27A1 gene mutations. Early diagnosis and intervention can improve the prognosis of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Xanthomatosis, Cerebrotendinous/pathology , Pedigree , Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase/genetics , Mutation , Ataxia
7.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 393-400, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985937

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical and biological characteristics of familial platelet disorder (FPD) with germline Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) 1 mutations. Methods: Patients diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with RUNX1 mutations from February 2016 to December 2021 in Wuhan No.1 Hospital underwent pedigree analysis and were screened for gene mutations (somatic and germline). Patients diagnosed with FPD with germline RUNX1 mutations were enrolled and evaluated in terms of clinical characteristics and biological evolution. Bioinformatics analysis was used to assess the pathogenicity of mutations and to analyze the effect of mutated genes on the function of the corresponding protein. Results: Germline RUNX1 mutations were detected in three out of 34 patients suffering from MDS/AML who had RUNX1 mutations. A pedigree of FPD with RUNX1 (RUNX1-FPD) c.562A>C and RUNX1 c.1415T>C mutations was diagnosed, and the mutations were of patrilineal origin. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the locus at positions 188 and 472 in the AML-1G type of RUNX1 was highly conserved across different species, and that variations might influence functions of the proteins. The mutations were evaluated to be highly pathogenic. Of the nine cases with germline RUNX1 mutations: two patients died due AML progression; one case with AML survived without leukemia after transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells; four patients showed mild-to-moderate thrombocytopenia; two cases had no thrombocytopenia. During the disease course of the proband and her son, mutations in RUNX1, NRAS and/or CEBPA and KIT appeared in succession, and expression of cluster of differentiation-7 on tumor cells was enhanced gradually. None of the gene mutations correlated with the tumor were detected in the four cases not suffering from MDS/AML, and they survived until the end of follow-up. Conclusions: RUNX1-FPD was rare. The mutations c.562A>C and c.1415T>C of RUNX1 could be the disease-causing genes for the family with RUNX1-FPD, and these mutations could promote malignant transformation. Biological monitoring should be carried out regularly to aid early intervention for family members with RUNX1-FPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Germ-Line Mutation , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/genetics , Pedigree , Blood Platelet Disorders/complications , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics
8.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 276-281, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To retrospectively analyze the clinical phenotypes and genetic variants in two Chinese pedigrees affected with Hereditary hypofibrinemia (IFD) and explore their molecular pathogenesis.@*METHODS@#Two probands and their pedigree members were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University on March 30, 2021 and May 27, 2021, respectively. Clinical phenotypes of the probands were collected, and blood clotting indexes of the probands and their pedigree members were determined. Variants of the FGA, FGB and FGG genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing, and candidate variants were verified by sequence comparison. Bioinformatic software was used to analyze the conservation of the amino acids and pathogenicity of the proteins. Alteration in protein structure and intermolecular force before and after the variant was analyzed by simulating the protein model.@*RESULTS@#Proband 1, a 18-year-old male, had significantly low plasma fibrinogen activity (Fg:C) and plasma fibrinogen antigen (Fg:Ag), respectively at 0.80 g/L and 1.00 g/L. Proband 2, a 43-year-old male, had slightly low Fg:C and Fg:Ag at 1.35 g/L and 1.30 g/L, respectively. The Fg:C and Fg:Ag of proband 1's father, proband 2's father and son were also below the normal level. Genetic testing showed that proband 1 had harbored a heterozygous missense variant of c.688T>G (p.Phe230Val) in exon 7 of the FGG gene, which was inherited from his father. Proband 2, his father and son all had harbored a heterozygous variant of c.2516A>C (p.Asn839Thr) in exon 6 of the FGA gene. Homology analysis showed that the Phe230 and Asn839 residues were highly conserved among homologous species. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that both p.Phe230Val and p.Asn839Thr were pathogenic variants.@*CONCLUSION@#Analysis of protein simulation model showed that the p.Asn839Thr variant has changed the hydrogen bo`nd between the amino acids, thus affecting the stability of the protein structure. The heterozygous missense variants of p.Phe230Val and p.Asn839Thr probably underlay the IFD in the two pedigrees.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Amino Acids , East Asian People , Exons , Pedigree , Retrospective Studies , Afibrinogenemia/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Fibrinogen/genetics
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 208-212, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical phenotype and genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree affected with Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFD1).@*METHODS@#A pedigree with OFD1 who presented at Hebei General Hospital on March 17, 2021 was selected as the subject. Clinical data of the child was collected. Trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES) was carried out for the proband and members of her pedigree, and candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband has featured hypotelorism, broad nasal root, flat nasal tip, lobulated tongue, tongue neoplasia, camptodactyly of left fifth finger, syndactyly of right fourth and fifth fingers, and delayed intellectual and language development. Trio-WES revealed that the proband and her daughter, sister and mother have harbored a heterozygous c.224A>G (p.Asn75Ser) variant of the OFD1 gene. The same variant was not found among healthy members from her pedigree.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.224A>G (p.Asn75Ser) variant probably underlay the OFD1 in this pedigree. Above discovery has enriched the spectrum of OFD1 gene variants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pedigree , Orofaciodigital Syndromes/genetics , East Asian People , Phenotype , Heterozygote , Mutation , China
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 186-190, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970902

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for three Chinese patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS).@*METHODS@#Three children who had respectively presented at Shandong Provincial Hospital in April 2019 and Peking Union Medical College Hospital in August 2020 and May 2021 were selected as the research subjects. Peripheral blood samples of the probands and their family members were taken for the extraction of genomic DNA. Potential variants were screened by whole exome sequencing (WES), and candidate variants were validated by Sanger sequencing of the patients and their family members.@*RESULTS@#The proband from family 1 was found to harbor a heterozygous c.601C>T (p.R201C) missense variant in exon 8 of the GNAS gene, whilst the probands from families 2 and 3 were both found to harbor a heterozygous c.602G>A (p.R201H) missense variant in exon 8 of the GNAS gene. Both variants were known to be pathogenic, and all probands were found to be mosaics for the corresponding variants but with various degrees.@*CONSLUSION@#WES can effectively diagnose MAS and other somatic genetic disorders. In this study, the combined WES and Sanger sequencing have verified the degree of mosaicisms of pathogenic variants in the three MAS patients, albeit no apparent correlation was found between the degree of mosaicisms and the phenotype of patients. Above finding has provided a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for the affected families.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mutation , Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic/genetics , East Asian People , Exons , Phenotype , Pedigree
11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 42-46, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for two patients from a family with BCL11A-related intellectual disability (BCL11A-ID).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the proband and her family members was analyzed. Chromosomal karyotyping analysis, trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES) and copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) were carried out. For the suspected genetic variants, Sanger sequencing was used to verify, and pathogenicity assessment was conducted.@*RESULTS@#The proband and her mother both had intellectual and language impairment, and their fetal hemoglobin (HbF) was significantly elevated. A heterozygous c.1327_c.1328delTC (p.Ser443Hisfs*128) variant was found in exon 4 of the BCL11A gene by WES, which has resulted in truncated expression of the encoded protein, and Sanger sequencing has verified that the variant was inherited from the mother. The variant was not found in related databases. The variant was predicted as pathogenic according to the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) (PVS1+PM2+PP1). No karyotypic abnormality was found in the proband, her parents and brother, and no pathogenic CNVs was found in the proband and her parents.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.1327_c.1328delTC (p.Ser443Hisfs*128) variant may underlay the BCL11A-ID in the proband and her mother. This de novo variant has expanded the mutational spectrum of the BCL11A gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Intellectual Disability/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Pedigree , Mutation , Transcription Factors/genetics , Mothers , Repressor Proteins/genetics
12.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 36-41, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970874

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic etiology of a Chinese pedigree featuring non-simplex blepharocheilodontic syndrome.@*METHODS@#Whole exome sequencing was carried out to detect genetic variant and copy number variations (CNVs) in the pedigree. Suspected variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and qPCR.@*RESULTS@#The fetus and its elder brother, father and grandfather were found to harbor a heterozygous c.83delG (p.A29Rfs*55) variant of the CTNND1 gene, which was unreported previously. In addition, its elder brother was also found to be a double heterozygote for a c.235delC (p.L79Cfs*3) variant of GJB2 gene and a c.538C>T (p.R180X) variant of GJB3 gene, which were respectively inherited from his mother and father. CNVs analysis revealed a de novo heterozygotic deletion (1.46 Mb) at 17q12 in the mother, which was confirmed by qPCR. Based on American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines, the c.83delG variant, the c.235delC variant and the 17q12 microdeletion were predicted as pathogenic, while the c.538C>T variant was of uncertain significance.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.83delG (p.A29Rfs*55) variant of the CTNND1 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of non-simplex blepharocheilodontic syndrome in this pedigree. The double heterozygous variants of c.235delC (p.L79Cfs*3) of GJB2 gene and c.538C>T (p.R180X) of GJB3 gene probably underlay the hearing loss in the elder brother. The bilateral renal cysts in the mother may be attributed to the 17q12 microdeletion. Above results have provided guidance for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Male , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Aged , Pedigree , Mutation , DNA Copy Number Variations , East Asian People , China
13.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 31-35, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic etiology of a Chinese pedigree affected with pseudohypoparathyroidism.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples of the proband and his parents were collected and subjected to trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES). Candidate variants were verified among the pedigree and 50 randomly selected healthy individuals through analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism. Short tandem repeat (STR) linkage analysis was used to verify the parental origin of the pathogenic variants.@*RESULTS@#Trio-WES and Sanger sequencing showed that the proband and his mother had both harbored a c.121C>G (p.His41Asp) variant of the GNAS gene, which was not found in other family members and the 50 healthy controls. The variant was not found in international databases. Based on guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the variant was predicted to be likely pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The novel c.121C>G variant of the GNAS gene probably underlay the disease in this pedigree. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of GNAS gene variants.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pedigree , East Asian People , Mothers , Exome Sequencing , Pseudohypoparathyroidism/genetics , Mutation , China , Chromogranins/genetics , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs/genetics
14.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 21-25, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic basis of two Chinese pedigrees affected with Joubert syndrome.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the two pedigrees was collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing. Prenatal diagnosis was carried out for a high-risk fetus from pedigree 2.@*RESULTS@#The proband of pedigree 1 was a fetus at 23+5 weeks gestation, for which both ultrasound and MRI showed "cerebellar vermis malformation" and "molar tooth sign". No apparent abnormality was noted in the fetus after elected abortion. The fetus was found to harbor c.812+3G>T and c.1828G>C compound heterozygous variants of the INPP5E gene, which have been associated with Joubert syndrome type 1. The proband from pedigree 2 had growth retardation, mental deficiency, peculiar facial features, low muscle tone and postaxial polydactyly of right foot. MRI also revealed "cerebellar dysplasia" and "molar tooth sign". The proband was found to harbor c.485C>G and c.1878+1G>A compound heterozygous variants of the ARMC9 gene, which have been associated with Joubert syndrome type 30. Prenatal diagnosis found that the fetus only carried the c.485C>G variant. A healthy infant was born, and no anomalies was found during the follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous variants of the INPP5E and ARMC9 genes probably underlay the disease in the two pedigrees. Above finding has expanded the spectrum of pathogenic variants underlying Joubert syndrome and provided a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pedigree , Cerebellum/abnormalities , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , Eye Abnormalities/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/diagnosis , Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases/genetics , Retina/abnormalities , East Asian People , Mutation
15.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 223-229, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982038

ABSTRACT

Two male patients with bifid rib-basal cell nevus-jaw cyst syndrome (BCNS) were admitted to Department of Stomatology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College due to radiological findings of multiple low density shadows in the jaw. Clinical and imaging findings showed thoracic malformation, calcification of the tentorium cerebellum and falx cerebrum as well as widening of the orbital distance. Whole exon high-throughput sequencing was performed in two patients and their family members. The heterozygous mutations of c.C2541C>A(p.Y847X) and c.C1501C>T(p.Q501X) in PTCH1 gene were detected in both patients. Diagnosis of BCNS was confirmed. The heterozygous mutations of PTCH1 gene locus were also found in the mothers of the two probands. Proband 1 showed clinical manifestations of low intelligence, and heterozygous mutations of c.C2141T(p.P714L) and c.G3343A(p.V1115I) were detected in FANCD2 gene. Proband 2 had normal intelligence and no FANCD2 mutation. The fenestration decompression and curettage of jaw cyst were performed in both patients. Regular follow-up showed good bone growth at the original lesion, and no recurrence has been observed so far.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome/diagnosis , Mutation , Nevus , Patched-1 Receptor/genetics , Pedigree , Ribs/abnormalities
16.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 231-239, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981855

ABSTRACT

Kinship testing is widely needed in forensic science practice. This paper reviews the definitions of common concepts, and summarizes the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages, and application scope of kinship analysis methods, including identity by state (IBS) method, likelihood ratio (LR) method, method of moment (MoM), and identity by descent (IBD) segment method. This paper also discusses the research hotspots of challenging kinship testing, complex kinship testing, forensic genetic genealogy analysis, and non-human biological samples.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Fingerprinting , Forensic Genetics/methods , Forensic Sciences , Pedigree
17.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 871-875, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981839

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic etiology of a child with D bifunctional protein deficiency (DBPD) born to a consanguineous pedigree.@*METHODS@#A child with DBPD who was admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College on January 6, 2022 due to hypotonia and global developmental delay was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of her pedigree members were collected. Peripheral blood samples of the child, her parents and elder sisters were collected and subjected to whole exome sequencing. Candidate variant was validated by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The child, a 2-year-and-9-month-old female, had featured hypotonia, growth retardation, unstable head lift, and sensorineural deafness. Serum long-chain fatty acids were elevated, and auditory brainstem evoked potentials had failed to elicit V waves in both ears with 90 dBnHL stimulation. Brain MRI revealed thinning of corpus callosum and white matter hypoplasia. The child's parents were secondary cousins. Their elder daughter had a normal phenotype and no clinical symptoms related to DBPD. Elder son had frequent convulsions, hypotonia and feeding difficulties after birth, and had died one and a half month later. Genetic testing revealed that the child had harbored homozygous c.483G>T (p.Gln161His) variants of the HSD17B4 gene, for which both of her parents and elder sisters were carriers. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the c.483G>T (p.Gln161His) was rated as a pathogenic variant (PM1+PM2_Supporting+PP1+PP3+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The homozygous c.483G>T (p.Gln161His) variants of the HSD17B4 gene caused by the consanguineous marriage probably underlay the DBPD in this child.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pedigree , Muscle Hypotonia , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Protein Deficiency , Mutation
18.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 807-814, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981827

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the correlation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese pedigree and the possible molecular mechanisms.@*METHODS@#A Chinese pedigree featuring matrilineal inheritance of CHD who visited Hangzhou First People's Hospital in May 2022 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the proband and her affected relatives was collected. By sequencing the mtDNA of the proband and her pedigree members, candidate variants were identified through comparison with wild type mitochondrial genes. Conservative analysis among various species was conducted, and bioinformatics software was used to predict the impact of variants on the secondary structure of tRNA. Real-time PCR was carried out to determine the copy number of mtDNA, and a transmitochondrial cell line was established for analyzing the mitochondrial functions, including membrane potential and ATP level.@*RESULTS@#This pedigree had contained thirty-two members from four generations. Among ten maternal members, four had CHD, which yielded a penetrance rate of 40%. Sequence analysis of proband and her matrilineal relatives revealed the presence of a novel m.4420A>T variant and a m.10463T>C variant, both of which were highly conserved among various species. Structurally, the m.4420A>T variant had occurred at position 22 in the D-arm of tRNAMet, which disrupted the 13T-22A base-pairing, while the m.10463T>C variant was located at position 67 in the acceptor arm of tRNAArg, a position critical for steady-state level of the tRNA. Functional analysis revealed that patients with the m.4420A>T and m.10463T>C variants exhibited much fewer copy number of mtDNA and lower mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP contents (P < 0.05), which were decreased by approximately 50.47%, 39.6% and 47.4%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Mitochondrial tRNAMet 4420A>T and tRNAArg 10463T>C variants may underlay the maternally transmitted CHD in this pedigree, which had shown variation in mtDNA homogeneity, age of onset, clinical phenotype and other differences, suggesting that nuclear genes, environmental factors and mitochondrial genetic background have certain influence on the pathogenesis of CHD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Mutation , Pedigree , RNA, Transfer, Met , East Asian People , RNA, Transfer, Arg , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Coronary Disease/genetics , Adenosine Triphosphate
19.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 802-806, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree affected with recurrent fetal hydrocephalus.@*METHODS@#A couple who had presented at the Affiliated Hospital of Putian College on March 3, 2021 was selected as the study subject. Following elective abortion, fetal tissue and peripheral blood samples were respectively obtained from the abortus and the couple, and were subjected to whole exome sequencing. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The fetus was found to harbor compound heterozygous variants of the B3GALNT2 gene, namely c.261-2A>G and c.536T>C (p.Leu179Pro), which were inherited from its father and mother, respectively.According to the guidelines of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, both variants were classified as pathogenic (PVS1+PM2_Supporting; PM3+PM2_Supporting+PP3+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous variants of the B3GALNT2 gene probably underlay the α-dystroglycanopathy in this fetus. Above results have provided a basis for genetic counseling of this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aborted Fetus , Asian People/genetics , East Asian People , Fetus , Genetic Counseling , Mutation , N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases , Pedigree , Walker-Warburg Syndrome/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 750-755, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the serological characteristics of ABO blood group and molecular genetic mechanism for a Chinese pedigree with cisAB09 subtype.@*METHODS@#A pedigree undergoing ABO blood group examination at the Department of Transfusion, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University on February 2, 2022 was selected as the study subjects. Serological assay was carried out to determine the ABO blood group of the proband and his family members. Activities of A and B glycosyltransferases in the plasma of the proband and his mother were measured with an enzymatic assay. Expression of A and B antigens on the red blood cells of the proband was analyzed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood samples of the proband and his family members were collected. Following extraction of genomic DNA, exons 1 to 7 of the ABO gene and their flanking introns were sequenced, and Sanger sequencing of exon 7 was carried out for the proband, his elder daughter and mother.@*RESULTS@#The results of serological assay suggested that the proband and his elder daughter and mother had an A2B phenotype, whilst his wife and younger daughter had an O phenotype. Measurement of plasma A and B glycosyltransferase activity suggested that the titers of B-glycosyltransferase activity were 32 and 256 for the proband and his mother, which were respectively below and above that of A1B phenotype-positive controls (128). Flow cytometry analysis showed that the expression of A antigen on the red blood cell surface of the proband has decreased, whilst the expression of B antigen was normal. Genetic sequencing confirmed that, in addition to an ABO*B.01 allele, the proband, his elder daughter and mother have harbored a c.796A>G variant in exon 7, which has resulted in substitution of the methionine at 266th position of the B-glycosyltransferase by valine and conformed to the characteristics of ABO*cisAB.09 allele. The genotypes of the proband and his elder daughter were determined as ABO*cisAB.09/ABO*O.01.01, his mother was ABO*cisAB.09/ABO*B.01, and his wife and younger daughter were ABO*O.01.01/ABO*O.01.01.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.796A>G variant of the ABO*B.01 allele has resulted in an amino acid substitution p.Met266Val, which probably underlay the cisAB09 subtype. The ABO*cisA B.09 allele encodes a special glycosyltransferase which can synthesize normal level of B antigen and low level of A antigen on the red blood cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Pedigree , East Asian People , Genotype , Phenotype , Alleles , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Molecular Biology
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