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In. Giachetto Larraz, Gustavo A; Pardo Casaretto, Lorena Victoria; Speranza Mourine, María Noelia. Prescripción de antimicrobianos para infecciones frecuentes en pediatría. Montevideo, Bibliomédica, 2020. p.53-89, ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1373293
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 5-6, Jan.-Mar. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889197


ABSTRACT The type strain SUR2 of the novel species Chryseobacterium limigenitum was isolated from a dehydrated sludge of the municipal sewage treatment plant in Dogoše near Maribor in Slovenia. The draft genome, with 60 contigs, 4,697,725 bp, 34.4% of G+C content, was obtained using the Illumina HiSeq 2500-1 platform. Joint Genome Institute Microbial Genome Annotation Pipeline (MGAP v.4) has identified 4322 protein-coding sequences including resistance genes against arsenic and other heavy metals. In addition, a subclass B3 metallo-β-lactamase, which confers resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, was also present in the genome. The genome sequence provides important information regarding bioremediation potential and pathogenic properties of this newly identified species.

Sewage/microbiology , Genome, Bacterial , Chryseobacterium/genetics , Penicillins/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Sewage/chemistry , Base Composition , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Base Sequence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Chryseobacterium/isolation & purification , Chryseobacterium/classification , Chryseobacterium/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195408


In Republic of Korea, a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) was licensed for use in infants in 2003, and 13-valent PCV (PCV13) replaced it since 2010. We investigated trends in serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of pneumococcal isolates from adult patients with invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD). Invasive pneumococcal isolates from adult patients of ≥ 16 years of age were collected from 1997 to 2012. Serotypes of the isolates were determined by the Quellung reaction. Distribution of serotypes was analyzed according to the vaccine types. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by using E-test strips. A total of 272 invasive pneumococcal isolates were included. The most common serotypes were serotype 19F (8.5%, 23/272), and serotype 3 (8.1%, 22/272), and 24.6% (67/272) of the isolates were of non-vaccine serotypes. Of the 272 isolates, 2.6% (7/272) were penicillin MICs of ≥ 4 µg/mL. The proportion of the PCV13 serotypes decreased from 63.3% (50/79) in 1997-2003 to 48.6% (17/35) in 2011-2012, whereas that of non-vaccine serotypes was 26.6% (21/79) and 25.7% (9/35), respectively, for the same periods. The proportion of the PCV13 serotypes showed a decreasing trend among adult patients with IPD over the study period.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Penicillins/pharmacology , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Republic of Korea , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Young Adult
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 684-686, Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755893


This study investigated the possible relationship between the invasiveness of group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains and their abilities to adhere to laminin and assessed the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of penicillin and erythromycin on the ability of GAS to adhere to laminin. The adherence of noninvasive and highly invasive isolates of GAS to laminin was significantly higher than the adherence displayed by isolates of low invasiveness. Antibiotic treatment caused significant reductions in adherence to laminin in all three groups of strains. Penicillin was more successful in reducing the adherence abilities of the tested GAS strains than erythromycin.


Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Laminin/drug effects , Penicillins/pharmacology , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29329


BACKGROUND: Viridans group streptococci (VGS) are both commensal microbes and potential pathogens. Increasing resistance to penicillin in VGS is an ongoing issue in the clinical environment. We investigated the difference in susceptibility and resistance to penicillin among various VGS species. METHODS: In total 1,448 VGS isolated from various clinical specimens were analyzed over a two-yr period. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by the automated VITEK 2 system (bioMerieux, France) or the MicroScan MICroSTREP system (Siemens, Germany). RESULTS: Among the 1,448 isolates, 412 were isolated from blood (28.4%). Streptococcus mitis group was the most frequently isolated (589 isolates, 40.7%), followed by the S. anginosus group (290 isolates, 20.0%), S. sanguinis group (179 isolates, 12.4%) and S. salivarius group (57 isolates, 3.9%). In total, 314 isolates could not be identified up to the species level. The overall non-susceptibility to penicillin was observed to be 40.0% (resistant, 11.2% and intermediately resistant, 28.8%) with uneven distribution among groups; 40.2% in S. sanguinis group (resistant, 5.0% and intermediately resistant, 35.2%), 60.3% in S. mitis group (resistant, 20.9% and intermediately resistant, 39.4%), 78.9% in S. salivarius group (resistant, 8.8% and intermediately resistant, 70.1%), and 6.2% in S. anginosus group (resistant, 1.7% and intermediately resistant, 4.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial resistance patterns towards penicillin show differences among various VGS; this should be considered while devising an effective antimicrobial treatment against VGS.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Body Fluids/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Viridans Streptococci/drug effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163732


BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes life-threatening infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and febrile bacteremia, particularly in young children. The increasing number of drug-resistant isolates has highlighted the necessity for intervening and controlling disease. To achieve this, information is needed on serotype distribution and patterns of antibiotic resistance in children. METHODS: All cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children aged less than 15 yr recorded at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed for serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility. Isolates were collected from 78 consecutive patients with IPD between 2009 and 2012. All collected isolates were subjected to serotyping by co-agglutination, sequential multiplex PCR, and single PCR sequetyping as previously described. RESULTS: The most frequently isolated IPD serotypes were 23F, 6B, 19F, 18C, 4, 14, and 19A, which are listed in decreasing order and cover 77% of total isolates. The serotype coverage for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)7, PCV10, and PCV13 was 77%, 81%, and 90%, respectively. Results from sequential multiplex PCR agreed with co-agglutination results. All serotypes could not be correctly identified using single PCR sequetyping. Minimum inhibitory concentration showed that 50 (64%) isolates were susceptible to penicillin, whereas 70 (90%) isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime. CONCLUSIONS: The most common pneumococcal serotypes occur with frequencies similar to those found in countries where the PCV has been introduced. The most common serotypes in this study are included in the PCVs. Addition of 23A and 15 to the vaccine would improve the PCV performance in IPD prevention.

Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Cefotaxime/pharmacology , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Humans , Infant , Meningitis/diagnosis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Penicillins/pharmacology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156323


Background. In the past, Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to antimicrobial agents used for its treatment. Consequently, extended-spectrum cephalosporins form the mainstay of treatment for gonorrhoea. Methods. Samples from 88 patients attending the sexually transmitted diseases clinics from December 2009 to January 2011 in two referral hospitals in New Delhi were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the disc diffusion method as per the calibrated dichotomous sensitivity technique against the following antibiotics: penicillin (0.5 i.u.), tetracycline (10 μg), nalidixic acid (30 μg), ciprofloxacin (1 μg), spectinomycin (100 μg), ceftriaxone (0.5 μg) and cefpodoxime (10 μg) (Oxoid UK). Azithromycin (15 μg) (Oxoid, UK) was tested as per the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the Etest for penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin and azithromycin as per the manufacturer’s instruction (Biomerieux, France). Results. Eighteen isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were obtained. Three of these had decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefpodoxime by the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone for two isolates were 0.064 μg/ml and for one isolate it was 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion. Higher minimum inhibitory concentrations to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is of concern as it has been shown to precede treatment failure. This may warrant its use in increased/multiple dosages alone or possibly in combination (dual therapy), thereby complicating effective disease control. Our report is in accordance with earlier reports from different parts of the world. Therefore, a continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is crucial to tailor treatment schedules for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a particular geographical region.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Ceftizoxime/analogs & derivatives , Ceftizoxime/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Penicillins/pharmacology , Spectinomycin/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology
J. bras. pneumol ; 38(1): 66-71, jan.-fev. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-617030


OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM < 2 µg/mL) e, consequentemente, eram também suscetíveis a amoxicilina, ampicilina, cefalosporinas de terceira e quarta geração e ertapenem. Quanto à moxifloxacina, 99 por cento das cepas de S. pneumoniae também foram suscetíveis, e somente uma teve CIM = 1,5 µg/mL (intermediário). Conclusões: Nossos resultados mostraram altas taxas de sensibilidade a penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacin nos isolados de S. pneumoniae não relacionados a meningite, o que difere de relatos internacionais. Relatos sobre resistência a penicilina devem ser baseados em pontos de corte atualizados para isolados não relacionados a meningite a fim de guiar a escolha terapêutica antimicrobiana e melhorar a predição dos desfechos clínicos.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treated, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC < 2 µg/mL), and, consequently, they were also susceptible to amoxicillin, ampicillin, third/fourth generation cephalosporins, and ertapenem. Of the S. pneumoniae strains, 99 percent were also susceptible to moxifloxacin, and only one strain showed an MIC = 1.5 µg/mL (intermediate). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed high susceptibility rates to parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin among S. pneumoniae isolates unrelated to meningitis, which differs from international reports. Reports on penicillin resistance should be based on updated breakpoints for non-meningitis isolates in order to guide the selection of an antimicrobial therapy and to improve the prediction of the clinical outcomes.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Aza Compounds/pharmacology , Penicillin Resistance/drug effects , Penicillins/pharmacology , Quinolines/pharmacology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Prospective Studies , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23569


Changes in udder health and antibiotic resistance of mastitis pathogens isolated from dairies upon conversion from conventional to organic management over a 3-year period was studied. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most prevalent mastitis pathogens isolated. CNS were significantly less resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics when isolated from milk after the herd transitioned to organic management. Cessation of the use of antimicrobial therapies in dairies in combination with organic management could lead to a reduction in the antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

Ampicillin/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Cephalothin/pharmacology , Cloxacillin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Female , Lactation , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Organic Agriculture , Penicillins/pharmacology , Prevalence , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus/drug effects
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 15(5): 462-466, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612705


OBJECTIVES: To examine the spatial distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its clonal patterns collected between 2002 and 2006 in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: As part of an observational study in São Paulo city, Brazil, S. pneumoniae isolates routinely cultured from blood, respiratory specimens, or cerebrospinal and other profound fluids were selected. Additionally, only isolates with either penicillin (PEN) intermediate (I) or resistant (R) status on routine antibiogram were included, in order to obtain a higher probability of clonal isolates. A single I/R S. pneumoniae isolate per patient was included and submitted to genotypic determination by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for the isolates by Etest® to PEN and other antimicrobials. Each isolate was geocoded in a digital map. The Kernel function and ratio methods between total isolates vs. clones were used in order to explore possible cluster formations. RESULTS: Seventy-eight (78) S. pneumoniae community isolates from two major outpatient centers in São Paulo, Brazil, were selected from the databank according to their penicillin susceptibility profile, i.e. R or I to penicillin assessed by oxacillin disc diffusion. Of these, 69 were submitted to PFGE, 65 to MIC determination, and 48 to spatial analytical procedures. Preliminary spatial analysis method showed two possible cluster formation located in southwest and southeast regions of the city. CONCLUSION: Further analyses are required for precisely determining the existence of S. pneumoniae clusters and their related risk factors. Apparently there is a specific transmission pattern of S. pneumoniae clones within certain regions and populations. GIS and spatial methods can be applied to better understand epidemiological patterns and to identify target areas for public health interventions.

Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Penicillin Resistance/genetics , Penicillins/pharmacology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics , Cluster Analysis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Geographic Information Systems , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 87(1): 70-75, jan.-fev. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-576132


OBJETIVOS: Identificar os sorotipos de pneumococo mais frequentemente isolados de crianças internadas com pneumonia invasiva, comparar os sorotipos com os incluídos em vacinas conjugadas e analisar sua sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos mais utilizados na faixa etária pediátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, retrospectivo das pneumonias pneumocócicas identificadas em crianças internadas no hospital universitário da Universidade de São Paulo, no período de janeiro de 2003 a outubro de 2008. Os critérios de inclusão foram: faixa etária de 29 dias até 15 anos incompletos com diagnóstico clínico e radiológico de pneumonia e com cultura de sangue e/ou líquido pleural com crescimento de Streptococcus pneumoniae. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas no estudo 107 crianças. Os sorotipos mais frequentes foram: 14 (36,5 por cento), 1 (16,7 por cento), 5 (14,6 por cento), 6B (6,3 por cento) e 3 (4,2 por cento). A proporção de sorotipos contidos na vacina conjugada heptavalente seria de 53,1 por cento, na vacina 10-valente de 86,5 por cento e na 13-valente seria de 96,9 por cento. De acordo com os padrões do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2008, 100 cepas (93,5 por cento) de pneumococos foram sensíveis à penicilina (concentração inibitória mínima, CIM < 2 µg/mL), 7 cepas (6,5 por cento) com resistência intermediária (CIM = 4 µg/mL) e nenhuma com resistência (CIM > 8 µg/mL). Verificamos alta taxa de sensibilidade para as cepas testadas para vancomicina, rifampicina, ceftriaxone, clindamicina, cloranfenicol e eritromicina. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados confirmam um expressivo impacto potencial das vacinas conjugadas, principalmente pela 10-valente e 13-valente, sobre os casos de pneumonias invasivas. Os resultados de sensibilidade à penicilina evidenciam que a opção terapêutica de escolha para o tratamento das pneumonias invasivas continua sendo a penicilina.

OBJECTIVES: To identify the most common pneumococcal serotypes in children hospitalized with invasive pneumonia, correlate isolated serotypes with those included in conjugate vaccines, and ascertain the sensitivity of the isolated pneumococcal strains to penicillin and other antibiotics. METHODS: From January 2003 to October 2008, a retrospective study of hospitalized children with a diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia was conducted at the university hospital of Universidade de São Paulo. Criteria for inclusion were: age greater than 29 days and less than 15 years, radiological and clinical diagnosis of pneumonia, and isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures and/or pleural effusion. RESULTS: The study included 107 children. The most common serotypes were 14 (36.5 percent), 1 (16 percent), 5 (14.6 percent), 6B (6.3 percent) and 3 (4.2 percent). The proportion of identified serotypes contained in the heptavalent, 10-valent and 13-valent conjugate vaccines was 53.1, 86.5, and 96.9 percent, respectively. Pneumococcal strains were sensitive to penicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC < 2 µg/mL) in 100 cases (93.5 percent) and displayed intermediate resistance (MIC = 4 µg/mL) in 7 cases (6.5 percent). No strains were penicillin-resistant (MIC > 8 µg/mL) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2008 standards. Tested isolates were highly sensitive to vancomycin, rifampicin, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm a significant potential impact of conjugate vaccines, mainly 10-valent and 13-valent, on invasive pneumonia. Furthermore, susceptibility testing results show that penicillin is still the treatment of choice for invasive pneumonia in our setting.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics , Brazil , Hospitals, University , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(10): 964-968, Oct. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-561231


A better understanding of dendritic cell (DC) involvement in responses to haptenic drugs is needed, because it represents a possible approach to the development of an in vitro test, which could identify patients prone to drug allergies. There are two main DC subsets: plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and myeloid DC (mDC). β-lactams form hapten-carrier conjugates and may provide a suitable model to study DC behavior in drug allergy reactions. It has been demonstrated that drugs interact differently with DC in drug allergic and non-allergic patients, but there are no studies regarding these subsets. Our aim was to assess the functional changes of mDC and pDC harvested from an amoxicillin-hypersensitive 32-year-old woman who experienced a severe maculopapular exanthema as reflected in interleukin-6 (IL-6) production after stimulation with this drug and penicillin. We also aim to demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of this method for dendritic cell isolation followed by in vitro stimulation for studies of drug allergy physiopathology. DC were harvested using a double Percoll density gradient, which generates a basophil-depleted cell (BDC) suspension. Further, pDC were isolated by blood DC antigen 4-positive magnetic selection and gravity filtration through magnetized columns. After stimulation with amoxicillin, penicillin and positive and negative controls, IL-6 production was measured by ELISA. A positive dose-response curve for IL-6 after stimulation with amoxicillin and penicillin was observed for pDC, but not for mDC or BDC suspension. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of this methodology to expand the knowledge of the effect of dendritic cell activation by drug allergens.

Adult , Female , Humans , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology , /immunology , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/physiology , Drug Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Exanthema/chemically induced , Exanthema/immunology , Penicillins/pharmacology
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77839


BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the performance of the recently introduced MicroScan Synergies plus Positive Combo 3 Panels (SIPC3) (Dade Behring Inc., USA). We evaluated the clinical efficacy of the panels in identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Staphylococcusaureus and enterococci. METHODS: To evaluate the panels' accuracy of identification, the results obtained using the test panels were compared with those obtained by using conventional biochemical tests in conjunction with VITEK 2 system (bio-Merieux, USA). In addition, the AST results obtained using the panels were compared with those obtained by performing CLSI broth microdilution. RESULTS: The overall agreement between the approaches for the ID of S. aureus and enterococci was 100% and 96%, respectively. The categorical and essential agreements (CA and EA) for S. aureus were 98%, each. Very major errors (VME), major errors (ME), and minor error (mE) for S. aureus were 0.45%, 0.3%, and 4.2%, respectively. The majority of VMEs were for oxacillin (8.6%), penicillin (2.0%), erythromycin (7.9%), clindamycin (3.8%), and tetracycline (4.1%). For enterococci, the CA, EA, VME, ME, and mE were 88.8%, 93.7%, 4.4%, 0%, and 2.8%, respectively. The 80.5% (29/36) of Enterococcus faecium had concordant ID with the reference. Most of the categorical errors (3 VMEs and 14 mEs) were observed for quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid; Catalytica Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA). CONCLUSIONS: The panels compared favorably with conventional methods for the ID and AST of S. aureus. However, we expected a better performance for ID of E. faecium and AST using Synercid.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterococcus/drug effects , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Oxacillin/pharmacology , Penicillins/pharmacology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Tetracycline/pharmacology
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 85(5): 421-425, set.-out. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-530118


OBJETIVO: Avaliar impacto dos novos pontos de corte de sensibilidade à penicilina nas taxas de resistência de cepas de pneumococo obtidas de crianças com pneumonia. MÉTODOS: Cepas de pneumococo isoladas no laboratório de análises clínicas do Hospital de Clínicas de Uberlândia, Uberlândia (MG), a partir de amostras de pacientes internados foram enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo (SP), para confirmação da identificação, sorotipagem e determinação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: De abril de 1999 a dezembro de 2008 foram enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz 330 cepas de pneumococo, sendo 195 (59 por cento) provenientes de pacientes com diagnóstico de pneumonia. Destas, foram analisadas 100 cepas de pacientes com idade ≤ 12 anos; a idade dos pacientes variou de 1 a 12,6 anos, com média de 2,4 e mediana de 1,7 anos; 47 pacientes eram do sexo masculino; as fontes de recuperação foram sangue (42 por cento) e líquido pleural (58 por cento). Foram detectadas 35 cepas oxacilina-resistentes: segundo os critérios do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) de 2007 [concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) ≤ 0,06 µg/mL para sensibilidade (S), 0,12 a 1 µg/mL para resistência intermediária (RI) e ≥ 2 µg/mL para resistência plena (RP)], 22 cepas apresentaram RI e 11, RP para penicilina. De acordo com os critérios atuais do CLSI de 2008 (≤ 2 µg/mL para S, 4 µg/mL para RI e ≥ 8 µg/mL para RP) apenas uma cepa confirmou RI à penicilina. Detectou-se resistência a cotrimoxazol (80 por cento), tetraciclina (21 por cento), eritromicina (13 por cento), clindamicina (13 por cento) e ceftriaxona (uma cepa, simultaneamente resistente a penicilina). CONCLUSÕES: Com a aplicação dos novos pontos de corte para sensibilidade in vitro, as taxas de resistência a penicilina caíram 97 por cento, de 33 para 1 por cento.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of new penicillin susceptibility breakpoints on resistance rates of pneumococcal strains collected from children with pneumonia. METHODS: Pneumococcal strains collected from patients admitted with pneumonia were isolated at the clinical analysis lab of Hospital de Clínicas de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil, and sent to Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil, for further identification, serotyping and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility. RESULTS: From April 1999 to December 2008, 330 strains of pneumococcus were sent to Instituto Adolfo Lutz; of these, 195 (59 percent) were collected from patients with pneumonia. One hundred strains collected from patients ≤ 12 years old were analyzed. The patients' age ranged from 1 to 12.6 years old (with mean age of 2.4 and median of 1.7 years). Forty-seven patients were male. The strains were isolated from blood (42 percent) and pleural fluid (58 percent). There were 35 oxacillin-resistant strains: according to the criteria defined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2007 [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 0.06 µg/mL for susceptibility (S), 0.12 to 1 µg/mL for intermediate resistance (IR), and ≥ 2 µg/mL for full resistance (FR)], 22 strains had IR and 11 strains had FR. According to the current breakpoints defined by the CLSI in 2008 (≤ 2 µg/mL for S, 4 µg/mL for IR and ≥ 8 µg/mL for FR), only one strain had IR to penicillin. There was resistance to co-trimoxazole (80 percent), tetracycline (21 percent), erythromycin (13 percent), clindamycin (13 percent), and ceftriaxone (one strain simultaneously resistant to penicillin). CONCLUSIONS: When the new breakpoints for in vitro susceptibility were applied, penicillin resistance rates dropped 97 percent, from 33 to 1 percent.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Penicillin Resistance , Penicillins/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/classification , Pleural Cavity/microbiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/blood , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification
Clinics ; 64(4): 295-302, 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-511929


INTRODUCTION: S. aureus is one of the main agents of nosocomial infection and is sometimes difficult to treat with currently available active antimicrobials. PURPOSE: To analyze the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) as well as the MRSA antimicrobial susceptibility profile isolated in the saliva of health professionals at a large public education hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The project was approved by the research and ethics committee of the institution under study. Three samples of saliva from 340 health professionals were collected. The saliva analysis used to identify S. aureus was based on mannitol fermentation tests, catalase production, coagulase, DNAse, and lecithinase. In order to detect MRSA, samples were submitted to the disk diffusion test and the oxacillin agar screening test . In order to identify the minimum inhibitory concentration, the Etest® technique was used. RESULTS: The prevalence of MSSA was 43.5 percent (148/340), and MRSA was 4.1 percent (14/340). MRSA detected by the diffusion disk test, was 100 percent resistant to penicillin and oxacillin, 92.9 percent resistant to erythromycin, 57.1 percent resistant to clindamycin, 42.9 percent resistant to ciprofloxacin and 57.1 percent resistant to cefoxetin. CONCLUSION: This subject is important for both the education of health professionals and for preventative measures. Standard and contact-precautions should be employed in professional practice.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Health Personnel , Saliva/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin/pharmacology , Oxacillin/pharmacology , Penicillins/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Young Adult
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 50(4): 203-207, July-Aug. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-492723


The minimum inhibitory concentration and post-antibiotic effects of an antimicrobial agent are parameters to be taken into consideration when determining its dosage schedules. The in vitro post-antibiotic effects on cell surface hydrophobicity and bacterial adherence were examined in one strain of group B streptococci. Exposure of the microorganism for 2 h at 37 °C to 1 x MIC of penicillin induced a PAE of 1.1 h. The cell surface charge of the Streptococcus was altered significantly during the post-antibiotic phase as shown by its ability to bind to xylene: hydrophobicity was decreased. Bacterial adherence to human buccal epithelial cells was also reduced. The results of the present investigation indicate that studies designed to determine therapeutic regimens should evaluate the clinical significance of aspects of bacterial physiology during the post-antibiotic period.

A concentração mínima inibitória e os efeitos pós-antibióticos (EPA) de um agente antimicrobiano são parâmetros que devem ser levados em consideração quando da determinação do esquema de dosagem. Os efeitos pós-antibióticos in vitro na hidrofobicidade de superfície celular e na aderência foram pesquisados em uma amostra de estreptococos do grupo B. A exposição do microrganismo por 2 h a 37 °C a 1 x CMI de penicilina induziu um EPA de 1,1 h. A carga da superfície celular da bactéria foi alterada significativamente durante a fase pós-antibiótica revelada através da capacidade de ligação ao xileno, indicada pela diminuição da hidrofobicidade. A aderência bacteriana às células epiteliais bucais humanas também foi reduzida. Os resultados da investigação demonstram que estudos clínicos destinados a determinar regimes terapêuticos deveriam incluir o conhecimento da fisiologia bacteriana durante o período pós-antibiótico.

Humans , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Penicillins/pharmacology , Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mouth Mucosa/cytology , Streptococcus agalactiae/chemistry
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 84(3): 276-280, May-June. 2008. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-485287


OBJETIVO: Doença Invasiva Pneumocócica (DPI) afeta crianças principalmente menores de 5 anos, idosos e grupos de risco, especialmente pessoas infectadas pelo vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV). O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as doenças pneumocócicas invasivas (DPI) em crianças e adolescentes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV), de acordo com morbiletalidade, sorotipos, sensibilidade à penicilina e ceftriaxona e distribuição de Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) sensíveis e resistentes presentes na vacina antipneumocócica conjugada 7-valente, já licenciada. MÉTODOS: Foram identificados 19 casos de DPI entre pacientes HIV soropositivos com idade entre 1 mês e 20 anos hospitalizados de 1993 a 2000. Os dados foram registrados em fichas padronizadas, contendo informações sobre idade, diagnóstico clínico e evolução, sorotipos e perfil de sensibilidade para penicilina e ceftriaxona das cepas de Sp isoladas em cultura. Sp com concentração inibitória mínima < 0,1 mcg/mL foi considerado sensível à penicilina (SpSPn), e as demais cepas como não sensíveis (SpNSPn). RESULTADOS: Dos 19 casos de DPI em HIV soropositivos, 16 (84 por cento) tinham pneumonia e três (16 por cento), meningite; 13 (68 por cento) ocorreram em crianças menores de 2 anos e 16 (84 por cento) em menores de 5 anos. A letalidade foi de 10 por cento. Dos 13 casos em menores de 2 anos, sete (54 por cento) foram SpNSPn e 10 (77 por cento) foram causados por sorotipos contemplados na vacina antipneumocócica conjugada 7-valente. Foram isolados 10 sorotipos, sendo mais freqüentes o 14, 6B e 23F, todos sensíveis à ceftriaxona. Dos três casos de meningite, dois foram causados por SpNSPn. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria das DPI ocorreu em menores de 2 anos de idade; 77 por cento das cepas e 86 por cento dos sorotipos de SpNSPn estão contemplados pela vacina antipneumocócica conjugada 7-valente.

OBJECTIVE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) primarily affects children less than 5 years old, the elderly and certain at-risk groups; especially people infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to analyze invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children and adolescents infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with relation to morbidity, the case fatality ratio, pneumococcus serotypes, susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone and to the proportion of susceptible and resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that has already been licensed. METHODS: A total of 19 cases of IPD were identified among HIV seropositive patients aged from 1 month to 20 years and hospitalized between 1993 and 2000. Data were recorded on standardized charts containing information on age, clinical diagnosis and progression, serotypes and the susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone of the Sp strains identified in cultures. When the minimum inhibitory concentration was < 0.1 mcg/mL, Sp were defined as susceptible to penicillin (SpSPn), and all other strains were defined as not susceptible (SpNSPn). RESULTS: Of the 19 HIV seropositive cases with IPD, 16 (84 percent) had pneumonia and three (16 percent), had meningitis; 13 (68 percent) cases were children less than 2 years old and 16 (84 percent) were less than 5 years old. The case fatality ratio was 10 percent. Seven (54 percent) of the 13 cases less than 2 years old were SpNSPn and 10 (77 percent) were caused by serotypes covered by the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. From the 10 isolated serotypes the most frequent were 14, 6B and 23F, all them susceptible to ceftriaxone. From the three patients with meningitis, two were caused by SpNSPn. CONCLUSION: In this study most of the IPD occurred in children less than 2 years old; 77 percent of the strains and 86 percent of the serotypes of SpNSPn...

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/mortality , Meningococcal Vaccines/immunology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/mortality , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology
Salud pública Méx ; 49(4): 249-255, jul.-ago. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-458837


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is a major factor in the transmission of this bacterium. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nasopharyngeal cultures were performed on children attending 32 day-care centers in 12 states in Mexico. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from the nasopharynx of 829 out of 2 777(29.9 percent) subjects aged two months to six years. All children lived in urban areas and 80 percent spent more than six hours daily in a day-care center. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes most frequently identified were: 19F (23 percent), 6B (15.6 percent), 23F (11.2 percent) and 6A (14.9 percent). Thirty-six percent of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin. CONCLUSIONS: Serotype distribution suggests the possible benefits that could be obtained from the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

OBJETIVO: La intención de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de portadores nasofaríngeos asintomáticos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, el cual es el principal factor en la transmisión de esta bacteria. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los cultivos nasofaríngeos fueron realizados en niños que asisten a 32 estancias infantiles en 12 estados de México. RESULTADOS: Streptococcus pneumoniae fue aislado de la nasofaringe de 829 (29.9 por ciento) niños de los 2 777 incluidos en el estudio con un rango de edad de 2 meses a 6 años. Todos los niños vivían en áreas urbanas y 80 por ciento permanecían más de seis horas diarias en la estancia infantil. Los serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae más frecuentemente identificados fueron: 19F (23 por ciento), 6B (15.6 por ciento), 23F (11.2 por ciento) y 6 A (14.9 por ciento). Treinta y seis por ciento de los aislamientos fueron susceptibles a penicilina. CONCLUSIONES: La distribución de serotipos nos da una idea de los posibles beneficios que podrían obtenerse de la vacuna neumocóccica conjugada heptavalente.

Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Child Day Care Centers , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Mexico , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Penicillins/pharmacology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Time Factors , Urban Population
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2007 Jul; 25(3): 256-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53716


The present study was done to detect the antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae. One hundred twenty S. pneumoniae isolates from clinical specimens and 50 from nasopharyngeal sites were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination for penicillin and cefotaxime non-susceptible isolates. A total of 22 isolates (18.3%) from clinical sites and eight (16%) from nasopharyngeal sites showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin by oxacillin disk diffusion test. MICs of 26 of these resistant strains ranged from 0.12-1 microg/mL (intermediate resistance) by broth dilution and E test. Only four isolates, two from sputum and two from nasopharyngeal swabs, showed MIC of 2 microg/mL (complete resistance). However, MIC of two cefotaxime resistant isolates (by disk diffusion) was in the susceptible range (0.5 microg/mL). Highest antimicrobial resistance was seen to cotrimoxazole (55.2%) and tetracycline (61.2%). Antimicrobial resistance to cotrimoxazole and tetracycline was much more in clinical isolates than colonizing isolates. Multi-drug resistant phenotype was detected in 76.9% (20 of 26) of isolates that were intermediately sensitive to penicillin and 50% (2 of 4) of penicillin resistant isolates (co-resistant to tetracycline and cotrimoxazole). Routine screening for antibiotic susceptibility is recommended for clinical isolates of pneumococci. Strains with reduced susceptibility to penicillin should be subjected to MIC determination to detect relative resistance or true resistance as such strains are associated with increased virulence.The choice of antibiotics should be guided by the prevalence of local resistance patterns of pneumococci.

Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Penicillins/pharmacology , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects