Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.
Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.
Subject(s)Humans , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicides/toxicity , Aspergillus , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Organophosphonates , Fungi , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
Since the classic studies of Alexander Flemming, Penicillium strains have been known as a rich source of antimicrobial substances. Recent studies have identified novel metabolites produced by Penicillium sclerotiorum that have antibacterial, antifouling and pharmaceutical activities. Here, we report the isolation of a P. sclerotiorum (LM 5679) from Amazonian soil and carry out a culture-based study to determine whether it can produce any novel secondary metabolite(s) that are not thus-far reported for this genus. Using a submerged culture system, secondary metabolites were recovered by solvent extract followed by thin-layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. One novel secondary metabolite was isolated from P. sclerotiorum (LM 5679); the phenolic compound 5-pentadecyl resorcinol widely known as an antifungal, that is produced by diverse plant species. This metabolite was not reported previously in any Penicillium species and was only found once before in fungi (that time, in a Fusarium). Here, we discuss the known activities of 5-pentadecyl resorcinol in the context of its mode-of-action as a hydrophobic (chaotropicity-mediated) stressor.
Desde os estudos clássicos de Alexander Flemming, as cepas de Penicillium são conhecidas como uma fonte rica em substâncias antimicrobianas. Estudos recentes identificaram novos metabólitos produzidos pela espécie Penicillium sclerotiorum com atividades antibacteriana, anti-incrustante e farmacêutica. Aqui, relatamos o isolamento de uma colônia de P. sclerotiorum (LM 5679) do solo amazônico e relatamos também o estudo baseado em cultura para determinar se ele pode produzir qualquer novo metabólito (s) secundário (s) que não foram relatados até agora para este gênero. Usando um sistema de cultura submerso, os metabólitos secundários foram recuperados por extrato de solvente seguido por cromatografia em camada delgada, ressonância magnética nuclear e espectroscopia de massa. Um novo metabólito secundário foi isolado de P. sclerotiorum (LM 5679); o composto fenólico 5-pentadecil resorcinol que é amplamente conhecido como um antifúngico que é produzido por diversas espécies de plantas. Este metabólito não foi relatado anteriormente em nenhuma espécie de Penicillium, e foi encontrado apenas uma vez em fungos (Fusarium). Aqui, discutimos as atividades conhecidas do 5-pentadecil resorcinol no contexto de seu modo de ação como um estressor hidrofóbico (mediado pela caotropicidade).
Subject(s)Penicillium , Resorcinols , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents
Chemical investigation of the culture extract of an endophytic Penicillium citrinum from Dendrobium officinale, afforded nine citrinin derivatives (1-9) and one peptide-polyketide hybrid GKK1032B (10). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined for the first time by calculation of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Among them, GKK1032B (10) showed significant cytotoxicity against human osteosarcoma cell line MG63 with an IC50 value of 3.49 μmol·L-1, and a primary mechanistic study revealed that it induced the apoptosis of MG63 cellsvia caspase pathway activation.
Subject(s)Humans , Apoptosis , Bone Neoplasms , Caspases , Osteosarcoma/drug therapy , Penicillium
El presente trabajo de investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar la calidad microbiológica del aire en seis áreas de la Microestación Biológica-Zoocriadero de la Universidad Nacional Agraria de la Selva-Tingo María-Perú; procediéndose de la siguiente manera: Se seleccionaron seis áreas de muestreo (A1: Boletería, A2: Caseta gallito de las rocas, A3: Zona de las tortugas, A4: Caseta del otorongo, A5: Caseta de los monos y A6: Cocina), de los cuales para la determinación de los parámetros físicos (PAS, temperatura, humedad relativa, precipitación y rosa de viento) se obtuvo información de la estación meteorológica de la UNAS y de lecturas directas en campo, para la determinación de las PAS se realizó por el método pasivo obteniéndose la mayor concentración de PAS en el área 1 "Boletería" (12.61 t/km2/mes, 11.08 t/km2/mes y 8.4 t/km2/mes) y la más baja en el área 5 "caseta de los monos" (2.80 t/km2/mes, 2.80 t/km2/mes y 3.2 t/km2/mes); para el análisis microbiológico se realizó por el método de borboteo en líquidos, identificándose 27 géneros entre bacterias y hongos, siendo las bacterias más frecuentes Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Enterobacter agglomerans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter hafniae y algunas bacterias patógenas para el hombre como Streptococcus sp., Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus anthracis. Los hongos de mayor frecuencia son Penicillium sp., Aspergillius sp., Geotrichum sp., algunos hongos patógenos identificados: Microsporum sp., Epirophyton sp. Por otro lado, para la percepción del público como trabajadores se aplicó encuestas, donde indicaron que la calidad microbiológica del aire en la Microestación Biológica-Zoocriadero es regular(AU)
The objective of this research paper is to assess the microbiological quality of the air in six areas of the Biologial Micro-station and animal breeding farm of the Peruvian Univeristy "Universidad Nacional Agraria de la Selva in Tingo María, Perú", proceeding as follows: Six sampling areas were selected (A1: Ticket Office, A2: Cock-of-the-Rock hut, A3: Turtle area, A4: Otorongo hut, A5: Monkey hut, A6: Kitchen), of wich for the determination of the phisical parameters (SBP, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind rose) information was obtained from the UNAS meteorological station and direct readings in the field. For the determination of SBP was performed by the passive method obtaining the high concentration of SBP in area 1 "Ticket Office" (12.61 t/km2/month, 11.08 t/km2/month and 8.4 t/km2/month) and the lowest in area 5 "monkey house" (2.80 t/km2/month, 2.80 t/km2/month and 3.2 t/km2/month); microbiological analysis was performed by the liquid bubbling method, identifying 27 genera incluiding bacteria and fungi, with the most frequent bacteria being Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Enterobacter agglomerans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter hafniae and some bacteria pathogenic for humans such as Streptococcus sp., Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus anthracis. The most frequent fungi are Penicillium sp., Aspergillius sp. and Geotrichum sp.; some pathogenic fungi identified: Microsporum sp., Epirophyton sp. On the other hand,regarding the perception of the public and workers, surveys were applied, wich indicated that the microbiologial quality of the air in the Biological Micro-station and animal breeding farm is regular(AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Climatologic Station , Air Microbiology , Air Pollution/analysis , Penicillium , Peru , Staphylococcus , Streptococcus , Bacillus , Bacillus anthracis , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Clostridium perfringens , Enterobacter , Geotrichum , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microsporum , Occupational Groups
Se ha comprobado que la exposición a bioaerosoles se asocia con varios efectos sobre la salud, como enfermedades pulmonares y alergias. El presente estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la contaminación por hongos en varias superficies pertenecientes a dos industrias de alimentos. La toma de muestra se realizó en tres semanas, inmediatamente después de realizada la limpieza y desinfección y antes de iniciar la producción. Se recolectaron 400 muestras de superficie (vidrio, acero inoxidable, aluminio, goma y plástico), también se evaluó la eficacia del programa de higienización en el control de la población de hongos. Todas las muestras presentaron recuentos fúngicos <10 ufc/cm2, sin haber diferencias significativas entre los tipos de superficie, sin embargo, las superficies plásticas exhibieron mayor crecimiento logarítmico de los hongos. Se determinó que 49,60% de las especies identificadas correspondieron al género Penicillium. Aunque los niveles de hongos en las industrias estudiadas fueron inferiores a los niveles recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, algunas medidas de salud ambiental como lavar y desinfectar las superficies después de cada turno de trabajo, y se recomiendan inspecciones periódicas para garantizar la seguridad de los trabajadores y de los productos que allí se manufacturan(AU)
It has been proven that exposure to bioaerosols is associated with several health effects, such as pulmonary diseases and allergies. The present crosssectional study aimed to investigate fungal contamination on various surfaces belonging to two food industries. The sampling was carried out in three weeks, immediately after cleaning and disinfection and before starting production. 400 surface samples were collected (glass, stainless steel, aluminum, rubber and plastic), the effectiveness of the sanitation program in controlling the fungal population was also evaluated. All the samples presented fungal counts <10 cfu / cm2, with no significant differences between the types of surfaces, however, the plastic surfaces exhibited higher logarithmic growth of the fungi. It was determined that 49.60% of the identified species corresponded to the Penicillium genus.Although the levels of fungi in the studied baths were lower than the levels recommended by the World Health Organization, some environmental health measure ssuch as washing and disinfecting surfaces after each working shift and periodic inspections are recommended ensuring the safety of the workers and the products that are manufactured there(AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Colony Count, Microbial , Food Industry , Sanitation/methods , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Fungi , Penicillium , Plastics , Aspergillus , Rhizopus , Stainless Steel , Occupational Risks , Disinfection/methods , Alternaria , Food , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities , Glass , Occupational Groups
Maize (Zea mays L.) is among the most cultivated crops in the world and can be affected by several diseases, especially those transmitted by seeds. The study of alternatives to fungicides used for seed treatment has a promising field in essential oils. Thus, this study determined the phytochemical profile of the ethanolic extract from Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan and to evaluate its antifungal activity on the sanitary and physiological quality of maize seeds. The seeds used were of the Jaboatão cultivar, which were submitted to the following treatments: control (untreated seeds), commercial fungicide (dicarboximide) and A. colubrina extract at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 ppm. The seeds were subjected to sanitary and germination tests in a completely randomized experimental design. Phytochemical prospecting of A. colubrina extract indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins, as well as the major compounds lupeol, gallic acid, ferulic acid, catechin and quercetin. The A. colubrina extract reduced the incidence of Aspergillus spp., including Aspergillus niger, Alternaria spp., Curvularia spp. and Fusarium spp. at all concentrations. The highest concentrations (800 and 1,000 ppm) of the A. colubrina extract reduced the incidence of Penicillium spp. and yielded an effective control of Rhizoctonia spp. The extract of A. colubrina did not present phytotoxic effect, guaranteeing the viability and vigor of maize seeds.
Subject(s)Seeds , Zea mays , Penicillium , Aspergillus niger , Rhizoctonia , Oils, Volatile , Agricultural Pests , Alkaloids , Phytochemicals
The efficient production of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems is an important support for large-scale biorefinery of plant biomass. On-site production of lignocellulolytic enzymes could increase the economic benefits of the process by lowering the cost of enzyme usage. Penicillium species are commonly found lignocellulose-degrading fungi in nature, and have been used for industrial production of cellulase preparations due to their abilities to secrete complete and well-balanced lignocellulolytic enzyme systems. Here, we introduce the reported Penicillium species for cellulase production, summarize the characteristics of their enzymes, and describe the strategies of strain engineering for improving the production and performance of lignocellulolytic enzymes. We also review the progress in fermentation process optimization regarding the on-site production of lignocellulolytic enzymes using Penicillium species, and suggest prospect of future work from the perspective of building a "sugar platform" for the biorefinery of lignocellulosic biomass.
Subject(s)Biomass , Cellulase/metabolism , Fermentation , Fungi/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Penicillium
Os fungos desempenham vários papéis que impactam a humanidade de diversas maneiras. Suas características metabólicas são importantes na biotecnologia, porém, tais microrganismos podem desencadear alguns problemas de saúde pública e até mesmo serem letais. Objetivo: detectar a presença de fungos no acervo de uma biblioteca no município de São José do Rio Preto. Metodologia: foram coletadas quarenta amostras nas superfícies inanimadas (livros, estantes, documentos, mapas, artigos e revistas) das principais salas da biblioteca com o auxílio de swabs umedecidos em solução salina estéril, posteriormente encaminhados ao laboratório de Biomedicina da Universidade Paulista UNIP. As amostras foram semeadas em meio de cultura ágar Sabouraud Dextrose (SDA), tendo adicionado cloranfenicol e incubadas a 30 °C. Foi realizada a colônia gigante em todas as cepas crescidas em SDA para a realização da técnica de microcultivo para a identificação dos fungos, de acordo com o Manual de Detecção e Identificação dos Fungos de Importância Médica da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Resultados: Houve positividade em trinta e uma amostras (78%) e em quatro delas foi observado mais de um tipo de colônia (13%). Das vinte e duas superfícies de livros analisadas, foram isolados e identificados: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp. e Nigrospora sp. Nas oito superfícies de estantes: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp. e Scopulariopsis sp. e, nos dez documentos: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Cunninghamella sp. e Trichoderma sp. Conclusão: Os fungos encontrados estão amplamente distribuídos no ambiente como solo e ar e, por diversos fatores, instalam-se em locais como bibliotecas. Em condições favoráveis, podem infectar o homem e causar perdas patrimoniais para os acervos.
Fungi play many roles that impact humankind in different ways. Their metabolic characteristics are important in biotechnology; however, these microorganisms can trigger some public health problems or may even be lethal. Objective: detect the presence of fungi in the collection of a public library in the city of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. Methods: a total of forty samples were collected from inanimate surfaces (books, shelves, documents, maps, articles and magazines) located in the main rooms of the library with swabs soaked in sterile saline solution and sent to the Universidade Paulista UNIP laboratories. The samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 30 °C. The colonies that grew in SDA were isolated in Potato Dextrose Agar for performing the slide culture technique for the identification of the fungi, performed according to the Manual of Detection and Identification of Fungi of Medical Importance from the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). Results: Thirty-one samples (78%) were positive, and in four of them more than one fungus genus was observed (13%). From the twenty-two book surfaces analyzed, the following fungi were isolated and identified: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp. and Nigrospora sp. On the eight shelves: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp. and Scopulariopsis sp. The ten documents analyzed presented the following fungi: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Cunninghamella sp. and Trichoderma sp.. Conclusion: These fungi are widely distributed in the environment such as in the soil and air, and due to several factors, they colonize public places, such as libraries. In favorable conditions, they may infect humans and cause diseases.
Subject(s)Environmental Monitoring , Library Materials , Fungi , Penicillium , Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus nidulans , Aspergillus niger , Trichoderma , Biotechnology , Cladosporium , Cunninghamella , Agar , Infections
Abstract (1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the production and partial characterization of xylanase and avicelase by a newly isolated Penicillium sp. in solid-state fermentation, using soybean hulls as substrate. (2) Methods: Temperature, time, number of spores, and substrate moisture on xylanase and avicelase bioproduction were evaluated, maximizing activity with 30°C, 1x106 spores/g substrate, 14 and 7 days of fermentation with 70 and 76% substrate moisture contents, for xylanase and avicelase, respectively. (3) Results: Different solvents, temperatures, and agitation in the enzymatic extraction were evaluated, obtaining higher activities, 430.77 and 26.77 U/g for xylanase and avicelase using 30 min extraction and 0.05 M citrate buffer solution (pH 4.5 ), respectively at 60°C and 175 rpm and 50°C and 125 rpm. The optimum pH and temperature for enzymatic activity determination were 5.3 and 50°C. Enzyme extract stability was evaluated, obtaining higher stability with pH between 4.5 and 5.5, higher temperature of up to 40°C. The kinetic thermal denaturation (Kd), half-life time, D-value, and Z-value were similar for both enzymes. The xylanase Ed value (89.1 kJ/mol) was slightly lower than the avicelase one (96.7 kJ/mol), indicating higher thermostability for avicelase. (4) Conclusion: In this way, the production of cellulases using alternative substrates is a way to reduce production costs, since they represent about 10% of the world demand of enzymes, with application in animal feed processing, food production and breweries, textile processing, detergent and laundry production, pulp manufacturing and the production of biofuels.
Subject(s)Penicillium/isolation & purification , Penicillium/enzymology , Soybeans/microbiology , Xylosidases/biosynthesis , Cellulases/biosynthesis , Temperature , Time Factors , Substrates for Biological Treatment
To screen strains with antibacterial and antitumor activity, pregnenolone was used as the sole carbon source for screening bacteria from soil. Based on bacteriostatic activity assay, Pseudomonas aeruginosa HBD-12 was found to be effectively inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli, Bacillus thuringiensis, Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, and its fermentation broth was separated and purified using column chromatography. Then, structure of the obtained monomeric compounds was analyzed by spectrum analysis, and their antitumor activity was measured using HTRF kinase detection kit. The isolated monomeric compounds 1-hydroxy-9,10-phenanthroline and 3-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthroline had significant antitumor activity. At 20 μg/mL, 1-hydroxy-9,10-phenanthroline and 3-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthroline inhibited 78.39±2.29% and 60.34±8.35% Aurora kinase A, respectively. Therefore, the secondary metabolites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa HBD-12 have the potential to develop antibacterial and antitumor drugs.
Subject(s)Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillium , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment. They are able to grow in water and many of them may be opportunistic pathogens. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to identify fungi in registered wells (RWs) and nonregistered wells (NRWs) that tap into groundwater; and to correlate the results from physicochemical assays on this water (free residual chlorine and pH) with the presence of fungi. DATA AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional quantitative study on groundwater wells in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 52 samples of 500 ml of water were collected from RWs and 107 from NRWs. These were sent to a microbiology laboratory to identify any fungi that were present. In addition, free residual chlorine and pH were measured immediately after sample collection. Several statistical analysis tests were used. RESULTS: Fungal contamination was present in 78.8% of the samples from RWs and 81.3% from NRWs. Filamentous fungi were more prevalent than yeast in both types of wells. There was no significant difference in presence of fungi according to whether chloride and pH were within recommended levels in RWs; or according to whether pH was within recommended levels in NRWs. Furthermore, there was no statistical difference in the levels of fungal contamination between RWs and NRWs. CONCLUSION: Both RWs and NRWs are potential reservoirs for many types of fungi. Many of these may become opportunistic pathogens if they infect immunosuppressed individuals. Furthermore, this study confirms that fungi are able to grow even when chlorine and pH parameters are within the standards recommended.
Subject(s)Humans , Water Microbiology , Drinking Water/microbiology , Water Wells , Fungi/isolation & purification , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Drinking Water/chemistry , Groundwater/microbiology , Brazil , Candida/isolation & purification , Chlorine/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies
Introdução: Pouco se sabe sobre a distribuição de fungos dentro das casas e nos materiais onde ficam concentrados, como os travesseiros, objeto que passa maior tempo em contato próximo com o paciente, podendo ser um reservatório importante e facilitar a sensibilização e o desencadeamento de crises alérgicas. O conhecimento da ocorrência de fungos em locais pouco pesquisados, bem como sua taxonomia, torna-se fundamental. Objetivos: Avaliar ocorrência de fungos em travesseiros de crianças alérgicas, o ambiente e os aspectos relacionados. Métodos: Pacientes com rinite e/ou asma, e teste cutâneo positivo para fungos foram selecionados. Realizado questionário ambiental no domicílio e coletado travesseiros em uso, os quais foram aspirados na área interna e externa para obtenção de amostras de fungos. Travesseiros novos, comprados em comércio local, serviram de controle. Resultados: A prevalência de sensibilização dos pacientes a fungos foi de 5,46% (13 dos 238 avaliados). Nenhum ambiente revelou-se adequado para pacientes alérgicos. Todos os travesseiros, inclusive os controles, estavam contaminados, tanto na sua área externa como na interna; o número médio de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC/m2) apresentou diferença significativa na parte externa, sendo maior naqueles com mais de 7 anos de uso. A diversidade e a quantidade de fungos encontrados nos travesseiros dos pacientes foi maior que nos controles. Das 39 espécies e/ou outro nível taxonômico identificados, 32 (82,0%) podem causar alergia do Tipo I - IgE mediada, e os mais frequentes foram Candida, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Mycelia sterilia, Fusarim sp., Aureobasidium pullulans e Aspergillus. Nenhum tipo de enchimento foi considerado ideal, e o que apresentou menor nível de contaminação foi o de viscoelástico. Conclusão: Travesseiros são fontes de fungos e seus alérgenos. A maioria dos fungos isolados pode causar sensibilização com resposta IgE mediada. O painel utilizado mostrou-se insuficiente para identificar sensibilização aos fungos isolados.
Introduction: Little is known about fungi distribution in houses and materials where they are concentrated. Pillows are objects that remain much time in close contact with people and can be an important fungal reservoir, thus facilitating sensitization and triggering allergic crises. The knowledge of occurrence of fungi in unfrequently reported places, as well as their taxonomy, has become fundamental. Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of fungi in pillows of allergic children, including the environment and related aspects. Methods: Patients with rhinitis and/or asthma and positive skin test for fungi were selected. An environmental questionnaire was completed at home and pillows in use were collected and aspirated inside and outside to obtain fungal samples. New pillows, bought in local stores, served as controls. Results: The prevalence of sensitization of patients to fungi was 5.46% (13 of 238 patients evaluated). No environment proved to be suitable for allergic patients. All the pillows, including the controls, were contaminated, both inside and outside; the mean number of colony forming units (CFU/m2) showed a significant difference in the outside and was greater in pillows with more than 7 years of use. The diversity and amount of fungi found on patients' pillows was greater than in controls. Of the 39 species and/or other taxonomic level identified, 32 (82.0%) may cause type I IgE-mediated allergy, and the most frequent fungi were Candida, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Mycelia sterilia, Fusarim sp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Aspergillus. No type of filling material was considered ideal, and the one with lowest level of contamination was viscoelastic. Conclusion: Pillows are sources of fungi and their allergens. Most isolated fungi can cause sensitization with IgE-mediated response. The panel used was insufficient to identify sensitization to isolated fungi.
Subject(s)Humans , Penicillium , Aspergillus , Asthma , Candida , Immunoglobulin E , Rhinitis , Cladosporium , Aureobasidium , Patients , Skin Tests , Allergens , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hypersensitivity , Antigens, Fungal
BACKGROUND: Lipases are extensively exploited in lots of industrial fields; cold-adapted lipases with alkali-resistance are especially desired in detergent industry. Penicillium cyclopium lipase I (PCL) might be suitable for applications of detergent industry due to its high catalytic efficiency at low temperature and relatively good alkali stability. In this study, to better meet the requirements, the alkali stability of PCL was further improved via directed evolution with error-prone PCR. RESULTS: The mutant PCL (N157F) with an improved alkali stability was selected based on a high-throughput activity assay. After incubating at pH 11.0 for 120 min, N157F retained 70% of its initial activity, which was 23% higher than that of wild type PCL. Combined with the three-dimensional structure analysis, N157F exhibited an improved alkali stability under the high pH condition due to the interactions of hydrophilicity and ß-strand propensity. Conclusions: This work provided the theoretical foundation and preliminary data for improving alkali stability of PCL to meet the industrial requirements, which is also beneficial to improving alkali-tolerance ability of other industrial enzymes via molecular modification.
Subject(s)Penicillium/enzymology , Enzyme Stability , Detergent Industry , Lipase/metabolism , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Penicillium/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Cold Temperature , Alkalies , Biocatalysis , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipase/isolation & purification , Lipase/genetics , Mutation
The use of seeds with good sanitary and physiological potential ensures the establishment of the crop, with a uniform, vigorous and disease-free seedling stand, which will result in good productivity levels. Seen that, the objective was to evaluate the sanitary and physiological quality of purple corn seeds (Zea mays L.) submitted to thermotherapy. They were subjected to heat treatment with immersion in sterile distilled water (SDW) heated at 50, 60 and 70 °C for 1, 2, and 3 minutes. The control (0 min) correspondens only to immersing the seeds in SDW, which were submitted to sanitary and germination tests in a completely randomized experimental design, in a factorial arrangement 3 × 3 + 1 (exposure time × temperature + additional control). Data were subjected to analysis of variance, and the means were compared with the Scott-Knott test up to 5% of probability, with the aid of the statistical program SISVAR®. Immersing Zea mays seeds in hot water at 50, 60 and 70 °C for 1, 2, and 3 minutes is efficient to prevent the increased incidence of Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., and Fusarium sp. The heat treatment at 60 °C for 1 and 2 minutes of immersion reduces the incidence of fungal mycoflora without impairing the physiological quality of seeds.(AU)
O uso de sementes com bom potencial sanitário e fisiológico garante o estabelecimento da cultura, com estande de plântulas uniformes, vigorosas e livres de doenças, que consequentemente resultará em bons níveis de produtividade. Diante do exposto, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade sanitária e fisiológica de sementes de milho roxo (Zea mays L.) submetidas à termoterapia, por meio de tratamento térmico com imersão em água destilada esterilizada (ADE), aquecida à temperatura de 50, 60 e 70 °C por 1, 2 e 3 minutos. O controle (0 min) correspondeu apenas à imersão das sementes em ADE. As sementes foram submetidas aos testes de sanidade e germinação em delineamento experimental inteiramente randomizado em esquema fatorial 3 × 3 + 1 (tempo de exposição × temperatura + controle adicional). Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott até 5% de probabilidade, com o auxílio do programa estatístico SISVAR®. A imersão das sementes de Zea mays em água quente a 50, 60 e 70 °C durante 1, 2 e 3 minutos é eficiente para impedir o aumento da incidência de Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. e Fusarium sp. O tratamento térmico a 60 °C por 1 e 2 minutos de imersão reduz a incidência da micoflora fúngica, sem prejudicar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes.(AU)
Subject(s)Seeds , Zea mays , Penicillium , Aspergillus , Fusarium , Hyperthermia, Induced/methods
The physiological performance of seeds is related to their physiological quality and seed vigor, while their health quality may interfere with germination and early seedling establishment in the field due to the interaction of microorganisms associated with seeds. The study aimed to evaluate the physiological performance and health quality of cucumber seeds and to verify the relationship between these attributes. The physiological quality of cucumber seeds was evaluated by standard germination tests, first count of germination, controlled deterioration test, electrical conductivity test, seedling emergence, emergence speed index, and traditional accelerated aging and aging modified with saline for 48, 72, and 96 h. The health quality of cucumber seed lots was evaluated by blotter test. Stratification of cucumber seed lots by seedling emergence was similar to seedling emergence by controlled deterioration test, first count of germination, and electrical conductivity results. The cucumber seed lots evaluated showed high germination rates; however, lots 1 and 3 had a better performance in vigor tests than lots 2 and 4. Fungi detected in the blotter test were Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., and Penicillium sp. Seed lots 2 and 4 had low vigor evaluated by seedling emergence and controlled deterioration, and showed a higher incidence of Penicillium sp. in the evaluation of health quality of seeds. The incidence of Penicillium sp. may negatively affect the vigor of cucumber seeds evaluated by seedling emergence and by controlled deterioration test.(AU)
O desempenho fisiológico de sementes diz respeito à sua qualidade fisiológica e vigor, enquanto a qualidade sanitária pode interferir na germinação e estabelecimento inicial de plântulas no campo devido à interação dos micro-organismos associados às sementes. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho fisiológico e a qualidade sanitária de sementes de pepino e verificar a relação entre esses atributos. A qualidade fisiológica de sementes de pepino foi avaliada pelos testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, deterioração controlada, condutividade elétrica, emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência e envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e modificado com solução salina por 48, 72 e 96 horas. A qualidade sanitária das sementes foi avaliada pelo método do papel-filtro. A estratificação de lotes de sementes de pepino ocorreu de maneira similar à emergência de plântulas pelos testes de deterioração controlada, primeira contagem da germinação e condutividade elétrica. Os lotes de sementes de pepino avaliados apresentaram alto percentual de germinação; no entanto, os lotes 1 e 3 apresentaram melhor desempenho nos testes de vigor que os lotes 2 e 4. Os fungos detectados no teste do papel-filtro foram Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp. e Penicillium sp. Os lotes 2 e 4 de menor vigor avaliados pelos testes de emergência de plântulas e de deterioração controlada foram os mesmos que apresentaram maior incidência de Penicillium sp. na avaliação da qualidade sanitária das sementes. A incidência de Penicillium sp. pode influenciar negativamente o vigor de sementes de pepino avaliado pela emergência de plântulas pelo teste de deterioração controlada.(AU)
Subject(s)Penicillium , Germination , Cucumis sativus , Seeds
With the objective to evaluate the efficiency of essential oils of Citrus latifolia (Tahiti lemon) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon bark) in the control of plant pathogens Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. and the quality of the bean seeds, two experiments were conducted. In the first one, the effect of essential oils of C. latifolia and C. zeylanicum was evaluated in vitro development of the fungi Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. and, in the second one, the influence of essential oils on the physiological and sanitary quality of bean seeds. The variables mycelial growth, conidial germination and sporulation of Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were measured in the first experiment, while the seed germination test, first count of germination, germination speed index (GSI) and sanity test of bean seeds were measured in the second. The essential oil (EO) of C. zeylanicum was more efficient than C. latifolia in the control of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp., but decreased the physiological quality of the beans seeds. The fungal diversity identified in the seed health test was composed by fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Chaetomium and Rhizopus. The results indicate the potential of the use of these EOs in the seeds treatment.(AU)
Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência dos óleos essenciais de Citrus latifolia (limão taiti) e Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela em casca) no controle dos fitopatógenos Penicillium sp. e Aspergillus sp. e na qualidade das sementes de feijão, foram conduzidos dois experimentos. No primeiro, avaliou-se o efeito dos óleos essenciais de C. latifolia e C. zeylanicum no desenvolvimento in vitro dos fungos Penicillium sp. e Aspergillus sp. e, no segundo, a influência dos óleos essenciais sobre a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes de feijão. As variáveis crescimento micelial, germinação de conídios e esporulação de Penicillium sp. e Aspergillus sp. foram aferidas no primeiro experimento, enquanto o teste de germinação de sementes, primeira contagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG) e teste de sanidade de sementes de feijão foram aferidas no segundo. O óleo essencial (OE) de C. zeylanicum foi mais eficiente que C. latifolia no controle dos fungos Aspergillus sp. e Penicillium sp., mas diminuiu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de feijão. A diversidade fúngica identificada no teste de sanidade de sementes foi composta por fungos dos gêneros Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Chaetomium e Rhizopus. Os resultados indicam o potencial do uso desses óleos essenciais no tratamento de sementes.(AU)
Subject(s)Oils, Volatile , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Citrus , Phaseolus/microbiology , Mitosporic Fungi/growth & development , Penicillium/growth & development , Aspergillus/growth & development , Food Quality , Germination , Phaseolus/physiology
Four strains of Penicillium and Talaromyces species are described and illustrated in an inventory of fungal species belonging to Eurotiales. The strains, CNUFC-DDS17-1, CNUFC-DDS27-1, CNUFC-PTM72-1, and CNUFC-YJW3-31, were isolated from soil and freshwater samples from South Korea. Based on their morphological characteristics and sequence analyses by the combined β-tubulin and calmodulin gene, the CNUFC-DDS17-1, CNUFC-DDS27-1, CNUFC-PTM72-1, and CNUFC-YJW3-31 isolates were identified as Penicillium pasqualense, Penicillium sanguifluum, Talaromyces apiculatus, and Talaromyces liani, respectively. The designated strains were found to represent a previously undescribed species of Korean fungal biota. In this study, detailed morphological descriptions and phylogenetic relationships of these species are provided.
Subject(s)Biota , Calmodulin , Eurotiales , Fresh Water , Korea , Penicillium , Sequence Analysis , Soil , Talaromyces
Species that belong to Penicillium section Sclerotiora are commonly found in various terrestrial environments, but only a few have been reported in marine environments. Because the number of Penicillium species reported in marine environments is increasing, we investigated the diversity of Penicillium section Sclerotiora in marine environments in Korea. Based on sequence analyses of β-tubulin and calmodulin loci, 21 strains of section Sclerotiora were identified as P. bilaiae, P. daejeonium, P. exsudans, P. herquei, P. cf. guanacastense, P. mallochii, P. maximae, and P. viticola. Three of them were confirmed as new to Korea: P. exsudans, P. mallochii, and P. maximae. Here, we have provided detailed morphological descriptions of these unrecorded species.
Subject(s)Calmodulin , Korea , Penicillium , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis
The Great Sebkha of Oran is a closed depression located in northwestern of Algeria. Despite the ranking of this sebkha among the wetlands of global importance by Ramsar Convention in 2002, no studies on the fungal community in this area have been carried out. In our study, samples were collected from two different regions. The first region is characterized by halophilic vegetation and cereal crops and the second by a total absence of vegetation. The isolated strains were identified morphologically then by molecular analysis. The biotechnological interest of the strains was evaluated by testing their ability to grow at different concentration of NaCl and to produce extracellular enzymes (i.e., lipase, amylase, protease, and cellulase) on solid medium. The results showed that the soil of sebkha is alkaline, with the exception of the soil of cereal crops that is neutral, and extremely saline. In this work, the species Gymnoascus halophilus, Trichoderma gamsii, the two phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium brachygibbosum and Penicillium allii, and the teleomorphic form of P. longicatenatum observed for the first time in this species, were isolated for the first time in Algeria. The halotolerance test revealed that the majority of the isolated are halotolerant. Wallemia sp. and two strains of G. halophilus are the only obligate halophilic strains. All strains are capable to secrete at least one of the four tested enzymes. The most interesting species presenting the highest enzymatic index were Aspergillus sp. strain A4, Chaetomium sp. strain H1, P. vinaceum, G. halophilus, Wallemia sp. and Ustilago cynodontis.
Subject(s)Algeria , Amylases , Aspergillus , Chaetomium , Depression , Edible Grain , Fungi , Fusarium , Lipase , Penicillium , Salt Tolerance , Soil , Trichoderma , Ustilago , Wetlands
In order to elucidate the fungal diversity and community structure in freshwater environments, numerous fungal strains were isolated from freshwater, submerged soils, twigs, dead insects, etc. Among them, the present study has focused specifically on Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species, which produce diverse useful metabolites in general. Twelve strains of Aspergillus isolated were identified as A. japonicus (n = 5), A. tubingensis (3), A. niger (2), and A. flavus (2), 10 strains of which belong to Aspergillus section Nigri, named black Aspergillus. Eight strains of Penicillium were identified as P. brasilianim (n = 3), P. oxalicum (2), P. crustosum (1), P. expansum (1), and P. piscarium (1). Two different strains of Talaromyces were identified as T. pinophilus and T. versatilis. Thus far, Penicillium piscarium and Talaromyces versatilis have been unrecorded in Korea, for which we provide detailed morphological and molecular characteristics.