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1.
Femina ; 49(2): 102-108, 20210228. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224066

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Este estudo teve como principal objetivo estimar a prevalência de sífilis gestacional e fatores associados à infecção em uma Maternidade no Sul do Brasil no ano de 2018. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo descritivo, transversal, retrospectivo, no qual foram avaliados os testes rápidos para sífilis de todas as gestantes internadas para atenção ao parto ou ao abortamento na Maternidade Carmela Dutra no ano de 2018. Nos casos confirmados de sífilis, foram obtidos dados epidemiológicos, adequação do tratamento, coinfecção pelo HIV e resultados gestacionais. Resultados: Entre os prontuários analisados, 161 (3,6%) foram considerados casos de sífilis materna. A média de idade das gestantes foi de 27,98 (±6,65), 54 (33,5%) eram primigestas, 114 (70,8%) se declararam brancas, 125 (77,5%) estavam em uma união estável e 85 (52,7%) tinham escolaridade até o ensino médio. Quanto ao tratamento, 71 (44%) trataram de maneira adequada e 90 (56%), de maneira inadequada, e 44 (27,3%) delas realizaram o diagnóstico apenas no momento da internação hospitalar. Entre as pacientes que realizaram tratamento inadequado de sífilis, 28 (53,4%) apresentaram títulos iguais ou superiores a 1:8. Entre as pacientes que realizaram teste rápido para HIV na internação, 5 (3,7%) apresentaram coinfecção com a doença. Com relação ao tratamento dos parceiros no pré-natal, 11,8% não realizaram nenhum tipo de tratamento, porém em 66 (41%) prontuários não constava essa informação. Com relação ao desfecho neonatal, 5 (7,4%) pacientes com tratamento inadequado para sífilis tiveram parto prematuro, 5 (7,4%) recém- -nascidos foram de baixo peso e 22 (24,5%) pacientes apresentaram abortamento da gestação. Conclusão: A alta taxa de tratamentos inadequados sugere falhas na assistência pré-natal e indica serem necessárias novas estratégias para reduzir a transmissão de sífilis na gestação.(AU)


Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of maternal syphilis and factors associated with the infection in Carmela Dutra Maternity in 2018. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study. All of the syphilis rapid- tests on pregnant women admitted for childbirth or miscarriage assistance at Carmela Dutra Maternity in 2018 were avaluated. In the cases of confirmed syphilis infection, the variables were epidemiological data, adequacy of treatment, HIV coinfection and gestational outcomes. Results: Out of all the medical records analyzed, 161 (3.6%) were considered maternal syphilis (MS). The average age of the pregnant women was 27.98 (± 6.65), 54 (33.5%) were primigestae, 114 (70.8%) declared themselves white, 125 (77.5%) were in a stable relationship and 85 (52.7%) had a high school education. Regarding treatment, 71 (44%) were treated adequately and 90 (56%) inadequately. Forty-four (27.3%) were diagnosed only at the time of hospitalization. Amongst patients who had inadequate syphilis treatment, 28 (53.4%) had titers equal to or greater than 1:8. Amongst patients who underwent rapid HIV testing during hospitalization, 5 (3.7%) had HIV coinfection. Regarding the partners treatment during prenatal, 11.8% did not receive any treatment, but 66 (41%) of the medical records did not contain this information. Regarding neonatal outcome, 5 (7.4%) of patients with inadequate treatment for syphilis had premature birth, 5 (7.4%) of newborns were underweight and 22 (24.5%) had miscarriages. Conclusion: The high rate of inadequate treatment suggests failure in prenatal care and indicates that new strategies are necessary to reduce syphilis transmission during pregnancy.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Syphilis/drug therapy , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
REVISA (Online) ; 10(1): 195-204, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177903

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: conhecer as gestantes com sífilis no estado de São Paulo, últimos cinco anos disponíveis. Método: estudo epidemiológico, quantitativo descritivo transversal, com dados secundários, com diagnósticos notificados (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação) - banco de dados do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, das gestantes com sífilis, período 2014-2018. Resultados: encontrado 44.894 gestantes com sífilis no estado de SP, com crescimento importante nos dois últimos anos, maior prevalência (53,1%) na idade de 20-29 anos, raças brancas (43,1%), ensino fundamental completo (27,9%) e médio completo (26,1%). Maior percentual de diagnósticos realizado no primeiro trimestre (49,4%) e, 3,9% das gestantes não realizaram tratamento. Conclusão: é um agravo crescente, com baixa qualidade no preenchimento das fichas de notificação, prejudicando a assistência/qualidade do pré-natal, interferindo nas análises adequadas, afetando a tomada de decisão para tratamento correto. Resultados podem auxiliar em ações de educação em saúde e prevenção dos grupos vulneráveis.


Objective: to get to know pregnant women with syphilis in the state of São Paulo, the last five years available. Method: epidemiological, quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional study, with secondary data, with notified diagnoses (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) - database of the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System, of pregnant women with syphilis, period 2014-2018. Results: found 44,894 pregnant women with syphilis in the state of SP, with significant growth in the last two years, higher prevalence (53.1%) at the age of 20-29 years, white races (43.1%), complete elementary school (27,9%) and complete high school (26.1%). Higher percentage of diagnoses performed in the first trimester (49.4%) and 3.9% of pregnant women did not undergo treatment. Conclusion: it is a growing problem, with low quality in filling out the notification forms, impairing the prenatal care / quality, interfering in the appropriate analyzes, affecting the decision-making for correct treatment. Results can assist in health education and prevention of vulnerable groups.


Objetivo: conocer mujeres embarazadas con sífilis en el estado de São Paulo, los últimos cinco años disponibles. Método: estudio epidemiológico, cuantitativo, descriptivo transversal, con datos secundarios, con diagnósticos notificados (Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables) - base de datos del Departamento de Informática del Sistema Único de Salud, de gestantes con sífilis, período 2014-2018. Resultados: se encontraron 44.894 gestantes con sífilis en el estado de SP, con crecimiento significativo en los últimos dos años, mayor prevalencia (53,1%) en la edad de 20-29 años, razas blancas (43,1%), primaria completa (27 , 9%) y bachillerato completo (26,1%). Mayor porcentaje de diagnósticos realizados en el primer trimestre (49,4%) y 3,9% de gestantes no recibieron tratamiento. Conclusión: es un problema creciente, con baja calidad en el llenado de los formularios de notificación, perjudicando la calidad / atención prenatal, interfiriendo en los análisis adecuados, afectando la toma de decisiones para el correcto tratamiento. Los resultados pueden ayudar en la educación sanitaria y la prevención de grupos vulnerables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Syphilis/epidemiology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Syphilis/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gestational Age , Age Distribution , Continental Population Groups , Educational Status , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e2171, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126493

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Syphilis is classified as a sexually transmitted infectious-contagious disease with the causative agent Treponema pallidum (Tp). It presents distinct stages of evolution: The primary phase is characterized by the appearance of the hard chancre, the secondary phase by the spread of Tp through the bloodstream and systemic involvement, and the tertiary phase by organ infection and nervous system impairment. In congenital syphilis, the Tp is transmitted vertically from mother to child. Objective: Report a case in which the dental team participated in the diagnosis of syphilis. Case presentation: A male 26-year-old patient with leukoderma, HIV-positive and under regular antiretroviral treatment, with no other chronic systemic changes and no previous history of Tp infection, was referred for evaluation by the oral health team. The patient reported having had bisexual relations in recent months with a condom and orogenital contact without a condom. He had not noticed any type of "wound" on the body. Intraoral examination found multiple reddish macules scattered on the lingual dorsum, with a slight detachment and little pain. The quick test was a reagent for syphilis. The patient was referred for evaluation at the medical clinic. Treatment started by two applications of benzyl penicillin with a 7 days' separation between them. Complementary blood tests were also indicated, with special attention to VDRL, which eventually confirmed the Tp infection. Conclusions: Participation of the oral health team in the diagnosis of syphilis constitutes a complementary force for the improvement of health care processes(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: La sífilis se clasifica como una enfermedad contagiosa infecciosa de transmisión sexual, con el agente causal Treponema pallidum (Tp). Presenta distintos estadios de evolución: la fase primaria caracterizada por la aparición del chancre duro; la fase secundaria, la diseminación de la Tp a través del torrente sanguíneo y la afectación sistémica; y la fase terciaria, en que hay infección de órganos y deterioro del sistema nervioso, además de sífilis congénita, forma esta en la que Tp es transmitida verticalmente por la mujer embarazada. Objetivo: Informar sobre un caso en el que la participación del equipo dental colaboró ​​en el proceso de diagnóstico de la sífilis. Presentación del caso: Paciente con 26 años de edad, leucodermia, VIH positivo y en tratamiento antirretroviral regular, sin otros cambios crónicos a nivel sistémico y sin antecedentes de infección por Tp. Se remitió para evaluación con el equipo de salud oral. Informó haber tenido relaciones bisexuales en los últimos meses con un condón y contacto orogenital sin condón. No notó ningún tipo de "herida" en el cuerpo. En el examen intrabucal, se encontraron múltiples máculas rojizas dispersas en el dorso lingual, con un ligero desprendimiento y con poco dolor. La prueba rápida fue un reactivo para sífilis. El paciente fue remitido para su evaluación a clínica médica. Comenzó el tratamiento con dos aplicaciones de penicilina bencilo, con un intervalo de 7 días y se solicitó análisis de sangre complementarios, con especial atención al VDRL, que posteriormente confirmó la infección por Tp. Conclusiones: La participación del equipo de salud bucal frente al diagnóstico de la sífilis, se constituye como una fuerza complementaria para la mejora de los procesos en salud(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Syphilis/diagnosis , Oral Health , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 81-84, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089333

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT China's compulsory annual livestock anthrax vaccination policy has remarkably reduced but not completely eradicated human anthrax infections. Herein we describe a sporadic human cutaneous anthrax outbreak involving two cases in 2018 in Shaanxi Province, both involving herdsman who dealt with unvaccinated and potentially sick cattle. Both patients showed Bacillus anthracis-positive blister smear and blood culture. Treatment with penicillin was followed by uneventful recovery for both. The prompt performance of the prophylactic measures successfully interrupted the further transmission of this sporadic human cutaneous anthrax outbreak.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/pathology , Anthrax/pathology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Bacillus anthracis/isolation & purification , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Treatment Outcome , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/epidemiology , Anthrax/drug therapy , Anthrax/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(1): 105-109, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004390

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La sífilis es una infección de transmisión sexual causada por la bacteria Treponema pallidum. En los últimos años ha habido un aumento en la incidencia de esta enfermedad debido a la creciente infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) e inmunodepresión. Conocida como "la gran imitadora" son muchos los signos y síntomas que puede simular, siendo la presentación orofaríngea infrecuente. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 31 años de edad que acude a nuestro servicio por clínica de otitis media serosa bilateral. En la exploración física se objetiva una masa en cavum y una ulceración en pared faríngea posterior que se biopsia en consultas externas siendo el resultado un intenso infiltrado inflamatorio crónico de probable origen infeccioso, por lo que se decidió tomar una nueva biopsia bajo anestesia general. El día de la intervención, el paciente refirió la aparición de un exantema eritematoso generalizado, pero de predominio palmo-plantar. Interrogado sobre sus antecedentes, el paciente reconoció conductas sexuales de riesgo y ser portador VIH, por lo que se orientó el diagnóstico hacia una probable sífilis secundaria que se confirmó posteriormente mediante serología. Las lesiones de orofaringe, la masa del cavum y el exantema remitieron con tratamiento antibiótico y corticoideo pautado. Cuando las manifestaciones de cabeza y cuello constituyen la presentación inicial de la sífilis, su diagnóstico se retrasa con frecuencia debido al desconocimiento por parte del médico de primaria, e incluso del otorrinolaringólogo, de las formas típicas de presentación en esta localización. Su diagnóstico precoz es fundamental para prevenir la extensión de la enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum. Over the last years there has been an increase of the incidence of this disease due to the growing infection by the human inmunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the inmunosupression. Known as "the great imitator", there are many signs and symptoms that can simulate, being the oropharyngeal presentation infrequent. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who came to our service for bilateral otitis media. Physical examination revealed a mass in the cavum and ulceration in the posterior pharyngeal wall that was biopsied in the outpatient clinic. The result was an intense chronic inflammatory infiltrate of probable infectious origin, so it was decided to take a new biopsy under general anesthesia. On the day of the intervention, the patient reported the appearance of a generalized erythematous rash, but predominantly on the bottoms of the feet and on the palms of the hands. Questioned about his background, the patient recognized risky sexual behavior and being an HIV carrier, so the diagnosis was oriented towards a probable secondary syphilis that was subsequently confirmed by serology. The ulcerations of the oropharynx, the mass of the cavum and the rash subsided with antibiotic treatment and corticoid regimen. When the manifestations of the head and neck are the initial presentation of syphilis, its diagnosis is often delayed due to the lack of knowledge of the physicians of the typical presentation forms in this location. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent the spread of the disease and its complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Syphilis/complications , Oral Ulcer/etiology , Otitis Media , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Treponema pallidum , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/microbiology , Oral Ulcer/microbiology , Erythema/etiology
6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(6): 578-584, nov.- dez. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979722

ABSTRACT

Background: Rheumatic carditis is a challenge for treatment and secondary prophylaxis, due to severe valve sequelae. Objective: To evaluate the cases of rheumatic carditis in patients under 18 years old treated with corticosteroids.Methods: An observational, longitudinal and retrospective study was carried out on the profile of patients, in the period of 2000-2015. We selected those who received corticosteroid therapy at immunosuppressive doses, for the treatment of carditis and were aged 5 to 18 years. Data were extracted from medical records. Calculations of: averages, standard deviations, medians and interquartile ranges, ratios and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. Chi-square and Wilcoxon tests were applied for comparisons. The level of significance was 5%. Results: Of the 93 cases, 93.53% developed moderate or severe carditis. Mitral regurgitation was detected in 100% of the sample. Pulse therapy was administered in 11.83%. Surgery was performed in 23.69% of patients: mitral, aortic and/or tricuspid valve repair or replacement. The evolution of the cases was favorable in 70.96%. There was a good response among those who received only clinical treatment and those who belonged to the surgical group. The comparison of the initial and posterior valve lesions to the corticoid use was statistically significant (p < 0.001). A difference between the ejection fraction medians was observed (p = 0.048). Hospitalization was required twice or more for 45.16% of the patients. The mortality rate was 5.38%.Conclusions: The patients showed significant clinical improvement. The treatment was effective, reducing trivalvular impairment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Rheumatic Fever/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Hospitals, Public , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Aortic Valve , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Prostheses and Implants , Tertiary Healthcare/methods , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Statistical Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Observational Study , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Mitral Valve , Mitral Valve Insufficiency
7.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 3(6)Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841464

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Treponema pallidum is the etiological agent of congenital syphilis, which results from fetal contamination by the infected mothers, who were not treated or were inadequately treated during pregnancy. METHODS: An observational, prospective and longitudinal study, was performed (2010-2014), through the evaluation of 428 newborns during 18 months in a syphilis clinic from a Philanthropic Maternity Hospital in Aracaju, capital city of the Northeastern state of Sergipe, Brazil. The findings were statistically expressed as descriptive data and the statistical program used was SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of congenital syphilis was 10.02/1,000 live births. A total of 120 (28%) of newborns did not attend the first appointment. During the observational period, at 18 months, the rate of abandonment was 75%. The average interval of healing of the newborns was 4.25 months. A high prevalence of congenital syphilis was found with low adhesion to the first consultation and monitoring period; 67.1% of newborns were treated with Crystalline Penicillin (Penicillin G) and only 3% of them required a repeat treatment.


OBJETIVO: A sífilis congênita tem como agente etiológico o Treponema pallidum e resulta da contaminação do feto pela gestante infectada sem tratamento ou com tratamento inadequado. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, prospectivo, longitudinal, com a participação de 428 recém-nascidos que foram acompanhados durante 18 meses em um ambulatório de sífilis de uma Maternidade Filantrópica em Aracaju. Os achados foram estatisticamente expressos de maneira descritiva e o programa estatístico utilizado foi o SPSS. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de sífilis congênita para 1000 nascidos vivos foi de 10,02 casos. Não compareceram à primeira consulta 28,2% dos recém-nascidos. Durante o acompanhamento, aos 18 meses, o percentual de abandono foi de 75%. O intervalo médio de cura dos recém-nascidos foi de 4,25 meses. Foi encontrada uma alta prevalência de sífilis congênita com baixas adesões à primeira consulta e ao acompanhamento; 67,1% foram tratados com penicilina cristalina e apenas 3% necessitaram repetir o tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Syphilis, Congenital/drug therapy , Syphilis, Congenital/transmission , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(4): 393-398, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828123

ABSTRACT

Abstract Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Syphilis has three clinical stages and may present various oral manifestations, mainly at the secondary stage. The disease mimics other more common oral mucosa lesions, going undiagnosed and with no proper treatment. Despite the advancements in medicine toward prevention, diagnosis, and treatment syphilis remains a public health problem worldwide. In this sense, dental surgeons should be able to identify the most common manifestations of the disease in the oral cavity, pointing to the role of this professional in prevention and diagnosis. This study describes a case series of seven patients with secondary syphilis presenting different oral manifestations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Syphilis/complications , Mouth Diseases/etiology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Physician's Role , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Mouth Diseases/prevention & control
9.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 40(1): 57-63, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795373

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To 1) describe the correlation between the zones of inhibition in 1-µg oxacillin disk diffusion (ODD) tests and penicillin and ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of meningeal and non-meningeal strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 2) evaluate the usefulness of the ODD test as a predictor of susceptibility to penicillin in S. pneumoniae and as a quick and cost-effective method easily implemented in a routine clinical laboratory setting. Methods S. pneumoniae isolates from healthy nasopharyngeal carriers less than 2 years old, obtained in a multicentric cross-sectional study conducted in various Peruvian hospitals and health centers from 2007 to 2009, were analyzed. Using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints, the correlation between the zones of inhibition of the ODD test and the MICs of penicillin and ceftriaxone was determined. Results Of the 571 S. pneumoniae isolates, 314 (55%) showed resistance to penicillin (MIC ≥ 0.12 µg/mL) and 124 (21.7%) showed resistance to ceftriaxone (MIC ≥ 1 µg/mL). Comparison of the ODD test zones of inhibition and the penicillin MICs, using the CLSI meningeal breakpoints, showed good correlation (Cohen’s kappa coefficient = 0.8239). Conclusions There was good correlation between ODD zones of inhibition and penicillin meningeal breakpoints but weak correlation between the ODD results and non-meningeal breakpoints for both penicillin and ceftriaxone. Therefore, the ODD test appears to be a useful tool for predicting penicillin resistance in cases of meningeal strains of S. pneumoniae, particularly in low- and middle- income countries, where MIC determination is not routinely available.


RESUMEN Objetivo 1) Describir la correlación entre las zonas de inhibición observadas en la prueba de difusión con discos de oxacilina de 1 µg y la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) de penicilina y ceftriaxona frente a cepas meníngeas y no meníngeas de Streptococcus pneumoniae y 2) evaluar si la prueba de difusión con discos de oxacilina permite predecir la sensibilidad de S. pneumoniae a la penicilina y sirve como método rápido y eficaz en función de los costos, y resulta fácil de aplicar en los laboratorios clínicos ordinarios. Métodos Se analizaron colonias de S. pneumoniae aisladas de la nasofaringe de portadores sanos menores de 2 años obtenidas en un estudio transversal multicéntrico realizado en diversos hospitales y centros de salud del Perú entre los años 2007 y 2009. Se determinó la correlación entre las zonas de inhibición observadas en la prueba de difusión con discos y la CIM de la penicilina y la ceftriaxona utilizando los valores críticos definidos por el Instituto de Estándares Clínicos y de Laboratorio. Resultados De las 571 colonias aisladas de S. pneumoniae, 314 (55 %) presentaron resistencia a la penicilina (CIM ≥ 0,12 µg/ml) y 124 (21,7%), resistencia a la ceftriaxona (CIM ≥ 1 µg/ml). Se observó una buena correlación (coeficiente κ de Cohen = 0,8239) entre las zonas de inhibición de la prueba de difusión con discos y la CIM de la penicilina utilizando los valores críticos del Instituto respecto de las cepas meníngeas. Conclusiones Se encontró una buena correlación entre las zonas de inhibición de la prueba de difusión con discos y los valores críticos de CIM de la penicilina respecto de las cepas meníngeas, pero una correlación débil entre los resultados de la prueba de difusión y los valores críticos tanto de la penicilina como de la ceftriaxona respecto de las cepas no meníngeas. Por consiguiente, la prueba de difusión con discos es un método de utilidad para predecir la resistencia a la penicilina de las cepas meníngeas de S. pneumoniae, en particular en los países de ingresos bajos y medianos, donde no suele ser posible determinar la CIM.


Subject(s)
Oxacillin/administration & dosage , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial
10.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 37(3): 172-177, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752541

ABSTRACT

To characterize the socioeconomic and demographic aspects of sickle cell disease patients from the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN), Northeast Brazil, and their adherence to the recommended treatment. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed at referral centers for the treatment of hematological diseases. One hundred and fifty-five unrelated individuals with sickle cell disease who went to these centers for outpatient visits were analyzed. All the patients, or their caregivers, were informed about the research procedures and objectives, and answered a standardized questionnaire. Results: The patients were predominantly younger than 12 years old, self-declared as mulatto, lived in small towns fairly distant from the referral center, and had low education and socioeconomic levels. Individuals who were ten or younger were diagnosed at an earlier age. Almost 50% of the patients were taking hydroxyurea, 91.4% reported having received pneumococcal/meningococcal vaccinations and 76.1% received penicillin as antibiotic prophylaxis. However, the majority of them reported having difficulties following the recommendations of the physicians, mainly in respect to attaining the prescribed medications and transportation to the referral centers. Conclusion: These individuals have a vulnerable socioeconomic situation that can lead to an aggravation of their general health and thus deserve special attention from the medical and psychosocial perspectives. Thus, it is necessary to improve public policies that provide Brazilian sickle cell disease patients with better access to medical treatment, living conditions, and integration into society.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Fetal Hemoglobin , Hydroxyurea/therapeutic use , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors , Vaccination
11.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2015. 96 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-790320

ABSTRACT

Cirurgiões-dentistas têm a prerrogativa de prescrever medicamentos como adjuvantes ao tratamento odontológico. Em 2011, com a promulgação da Resolução de Diretoria Colegiada no 20 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA, antibióticos se tornaram medicamentos sujeitos a prescrição especial. Este estudo transversal descritivo buscou conhecer o ato prescricional dos cirurgiões-dentistas quanto aos antibióticos, identificar os mais prescritos, determinar se houve erro no atendimento das determinações legais e identificar erros na prescrição profilática. Foram analisadas prescrições odontológicas de antibióticos aviadas na maior rede de drogarias de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, de 1º de julho de 2011 a 30 de junho de 2012. No período da coleta de dados havia 75 lojas em funcionamento. Foi possível recuperar informações sobre as prescrições de 69 delas (Taxa de retorno=92,0%). Para o universo, 31.105 prescrições, foi realizado um sorteio da amostra, com cálculo baseado na estimativa de proporções (50% de proporção estimada de prescrição com erro, 5% de precisão e nível de confiança de 95%). Foram sorteadas 434 prescrições, pela técnica de amostragem aleatória simples. Após exclusão daquelas com repetição de prescritor e/ou de paciente, foram analisadas 366 prescrições. A precisão recalculada para este montante foi igual a 5,09%. Após dupla digitação no programa Epi-Data foi criado um banco de dados no programa SPSS. A pesquisa foi submetida e aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da UFMG. Os resultados das análises demonstraram que a maioria dos antibióticos prescritos pertence ao grupo das penicilinas (71,9%) e dos macrolídeos (17,6%). Também foram prescritos, em menor proporção, antibióticos para aplicação cutânea e vários outros, incluindo antifúngicos, além de associações: amoxicilina com ciprofloxacino e com clindamicina...


Dentists have the prerogative to prescribe drugs as adjuncts to dental treatment (BRASIL, 1966). In 2011, with the enactment of the Collegiate Board Resolution no.20 of the National Health Surveillance Agency - ANVISA, antibiotics became drugs subject to special prescription. This descriptive cross-sectional study aimed to know the limitation act of dentists as to antibiotics, identify the most prescribed, determine if there was an error in meeting the legal requirements and identify errors in prophylactic prescription. Dental antibiotic prescriptions filled in the largest drugstore chain in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais were analyzed from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. In the period of data collection there were 75 stores in operation. It was possible to retrieve information about the prescriptions of 69 of them (return rate = 92%). For the study of 31,105 prescriptions, there was a draw of the sample, with calculation based on estimated proportions (50% of estimated proportion with prescription error, 5% precision and 95% of confidence level). 434 prescriptions were selected by the simple random sampling technique. After excluding those with repeating prescriber and / or patient, 366 prescriptions were analyzed. The accuracy recalculated for this amount was equal to 5.09%. After double entry in Epi-Date program it was created a database in the SPSS software. The research was subjected and approved by the Ethics Committee of UFMG. The results of analysis showed that most prescribed antibiotics belong to the group of penicillins (71.9%) and macrolides (17.6%). Also were prescribed, to a lesser extent, antibiotics for topical application and several others, including antifungal, in addition to associations: amoxicillin with ciprofloxacin and clindamycin. In 27.9% of the prescriptions there were errors in spelling or disobedience to the determination to follow the Brazilian Common Denomination (DCB)...


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Prescriptions , Inappropriate Prescribing , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations, Dental/therapeutic use , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 29(3): 442-445, jul.-sep. 2014. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-743

ABSTRACT

A face representa uma estrutura importante nos seres humanos, devido a ser a parte mais visível do corpo e conter elementos delicados e complexos, que são essenciais em termos de beleza e funcionalidade. As reconstruções faciais, em áreas de grandes perdas de substâncias, permanecem como um desafio para os cirurgiões. Apresentam várias opções de reparo, todas com suas vantagens e desvantagens. Mostramos o caso de um paciente apresentando perda de substância de espessura total em região de bochecha, que foi submetido à associação de retalho mucoso e retalho cutâneo local, apresentando bom resultado e preservação funcional.


The face is an important structure, because it is the most visible part of the body and contains delicate and complex elements that are essential for aesthetics and functionality. Facial reconstruction of areas with substantial substance loss remains a surgical challenge. There are several repair options, with corresponding advantages and disadvantages. We present a case of a patient with substance loss of the total thickness of the cheek region who received mucosal and local skin flap surgery, with good results and functional preservation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , History, 21st Century , Penicillins , Atrophy , Surgical Flaps , Case Reports , Tonsillitis , Cheek , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Diffusion of Innovation , Face , Facial Bones , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Atrophy/surgery , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Surgical Flaps/transplantation , Tonsillitis/pathology , Tonsillitis/drug therapy , Cheek/surgery , Cheek/pathology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/pathology , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Face/abnormalities , Face/surgery , Facial Bones/surgery , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 85(4): 476-485, oct.-dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-697510

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad es una afección frecuente en edades pediátricas, y en sus formas no complicadas puede ser tratada con penicilina o derivados de forma ambulatoria. Objetivos: caracterizar la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad según aspectos clínicos, demográficos e imaginológicos, así como su respuesta a tratamiento antibiótico con seguimiento ambulatorio desde una consulta de atención secundaria de salud. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo en 160 niños con neumonía adquirida en la comunidad no complicada, procedentes del área de atención, tratados con penicilina intramuscular o antibióticos orales, y seguidos de forma ambulatoria hasta el alta. Resultados: la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad fue más frecuente en niños entre 1 y 4 años de edad, que presentaron fiebre y tos en el 100 por ciento y estertores húmedos en más del 80 por ciento . Se localizaron las lesiones inflamatorias en regiones basales del pulmón con predominio del derecho en más de la mitad de los casos. El hábito de fumar en convivientes fue el factor de riesgo más identificado (62,5 por ciento ). La respuesta terapéutica fue favorable en 100 por ciento de los niños, con el primer esquema de tratamiento utilizado. Conclusiones: la penicilina se mantiene como tratamiento de primera línea en niños con neumonía adquirida en la comunidad no complicada. Se enfatiza en la factibilidad del seguimiento ambulatorio en estos pacientes


Introduction: community-acquired pneumonia is a frequent illness at pediatric ages, and if uncomplicated, it can be treated with penicillin or derivatives on an ambulatory basis. Objectives: to characterize the community-acquired pneumonia according to clinical, demographic and imaging aspects, as well as the response to antibiotic therapy with outpatient follow-up in a secondary health care service. Methods: prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study of 160 children suffering uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia, who were treated with intramuscularly administered penicillin or with oral antibiotics, and followed-up as outpatients until discharge. Results: community-acquired pneumonia was more frequent in children aged one to four years, who presented with fever and cough in 100 percent and rales in over 80 percent of cases, respectively. Inflammatory lesions were found in basal areas of the lungs, mainly in the right lung in more than half of cases. Living with smoking persons were the most identified risk factor (62.5 percent ). The therapeutic response to treatment was positive in all the children, with the first treatment scheme used. Conclusions: penicillin remains the treatment of choice in children having uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia. Emphasis is made on the feasibility of outpatient follow-up in these patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Ambulatory Care/methods , Secondary Care/methods , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(3): 339-348, jun. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678261

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for the development of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in non-ventilated patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study conducted over a three-year period at a tertiary-care teaching hospital. We included only non-ventilated patients diagnosed with HAP and presenting with positive bacterial cultures. Categorical variables were compared with chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for HAP caused by MDR bacteria. RESULTS: Of the 140 patients diagnosed with HAP, 59 (42.1%) were infected with MDR strains. Among the patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and those infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, mortality was 45.9% and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.763). Among the patients infected with MDR and those infected with non-MDR gram-negative bacilli, mortality was 45.8% and 38.3%, respectively (p = 0.527). Univariate analysis identified the following risk factors for infection with MDR bacteria: COPD; congestive heart failure; chronic renal failure; dialysis; urinary catheterization; extrapulmonary infection; and use of antimicrobial therapy within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of antibiotics within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP was the only independent predictor of infection with MDR bacteria (OR = 3.45; 95% CI: 1.56-7.61; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center study, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP was the only independent predictor of infection with MDR bacteria in non-ventilated patients with HAP. .


OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de pneumonia adquirida no hospital (PAH), não associada à ventilação mecânica e causada por bactérias multirresistentes (MR). MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte observacional retrospectivo, conduzido ao longo de três anos em um hospital universitário terciário. Incluímos apenas pacientes sem ventilação mecânica, com diagnóstico de PAH e com cultura bacteriana positiva. Variáveis categóricas foram comparadas por meio do teste do qui-quadrado. A análise de regressão logística foi usada para determinar os fatores de risco para PAH causada por bactérias MR. RESULTADOS: Dos 140 pacientes diagnosticados com PAH, 59 (42,1%) apresentavam infecção por cepas MR. As taxas de mortalidade nos pacientes com cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes e sensíveis à meticilina, respectivamente, foram de 45,9% e 50,0% (p = 0,763). As taxas de mortalidade nos pacientes com PAH causada por bacilos gram-negativos MR e não MR, respectivamente, foram de 45,8% e 38,3% (p = 0,527). Na análise univariada, os fatores associados com cepas MR foram DPOC, insuficiência cardíaca crônica, insuficiência renal crônica, diálise, cateterismo urinário, infecções extrapulmonares e uso de antimicrobianos nos 10 dias anteriores ao diagnóstico de PAH. Na análise multivariada, o uso de antimicrobianos nos 10 dias anteriores ao diagnóstico foi o único fator preditor independente de cepas MR (OR = 3,45; IC95%: 1,56-7,61; p = 0,002). CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo unicêntrico, o uso de antimicrobianos de largo espectro 10 dias antes do diagnóstico de PAH foi o único preditor independente da presença de bactérias MR em pacientes ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Pneumonia, Bacterial/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/microbiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Quinolones/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 84(2): 101-110, 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-754179

ABSTRACT

Tras la incorporación en Uruguay de vacunas conjugadas neumocócicas (PCV), se registró un descenso en las hospitalizaciones por neumonía bacteriana adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) en el Hospital Pediátrico del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (HP-CHPR). Así mismo, en los últimos años se asistió a niños que desarrollaron neumonía necrotizante (NN). Se denomina NN a casos de NAC en los que la inflamación determina isquemia y necrosis del parénquima, con formación de neumatoceles y fístula broncopleural, cuando ésta se produce en la periferia del pulmón. Son pacientes graves, con mal estado general, fiebre persistente y requieren hospitalizaciones prolongadas. Los neumatoceles se diagnostican en la radiografía y/o la tomografía computada de tórax. Se realizó la descripción de los niños con NAC hospitalizados en el HP-CHPR, que evolucionaron a NN en el año 2010. Se diagnosticaron 28 niños, con un promedio de edad de 36 meses, la mayoría sanos y eutróficos. Los neumatoceles fueron identificados en la radiografía de tórax en casi todos los pacientes. Presentaron en promedio 7 días de fiebre. La mayoría evolucionó con complicaciones pulmonares y/o extrapulmonares. Diez niños requirieron ingreso a unidad de terapia intensiva. Las hospitalizaciones tuvieron una duración de hasta 43 días. Ningún paciente falleció. En la mitad de los casos se identificó Streptococcus pneumoniae. Todas las cepas aisladas eran sensibles a penicilina. Ninguno de los pacientes en los que se aisló cepas contenidas en las PCV estaba adecuadamente vacunado. La NN es una complicación grave de NAC, que ocurre en niños sanos. Determina hospitalizaciones prolongadas y gran morbilidad. Es importante mantener la vigilancia de los ingresos hospitalarios por NAC y sus complicaciones luego de la vacunación universal con PCV...


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pneumonia, Bacterial/complications , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/etiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/therapy , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Necrosis , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Lung/pathology
16.
s.l; s.n; 2013. tab.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-837006

ABSTRACT

A Doença Falciforme (DF) é uma das doenças hereditárias mais comuns no mundo. A causa da doença é uma mutação no gene que produz a hemoglobina A originando outra mutante denominada hemoglobina S, que é uma herança recessiva. A presença de apenas um gene para hemoglobina S, combinado com outro gene para hemoglobina A possui um padrão genético AS (heterozigose) que não produz manifestações da doença e é identificado como "portador do traço falciforme. As pessoas com doença falciforme podem apresentar sintomatologia importante e graves complicações. As crises dolorosas são as complicações mais freqüentes da doença falciforme e comumente constituem a sua primeira manifestação. Essas crises de dor duram normalmente de quatro a seis dias, podendo, às vezes, persistir por semanas. Vulnerabilidade a infecções, que chega a ser 600 vezes maior em crianças falcêmicas, anemia crônica, seqüestro esplênico, síndrome torácica aguda e priapismo são algumas das intercorrências freqüentes nessas pessoas. Com o diagnóstico confirmado, os pacientes devem ser encaminhados para um centro de referência de atenção de média complexidade, para o cadastro e o início da assistência. Nos cuidados iniciais, deve ser confirmado o diagnóstico. Nesse momento devem ser fornecidas as primeiras informações sobre a doença e seu caráter hereditário, além das principais medidas de profilaxia, como a penicilina e o ácido fólico. Até o quinto ano de vida, período de maior ocorrência de óbitos e complicações graves, os cuidados profiláticos representam a essência do tratamento. Outras medidas também tiveram expressiva contribuição para a qualidade de vida das pessoas com DF, tais como, controle das infecções por meio das imunizações, a identificação das crianças com maior risco para Doenças Cerebrovascular (DCV), particularmente de Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) pelo uso do Doppler Transcraniano (DTC), o início precoce das transfusões de hemácias, diagnóstico e tratamento da síndrome torácica aguda (STA), orientação educacional às famílias e às pessoas com doença falciforme, além da capacitação dos profissionais de saúde. Os medicamentos que compõem a rotina de tratamento e integram a farmácia básica são: ácido fólico (uso contínuo), penicilina injetável (obrigatoriamente até os cinco anos de idade), antibióticos, analgésicos e anti-inflamatórios (usados nas intercorrências). Hidroxiureia, quelantes de ferro, doppler transcraniano e transfusões sanguíneas estão incluídos nos procedimentos da média e alta complexidade. O uso de penicilina profilática com o objetivo reduzir a incidência de infecções e a mortalidade é preconizado desde o diagnóstico da doença falciforme até os cinco anos de idade, além do uso de um calendário vacinal mais alargado. Essa profilaxia antibiótica pode ser feita com penicilina V/oral (fenoximetilpenicilina/suspensão) ou penicilina G/injetável (penicilina G benzatina/intramuscular) conforme consta no Manual de Condutas Básicas na Doença Falciforme do Ministério da Saúde. Conforme avaliação realizada pelo Departamento de Assistência Farmacêutica do MS, este medicamento será adquirido de forma centralizada pelo Ministério da Saúde com recursos próprios. Os membros da CONITEC, presentes na 12ª reunião do plenário do dia 05/02/2013, decidiram, por unanimidade, pela incorporação da penicilina oral na Relação dos Medicamentos Essenciais do SUS para profilaxia antimicrobiana em pacientescom doença falciforme. Os membros da CONITEC presentes na reunião do dia 03/04/2013 deliberaram, por unanimidade, recomendar a incorporação da penicilina oral para profilaxia de infecção em crianças menores de 5 anos com doença falciforme. A Portaria nº 45, de 10 de setembro de 2013 - Torna pública a decisão de incorporar a penicilina oral para profilaxia de infecção em crianças menores de 5 anos com doença falciforme no Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Penicillins/administration & dosage , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Brazil , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unified Health System
17.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 78(1): 48-50, 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-677308

ABSTRACT

La actinomicosis pelviana es una enfermedad granulomatosa crónica muy infrecuente, causada por un bacilo Gram positivo, y que clínicamente suele confundirse con neoplasias pelvianas. Se presenta un caso clínico en que sospechó la infección en forma temprana, logrando resultados exitosos con tratamiento médico.


Pelvic actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease quite uncommon; it is caused by positive Gram bacilli, and clinically it may appear as a pelvic neoplasia. We present a case report in which the infection was pursued actively, achieving excellent results with medical treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Actinomycosis/diagnosis , Actinomycosis/drug therapy , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease/diagnosis , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Pelvic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Penicillins/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(5): 625-628, mayo 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-648589

ABSTRACT

We report five male patients, aged 35 to 63 years who suffered from paretic neurosyphilis. The clinical course was that of a subacute dementia with a frontal syndrome, with more apathy than euphoria. All were HIV negative and four were heterosexual. In all, the cerebrospinal fluid had a mononuclear pleocytosis and a positive VDRL. EEG was abnormal in the 3 cases in whom it was performed. One patient in whom a brain angiography was performed, had images of vasculitis. Treatment with 18-24 million units of penicillin per day during two weeks or more, was partially effective.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dementia , Neurosyphilis , Dementia/complications , HIV Seronegativity , Neurosyphilis/complications , Neurosyphilis/diagnosis , Neurosyphilis/drug therapy , Penicillins/therapeutic use
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 73(3): 288-290, jun. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-555074

ABSTRACT

Retinitis and panuveitis in immunocompetent patients is a rare and sight-threatening disease, of difficult diagnosis. A case of a 31-year-old male who presented with unilateral placoid retinitis and panuveitis, unsuccessfully treated as acute retinal necrosis, that in fact was syphilis, with neurosyphilis and excellent response to treatment is reported.


Retinite com panuveíte em pacientes imunocompetentes é um condição rara e ameaçadora para a visão, e de difícil diagnóstico. É relatado um caso de um paciente do sexo masculino com 31 anos de idade, que se apresentou com retinite em placas e panuveíte, inicialmente tratado sem sucesso como necrose aguda de retina, que na verdade era um caso de sífilis ocular, com afecção do sistema nervoso central e ótima resposta ao tratamento sistêmico para sífilis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Eye Infections, Bacterial/complications , Panuveitis/microbiology , Retinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute/diagnosis , Retinitis/microbiology , Syphilis/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Panuveitis/drug therapy , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Retinitis/drug therapy , Syphilis/complications , Syphilis/drug therapy
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-631516

ABSTRACT

The clinical syndrome of pneumonia in adults in Port Moresby, the capital city of Papua New Guinea, has changed from the 1970s to the present. The severe lobar pneumonia commonly diagnosed in young adult men, characteristically from Goilala and living in settlements in Port Moresby, is no longer seen. Today pneumonia in adults is likely to be milder and bronchopneumonic in type. Possible explanations for the change include changes in immunity and in the bacteria found in the environment and carried in the nasopharynx of recent immigrants to the city. A change in treatment-seeking behaviour together with the wide availability of oral antibiotics is considered to be the most likely cause of the altered clinical syndrome that we have observed.


Subject(s)
Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Papua New Guinea/epidemiology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Risk Factors , Young Adult
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