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Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0172019, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1045963


With the objective to evaluate the efficiency of essential oils of Citrus latifolia (Tahiti lemon) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon bark) in the control of plant pathogens Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. and the quality of the bean seeds, two experiments were conducted. In the first one, the effect of essential oils of C. latifolia and C. zeylanicum was evaluated in vitro development of the fungi Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. and, in the second one, the influence of essential oils on the physiological and sanitary quality of bean seeds. The variables mycelial growth, conidial germination and sporulation of Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were measured in the first experiment, while the seed germination test, first count of germination, germination speed index (GSI) and sanity test of bean seeds were measured in the second. The essential oil (EO) of C. zeylanicum was more efficient than C. latifolia in the control of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp., but decreased the physiological quality of the beans seeds. The fungal diversity identified in the seed health test was composed by fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Chaetomium and Rhizopus. The results indicate the potential of the use of these EOs in the seeds treatment.(AU)

Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência dos óleos essenciais de Citrus latifolia (limão taiti) e Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela em casca) no controle dos fitopatógenos Penicillium sp. e Aspergillus sp. e na qualidade das sementes de feijão, foram conduzidos dois experimentos. No primeiro, avaliou-se o efeito dos óleos essenciais de C. latifolia e C. zeylanicum no desenvolvimento in vitro dos fungos Penicillium sp. e Aspergillus sp. e, no segundo, a influência dos óleos essenciais sobre a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes de feijão. As variáveis crescimento micelial, germinação de conídios e esporulação de Penicillium sp. e Aspergillus sp. foram aferidas no primeiro experimento, enquanto o teste de germinação de sementes, primeira contagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG) e teste de sanidade de sementes de feijão foram aferidas no segundo. O óleo essencial (OE) de C. zeylanicum foi mais eficiente que C. latifolia no controle dos fungos Aspergillus sp. e Penicillium sp., mas diminuiu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de feijão. A diversidade fúngica identificada no teste de sanidade de sementes foi composta por fungos dos gêneros Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Chaetomium e Rhizopus. Os resultados indicam o potencial do uso desses óleos essenciais no tratamento de sementes.(AU)

Oils, Volatile , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Citrus , Phaseolus/microbiology , Mitosporic Fungi/growth & development , Penicillium/growth & development , Aspergillus/growth & development , Food Quality , Germination , Phaseolus/physiology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 229-235, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974342


ABSTRACT Gallesia integrifolia (Phytolaccaceae) is native to Brazil and has a strong alliaceous odor. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and evaluate fungicidal activity against the main food-borne diseases and food spoilage fungi. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC-MS. From 35 identified compounds, 68% belonged to the organosulfur class. The major compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (15.49%), 2,8-dithianonane (52.63%) and lenthionine (14.69%). The utilized fungi were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, and Trichoderma viride. Minimal fungicidal concentration for the essential oil varied from 0.02 to 0.18 mg/mL and bifonazole and ketoconazole controls ranged from 0.20 to 3.50 mg/mL. The lower concentration of the essential oil was able to control P. ochrochloron, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus and T. viride. This study shows a high fungicidal activity of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and can support future applications by reducing the use of synthetic fungicides.

Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Penicillium/growth & development , Penicillium/drug effects , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus/drug effects , Plant Oils/chemistry , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fruit/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 30(1): 2-9, jun. 2015. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868795


La biotecnología ambiental recurre a organismos capaces de reducir los niveles de metales pesados, entre ellos el Cr(VI), contenido en residuos y efluentes agroindustriales. El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar la biorremediación de un residuo como pulpa de limón contaminada con Cr(VI) y el efecto del metal sobre el crecimiento fúngico. Se utilizaron tres hongos filamentosos como Aspergillus niger; Penicillium expansum y P. islandicum para remediar pulpa de limón (residuo) contaminada con Cr(VI) (50 mg/L) que se realizó en las siguientes condiciones de cultivo: la pulpa se suplementó con urea, 0,006; (NH4) 2SO4, 0,012; KH2PO4,0,003 y KCl, 0,001 g/ g; 105 conidios/g, a pH 2,5, 30°C y 96 h de incubación. Se estudió el efecto tóxico de diferentes concentraciones (5; 10; 20 y 50 mg/L) del metal sobre el desarrollo del hongo de mayor eficiencia de remediación (Ef. por ciento). Aspergillus niger; obtuvo mayor EF. de remediación (97 por ciento) respecto a Penicillium expansum (95 por ciento) y P. islandicum (94 por ciento), del residuo contaminado con 50 mg/L de Cr(VI). Se determinó que la presencia de Cr(VI) y no su concentración estimuló la maduración temprana (48 h) de los conidios (blancos a negros) de A. niger, sin que se observe alteraciones en el micelio con respecto al control (72h), desarrollado en la pulpa sin el metal. En conclusión, A. niger fue más resistente y presentó altas Ef. de remediación de Cr(VI) de residuos sólidos, este proceso es una alternativa a las tecnologías físico-químicas, debido que los microorganismos pueden remover selectivamente diferentes iones de zonas contaminadas.

Environmental biotechnology uses organisms capable of reducing levels of heavy metals, including the Cr (VI), contained in waste and agro-industrial effluents. The objective of this work was to study bioremediation of waste contaminated with Cr(VI) lemon pulp and the effect of the metal on the fungal growth. We used three filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger; Penicillium expansum and P. islandicum to remedy pulp from lemon (residue) contaminated with Cr(VI) (50 mg/L) that was conducted in the following conditions of cultivation: the pulp is supplemented with urea, 0.006; (NH4) 2SO4, 0.012; KH2PO4, 0.003 and KCl, 0.001 g / g; 105 conidia/g, at pH 2.5, 30 ° C and 96 h of incubation. We studied the toxic effect of different concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 50 mg/L) of the metal on the development of the fungus increased efficiency of remediation (Ef. percent). Aspergillus niger; obtained greater EF. remediation (97 percent) with respect to Penicillium expansum (95 percent) and P. islandicum (94 percent), 50 mg/L of Cr (VI)-contaminated waste. It was determined that the presence of Cr (VI) and not its concentration stimulated early maturation (48 h) of conidia (white on black) from A. niger, unless you observe alterations in the mycelium as compared to the control (72 h), developed in the pulp without the metal. In conclusion, A. niger was stronger and presented high Ef. remediation of Cr (VI) waste, this process is an alternative to physico-chemical technologies, due to the micro-organisms be removed selectively different ions from contaminated areas.

Humans , Aspergillus niger/growth & development , Biodegradation, Environmental , Chromium/toxicity , Penicillium/growth & development , Solid Waste/analysis , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods , Fungi/growth & development , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Contaminant Removal/methods , Hazardous Substances/toxicity
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 397-406, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749738


Penicillum janthinellum SDX7 was isolated from aged petroleum hydrocarbon-affected soil at the site of Anand, Gujarat, India, and was tested for different pH, temperature, agitation and concentrations for optimal growth of the isolate that was capable of degrading upto 95%, 63% and 58% of 1%, 3% and 5% kerosene, respectively, after a period of 16 days, at optimal growth conditions of pH 6.0, 30 °C and 180 rpm agitation. The GC/MS chromatograms revealed that then-alkane fractions are easily degraded; however, the rate might be lower for branched alkanes, n-alkylaromatics, cyclic alkanes and polynuclear aromatics. The test doses caused a concentration-dependent depletion of carbohydrates of P. janthinellum SDX7 by 3% to 80%, proteins by 4% to 81% and amino acids by 8% to 95% upto 16 days of treatment. The optimal concentration of 3% kerosene resulted in the least reduction of the metabolites of P. janthinellum such as carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids with optimal growth compared to 5% and 1% (v/v) kerosene doses on the 12th and 16th day of exposure. Phenols were found to be mounted by 43% to 66% at lower and higher concentrations during the experimental period. Fungal isolate P. janthinellum SDX7 was also tested for growth on various xenobiotic compounds.

Kerosene , Penicillium/growth & development , Penicillium/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Xenobiotics/metabolism , Base Composition , Biotransformation , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Genes, rRNA , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , India , Molecular Sequence Data , Penicillium/genetics , Penicillium/isolation & purification , RNA, Fungal/genetics , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Temperature
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 731-742, Apr.-June 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723140


Safety issues related to the employment of synthetic colorants in different industrial segments have increased the interest in the production of colorants from natural sources, such as microorganisms. Improved cultivation technologies have allowed the use of microorganisms as an alternative source of natural colorants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of some factors on natural colorants production by a recently isolated from Amazon Forest, Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275 employing statistical tools. To this purpose the following variables: orbital stirring speed, pH, temperature, sucrose and yeast extract concentrations and incubation time were studied through two fractional factorial, one full factorial and a central composite factorial designs. The regression analysis pointed out that sucrose and yeast extract concentrations were the variables that influenced more in colorants production. Under the best conditions (yeast extract concentration around 10 g/L and sucrose concentration of 50 g/L) an increase of 10, 33 and 23% respectively to yellow, orange and red colorants absorbance was achieved. These results show that P. purpurogenum is an alternative colorants producer and the production of these biocompounds can be improved employing statistical tool.

Biotechnology/methods , Penicillium/growth & development , Penicillium/metabolism , Pigments, Biological/isolation & purification , Pigments, Biological/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Time Factors
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-5, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950731


BACKGROUND: The whitish tender leaves of Palmyrah are used for making handicrafts. The problem with these articles is discolouration with time and become more brittle due to fungal attack. This could be prevented by some protective coating. Instead of expensive and harmful chemicals we decided to test natural plant essential oils to control fungal attack. Palmyrah leaf article decay fungi were isolated from two different sites of Jaffna peninsula. In this investigation Antifungal Activity of different plant essential oils from neem (Azadirachta indica), castor (Ricinus communis), citronella (Cymbopogon sp) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) obtained from local market have been evaluated against isolated fungi. For screening of Antifungal activity, tests and controls were set to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Percentage of Growth Inhibition. RESULTS: Morphologically three different types of Palmyrah leaf decay fungi were isolated and characterized asAspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. Neem and castor oils have recorded no significant (0.05 > P) antifungal activity while citronella and camphor oils showed significantly different antifungal activity compared with control. Camphor oil and Citronella oil showed 100, 58.13% of average growth inhibition for A. niger. 96.38, 51.32% for A.flavus and 84.99, 72.76% forPenicillium sp respectively. Camphor oil showed highest percentage of growth inhibition at lowest minimum inhibitory concentration compared with citronella oil. Camphor oil was found to be highly antifungal and most effective against A niger, and A. flavus, compared with Penicillium sp and gave 100 percentage of growth inhibitions at 5, 1 and 15 ml/dl minimum inhibitory concentration respectively. CONCLUSION: Significantly higher broad-spectrum of antifungal activity was observed in camphor oil than other tested oils because it showed highest percentage of growth inhibition at lowest inhibitory concentration. Therefore it could be used for the development of new environmental friendly antifungal agent for the preservation of leafy handicrafts. Further formulation, field experiments are necessary to achieve this target.

Penicillium/drug effects , Aspergillus/drug effects , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Arecaceae/microbiology , Growth Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Penicillium/growth & development , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus flavus/growth & development , Aspergillus flavus/drug effects , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/growth & development , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Ricinus/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Cinnamomum camphora/chemistry , Azadirachta/chemistry , Cymbopogon/chemistry
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; mar. 2013. 199 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-837082


Há interesse mundial no desenvolvimento de pesquisas envolvendo produção e extração de colorantes naturais, devido a sérios problemas de segurança industrial associados ao uso de colorantes sintéticos. Este trabalho objetivou produzir colorantes naturais de Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275 por cultivo submerso (em frascos agitados e em biorreator) e estudar a extração dos colorantes vermelhos. Para a produção, os estudos iniciais mostraram que 5 discos de micélio, sacarose e extrato de levedura como fontes de carbono e nitrogênio, respectivamente, e 336 horas de cultivo eram condições adequadas para a produção dos colorantes. Visando à otimização da produção, realizaram-se planejamentos fatoriais, com as variáveis independentes: tempo de cultivo; velocidade de agitação; pH; temperatura; concentração de sacarose e de extrato de levedura. As variáveis-respostas foram produção de colorantes amarelos, laranjas e vermelhos. Dos resultados obtidos, as variáveis mais significativas ao processo foram concentrações de extrato de levedura e de sacarose. A produção dos colorantes vermelhos foi otimizada, alcançando a produção de 2,97 UA490nm, nas condições 48,90 e 11,80 g/L de sacarose e extrato de levedura, respectivamente, 30°C, pH 4,5 150 rpm e 336 horas de cultivo. Nos experimentos em biorreator, o melhor resultado foi obtido na frequência de agitação de 500 rpm e na mudança do pH do meio para 8,0, após 96 horas de bioprocesso. Ademais, avaliou-se a estabilidade dos colorantes vermelhos presentes no meio fermentado em diferentes condições (pH, temperatura, sais, polímeros e tensoativos). Referente a pH e temperatura, os colorantes vermelhos mostraram-se mais estáveis nas condições alcalinas e a 70 °C. Tanto os sais (NaCl e Na2SO4) quanto os polímeros (PEG 1.000, 6.000 e 10.000 g/mol e NaPA 8.000 g/mol a 5 e 15%) e os tensoativos (Tween 20, CTAB e SDS) não causaram perda da cor nas condições avaliadas. Estudos de solubilidade e de coeficiente de partição octanol-água mostraram que os colorantes vermelhos apresentam solubilidade superior em solventes polares e característica mais hidrofílica. Nos estudos de extração, as técnicas avaliadas foram Sistemas Poliméricos de Duas Fases Aquosas (SPDFA) formados pelo sistema PEG/NaPA e Colloidal Gas Aphrons (CGA). Pela primeira técnica, os colorantes vermelhos migraram preferencialmente para a fase PEG. Os polímeros PEG 6.000 g/mol, na presença de NaCl 0,1 e 0,5 M, e PEG 10.000 g/mol, com Na2SO4 0,5M, se destacaram dentre as condições analisadas com coeficiente de partição (K) próximo a 13, em ambos os casos, e seletividade de proteínas (SeP) próximas a 3. Para a técnica de CGA, o CTAB proporcionou os melhores resultados, seguido do Tween 20. Porém, o valor de K foi inferior ao obtido com SPDFA, com um máximo de 5 (CTAB 2 mM/pH 9,0). Os resultados obtidos demonstram um novo produtor de colorantes naturais, as quais têm potencial de aplicação em diversos segmentos industriais. Ademais, os resultados obtidos mostraram a eficiência das técnicas utilizadas para extração dos colorantes vermelhos, com destaque para SPDFA, que apresentou maiores valores de K

There is worldwide interest in developing research projects involving the production and extraction of natural colorants due to serious safety problems associated with industrial use of synthetic ones. The aim of this work was to investigate the production of natural colorants from Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275 by submerged culture (rotatory shaker and bioreactor) besides studying the red colorants extraction. To the production step, initial studies showed that 5 agar mycelial discs, sucrose and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, and 336 hours of bioprocess promoted the best results. To optimize the colorants production a serie of factorial designs were performed. The independent variables studied were: fermentation time, agitation speed, pH, temperature, sucrose and yeast extract concentration under the responses production of yellow, orange and red colorants. From these results, the most significant variables for the process were sucrose and yeast extract concentration. The red colorants production was optimized achieving 2.97 UA490nm, in the following conditions: 48.90 and 11.80 g/L of sucrose and yeast extract, respectively, 30 °C, 4.5 pH, 150 rev min-1 and 336 hours of culture. In the experiments performed in bioreactor, the condition that promoted the best results was 500 rpm and pH adjusted for 8.0 after 96 hours of bioprocess. Furthermore, we evaluated the red colorants stability at different conditions (pH, temperature, salts, polymers and surfactants). Concerning to pH and temperature, the red colorants were more stable under basic conditions and 70 °C; not only the salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) but also the polymers (PEG 1000, 6000 and 10000 g/mol and NaPA 8000 g/mol) and the surfactants (Tween 20, CTAB and SDS) not promoted loss of color upon the conditions evaluated. Studies of red colorants solubility and octanol water coefficient showed that these compounds exhibit a higher solubility in polar solvents and present hydrophilic characteristics. Subsequently, the extraction of red colorant was evaluated through two extraction methods: Polymeric Systems Aqueous Two Phase (ATPS) composed by PEG and NaPA and Colloidal Gas Aphrons (CGA). For the first technique, the red colorant preferentially migrated to the PEG phase. The best results were obtained with PEG 6000 g/mol in the presence of 0.1 to 0.5 M NaCl and with PEG 10000 g/mol with 0.5 M Na2SO4. To both cases the partition coefficient (K) was close to 13 and the Selectivity in terms of proteins (SeP) was close to 3. For the CGA technique, CTAB gave the best results followed by Tween 20. However, the K values were lower than the ones obtained with ATPS with a maximum of 5 in the following condition: CTAB 2 mM/pH 9.0. For the SeP, the values obtained for both techniques were close. The results above show a new producer of natural colorants which have potential application in various industries. Moreover, the results show the efficiency of the techniques used to extract the red colorants, especially to ATPS that presented higher K values

Coloring Agents/analysis , Penicillium/growth & development , Biotechnology , Culture Techniques/methods , Fungi/isolation & purification , Liquid-Liquid Extraction/statistics & numerical data , Polymers/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 41(2): 404-410, Apr.-June 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-545349


Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9 percent disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1 percent, 2 percent and 5 percent), and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7 percent and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8 percent, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments.

Citrus sinensis , Fermentation , Food Contamination , Yeasts/growth & development , Pest Control, Biological , Penicillium/growth & development , Saccharomycopsis/growth & development , Agricultural Cultivation , Food Samples , Methods , Methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 39(1): 85-90, Jan.-Mar. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-480681


In this study we evaluated the ability of Saccharomycopsis schoenii Nadson and Krassiln (UWO-PS 80-91) as biocontrol agent against plant pathogenic filamentous fungi P. expansum Link (UFMG 01-2002), P. italicum Wehmer (LCP 61.1199), and P. digitatum (Pers.: Fr.) (LCP 984263, LCP 68175 and LCP 4354). S. schoenii was able to reduce disease severity in oranges inoculated with all fungi. Among the phytopathogens, P. digitatum LCP4354 was the most virulent whereas P. digitatum LCP 68175 was the most susceptible to predation. The yeast was able to survive for 21 days on the fruit surface and did not produce lesions on oranges. Production of antagonistic substances by S. schoenii was not detected using standard techniques. Our results point to the potential use of S. schoenii to control postharvest phytopathogens in fruits.

Este estudo avaliou a capacidade de levedura Saccharomycopsis schoenii Nadson & Krassiln (UWO-PS 80-91) em controlar o crescimento dos fungos fitopatogênicos Penicillium expansum Link (UFMG 01-2002), P. italicum Wehmer (LCP 61.1199), e P. digitatum (Pers.: Fr.) (LCP 984263, LCP 68175 e LCP 4354). S. schoenii reduziu a severidade da doença em laranjas inoculadas com todos os fitopatógenos testados. Entre estes fitopatógenos, P. digitatum LCP4354 apresentou a maior virulência enquanto que P. digitatum LCP 68175 foi o mais suscetível à predação. A levedura foi capaz de permanecer viável, sem produzir lesões na superfície dos frutos por 21 dias. Outra característica desejável observada foi a ausência de produção de substâncias antagonistas. Sendo assim, este trabalho evidência o potencial de utilização da levedura S. schoenii em protocolos de controle biológico de doenças pós-colheita em laranjas.

Citrus sinensis , Pest Control, Biological , Penicillium/growth & development , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Saccharomycopsis/growth & development , Saccharomycopsis/isolation & purification , Chemical Compounds , Methods , Virulence
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 36(4): 182-186, Oct.-Dec. 2004. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634480


El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la acción inhibitoria in vitro e in vivo de algunas cepas de levaduras de la zona citrícola jujeña sobre el crecimiento de los mohos patógenos post-cosecha y seleccionarlas para elaborar un producto de biocontrol. Se aislaron de frutos cítricos cepas de los mohos patógenos post-cosecha Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum,P. ulaiense, Phyllosticta sp. y Galactomyces geotrichum, así como de levaduras saprófítas de los géneros Brettanomyces, Candida, Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Pichia y Rhodotorula. También se obtuvieron algunas levaduras de otras fuentes. Se identificaron las levaduras por las características macro y micromorfológicas y las pruebas fisiológicas. La actividad in vitro e in vivo de las diferentes cepas fue diferente según se enfrentaran a P. digitatum o P. ulaiense. Candida cantarellii y una cepa de Pichia subpelliculosa produjeron una reducción significativa del área de las lesiones provocadas por estas especies de Penicillium, y podrían ser empleadas en la formulación de un producto para biocontrol.

The objective of this work was to establish the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of post-harvest pathogenic moulds by yeasts in order to make a biocontrol product. Post-harvest pathogenic moulds Penicillium digitatumP. italicum, P. ulaiense, Phyllosticta sp., Galactomyces geotrichum and yeasts belonging to genera Brettanomyces, Candida, Cryptococcus, Kloeckera,Pichia, Rhodotorula were isolated from citrus fruits. Some yeasts strains were also isolated from other sources. The yeasts were identified by their macro and micro-morphology and physiological tests. The in vitro and in vivo activities against P. digitatum or P. ulaiense were different. Candida cantarellii and one strain of Pichia subpelliculosa produced a significant reduction of the lesion area caused by the pathogenic moulds P. digitatum and P. ulaiense, and could be used in a biocontrol product formulation.

Citrus/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological , Penicillium/physiology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Yeasts/physiology , Fruit/microbiology , Mycological Typing Techniques , Penicillium/growth & development , Yeasts/classification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Yeasts/ultrastructure
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2004 Dec; 22(4): 229-35
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36643


A dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei is a causative agent of penicilliosis, a life-threatening disseminated disease in immunocompromised hosts predominantly found in southeast Asia and southern China. P. marneffei is the only known Penicillium that possesses a dimorphic characteristic. Since it is difficult to produce large amount of P. marneffei yeasts in vivo for experimentation purpose, yeast cells were produced in different in vitro conditions as alternatives. We interested in investigating the immunologic properties of yeast cells from different culture preparations. It was found that yeast cells obtained from brain heart infusion broth and Sabouraud dextrose broth did not resemble those resided in clinical specimens. A solution of 1% peptone, on the other hand, could induce a direct conidial transition into fission yeasts. Ability of yeast cells in each preparation to activate macrophages was determined by analyzing surface expression of CD40 and CD86 co-stimulatory molecules after two days of co-cultivation. Every P. marneffei yeast cell preparation demonstrated such ability. However, the ones from Sabouraud dextrose broth seemed to induce less phagocytosis. Additionally, although distinct antigenic profiles and lack of conformity in antigenic expression were observed among yeast cells from different culture conditions, most major immunogenic bands were present when Western analysis was performed using polyclonal antisera from penicilliosis patients. The results of the study raise attention on immunological and biochemical characteristics of P. marneffei yeasts if such preparations are to be used in future laboratory investigations.

Antigens, CD/metabolism , CD40 Antigens/metabolism , B7-2 Antigen , Blotting, Western , Culture Media , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Penicillium/growth & development , Phagocytosis , Yeasts/growth & development
Rev. microbiol ; 26(3): 165-8, set. 1995. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-280123


Resumo: A atividade de poligalacturonase extracelular de Penicillium expasum foi dosada nos filtrados das culturas, após a remoçäo da massa micelial, a qual foi usada na determinaçäo do crescimento do microrganismo. As mulhores condiçöes de crescimento para produçäo de enzima, foram o uso de meio mineral näo tamponado e ausência de extrato de levedura. A produçäo da enzima foi dependente do pH do meio de crescimento, sendo em pH ácido (au)

Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , In Vitro Techniques , Penicillium/growth & development , Polygalacturonase , Yeasts/chemistry
Egyptian Journal of Microbiology. 1994; 29 (1): 25-36
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-32229


Cell-free extracts of Cunninghamella elegans and Penicillium citrinum contained L-aspartate 4-carboxylyase which catalyzes the beta- decarboxylation of L-aspartate to alpha-alanine and CO2. The enzyme was produced during the logarithmic phase of growth of the 2 organisms and maximum yield was obtained after 4 days incubation. The optimal pH range for L-aspartate 4-carboxylyase synthesis by C. elegans was 5 - 6, while for P. citrinum enzyme pH 5 was the optimal. L-aspartate 4-carboxylyase of both organisms was induced by L-aspartate and L- asparagine. L-aspartate concentration of 3.5 g/l was the optimal for L-aspartate 4-carboxylyase formation by both cultures. The effect of different carbon sources and metal salts on enzyme synthesis and growth of the two organisms was investigated

Penicillium/growth & development
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 35(6): 527-33, nov.-dez. 1993. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-140119


O uso das radiacoes ionizantes na destruicao de microrganismos responsaveis pela deterioracao de alimentos ou causadores de infeccoes ou toxinfeccoes alimentares, constituiu-se aplicacao da energia nuclear, para fins verdadeiramente pacificos. Penicillium citrinum e um fungo produtor de micotoxinas, responsaveis por intoxicacoes em humanos e animais que se utilizam de alimentos contaminados. Ha escassez de informacoes sobre a resistencia de P. citrinum a irradiacao gama; assim esta pesquisa objetivou determinar a dose letal por irradiacao gama para esse microrganismo....

Lethal Dose 50 , Penicillium/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Penicillium/growth & development , Radiation, Ionizing