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1.
Iatreia ; 34(2): 172-179, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250068

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El hecho científico conocido como "penicilina" se ha considerado tradicionalmente como el producto del ingenio de Alexander Fleming, ganador del Premio Nobel por descubrir esta "droga milagrosa". Apartándose de esta idea popular, se hace necesario resaltar el desarrollo de la penicilina como un constructo social, producto del trabajo invaluable de varios científicos, sumado a un contexto social excepcional que motivó la voluntad política y el apoyo de la industria farmacéutica; en ausencia de cualquiera de estos, la penicilina no sería lo que significa hoy para nosotros o, simplemente, no existiría en el arsenal terapéutico. Los conceptos epistemológicos de "estilo de pensamiento" y "colectivo de pensamiento" como fundamentos en la construcción del conocimiento, presentes en la obra epistemológica de Ludwick Fleck, apoyan la conclusión, a partir del recuento histórico, de la necesidad de apartarnos de la penicilina como el producto de un descubrimiento de un único héroe, para verla como una construcción social, que además es un ejemplo clásico de serendipia. La penicilina, además, tiene otras facetas menos conocidas históricamente como el uso de ella de manera cruda, producida y usada por médicos generales, o la búsqueda de información para su producción durante la segunda guerra mundial; estas se abordan en este breve recuento histórico.


SUMMARY The scientific breakthroug we know as "penicillin", has been traditionally considered as the result of the genius of Alexander Fleming, awarded with the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the "miracle drug". Standing aside from this popular idea, it is important to highlight the development of penicillin as a social construct and the product of the invaluable work of several scientists, in addition to an exceptional social framework that raised the political desire and the pharmaceutical industry support; without any of these, penicillin wouldn't even have the meaning it has today, or it wouldn't even exist. The epistemological concepts of "style of thinking" and "collectivity of thought" as basis in the construction of knowledge, present in Ludwick Fleck's epistemological work, support the conclusion, based the historical account, about the need of standing aside from the idea of penicillin as the discovery of a single hero, and considering it a social construction instead, and a classical example of serendipity. Other aspects less known about penicillin history, such as the use of crude penicillin by general practitioners, or the seeking of information about how to produce it during World War II, which are addressed in this brief historical account.


Subject(s)
Humans , Penicillins , Drug Industry , History
2.
Femina ; 49(2): 102-108, 20210228. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224066

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Este estudo teve como principal objetivo estimar a prevalência de sífilis gestacional e fatores associados à infecção em uma Maternidade no Sul do Brasil no ano de 2018. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo descritivo, transversal, retrospectivo, no qual foram avaliados os testes rápidos para sífilis de todas as gestantes internadas para atenção ao parto ou ao abortamento na Maternidade Carmela Dutra no ano de 2018. Nos casos confirmados de sífilis, foram obtidos dados epidemiológicos, adequação do tratamento, coinfecção pelo HIV e resultados gestacionais. Resultados: Entre os prontuários analisados, 161 (3,6%) foram considerados casos de sífilis materna. A média de idade das gestantes foi de 27,98 (±6,65), 54 (33,5%) eram primigestas, 114 (70,8%) se declararam brancas, 125 (77,5%) estavam em uma união estável e 85 (52,7%) tinham escolaridade até o ensino médio. Quanto ao tratamento, 71 (44%) trataram de maneira adequada e 90 (56%), de maneira inadequada, e 44 (27,3%) delas realizaram o diagnóstico apenas no momento da internação hospitalar. Entre as pacientes que realizaram tratamento inadequado de sífilis, 28 (53,4%) apresentaram títulos iguais ou superiores a 1:8. Entre as pacientes que realizaram teste rápido para HIV na internação, 5 (3,7%) apresentaram coinfecção com a doença. Com relação ao tratamento dos parceiros no pré-natal, 11,8% não realizaram nenhum tipo de tratamento, porém em 66 (41%) prontuários não constava essa informação. Com relação ao desfecho neonatal, 5 (7,4%) pacientes com tratamento inadequado para sífilis tiveram parto prematuro, 5 (7,4%) recém- -nascidos foram de baixo peso e 22 (24,5%) pacientes apresentaram abortamento da gestação. Conclusão: A alta taxa de tratamentos inadequados sugere falhas na assistência pré-natal e indica serem necessárias novas estratégias para reduzir a transmissão de sífilis na gestação.(AU)


Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of maternal syphilis and factors associated with the infection in Carmela Dutra Maternity in 2018. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study. All of the syphilis rapid- tests on pregnant women admitted for childbirth or miscarriage assistance at Carmela Dutra Maternity in 2018 were avaluated. In the cases of confirmed syphilis infection, the variables were epidemiological data, adequacy of treatment, HIV coinfection and gestational outcomes. Results: Out of all the medical records analyzed, 161 (3.6%) were considered maternal syphilis (MS). The average age of the pregnant women was 27.98 (± 6.65), 54 (33.5%) were primigestae, 114 (70.8%) declared themselves white, 125 (77.5%) were in a stable relationship and 85 (52.7%) had a high school education. Regarding treatment, 71 (44%) were treated adequately and 90 (56%) inadequately. Forty-four (27.3%) were diagnosed only at the time of hospitalization. Amongst patients who had inadequate syphilis treatment, 28 (53.4%) had titers equal to or greater than 1:8. Amongst patients who underwent rapid HIV testing during hospitalization, 5 (3.7%) had HIV coinfection. Regarding the partners treatment during prenatal, 11.8% did not receive any treatment, but 66 (41%) of the medical records did not contain this information. Regarding neonatal outcome, 5 (7.4%) of patients with inadequate treatment for syphilis had premature birth, 5 (7.4%) of newborns were underweight and 22 (24.5%) had miscarriages. Conclusion: The high rate of inadequate treatment suggests failure in prenatal care and indicates that new strategies are necessary to reduce syphilis transmission during pregnancy.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Syphilis/drug therapy , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
REVISA (Online) ; 10(1): 195-204, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177903

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: conhecer as gestantes com sífilis no estado de São Paulo, últimos cinco anos disponíveis. Método: estudo epidemiológico, quantitativo descritivo transversal, com dados secundários, com diagnósticos notificados (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação) - banco de dados do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, das gestantes com sífilis, período 2014-2018. Resultados: encontrado 44.894 gestantes com sífilis no estado de SP, com crescimento importante nos dois últimos anos, maior prevalência (53,1%) na idade de 20-29 anos, raças brancas (43,1%), ensino fundamental completo (27,9%) e médio completo (26,1%). Maior percentual de diagnósticos realizado no primeiro trimestre (49,4%) e, 3,9% das gestantes não realizaram tratamento. Conclusão: é um agravo crescente, com baixa qualidade no preenchimento das fichas de notificação, prejudicando a assistência/qualidade do pré-natal, interferindo nas análises adequadas, afetando a tomada de decisão para tratamento correto. Resultados podem auxiliar em ações de educação em saúde e prevenção dos grupos vulneráveis.


Objective: to get to know pregnant women with syphilis in the state of São Paulo, the last five years available. Method: epidemiological, quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional study, with secondary data, with notified diagnoses (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) - database of the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System, of pregnant women with syphilis, period 2014-2018. Results: found 44,894 pregnant women with syphilis in the state of SP, with significant growth in the last two years, higher prevalence (53.1%) at the age of 20-29 years, white races (43.1%), complete elementary school (27,9%) and complete high school (26.1%). Higher percentage of diagnoses performed in the first trimester (49.4%) and 3.9% of pregnant women did not undergo treatment. Conclusion: it is a growing problem, with low quality in filling out the notification forms, impairing the prenatal care / quality, interfering in the appropriate analyzes, affecting the decision-making for correct treatment. Results can assist in health education and prevention of vulnerable groups.


Objetivo: conocer mujeres embarazadas con sífilis en el estado de São Paulo, los últimos cinco años disponibles. Método: estudio epidemiológico, cuantitativo, descriptivo transversal, con datos secundarios, con diagnósticos notificados (Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables) - base de datos del Departamento de Informática del Sistema Único de Salud, de gestantes con sífilis, período 2014-2018. Resultados: se encontraron 44.894 gestantes con sífilis en el estado de SP, con crecimiento significativo en los últimos dos años, mayor prevalencia (53,1%) en la edad de 20-29 años, razas blancas (43,1%), primaria completa (27 , 9%) y bachillerato completo (26,1%). Mayor porcentaje de diagnósticos realizados en el primer trimestre (49,4%) y 3,9% de gestantes no recibieron tratamiento. Conclusión: es un problema creciente, con baja calidad en el llenado de los formularios de notificación, perjudicando la calidad / atención prenatal, interfiriendo en los análisis adecuados, afectando la toma de decisiones para el correcto tratamiento. Los resultados pueden ayudar en la educación sanitaria y la prevención de grupos vulnerables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Syphilis/epidemiology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Syphilis/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gestational Age , Age Distribution , Continental Population Groups , Educational Status , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eMD5703, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Betalactams are the most frequent cause of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs mediated by a specific immune mechanism. Immediate reactions occur within 1 to 6 hours after betalactam administration, and are generally IgE-mediated. They clinically translate into urticaria, angioedema and anaphylaxis. Non-immediate or delayed reactions occur after 1 hour of administration. These are the most common reactions and are usually mediated by T cells. The most frequent type is the maculopapular or morbilliform exanthematous eruption. Most individuals who report allergies to penicillin and betalactams can tolerate this group of antibiotics. To make diagnosis, a detailed medical history is essential to verify whether it was an immediate or non-immediate reaction. Thereafter, in vivo and/or in vitro tests for investigation may be performed. The challenging test is considered the gold standard method for diagnosis of betalactam hypersensitivity. The first approach when suspecting a reaction to betalactam is to discontinue exposure to the drug, and the only specific treatment is desensitization, which has very precise indications. The misdiagnosis of penicillin allergy affects the health system, since the "penicillin allergy" label is associated with increased bacterial resistance, higher rate of therapeutic failure, prolonged hospitalizations, readmissions, and increased costs. Thus, it is essential to develop strategies to assist the prescription of antibiotics in patients identified with a label of "betalactam allergy" at hospitals, and to enhance education of patients and their caregivers, as well as of non-specialist physicians.


RESUMO Os beta-lactâmicos constituem a causa mais frequente de reações de hipersensibilidade a fármacos mediadas por mecanismo imunológico específico. As reações imediatas ocorrem em 1 até 6 horas após a administração do beta-lactâmico, sendo geralmente IgE-mediadas. Elas se traduzem clinicamente por urticária, angioedema e anafilaxia. As reações não imediatas ou tardias ocorrem após 1 hora da administração. São as reações mais comuns, sendo geralmente mediadas por células T. O tipo mais frequente é o exantema maculopapular ou morbiliforme. A maioria dos indivíduos que refere alergia aos beta-lactâmicos pode tolerar esse grupo de antibióticos. No diagnóstico, uma história clínica detalhada é fundamental para verificar se a reação foi do tipo imediato ou não imediato. A partir daí, podem ser realizados testes in vivo e/ou in vitro para investigação. O teste de provocação é considerado o método padrão-ouro no diagnóstico de hipersensibilidade aos beta-lactâmicos. A primeira conduta diante da suspeita de uma reação ao beta-lactâmico é suspender a exposição ao medicamento, e o único tratamento específico é a dessensibilização, que possui indicações bem precisas. O diagnóstico equivocado de alergia à penicilina afeta o sistema de saúde, pois o rótulo de "alergia à penicilina" está associado a aumento da resistência bacteriana, maior índice de falha terapêutica, hospitalizações prolongadas, readmissões e aumento dos custos. Assim, torna-se fundamental elaborar estratégias com o objetivo de auxiliar na prescrição de antibióticos em pacientes com rótulo de "alergia aos beta-lactâmicos" nos hospitais e melhorar a educação dos pacientes e seus responsáveis, além de médicos não especialistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Anaphylaxis , Penicillins/adverse effects , beta-Lactams/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
5.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(3): 202-207, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149828

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La neurosífilis es una enfermedad infecciosa crónica ocasionada por Treponema pallidum y puede producir una gran variedad de signos y síntomas neuropsiquiátricos, lo que complica su diagnóstico. Descripción del caso: Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 40 años que consultó al servicio de urgencias por una convulsión de novo, junto con un cuadro crónico de deterioro cognitivo y psicosis. Se le realizaron los estudios pertinentes para el diagnóstico de neurosífilis y se inició el tratamiento recomendado. El paciente presentó mejoría clínica y fue dado de alta. Discusión: Con resultados de serología VDRL positivos y hallazgos imagenológicos de atrofia cortical marcada, se consideró una neurosífilis parenquimatosa de tipo tardío, junto con franco deterioro cognoscitivo y psicosis. Se le dejó tratamiento con penicilina cristalina, que disminuyó la intensidad de los síntomas del paciente; sin embargo, el poco interés de este en asistir a sus controles disminuye sus probabilidades de una recuperación adecuada. Conclusiones: La neurosífilis se debe sospechar en pacientes con síntomas neurológicos o psiquiátricos clínicamente evidentes. El análisis de la serología de VDRL y los estudios de neuroimagen son importantes como evaluación inicial del paciente, que debe complementarse con pruebas cognitivas o examen mental para determinar el estado de deterioro cognitivo.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Neurosyphilis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum that can cause a great variety of neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms, which complicates its diagnosis. Case description: This case occurred in a 40-year-old man who consulted the Emergency Department because of a convulsion (de novo) which was related to a chronic condition of cognitive impairment and psychosis. The appropriate studies were performed for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis and the recommended treatment was initiated. The patient presented clinical improvement and was discharged. Discussion: Positive VDRL serology results and imaging findings of marked cortical atrophy conducted to consider a late-stage parenchymatous neurosyphilis with serious cognitive impairment and associated psychosis. Treatment with crystalline penicillin was formulated, which reduced the intensity of the patient's symptoms; however, the patient's lack of interest to attend the check-ups significantly reduces his chances of an adequate recovery. Conclusions: Neurosyphilis must be suspected in patients with clinically evident neurological or psychiatric symptoms. Analysis of VDRL serology and neuroimaging studies are important as an initial evaluation of the patient and must be complemented with cognitive tests or mental examination to determine the state of cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurosyphilis , Penicillins , Psychotic Disorders , Treponema pallidum , Communicable Diseases , Neurocognitive Disorders , Emergencies , Neuroimaging
6.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(4): 208-212, 20200000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1367972

ABSTRACT

La sífilis desde hace siglos desafía a la humanidad, es transmitida por vía sexual y verticalmente durante la gestación.9 Esta enfermedad se hizo conocida en Europa a finales del siglo XV,13 y su rápida propagación por todo el continente la transformó en una de las principales plagas mundiales.Era preocupante el crecimiento de la endemia sifilítica en el siglo XIX 13.1. En contrapartida la medicina se desarrollaba, y la síntesis de las primeras drogas se hacía realidad. El mayor impacto tal vez fue la introducción de la penicilina en 1946, la cual por su eficacia hizo a muchos pensar que la enfermedad estaba controlada. En un estudio de revisión de literatura se dice que a raíz de la introducción de la penicilina la incidencia de sífilis (y de uveítis sifilítica) fue disminuyendo constantemente hasta finales de los años 90.3 resultando en la disminución del interés por su estudio y control. Con la aparición del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA).2 se incrementó dramáticamente la evolución de esta enfermedad.En la literatura oftalmológica se comenzaron a documentar cada vez más casos e incluso se ha llegado a hablar de la «nueva epidemia de sífilis ocular¼1 Se estima que, anualmente, unos 357 millones de personas contraen alguna de las cuatro infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) siguientes: clamidias, gonorrea, sífilis o tricomoniasis.7 En el mundo hay una incidencia anual de aproximadamente 12 millones de pacientes con sífilis el 90% ocurre en países en desarrollo (OMS).


Syphilis has defied humanity for centuries, is transmitted sexually and vertically during pregnancy. This disease became known in Europe at the end of the 15th century,13 and its rapid spread throughout the continent transformed it into one of the main world plagues. The growth of the syphilitic endemic in the 19th century was worrisome.13.1 In contrast, medicine developed, and the synthesis of the first drugs became a reality. Perhaps the biggest impact was the introduction of penicillin in 1946, which, due to its effectiveness, led many to believe that the disease was controlled. In a literature review study, it is said that following the introduction of penicillin the incidence of syphilis (and syphilitic uveitis) was steadily decreasing until the end of the 90s.3 resultando in the decrease of interest in its study and control. With the onset of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). the evolution of this disease increased dramatically. In the ophthalmological literature, more and more cases have been documented and there has even been talk of the "new epidemic of ocular syphilis".1.1 It is estimated that some 357 million people each year get one of the four sexually transmitted infections (STIs) following: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis or trichomonas's. In the world there is an annual incidence of approximately 12 million patients with syphilis 90% occurs in developing countries (WHO)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Penicillins/administration & dosage , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Uveitis/diagnosis , Uveitis/therapy , Syphilis/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption Test , Eye Diseases
7.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e2171, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126493

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Syphilis is classified as a sexually transmitted infectious-contagious disease with the causative agent Treponema pallidum (Tp). It presents distinct stages of evolution: The primary phase is characterized by the appearance of the hard chancre, the secondary phase by the spread of Tp through the bloodstream and systemic involvement, and the tertiary phase by organ infection and nervous system impairment. In congenital syphilis, the Tp is transmitted vertically from mother to child. Objective: Report a case in which the dental team participated in the diagnosis of syphilis. Case presentation: A male 26-year-old patient with leukoderma, HIV-positive and under regular antiretroviral treatment, with no other chronic systemic changes and no previous history of Tp infection, was referred for evaluation by the oral health team. The patient reported having had bisexual relations in recent months with a condom and orogenital contact without a condom. He had not noticed any type of "wound" on the body. Intraoral examination found multiple reddish macules scattered on the lingual dorsum, with a slight detachment and little pain. The quick test was a reagent for syphilis. The patient was referred for evaluation at the medical clinic. Treatment started by two applications of benzyl penicillin with a 7 days' separation between them. Complementary blood tests were also indicated, with special attention to VDRL, which eventually confirmed the Tp infection. Conclusions: Participation of the oral health team in the diagnosis of syphilis constitutes a complementary force for the improvement of health care processes(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: La sífilis se clasifica como una enfermedad contagiosa infecciosa de transmisión sexual, con el agente causal Treponema pallidum (Tp). Presenta distintos estadios de evolución: la fase primaria caracterizada por la aparición del chancre duro; la fase secundaria, la diseminación de la Tp a través del torrente sanguíneo y la afectación sistémica; y la fase terciaria, en que hay infección de órganos y deterioro del sistema nervioso, además de sífilis congénita, forma esta en la que Tp es transmitida verticalmente por la mujer embarazada. Objetivo: Informar sobre un caso en el que la participación del equipo dental colaboró ​​en el proceso de diagnóstico de la sífilis. Presentación del caso: Paciente con 26 años de edad, leucodermia, VIH positivo y en tratamiento antirretroviral regular, sin otros cambios crónicos a nivel sistémico y sin antecedentes de infección por Tp. Se remitió para evaluación con el equipo de salud oral. Informó haber tenido relaciones bisexuales en los últimos meses con un condón y contacto orogenital sin condón. No notó ningún tipo de "herida" en el cuerpo. En el examen intrabucal, se encontraron múltiples máculas rojizas dispersas en el dorso lingual, con un ligero desprendimiento y con poco dolor. La prueba rápida fue un reactivo para sífilis. El paciente fue remitido para su evaluación a clínica médica. Comenzó el tratamiento con dos aplicaciones de penicilina bencilo, con un intervalo de 7 días y se solicitó análisis de sangre complementarios, con especial atención al VDRL, que posteriormente confirmó la infección por Tp. Conclusiones: La participación del equipo de salud bucal frente al diagnóstico de la sífilis, se constituye como una fuerza complementaria para la mejora de los procesos en salud(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Syphilis/diagnosis , Oral Health , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 81-84, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089333

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT China's compulsory annual livestock anthrax vaccination policy has remarkably reduced but not completely eradicated human anthrax infections. Herein we describe a sporadic human cutaneous anthrax outbreak involving two cases in 2018 in Shaanxi Province, both involving herdsman who dealt with unvaccinated and potentially sick cattle. Both patients showed Bacillus anthracis-positive blister smear and blood culture. Treatment with penicillin was followed by uneventful recovery for both. The prompt performance of the prophylactic measures successfully interrupted the further transmission of this sporadic human cutaneous anthrax outbreak.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/pathology , Anthrax/pathology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Bacillus anthracis/isolation & purification , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Treatment Outcome , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/epidemiology , Anthrax/drug therapy , Anthrax/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 49-55, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088911

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of an antisepsis protocol comprising chlorhexidine gluconate and ethyl alcohol in combination with prophylactic antimicrobial therapy in controlling surgical site infection in horses was studied. To that purpose, seven mixed breed horses received potassium penicillin and gentamicin at least 30 minutes prior to surgery. The surgical site was scrubbed with chlorhexidine gluconate and rinsed with ethyl alcohol. Samples were collected at four time points: (A) - before and (B) - immediately following shaving of the hair coat, (C) - at the end of antisepsis procedures, and (D) - at the end of the surgical procedure. Duration of surgery was recorded. Samples were cultured in three different culture mediums: Mitis Salivarus (Streptococcus sp.), Staphylococcus 110 (Staphylococcus sp.), and Mac Conkey (Enterobacteria). A high level of bacterial growth was observed in all culture mediums at (A) and (B), with no bacterial growth in (C). Staphylococcus sp. growth was observed in (D) in a single patient whose surgical procedure lasted for 120 minutes. Shaving of the hair coat reduced microbial flora on the surface of the skin. Antisepsis in combination with prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was effective in controlling surgical site infection in elective procedures with an average duration of 90 minutes.(AU)


Objetivou-se averiguar a eficácia do protocolo de antissepsia com clorexidina degermante e álcool etílico hidratado 70%, em associação com terapia antimicrobiana profilática, no controle microbiano do foco cirúrgico de equinos submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos. Foram utilizados 07 cavalos adultos de raças variadas, onde ambos receberam o mesmo tratamento (terapia antimicrobiana profilática e antissepsia com clorexidina degermante 2% e álcool etílico hidratado 70%), coletando-se amostras em quatro tempos distintos [(A - antes da tricotomia), (B - imediatamente após tricotomia), (C - ao término da antissepsia), (D - ao término do procedimento cirúrgico)]. O tempo de cada procedimento cirúrgico foi contabilizado. Foram utilizados três meios de cultura diferentes, cada um com especificidade para um tipo de crescimento bacteriano. Constatou-se alta incidência de crescimento bacteriano nos três meios utilizados nos tempos de coleta A e B. Para o tempo C, não foi observado crescimento bacteriano. No tempo D averiguou-se crescimento bacteriano do tipo Staphylococcus sp. em um único paciente, cujo tempo cirúrgico foi de 120 minutos de duração. Desta forma, a tricotomia reduziu a carga microbiana na superfície da pele. A antissepsia associada à terapia antimicrobiana profilática mostrou-se eficaz no controle microbiano do foco cirúrgico em procedimentos eletivos, com duração média de 90 minutos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Penicillins , Staphylococcus , Chlorhexidine , Antisepsis , Horses/surgery , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Surgical Procedures, Operative/veterinary
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand the nationwide patterns of antibiotic prescription after tooth extraction in adult patients.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed dental records from the National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort (NHIS–NSC) database on 503,725 tooth extractions performed in adults (≥19 years) during 2011–2015. Patient sex, age, household income, systemic disease (diabetes mellitus and hypertension), type of dental institution, region of dental institution, year of prescription, and type of tooth extraction procedure were considered. The antibiotic prescription rate and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription frequency were analyzed using chi-squared tests. Factors affecting the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: The rate of antibiotic prescription after tooth extraction was 81.85%. Penicillin was most commonly prescribed (45.25%), followed by penicillin with beta-lactamase inhibitors (18.76%), metronidazole (12.29%), and second- to fourth-generation cephalosporins (11.52%). The proportion of broad-spectrum antibiotics used among all prescribed antibiotics was 45.88%.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrate that the rate of antibiotic prescription after tooth extraction is higher in Korea than in other countries. Furthermore, broad-spectrum antibiotics are used more frequently, which may indicate unnecessary drug prescription, an important contributor to antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , beta-Lactamase Inhibitors , Cephalosporins , Cohort Studies , Dental Records , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Family Characteristics , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Metronidazole , National Health Programs , Penicillins , Prescriptions , Tooth Extraction , Tooth
11.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 8-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785457

ABSTRACT

There are geographical, regional, and ethnic differences in the phenotypes and endotypes of patients with drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) in different parts of the world. In Asia, aspects of drug hypersensitivity of regional importance include IgE-mediated allergies and T-cell-mediated reactions, including severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), to beta-lactam antibiotics, antituberculous drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and radiocontrast agents. Delabeling of low-risk penicillin allergy using direct oral provocation tests without skin tests have been found to be useful where the drug plausibility of the index reaction is low. Genetic risk associations of relevance to Asia include human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1502 with carbamazepine SCAR, and HLA-B*5801 with allopurinol SCAR in some Asian ethnic groups. There remains a lack of safe and accurate diagnostic tests for antituberculous drug allergy, other than relatively high-risk desensitization regimes to first-line antituberculous therapy. NSAID hypersensitivity is common among both adults and children in Asia, with regional differences in phenotype especially among adults. Low dose aspirin desensitization is an important therapeutic modality in individuals with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity and coronary artery disease following percutaneous coronary intervention. Skin testing allows patients with radiocontrast media hypersensitivity to confirm the suspected agent and test for alternatives, especially when contrasted scans are needed for future monitoring of disease relapse or progression, especially cancers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Allopurinol , Anaphylaxis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Aspirin , Asthma , Carbamazepine , Child , Cicatrix , Contrast Media , Coronary Artery Disease , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Drug Hypersensitivity , Ethnic Groups , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Penicillins , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Phenotype , Recurrence , Skin Tests
12.
S. Afr. j. child health (Online) ; 14(2): 99-103, 2020.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1270379

ABSTRACT

Background. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS)-associated pharyngitis can complicate into rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (RHD).Objectives. To determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of GABHS isolates in children presenting with acute pharyngitis and assess the utility of Zambian Treatment Guideline (ZTG) criteria as a local clinical scoring system.Methods. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the paediatric outpatient department of the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. The study cohort, comprising children aged 3 - 15 years (n=146), were recruited as presenting with symptoms of pharyngitis. The children underwent a clinical assessment that included a detailed case history, presenting symptoms and a throat swab that was subsequently cultured. Microbial isolates were typed and the antibiotic sensitivity of cultured GABHS to penicillin and erythromycin determined.Results. GABHS were cultured from 22 (15.1%) children within this study. All the GABHS isolates (n=22) were susceptible to penicillin G; however, 19% of isolates displayed reduced susceptibility to erythromycin. None of the ZTG criteria, when used individually, was sufficiently sensitive to detect GABHS pharyngitis among this cohort.Conclusion. The prevalence of GABHS pharyngitis is similar that been described elsewhere. While GABHS remains highly susceptible to penicillin, which is used in the local RHD control programmes, concern remains for children treated with erythromycin owing to the resistance noted in some of the isolates. The ZTG clinical criteria displayed poor sensitivity in identifying GABHS pharyngitis. This has significant implications for effective diagnosis and treatment of pharyngitis and associated complications within this high RHD endemic area


Subject(s)
Erythromycin , Hospitals, Teaching , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/therapy , Streptococcus milleri Group , Zambia
13.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(2): 196-204, 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348153

ABSTRACT

Salmonellosis is a relevant public health threat worldwide. Reptiles are commonly involved in human cases. A microbiological survey was conducted from August to October 2018 to isolate Salmonella bacteria and de-termine if they were resistant to regularly used antibiotics in eight species of pet turtles (Kinosternon acutum sp., K. leucostomum, K. scorpioides, Rhinoclemmys areolata sp., R. pulcherrima, Staurotypus salvinii sp., Trachemys scripta and T. venusta) in Guatemala city, San Lucas Sacatepéquez and Antigua Guatemala. Cloacal swabs were taken from 63 turtles and cultivated in the Microbiology Laboratory at the Veterinary Medicine and Animal Hus-bandry Faculty, University of San Carlos of Guatemala, in Guatemala City. Three samples were positive to the presence of Salmonella sp. One of these isolates (from Trachemys scripta) was resistant to gentamicin, penicillin and amikacin, other isolate (from T. scripta) was partially resistant to amoxicilin + clavulanic acid and penicillin, and other (from T. venusta) to penicillin. These findings highlight the need for better biosecurity practices and show the capacity of bacteria to develop survival strategies that involve resistance to harmful substances like antibiotics.


La salmonelosis es una importante enfermedad zoonótica considerada una amenaza a la salud pública a nivel mundial. Los reptiles están comúnmente involucrados en la transmisión animal-humano. Con el objetivo de determinar la presencia de Salmonella y determinar su resistencia a antibióticos de uso común, se realizó un estudio exploratorio en ocho especies de tortugas (Kinosternon acutum sp., K. leucostomum, K. scorpioides, Rhinoclem-mys areolata sp., R. pulcherrima, Staurotypus salvinii sp., Trachemys scripta y T. venusta) en Guatemala y en San Lucas Sacatepéquez. Se tomaron hisopados cloacales de 63 especímenes y se cultivaron en el Laboratorio de Microbiología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. Tres muestras fueron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella sp. Uno de los aislados (de Trachemys scripta) fue resistente a gentamicina, penicilina y amikacina, otro aislado (de T. scripta) fue parcialmente resistente a amoxicilina + ácido clavulánico y a penicilina y un tercer aislado (de T. venusta) a penicilina. Estos hallazgos resaltan la necesidad de mejores prácticas de bioseguridad y muestran la capacidad de las bacterias para desarrollar estrategias de sobrevivencia que involucran la resistencia a sustancias que les son nocivas, como los antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Salmonella/drug effects , Turtles/parasitology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Penicillins/adverse effects , Amikacin/adverse effects , Gentamicins/adverse effects , Pets/microbiology
14.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 133 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290877

ABSTRACT

O método de difusão em ágar tem sido utilizado na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana desde a descoberta da penicilina. Apesar disso, pouco avanço ocorreu no sentido de reduzir o tempo necessário para a determinação dos halos de inibição de crescimento. O objetivo deste projeto foi desenvolver, otimizar e validar métodos microbiológicos rápidos (MMRs) para a avaliação da potência de agentes antimicrobianos, além de identificar, quantificar e avaliar as principais fontes de incerteza associadas à determinação da potência. O projeto foi dividido em quatro etapas: 1) influência da composição do meio de cultura na formação dos halos de inibição; 2) estudo da incerteza de medição associada à determinação da potência de agentes antimicrobianos; 3) desenvolvimento, otimização e validação de métodos microbiológicos rápidos (MMRs) para determinação da potência de agentes antimicrobianos e 4) determinação dos parâmetros envolvidos na formação dos halos de inibição de crescimento e estudo dos mecanismos de difusão e crescimento microbiano. Os resultados deste projeto possibilitaram a redução do tempo necessário para a determinação do tamanho dos halos de inibição. Adicionalmente, contribuiu com a elucidação dos mecanismos de difusão e crescimento microbiano, possibilitando identificar e quantificar as principais fontes de incerteza de medição associadas à formação dos halos de inibição


Agar diffusion method has been used in the evaluation of antimicrobial activity since the discovery of penicillin. Nevertheless, little progress has occurred in order to reduce the time required for the determination of growth inhibition zones. The goal of this project was to develop, optimize and validate rapid microbiological methods (RMMs) for evaluation of potency of antimicrobials, as well as to identify, quantify and assess the main sources of uncertainty associated with potency. The project was divided into four steps: 1) influence of culture medium composition on inhibition zones; 2) study of measurement uncertainty associated with antimicrobials potencies; 3) development, optimization and validation of rapid microbiological methods (RMMs) for the determination of antimicrobials potencies and 4) determination of the parameters involved in the formation of inhibition zones and study of mechanisms of diffusion and microbial growth. The results of this project allowed the reduction of the time required for the determination of inhibition zone sizes. Additionally, it contributed to the elucidation of the mechanisms of diffusion and microbial growth, making it possible to identify and quantify the main sources of measurement uncertainty associated with formation of inhibition zone sizes


Subject(s)
Agar/administration & dosage , Uncertainty , Methods , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Penicillins/administration & dosage , Growth and Development , Diffusion , Process Optimization/classification
15.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 6(2): 58-65, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1088703

ABSTRACT

La luxación erecta expuesta de hombro es una asociación lesional de muy baja frecuencia en la edad pediátrica. Son más frecuentes las lesiones fisarias y epifisarias que las luxaciones y lesiones ligamentarias. Esto es debido a la presencia de un tejido óseo con gran poder de deformidad elástica y un periostio grueso. Presentamos un caso clínico de un paciente de 11 años de edad que sufrió una luxación erecta expuesta de hombro derecho, producto de una caída de 1 metro y medio de altura. El tratamiento consistió en una limpieza quirúrgica de urgencia, reducción gleno humeral y antibioticoterapia empírica, penicinila 400.000 UI/kg/día fraccionado cada 6 hs y gentamicina 3mg/Kg/día fraccionada cada 8 h por 10 días, inmovilización por 3 semanas con cabestrillo seguido de rehabilitación, y un follow up de 2 años al final del cual el paciente no presento secuelas funcionales en la articulación glenohumeral derecha.


The exposed erect dislocation of the shoulder is a very low frequency lesion association in the pediatric age. The physical and epiphyseal lesions are more frequent than the dislocations and ligament injuries. This is due to the presence of a bone tissue with great elastic deformity power and a thick periosteum. We present a clinical case of an 11-year-old patient who suffered an exposed erect dislocation of the right shoulder, due to a fall of 1 meter and a half high. The treatment consisted of emergency surgical cleaning, humeral gleno reduction and empirical antibiotic therapy, penicinila 400,000 IU/kg/day divided every 6 hours and gentamicin 3mg/Kg/day divided every 8 hours for 10 days, immobilization for 3 weeks with a sling followed by rehabilitation, and a follow-up of 2 years at the end of which the patient did not present functional sequelae in the right glenohumeral joint.


A luxação ereta exposta do ombro é uma associação de lesão de freqüência muito baixa na idade pediátrica. As lesões físicas e epifisárias são mais freqüentes que as luxações e lesões ligamentares. Isto é devido à presença de um tecido ósseo com grande poder de deformidade elástica e um periósteo espesso. Apresentamos um caso clínico de um paciente de 11 anos de idade que sofreu uma luxação ereta exposta do ombro direito, devido a uma queda de 1 metro e meio de altura. O tratamento consistiu em limpeza cirúrgica de emergência, redução de gleno umeral e antibioticoterapia empírica, penicinila 400.000 UI / kg / dia dividida a cada 6 horas e gentamicina 3mg / Kg / dia dividida a cada 8 horas por 10 dias, imobilização por 3 semanas com tipóia seguida de reabilitação e seguimento de 2 anos no final dos quais o paciente não apresentava sequela funcional na articulação glenoumeral direita.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Shoulder Dislocation/surgery , Shoulder Dislocation/rehabilitation , Shoulder Dislocation/diagnostic imaging , Fractures, Open/surgery , Fractures, Open/rehabilitation , Fractures, Open/diagnostic imaging , Penicillins/administration & dosage , Shoulder Dislocation/drug therapy , Restraint, Physical , Gentamicins/administration & dosage , Follow-Up Studies , Exercise Therapy , Closed Fracture Reduction , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
16.
Med. UIS ; 32(2): 53-58, mayo-ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114968

ABSTRACT

Resumen El accidente cerebrovascular en adultos jóvenes es un evento raro presente en menos del 5% de los casos a nivel mundial, representando un reto diagnóstico debido a las múltiples etiologías posibles, entre ellas las infecciones. Del 15% al 40% de los pacientes con sífilis no tratada pueden desarrollar sífilis terciaria con manifestaciones principalmente neurodestructivas, descritas en la sífilis tardía pero con meningitis crónica y accidente cerebrovascular de tipo meningovascular en su fase temprana. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 40 años con antecedente de cambios de comportamiento, alucinaciones auditivas e insomnio, quien consulta a urgencias por presentar hemiplejia derecha, afasia motora, lesiones palmo-plantares y roseta en glande asociada a adenopatías inguinales. Dados los hallazgos imagenológicos y de líquido cefalorraquídeo se estableció diagnóstico de accidente cerebrovascular isquémico de circulación cerebral anterior izquierda secundario a neurosífilis meningovascular, con confirmación de inmunosupresión por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(2):53-8


Abstract Stroke in young adults is a rare event present in less than 5% of cases worldwide, representing a diagnostic challenge due to the multiple possible etiologies, including infections. 15% to 40% of patients with untreated syphilis may develop tertiary syphilis; with mainly neurodestructive manifestations, described in late syphilis, but in its early stage with chronic meningitis and meningovascular stroke. The case of a 40-year-old male patient with a history of behavior changes, auditory hallucinations and insomnia is presented, who consults the emergency department for presenting right hemiplegia, motor aphasia, palmoplantar lesions and rosette in glans associated with inguinal adenopathies. Given the imaging and cerebrospinal fluid findings, a diagnosis of ischemic stroke of the left anterior cerebral circulation was established, secondary to meningovascular neurosyphilis, with confirmation of immunosuppression due to human immunodeficiency virus. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(2):53-8


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Neurosyphilis , Aphasia, Broca , Patients , Penicillins , Treponema pallidum , Wounds and Injuries , Male , Syphilis , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Adolescent , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Immunosuppression , Stroke , Young Adult , Lymphadenopathy , Hallucinations , Hemiplegia , Infections , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Meningitis
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(6): 412-417, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011350

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant agent that modulates 5-HT receptors and inhibits the serotonin transporter. It is indicated especially in cases of major depressive disorder related to cognitive dysfunction. There are many studies investigating the effects of antidepressants on the seizure threshold and short-term epileptic activity. However, the effect of vortioxetine on epileptic seizures is not exactly known. Our aim was to investigate the effects of vortioxetine on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-control group, positive control group (diazepam), and vortioxetine group. After a penicillin-induced epilepsy model was formed in each of the three groups of animals, 0.1 ml of saline was administered to the control group, 0.1 ml (10 mg/kg) vortioxetine was administered in the vortioxetine group, and 0.1 mL (5 mg/kg) of diazepam was administered in the positive control group, intraperitoneally. The epileptic activity records were obtained for 120 minutes after the onset of seizure. There was no significant difference in spike wave activity between the vortioxetine and diazepam groups, whereas this was significantly reduced in the vortioxetine group compared with the controls. The administration of vortioxetine at a dose of 10 mg/kg immediately after the seizure induction significantly decreased the spike frequencies of epileptiform activity compared with the control group. No significant difference was found between the vortioxetine and positive controls. This study showed that vortioxetine reduces the number of acutely-induced epileptic discharges. Vortioxetine may be an important alternative for epileptic patients with major depressive disorder-related cognitive dysfunction.


RESUMO A vortioxetina é um agente antidepressivo multimodal que modula os receptores 5HT e inibe o transportador de serotonina. Está indicada, principalmente nos casos de transtorno depressivo maior (TDM), relacionado à disfunção cognitiva. Existem muitos estudos que investigam os efeitos dos antidepressivos no limiar convulsivo e na atividade epiléptica de curto prazo. No entanto, o efeito da vortioxetina nas crises epilépticas não é exatamente conhecido. Nosso objetivo é investigar os efeitos da vortioxetina sobre a atividade epileptiforme induzida pela penicilina. Vinte e sete ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos, grupo controle-sham, grupo controle positivo (Diazepam) e grupo vortioxetina. Depois, 0,1 mg (10 mg / kg) de vortioxetina foi administrado no grupo vortioxetina, e 0,1 ml (5 mg / kg) / kg) de diazepam foi administrado no grupo de controle positivo intraperitonealmente. Os registros de atividade epiléptica foram obtidos durante 120 minutos após o início da convulsão. Não houve diferença significativa na atividade de pico entre o grupo de voritoxetina e diazepam, embora tenha sido significativamente reduzida no grupo de vortioxetina em comparação com os controles. A administração de vortioxetina na dose de 10 mg / kg imediatamente após a indução das convulsões diminuiu significativamente as frequências de espícula da atividade epileptiforme em comparação com o grupo controle. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre a vortioxetina e controles positivos. Este estudo mostrou que a vortioxetina reduz o número de descargas epilépticas agudamente induzidas. A vortioxetina pode ser uma alternativa importante para pacientes epilépticos com disfunção cognitiva relacionada à TDM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Vortioxetine/pharmacology , Penicillins , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Electrocorticography
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(3): 641-654, mayo.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094073

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la toxicidad de los fármacos es compleja y difícilmente valorable, por la cantidad de factores que intervienen en su producción, como modo de aparición, duración y gravedad de las reacciones adversas. La importancia de estas reacciones está dada por la frecuencia y gravedad con que un fármaco o familia de fármacos las producen. Objetivo: caracterizar las principales reacciones adversas que provocan los medicamentos, los grupos de edades con más riesgos, los sistemas de órganos que se afectan, la frecuencia, imputabilidad y la intensidad de las mismas. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, de serie de casos en farmacovigilancia. El universo fue las reacciones adversas de los 10 fármacos más notificados por la Unidad Coordinadora Provincial de Farmacovigilancia en Matanzas, en el periodo 2014-2017. Se estudiaron las variables: medicamentos, grupo farmacológico, datos demográficos, nivel de atención, tipo de efecto adverso, intensidad, imputabilidad y frecuencia. Resultados: se notificaron 10 fármacos con 2 216 reacciones. La vacuna pentavalente fue la más notificada, con un 17,6 %, seguido por la amoxicilina y las penicilinas. Predominó el sexo femenino con 1 279 reportes, (59,1 %) y los adultos, con 1 010 notificaciones, (46,6 %). La atención primaria de salud fue la de mayor número de notificaciones, 2 082 reportes, (96,1 %). Las principales reacciones fueron: la erupción cutánea, la fiebre y la urticaria. Predominaron reacciones moderadas; 1 972 reportes, (91,1 %), aquellas clasificadas como probables, 1 887 reportes, (87,1 %) y las frecuentes con 1 284 reportes, (59,2 %). Conclusiones: el sistema de farmacovigilancia en la provincia proporcionó sistemáticamente información sobre la seguridad de los medicamentos, lo que permitió el conocimiento de la relación beneficio-riesgo de los medicamentos presentes en el mercado, así como los más usados.


ABSTRACT Introduction: drugs toxicity is complex and of difficult assessment, due to the quantity of factors intervening in its production, like emergency way, duration, and seriousness of the adverse reactions. The importance of these reactions is given by the frequency and seriousness a drug or a drug family produces them. Objective: to characterize the main adverse reactions caused by medicines, the age groups having higher risk, the most affec6ted systems of organs, frequency, imputability and intensity. Material and methods: descriptive, observational study of a series of cases in pharmacovigilance. The universe was the adverse reactions of the ten drugs most reported by the Provincial Coordinating Unit of Pharmacovigilance in the period 2014-2017. The studied variables were: drugs, pharmacological group, demographic data, health care level, kind of adverse effect, intensity, imputability and frequency. Results: ten drugs were reported with 2 216 reactions. The pentavalent vaccine was the most reported one, with 17.6 %, followed by amoxicillin and penicillin. There was a predominance of the female sex with 1 279 reports (59.1 %), and adult people with 1 010 reports (46.6 %). The highest number of reports was made by the primary health care, 2 082 (96.1 %). The main reactions were skin rash, fever and urticaria. There was a predominance of mild reactions: 1 972 reports (91.1 %); reactions classified as probable: 1 887 reports (87.1 %): ands frequent ones: 1 284 reports (59.2 %). Conclusions: the pharmacovigilance system in the province systematically provided information on drugs´ safeness that allowed knowing the benefit-risk relation of the medicines that are in the market, and also which are the most used ones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Penicillins/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Organs at Risk , Pharmacovigilance , Amoxicillin/adverse effects , Urticaria/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Exanthema Subitum/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Observational Study
20.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(1): 105-109, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004390

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La sífilis es una infección de transmisión sexual causada por la bacteria Treponema pallidum. En los últimos años ha habido un aumento en la incidencia de esta enfermedad debido a la creciente infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) e inmunodepresión. Conocida como "la gran imitadora" son muchos los signos y síntomas que puede simular, siendo la presentación orofaríngea infrecuente. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 31 años de edad que acude a nuestro servicio por clínica de otitis media serosa bilateral. En la exploración física se objetiva una masa en cavum y una ulceración en pared faríngea posterior que se biopsia en consultas externas siendo el resultado un intenso infiltrado inflamatorio crónico de probable origen infeccioso, por lo que se decidió tomar una nueva biopsia bajo anestesia general. El día de la intervención, el paciente refirió la aparición de un exantema eritematoso generalizado, pero de predominio palmo-plantar. Interrogado sobre sus antecedentes, el paciente reconoció conductas sexuales de riesgo y ser portador VIH, por lo que se orientó el diagnóstico hacia una probable sífilis secundaria que se confirmó posteriormente mediante serología. Las lesiones de orofaringe, la masa del cavum y el exantema remitieron con tratamiento antibiótico y corticoideo pautado. Cuando las manifestaciones de cabeza y cuello constituyen la presentación inicial de la sífilis, su diagnóstico se retrasa con frecuencia debido al desconocimiento por parte del médico de primaria, e incluso del otorrinolaringólogo, de las formas típicas de presentación en esta localización. Su diagnóstico precoz es fundamental para prevenir la extensión de la enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum. Over the last years there has been an increase of the incidence of this disease due to the growing infection by the human inmunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the inmunosupression. Known as "the great imitator", there are many signs and symptoms that can simulate, being the oropharyngeal presentation infrequent. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who came to our service for bilateral otitis media. Physical examination revealed a mass in the cavum and ulceration in the posterior pharyngeal wall that was biopsied in the outpatient clinic. The result was an intense chronic inflammatory infiltrate of probable infectious origin, so it was decided to take a new biopsy under general anesthesia. On the day of the intervention, the patient reported the appearance of a generalized erythematous rash, but predominantly on the bottoms of the feet and on the palms of the hands. Questioned about his background, the patient recognized risky sexual behavior and being an HIV carrier, so the diagnosis was oriented towards a probable secondary syphilis that was subsequently confirmed by serology. The ulcerations of the oropharynx, the mass of the cavum and the rash subsided with antibiotic treatment and corticoid regimen. When the manifestations of the head and neck are the initial presentation of syphilis, its diagnosis is often delayed due to the lack of knowledge of the physicians of the typical presentation forms in this location. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent the spread of the disease and its complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Syphilis/complications , Oral Ulcer/etiology , Otitis Media , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Treponema pallidum , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/microbiology , Oral Ulcer/microbiology , Erythema/etiology
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