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1.
Med. infant ; 28(1): 38-42, Marzo 2021. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1283476

ABSTRACT

Últimamente, se están detectando mutaciones en las proteínas ligadoras de penicilina (PBP) de los estreptococos beta-hemolíticos que corresponden a sitios que en Streptococcus pneumoniae han determinado sensibilidad disminuida a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos. Primero, se describieron cepas con sensibilidad intermedia a penicilina en Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococos del grupo B), luego en Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (mayormente grupos C y G) y, más recientemente, cepas con sensibilidad disminuida a aminopenicilinas y cefalosporinas de tercera generación en Streptococcus pyogenes (grupo A). El costo biológico de estas modificaciones nos permite pensar que los niveles de resistencia no han de ser tan elevados como para comprometer por ahora la efectividad clínica de los beta-lactámicos (AU)


Recently, mutations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of beta-hemolytic streptococci have been detected corresponding to sites that in Streptococcus pneumoniae have been determined to have decreased sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics. First, strains with intermediate sensitivity to penicillin were described in Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci), subsequently in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (mainly groups C and G) and, more recently, strains with decreased sensitivity to third-generation aminopenicillins and cephalosporins were found in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A). The biological cost of these modifications suggests that, for now, resistance levels are not high enough to compromise the clinical effectiveness of beta-lactams (AU)


Subject(s)
Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Penicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , beta-Lactam Resistance , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 323-327, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974230

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study assessed the microbiology, clinical syndromes, and outcomes of oncologic patients with viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures between January 1st, 2013 and December 31st, 2016 in a referral hospital in Mexico using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined using BD Phoenix 100 according to CLSI M100 standards. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and descriptive analysis was performed.Forty-three patients were included, 22 females and 21 males, aged 42 ± 17 years. Twenty (46.5%) patients had hematological cancer and 23 (53.5%) a solid malignancy. The viridans group streptococci isolated were Streptococcus mitis, 20 (46.5%); Streptococcus anginosus, 14 (32.6%); Streptococcus sanguinis, 7 (16.3%); and Streptococcus salivarius, 2 (4.7%). The main risk factors were pyrimidine antagonist chemotherapy in 22 (51.2%) and neutropenia in 19 (44.2%) cases, respectively. Central line associated bloodstream infection was diagnosed in 18 (41.9%) cases. Septic shock occurred in 20.9% of patients, with an overall mortality of 18.6%. Only four S. mitis revealed penicillin-resistance.Our results are similar to those of other series, identifying these bacteria as emerging pathogens with significant morbidity and mortality in oncologic patients. The MALDI-TOF system increased the rate of viridans group streptococci isolation in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Streptococcal Infections/complications , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Neoplasms/microbiology , Penicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cohort Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Viridans Streptococci/isolation & purification , Viridans Streptococci/drug effects , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
3.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 39(1): 77-84, jan. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-988225

ABSTRACT

A retrospective study of pregnant women seen at the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil was performed to determine the prevalence of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaginal-rectal colonization, and the GBS susceptibility for antimicrobials used in intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. A vaginal-rectal swab was collected from 2,901 women between 35 and 37 weeks of gestation. Of these, 527 (18.2%) had a positive culture for GBS, and 0.4%, 10.2% and 10% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. These results highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of GBS colonization in pregnant women for preventing GBS infections in neonates.


Um estudo retrospectivo foi realizado com gestantes atendidas no Hospital Universitário de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil para determinar a prevalência de colonização vaginal-retal por estreptococos do Grupo B (EGB) e o perfil de sensibilidade de EGB aos antimicrobianos utilizados para a antibioticoterapia profilática intraparto. Swabs vaginais-retais foram coletados de 2.901 mulheres entre a 35ª e 37ª semana de gestação. Destes, 527 (18,2%) apresentaram cultura positiva para EGB, e 0,4%, 10,2% e 10% dos isolados foram resistentes à penicilina, eritromicina e clindamicina, respectivamente. Estes resultados destacam a importância de vigilância contínua da colonização por EGB em gestantes para a prevenção de infecções em neonatos por EGB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Streptococcus agalactiae , Prevalence , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Penicillin Resistance , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 159-166, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839333

ABSTRACT

Abstract Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28 mm (penicillin resistant) and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29 mm), 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%), followed by MIC determination (85.5%), but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%). The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%). However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%). The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.


Subject(s)
beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , beta-Lactam Resistance , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Penicillin Resistance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Staphylococcus saprophyticus/drug effects , Staphylococcus saprophyticus/genetics , Staphylococcus saprophyticus/metabolism , Genotype
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(7): 565-573, jul. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-794769

ABSTRACT

A mastite é uma doença complexa e considerada uma das principais causas de perdas à indústria leiteira mundial. Objetivou-se com esta revisão compilar informações dos últimos dez anos sobre a mastite em ruminantes no Brasil. A prevalência da mastite subclínica chega a 48,64% na espécie bovina, 30,7% na espécie caprina, 31,45% na espécie ovina e 42,2% na espécie bubalina, destacando-se a etiologia por Staphylococcus spp. Os fatores de risco associados à ocorrência de mastite estão relacionados a problemas no saneamento ambiental e ao manejo dos animais. As bactérias isoladas do leite mastítico apresentam maior percentual de resistência a penicilina, ampicilina, amoxicilina e neomicina e a utilização de técnicas moleculares no diagnóstico dos agentes causadores de mastites no país, ainda é escassa o que dificulta a obtenção de um diagnóstico mais rápido, sensível e específico.(AU)


Mastitis is a complex disease and is considered one of the main causes of losses to the global dairy industry. The objective of this review was to compile information for the last ten years of mastitis in ruminants in Brazil. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 48.64% in cattle, 30.7% in goats, 31.45% in sheep and 42.2% in the buffalo species, with especial participation of Staphylococcus spp. in the etiology. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of mastitis were related to problems in environmental sanitation and handling of animals. The largest percentage of resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobials was for penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin and neomycin. The use of molecular tools for diagnosis of mastitis-causing agents in the country is still scarce, making it difficult to obtain a faster, sensitive and specific diagnosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Brazil/epidemiology , Buffaloes/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Mastitis, Bovine/etiology , Mastitis/veterinary , Sheep/microbiology , Ampicillin Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Penicillin Resistance , Ruminants/microbiology
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(1): 8-14, Jan. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781164

ABSTRACT

Background: The antimicrobial properties and molecular interaction analysis of curcumin and its derivatives against three different strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Penicillin-susceptible, Penicillin-intermediate and Penicillin-resistant) are studied. Results: These properties were analyzed based on the measurement of the inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and rate of kill revealed that curcumin monoglucoside, curcumin diglucoside and curcumin possessed strong antimicrobial properties even on the Penicillin-resistant strains. Additionally, the molecular docking simulation analyses against Penicillin Binding Protein of S. pneumoniae also confirm that these compounds docked at the active site of the enzyme. Further, the molecular dynamics simulation validates the conformational stability of the docked ligand-protein complexes in the dynamic environment. Conclusion: curcumin monoglucoside, curcumin diglucoside and curcumin can be prescribed for treatment against Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Curcumin/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Penicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Docking Simulation
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(4): 495-500, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731261

ABSTRACT

Molecular and morphological methods were evaluated to distinguish between Haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei species. A total of 141 H. contortus and 89 H. placei male adult specimens collected from artificially infected lambs were identified individually by PCR analysis, using a species-specific primer pair. These PCR results were used as gold standard for Haemonchus spp. identification. Haemonchus placei presented higher mean spicule and barb lengths than H. contortus (P<0.05). However, some measurements overlapped. For this reason, a discriminate function did not allow the correct identification of 13 H. contortus and one H. placei specimen. The sheath tail length of the third stage larvae (L3), which comprises the distance between the tip of the larval tail and the end of the sheath tail, were measured. Only three of the 485 H. placei larvae (0.619%) had a sheath tail shorter than 85 µm, while only four of the 500 H. contortus larvae (0.8%) presented a sheath tail longer than 85 µm. The results indicated that 6.09% of the male adult specimens would be misclassified based on the discriminate function, while only 0.71% of infective larvae would be misclassified. Therefore, identification of L3 can be used as the first method to indicate the presence of H. placei and/or H. contortus in a population of domestic ruminants.


Métodos moleculares e morfológicos foram avaliados para a identificação de Haemonchus contortus e Haemonchus placei. No total, 141 H. contortus e 89 H. placei machos adultos, obtidos de cordeiros artificialmente infectados, foram identificados individualmente por PCR com o emprego de um par de “primers” espécie-específico. Esses resultados da análise por PCR foram considerados como padrão para a identificação das espécies de Haemonchus. Haemonchus placei apresentou valores médios de espículos e ganchos superiores aos de H. contortus (P<0,05). Entretanto, houve sobreposição de alguns valores. Por essa razão, a função discriminante não permitiu a identificação correta de 13 exemplares de H. contortus e de um, de H. placei. Foi medida a cauda da bainha de larvas infectantes (L3), que compreende a distância entre a ponta da cauda da larva e a ponta da cauda da bainha. Apenas três das 485 L3 de H. placei (0,619%) apresentaram a cauda da bainha com medida inferior a 85 µm e somente em quatro das 500 L3 de H. contortus (0,8%) essa medida foi superior a 85 µm. Os resultados demonstraram que 6,09% dos machos adultos seriam identificados erroneamente com base na função discriminante, enquanto a identificação incorreta de L3 seria de apenas 0,71%. Portanto, a identificação de L3 pode ser utilizada como método inicial para indicar a presença de H. placei e/ou H. contortus em uma população de ruminantes domésticos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Aminoacyltransferases , Bacterial Proteins , Hexosyltransferases , Peptidyl Transferases , Penicillin Resistance/genetics , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics , Alleles , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Cefotaxime/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase/genetics , Penicillin-Binding Proteins , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , United States/epidemiology
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 935-939, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728810

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases and immunological complications. In this study, 91 isolates of S. pyogenes recovered from oropharynx secretions were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 15.4%, which is higher than previous reports from this area, while 20.9% of the isolates were not susceptible to tetracycline. The macrolide resistance phenotypes were cMLSB (10) and iMLSB (4). The ermB gene was predominant, followed by the ermA gene. Thirty-two emm types and subtypes were found, but five (emm1, emm4, emm12, emm22, emm81) were detected in 48% of the isolates. Three new emm subtypes were identified (emm1.74, emm58.14, emm76.7). There was a strong association between emm type and PFGE clustering. A variety of PFGE profiles as well as emm types were found among tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, demonstrating that antimicrobial resistant strains do not result from the expansion of one or a few clones. This study provides epidemiological data that contribute to the development of suitable strategies for the prevention and treatment of such infections in a poorly studied area.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Genetic Variation/genetics , Penicillin Resistance/genetics , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/genetics , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Brazil/epidemiology , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Genotype , Macrolides/pharmacology , Oropharynx , Phenotype , Sequence Analysis, Protein/methods , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcus pyogenes/classification
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(4): 320-324, abr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-712718

ABSTRACT

Os objetivos do trabalho foram avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos e a eficácia de três sanitizantes frente a isolados de Salmonella spp. oriundos de carcaças na tecnologia de abate de suínos. Avaliaram-se 120 amostras, das quais 39 foram positivas para Salmonella spp. Os princípios ativos testados foram penicilina G 10 U, amoxicilina + ácido clavulânico 30mcg, ampicilina 10mcg, cloranfenicol 30mcg, tetraciclina 30mcg, estreptomicina 10mcg, neomicina 30mcg, gentamicina 10mcg, enrofloxacina 5mcg, sulfazotrim 25mcg, sulfonamida 300mcg e trimetropima 5mcg. Nos testes com sanitizantes utilizaram-se clorexidina, amônia quaternária e ácido peracético com tempos de contato de um, cinco, 10 e 15 minutos. Os índices de resistência aos antimicrobianos foram de 100 por cento para penicilina, 94,9 por cento para tetraciclina, 89,7 por cento para trimetropima e 87,2 por cento para ampicilina. Nenhum dos princípios ativos foi 100 por cento eficaz frente aos isolados testados, observando-se melhor ação para amoxicilina+ácido clavulânico (86,7 por cento), neomicina (86,7 por cento) e cloranfenicol (64,1 por cento). Nos testes de eficácia dos sanitizantes, o ácido peracético a 0.5 por cento foi efetivo a partir de 10 minutos (94,6 por cento) e 15 minutos (97,3 por cento) de contato; amônia quaternária a 1 por cento por 10 minutos (89,2 por cento) e 15 minutos (97,3 por cento) e clorexidina a 0.5 por cento por 10 minutos (70,3 por cento) e 15 minutos de contato (72,8 por cento). Todas as amostras testadas apresentaram multirresistência e seis [...] O sanitizante mais efetivo frente aos isolados testados foi o ácido peracético a 0.5 por cento por 15 minutos, reforçando a necessidade de monitorar também a efetividade de produtos sanitizantes frente aos isolados de Salmonella spp.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity and efficacy of three sanitizers against Salmonella spp. isolated from carcasses in swine slaughterhouse. Thirty nine of 120 samples were positive for Salmonella spp. The antimicrobials tested included: penicillin G 10 U, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 30mcg, ampicillin 10mcg, chloramphenicol 30mcg, tetracycline 30mcg, streptomycin 10mcg, gentamicin 10mcg, neomycin 30mcg, enrofloxacin 5mcg, sulfazotrim 25mcg, sulfonamide 300mcg and trimetropim 5mcg. In the tests with sanitizers were used chlorhexidine, quaternary ammonia and peracetic acid, which were put in contact intervals of 1, 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Antimicrobial resistance was observed using penicillin (100 percent), tetracycline (94.9 percent), trimetropim (89.7 percent), and ampicillin (87.2 percent). None of the antimicrobials was 100 percent effective against the samples tested. Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (86.7 percent), neomycin (86.7 percent) and chloramphenicol (64.1 percent) showed better antimicrobial action. In tests of efficacy of sanitizers, 0.5 percent peracetic acid was effective at 10 minutes (94.6 percent) and 15 minutes (97.3 percent) of contact; 1 percent quaternary ammonia at 10 minutes (89.2 percent) and 15 minutes (97.3 percent) and 0.5 percent chlorhexidine at 10 minutes (70.3 percent) and 15 minutes (72.8 percent). All samples tested were multidrug resistance and six (15.3 percent) showed resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide and tetracycline (ACSSuT group) indicating the need to monitor the spread of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from swine. The most effective sanitizing against the bacteria tested was 0.5 percent peracetic acid per 15 minutes, reinforcing the need to monitor the effectiveness of products sanitizers against Salmonella spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ampicillin Resistance , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Penicillin Resistance , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Tetracycline Resistance , Trimethoprim Resistance , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Swine/microbiology
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 46(1): 14-23, mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708695

ABSTRACT

Se presentan en este trabajo los resultados de 16 años de vigilancia epidemiológica de meningitis neumocócica llevada a cabo en el Hospital Provincial de Pediatría de Misiones (Argentina), antes de la introducción de la vacuna conjugada al calendario nacional. En el período que va de enero de 1994 a diciembre de 2009 se diagnosticaron 167 casos de meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae en niños (1 mes-15 años). La tasa de ataque cada 100 000 niños varió entre 19,2 (1997) y 4,3 (2009), con una media de 10,6 y una tendencia en disminución (y = ""0,689x + 16,52). Esto fue a expensas del grupo de niños entre 1 y 11 meses (94/167, 56 %), en el que disminuyó de 146,6 a 34,8 casos cada 100 000 niños. El 30,7 % de los aislamientos (46/150) fueron resistentes a penicilina y el 16,7 % (25/150) no sensibles a cefotaxima. La resistencia a β-lactámicos se incrementó a partir de 1997 y comenzó a disminuir en 2005. Se detectaron 19 serotipos, predominó el 14 (32 %; 40/125). El 84,8 % de los aislamientos quedaron circunscriptos a nueve serotipos: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V y 4. La cobertura teórica en los niños < 2 años y > 2 años fue de 84,1 % (74/88) y 83,8 % (31/37) con la vacuna 10-valente, y de 89,8 % (79/88) y 83,8 % (31/37) con la vacuna 13-valente, respectivamente. La resistencia a penicilina estuvo circunscripta a 8 serotipos (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 1 y 19A), y la no sensibilidad a cefotaxima a 3 serotipos (14, 9V y 1), el más importante fue en ambos casos el serotipo 14. Este estudio permitirá evaluar el impacto de la implementación de las vacunas conjugadas en nuestra zona.


We report the results of pneumococcal meningitis surveillance conducted at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Posadas, Misiones (Argentina), before the conjugate vaccine was introduced into the national vaccination schedule. Between January 1994 and December 2009, 167 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were diagnosed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. The attack rate/100,000 children ranged from 19.2 (1997) to 4.3 (2009), with a mean of 10.6 and a tendency to decrease (y=""0.689x+16.52). The number of cases per 100,000 children decreased from 146.6 to 34.8 and particularly involved the group of children aged 1 to 11 months (94/167, 56%). Thirty point seven percent (30.7%) (46/150) of the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas 16.7% (25/150) were non-susceptible to cefotaxime. β-lactam resistance increased as from 1997 and began to decline in 2005. Nineteen serotypes were detected; type 14 was predominant and accounted for 32% (40/125). Eighty four point eight percent (84.8%) of the isolates were circumscribed to nine serotypes: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V and 4. Theoretical coverage for patients aged <2 years and >2 years was 84.1% (74/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 10-valent vaccine and 89.8 % (79/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 13-valent vaccine respectively. Penicillin resistance was restricted to 8 serotypes (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 19A1) and nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was circumscribed to 3 serotypes (14, 9V and 1). This study will allow to evaluate the impact of the implementation of conjugate vaccines on our area.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Cefotaxime/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Penicillin Resistance , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Vaccination , Vaccines, Conjugate
11.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696427

ABSTRACT

Gonorrhea is sexually transmitted, with a high incidence worldwide. Occurrence of resistance and difficulties in treatment is often reported. Penicillin is not used anymore, and quinolones or cephalosporins are the remaining therapeutic options. However, there are resistance reports to these drugs as well. Objective: to evaluate the occurrence of resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and ceftriaxone in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus). Methods: ninety-three endocervical and urethral secretion samples, suspected of gonorrhea, were cultured from September 2008 to May 2012. Samples were collected at the STD/Aids Reference Center and processed at Instituto Adolfo Lutz in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by the E-test (Oxoid). Beta-lactamase was determined by the cefinase disk method (BD BBL). The susceptibility study included a gonococcus isolated from a case of conjunctivitis. Results: gonococcus was isolated in 41.9% (35) of the cases in the study. Male patients were predominant in 92.3% of samples, with ages ranging from 14 to 62 years, and the conjunctivitis isolate was recuperated from a 1 month old patient. Isolates were resistant to penicillin (44.4%); tetracycline (55.5%); ofloxacin (36.1%) and ciprofloxacin (36.1%). All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, and 80.6% were susceptible to azithromycin. The beta-lactamase test was positive for 31.0% of isolates. Conclusion: in vitro results showed that tetracycline was less effective, and ceftriaxone the most effective antibiotic against gonococcus. The resistance to different drugs limits the options of gonococcus effective treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Penicillin Resistance , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Tetracycline Resistance
12.
Rev. centroam. obstet. ginecol ; 18(2): 47-54, abr.-jun. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734121

ABSTRACT

La sifilis es una enfermedad de transmisión sexual, que puede transmitirse al recién nacido durante el embarazo, el treponema pallidum es una espiroqueta miembro del género Treponema que puede llegar a infectar a más de 12 millones de personas cada año a nivel mundial, un 90% de las infecciones se producen en países en vías de desarrollo...


Subject(s)
Humans , Penicillin Resistance , Pregnancy , Syphilis, Congenital/diagnosis , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/prevention & control , Syphilis/transmission
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 655-660, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: A worldwide increase in amoxicillin resistance in Helicobacter pylori is having an adverse effect on eradication therapy. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the amoxicillin resistance of H. pylori in terms of amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 1 (PBP1). METHODS: In total, 150 H. pylori strains were isolated from 144 patients with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, or stomach cancer. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the strains were determined with a serial 2-fold agar dilution method. The resistance breakpoint for amoxicillin was defined as >0.5 microg/mL. RESULTS: Nine of 150 H. pylori strains showed amoxicillin resistance (6%). The MIC values of the resistant strains ranged from 1 to 4 microg/mL. A PBP1 sequence analysis of the resistant strains revealed multiple amino acid substitutions: Val16-->Ile, Val45-->Ile, Ser414-->Arg, Asn562-->Tyr, Thr593-->Ala, Gly595-->Ser, and Ala599-->Thr. The natural transformation of these mutated genes into amoxicillin-sensitive strains was performed in two separate pbp1 gene segments. A moderate increase in the amoxicillin MIC was observed in the segment that contained the penicillin-binding motif of the C-terminal portion, the transpeptidase domain. CONCLUSIONS: pbp1 mutation affects the amoxicillin resistance of H. pylori through the transfer of the penicillin-binding motif.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Female , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Helicobacter pylori/chemistry , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Penicillin Resistance/genetics , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Transformation, Genetic
14.
Neumol. pediátr ; 8(2): 86-90, 2013. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-701694

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in children and has become a topic of controversy for epidemiological changes that have been seen in recent years with the advent of the vaccine and the emergence of serotypes that cause increased morbidity which were not covered by the heptavalent vaccine. Also there have been changes in the concepts of resistance in recent years. This has led to the reevaluation of the use of specific antibiotics for management.


El Streptococcus pneumoniae es la causa bacteriana más frecuente de neumonía en los niños y se ha convertido en un tema de controversia por los cambios epidemiológicos que se han visto en los últimos años con el advenimiento de la vacuna y el surgimiento de serotipos que causan mayor morbilidad que no estaban cubiertos por la vacuna heptavalente. Igualmente se han presentado cambios en los conceptos de resistencia en los últimos años. Esto ha motivado la reevaluación del uso de los antibióticos específicos para su manejo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Colombia , Global Health , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Penicillin Resistance , Streptococcus pneumoniae
15.
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(3): 295-309, May-June 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-643725

ABSTRACT

Antibiotics are important adjuncts in the treatment of infectious diseases, including periodontitis. The most severe criticisms to the indiscriminate use of these drugs are their side effects and, especially, the development of bacterial resistance. The knowledge of the biological mechanisms involved with the antibiotic usage would help the medical and dental communities to overcome these two problems. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript was to review the mechanisms of action of the antibiotics most commonly used in the periodontal treatment (i.e. penicillin, tetracycline, macrolide and metronidazole) and the main mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs. Antimicrobial resistance can be classified into three groups: intrinsic, mutational and acquired. Penicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin are broad-spectrum drugs, effective against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Bacterial resistance to penicillin may occur due to diminished permeability of the bacterial cell to the antibiotic; alteration of the penicillin-binding proteins, or production of β-lactamases. However, a very small proportion of the subgingival microbiota is resistant to penicillins. Bacteria become resistant to tetracyclines or macrolides by limiting their access to the cell, by altering the ribosome in order to prevent effective binding of the drug, or by producing tetracycline/macrolide-inactivating enzymes. Periodontal pathogens may become resistant to these drugs. Finally, metronidazole can be considered a prodrug in the sense that it requires metabolic activation by strict anaerobe microorganisms. Acquired resistance to this drug has rarely been reported. Due to these low rates of resistance and to its high activity against the gram-negative anaerobic bacterial species, metronidazole is a promising drug for treating periodontal infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/physiology , Periodontal Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bacteria/drug effects , Cell Membrane Permeability , Macrolides/pharmacokinetics , Macrolides/pharmacology , Metronidazole/pharmacokinetics , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Penicillin Resistance/physiology , Periodontal Diseases/metabolism , Tetracycline Resistance/physiology
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 98(5): 452-458, maio 2012. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-643648

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Penicilina G benzatina a cada 3 semanas é o protocolo padrão para a profilaxia secundária para febre reumática recorrente. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da penicilina G benzatina em Streptococcus sanguinis e Streptococcus oralis em pacientes com doença valvular cardíaca, devido à febre reumática com recebimento de profilaxia secundária. MÉTODOS: Estreptococos orais foram avaliados antes (momento basal) e após 7 dias (7º dia) iniciando-se com penicilina G benzatina em 100 pacientes que receberam profilaxia secundária da febre reumática. Amostras de saliva foram avaliadas para verificar a contagem de colônias e presença de S. sanguinis e S. oralis. Amostras de saliva estimulada pela mastigação foram serialmente diluídas e semeadas em placas sobre agar-sangue de ovelhas seletivo e não seletivo a 5% contendo penicilina G. A identificação da espécie foi realizada com testes bioquímicos convencionais. Concentrações inibitórias mínimas foram determinadas com o Etest. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas da presença de S. sanguinis comparando-se o momento basal e o 7º dia (p = 0,62). No entanto, o número existente de culturas positivas de S. oralis no 7º dia após a Penicilina G benzatina apresentou um aumento significativo em relação ao valor basal (p = 0,04). Não houve diferença estatística existente entre o momento basal e o 7º dia sobre o número de S. sanguinis ou S. oralis UFC/mL e concentrações inibitórias medianas. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostrou que a Penicilina G benzatina a cada 3 semanas não alterou a colonização por S. sanguinis, mas aumentou a colonização de S. oralis no 7º dia de administração. Portanto, a susceptibilidade do Streptococcus sanguinis e Streptococcus oralis à penicilina G não foi modificada durante a rotina de profilaxia secundária da febre reumática utilizando a penicilina G. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2012; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).


BACKGROUND: Benzathine penicillin G every 3 weeks is the standard protocol for secondary prophylaxis for recurrent rheumatic fever. OBJECTIVE: Assess the effect of Benzathine penicillin G on Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus oralis in patients with cardiac valvular disease due to rheumatic fever receiving secondary prophylaxis. METHODS: Oral streptococci were evaluated before (baseline) and after 7 days (day 7) with Benzathine penicillin G in 100 patients receiving routine secondary rheumatic fever prophylaxis. Saliva samples were evaluated for colony count and presence of S. sanguinis and S. oralis. Chewing-stimulated saliva samples were serially diluted and plated onto both nonselective and selective 5% sheep blood agar containing penicillin G. The species were identified using conventional biochemical tests. Minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined with the Etest. RESULTS: No statistical differences were found in the presence of S. sanguinis comparing baseline and day 7 (p = 0.62). However, the existing number of positive cultures of S. oralis on day 7 after Benzathine penicillin G presented a significant increase compared to baseline (p = 0.04). No statistical difference was found between baseline and day 7 concerning the number of S. sanguinis or S. oralis CFU/mL and median minimal inhibitory concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study showed that Benzathine penicillin G every 3 weeks did not change the colonization by S. sanguinis, but increased colonization of S. oralis on day 7 of administration. Therefore, susceptibility of Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus oralis to penicillin G was not modified during the penicillin G routine secondary rheumatic fever prophylaxis. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2012; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Mouth/microbiology , Penicillin G/administration & dosage , Penicillin Resistance/drug effects , Viridans Streptococci/drug effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Logistic Models , Rheumatic Fever/prevention & control , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 10(2)mar.-abr. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-621473

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Devido ao uso irracional de antimicrobianos e a administração empírica, vários problemas de resistência microbiana surgiram como um novo desafio para a terapêutica, causando elevados índices de mortalidade. Dentre os grupos de micro-organismos relacionados a infecções resistentes destacam-se: Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e Staphylococcus aureus resistente à vancomicina, Enterococcus sp resistentes a diferentes classes de antimicrobianos, Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente à penicilina, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter baumanii resistentes aos carbapenêmicos e ainda as enterobactérias produtoras beta-lactamases de espectro ampliado (ESBL). O objetivo deste estudo foi rever na literatura científica a abordagem do surgimento de micro-organismos multirresistentes e as opções terapêuticas disponíveis no Brasil. CONTEÚDO: Novos antimicrobianos são lançados no mercado com o intuito de alcançar tratamento efetivo para infecções causadas por micro-organismos resistentes. Para abordar os mecanismos de resistência mais comuns, das novas opções terapêuticas disponíveis no Brasil e das novas diretrizes de uso desses fármacos. CONCLUSÃO: Enquanto o uso dos medicamentos antimicrobianos continuarem sendo de modo irresponsável e não for cumpridaa legislação para seu uso, os novos fármacos serão eficazes apenas temporariamente, fazendo constante o problema da multirresistência microbiana.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Due to antibiotics irrational use and the empiric administration, many microbial resistance problems become a new therapeutic challenge, causing elevated mortality rates. Among the microorganisms groups related with resistant infections are: methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, multi-resistant Enterococcussp, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL). The aim of this work was carry out a review of scientific literature in order to discuss the emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganism sand the therapeutic options available in Brazil. CONTENTS: New antimicrobials are launched in order to achieve effective treatment for resistant microorganisms infections. To discuss the most common resistance mechanisms, new therapeutic options available in Brazil and new guidelines for the use of these drugs. CONCLUSION: While the use of antimicrobial drugs to keep so irresponsible and the law for its use not met, the new drugs will be effective only temporarily, keeping constant the microbial multi-resistance problem.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Carbapenems , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterococcus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Penicillin Resistance , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vancomycin Resistance , Drugs, Investigational
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 38(1): 66-71, jan.-fev. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-617030

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM < 2 µg/mL) e, consequentemente, eram também suscetíveis a amoxicilina, ampicilina, cefalosporinas de terceira e quarta geração e ertapenem. Quanto à moxifloxacina, 99 por cento das cepas de S. pneumoniae também foram suscetíveis, e somente uma teve CIM = 1,5 µg/mL (intermediário). Conclusões: Nossos resultados mostraram altas taxas de sensibilidade a penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacin nos isolados de S. pneumoniae não relacionados a meningite, o que difere de relatos internacionais. Relatos sobre resistência a penicilina devem ser baseados em pontos de corte atualizados para isolados não relacionados a meningite a fim de guiar a escolha terapêutica antimicrobiana e melhorar a predição dos desfechos clínicos.


OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treated, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC < 2 µg/mL), and, consequently, they were also susceptible to amoxicillin, ampicillin, third/fourth generation cephalosporins, and ertapenem. Of the S. pneumoniae strains, 99 percent were also susceptible to moxifloxacin, and only one strain showed an MIC = 1.5 µg/mL (intermediate). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed high susceptibility rates to parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin among S. pneumoniae isolates unrelated to meningitis, which differs from international reports. Reports on penicillin resistance should be based on updated breakpoints for non-meningitis isolates in order to guide the selection of an antimicrobial therapy and to improve the prediction of the clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Aza Compounds/pharmacology , Penicillin Resistance/drug effects , Penicillins/pharmacology , Quinolines/pharmacology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Prospective Studies , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification
19.
Medical Forum Monthly. 2012; 23 (5): 55-60
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144622

ABSTRACT

To observe and study the cause of penicillin-failure and to see the therapeutic effects of other drugs and find out more effective and better remedy. A Retrospective study. This study was conducted in Microbiology Department, Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, National institute of Child Health from April 2004 - June 2005. A total of 300 children attending OPD's and admitted [250 suspected and 50 Normal as control cases] of age group 5 - 15 years were included in this study. Drug sensitivity pattern of streptococcus pyogenes isolated in infected and control children was observed. Antibiotic discs used were Penicillin [10] units and Erythromycin [15 micrograms]. The organism isolated GABHS shows 100% sensitivity to penicillin, while in case of erythromycin, it was sensitive in 24[85.7%] infected cases and resistant to 4[14.3%] cases. Pharyngotonsillitis is a disease of poor community, the therapy with penicillin is economical compared with Cephalosporin group. Penicillin therapy is helpful in preventing the supporative and n supporative complications caused by GABHs


Subject(s)
Humans , Tonsillitis/drug therapy , Pharyngitis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Erythromycin , beta-Lactamases , Penicillin Resistance
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 15(5): 462-466, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612705

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the spatial distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its clonal patterns collected between 2002 and 2006 in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: As part of an observational study in São Paulo city, Brazil, S. pneumoniae isolates routinely cultured from blood, respiratory specimens, or cerebrospinal and other profound fluids were selected. Additionally, only isolates with either penicillin (PEN) intermediate (I) or resistant (R) status on routine antibiogram were included, in order to obtain a higher probability of clonal isolates. A single I/R S. pneumoniae isolate per patient was included and submitted to genotypic determination by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for the isolates by Etest® to PEN and other antimicrobials. Each isolate was geocoded in a digital map. The Kernel function and ratio methods between total isolates vs. clones were used in order to explore possible cluster formations. RESULTS: Seventy-eight (78) S. pneumoniae community isolates from two major outpatient centers in São Paulo, Brazil, were selected from the databank according to their penicillin susceptibility profile, i.e. R or I to penicillin assessed by oxacillin disc diffusion. Of these, 69 were submitted to PFGE, 65 to MIC determination, and 48 to spatial analytical procedures. Preliminary spatial analysis method showed two possible cluster formation located in southwest and southeast regions of the city. CONCLUSION: Further analyses are required for precisely determining the existence of S. pneumoniae clusters and their related risk factors. Apparently there is a specific transmission pattern of S. pneumoniae clones within certain regions and populations. GIS and spatial methods can be applied to better understand epidemiological patterns and to identify target areas for public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Penicillin Resistance/genetics , Penicillins/pharmacology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics , Cluster Analysis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Geographic Information Systems , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects
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