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Acta cir. bras ; 35(11): e301105, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141935


Abstract Purpose To assess the action of pentoxifylline, administered by subcutaneous route, on skin flap tissue repair in rats, and to verify the histological aspects and biomarkers. Methods Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (CT) and treated with pentoxifylline (P1, P3 and P5). Modified McFarlane technique flap was used. Ten days later, the animals were euthanized and the areas of viable and necrotic tissue were evaluated. Hematoxylin/eosin staining was used to assess the morphometric characteristics of the number of vessels and epithelial thickness. Picrosirius red was used to assess collagen density. VEGF and TGF-?1 levels on the skin flap and serum of the animals were measured by the ELISA method. Results The macroscopic evaluation of the skin flap dimensions showed reduced necrotic tissue in the pentoxifylline (p < 0.05) treated groups. There was an increase in angiogenesis and reepithelization, demonstrated by analyses with an increased number of vessels (p < 0.05), VEGF and epithelial thickness. Fibrogenic effect showed decreased collagen density and TGF-β1 in the skin flap and serum. Conclusion The benefits of pentoxifylline administered by subcutaneous route, at dose 100 mg/kg, which was effective to improve the survival of skin flap by acting on tissue repair components, stimulating angiogenesis and reepithelization, in addition to reducing fibrogenesis

Animals , Male , Rats , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Surgical Flaps , Skin Transplantation , Rats, Wistar , Graft Survival , Necrosis
Clinics ; 74: e787, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011911


OBJECTIVES: Intestinal obstruction has a high mortality rate when therapeutic treatment is delayed. Resuscitation in intestinal obstruction requires a large volume of fluid, and fluid combinations have been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of hypertonic saline solution (HS) with pentoxifylline (PTX) on apoptosis, oxidative stress and survival rate. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal obstruction and ischemia through a closed loop ligation of the terminal ileum and its vessels. After 24 hours, the necrotic bowel segment was resected, and the animals were randomized into four groups according to the following resuscitation strategies: Ringer's lactate solution (RL) (RL-32 ml/kg); RL+PTX (25 mg/kg); HS+PTX (HS, 7.5%, 4 ml/kg), and no resuscitation (IO-intestinal obstruction and ischemia). Euthanasia was performed 3 hours after resuscitation to obtain kidney and intestine samples. A malondialdehyde (MDA) assay was performed to evaluate oxidative stress, and histochemical analyses (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL], Bcl-2 and Bax) were conducted to evaluate kidney apoptosis. Survival was analyzed with another series of animals that were observed for 15 days. RESULTS: PTX in combination with RL or HS reduced the MDA levels (nmol/mg of protein), as follows: kidney IO=0.42; RL=0.49; RL+PTX=0.31; HS+PTX=0.34 (p<0.05); intestine: IO=0.42; RL=0.48; RL+PTX=0.29; HS+PTX=0.26 (p<0.05). The number of labeled cells for TUNEL and Bax was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The survival rate on the 15th day was higher in the HS+PTX group (77%) than in the RL+PTX group (11%). CONCLUSION: PTX in combination with HS enhanced survival and attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, when combined with RL, PTX did not reduce apoptosis or mortality.

Animals , Male , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Resuscitation/methods , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Intestinal Obstruction/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Disease Models, Animal , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Intestinal Obstruction/mortality , Intestinal Obstruction/prevention & control , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(5): 457-464, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896616


ABSTRACT Objectives: to verify the influence of dimethylsulfoxide and pentoxifylline on the vitality of cutaneous flaps in rats and the tissue repair process. Methods: were studied 30 Wistar rats, submitting them to a 2cm wide by 8cm long dorsal cutaneous flap, of caudal base. We distributed the animals in three groups: Control Group (n=10) with application gauze moistened with 0.9% Saline in the flap bed for 30 seconds; Dimethylsulfoxide group (n=10), with administration of 1ml of 5% dimethylsulfoxide divided into five injections of 0.2ml in the transition of the flap segments; Pentoxifylline group (n=10), with administration of pentoxifylline 20mg/kg, diluted to 1ml and divided into five injections of 0.2ml in the transition of the flap segments. Drugs were administered intraoperatively, in a single dose and subcutaneously. We observed the skin flaps for changes in color and texture. On the 10th postoperative day, we checked the dimensions of viable and necrotic tissues, followed by excision of the specimen for histological analysis. Results: the measurements of length of the viable and necrotic tissues between groups showed no differences. Histological analysis showed that the Dimethylsulfoxide group presented neovascularization, inflammatory infiltrate with leukocytes and more structured conjunctival stroma. The Pentoxifylline group showed neovascularization and inflammatory infiltrate, with moderate to intense granulation. The control group evolved with a higher rate of necrosis in the distal segment. Conclusion: dimethylsulfoxide and pentoxifylline influenced the vitality of the flap and the tissue repair process. However, they did not prevent necrosis macroscopically.

RESUMO Objetivos: verificar a influência do dimetilsulfóxido e da pentoxifilina na vitalidade e no processo de reparo tecidual de retalhos cutâneos em ratos. Método: foram estudados 30 ratos Wistar, nos quais foi confeccionado retalho cutâneo dorsal de 2cm de largura por 8cm de comprimento, de base caudal, e distribuídos em três grupos: Grupo Controle (n=10) com aplicação de gaze umedecida com solução salina a 0,9%, no leito do retalho, por 30 segundos; Grupo dimetilsulfóxido (n=10) com injeção de 1ml de dimetilsulfóxido a 5% divididos em cinco injeções de 0,2ml na transição dos segmentos do retalho; Grupo pentoxifilina (n=10) com injeção de 1ml pentoxifilina 20mg/kg, divididos em cinco injeções de 0,2ml na transição dos segmentos do retalho. Os fármacos foram administrados no transoperatório, em dose única e por via subcutânea. Os retalhos cutâneos foram observados quanto às alterações de cor e textura. No décimo dia de pós-operatório aferiu-se a dimensão do tecido viável e de necrose, seguido da exérese da peça para análise histológica. Resultados: a medida da dimensão de tecido viável e de necrose dos grupos não apresentou diferenças. A análise histológica mostrou que o grupo dimetilsulfóxido apresentou neovascularização, infiltrado inflamatório com leucócitos e estroma conjuntivo mais estruturado. O grupo pentoxifilina, mostrou neovascularização e infiltrado inflamatório com granulação moderada e intensa. O grupo controle evoluiu com maior índice de necrose no segmento distal. Conclusão: dimetilsulfóxido e pentoxifilina influenciaram na vitalidade do retalho e no processo de reparo tecidual. Entretanto, não evitaram a necrose macroscopicamente.

Animals , Male , Rats , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Surgical Flaps , Tissue Survival/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Skin Transplantation , Rats, Wistar
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(5): 396-403, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784172


Abstract Background: Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Methods: Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C), Pentoxifylline (PX), Tobacco Smoke (TS), and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. Results: TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt), and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA) and citrate synthase (CS). PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. Conclusion: TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis.

Resumo Fundamento: Exposição à fumaça de cigarros é um fator significativo de risco para a remodelação cardíaca. Nesta condição, estão presentes inflamação, estresse oxidativo, anormalidades do metabolismo energético, apoptose e hipertrofia. A pentoxifilina tem propriedades anti-inflamatórias, anti-apoptóticas, anti-trombóticas e anti-proliferativas. Objetivo: O presente estudo testou a hipótese de que a pentoxifilina atenuaria a remodelação cardíaca induzida pelo fumo. Métodos: Ratos Wistar foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: Controle (C), Pentoxifilina (PX), Fumaça de Cigarro (FC), e PX-FC. Depois de dois meses, foram feitos ecocardiografia, medição de pressão arterial invasiva e estudos bioquímicos e histológicos. Os grupos foram comparados por ANOVA de duas vias com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: FC aumentou o diâmetro e a área do átrio esquerdo, o que foi atenuado pela PX. No estudo de coração isolado, FC diminuiu a derivada positiva (+dp/dt), o que foi atenuado por PX. Os antioxidantes enzima superóxido-dismutase e glutationa peroxidase foram reduzidos no grupo FC; PX recuperou essas atividades. FC aumentou o lactato desidrogenase (LDH) e reduziu as desidrogenases 3-hidroxiacil Coenzima A (OH-DHA) e citrato sintase (CS). PX atenuou alterações de LDH, 3-OH-DHA e CS no grupo PX-FC. FC aumentou IL-10, ICAM-1 e caspase-3. PX não teve influência nestas variáveis. Conclusão: FC induziu remodelação cardíaca, associada a um aumento de inflamação, estresse oxidativo, apoptose e metabolismo energético alterado. PX atenuou remodelação cardíaca, reduzindo estresse oxidativo e melhorando bioenergética cardíaca, mas não agiu nas citocinas cardíacas nem na apoptose.

Animals , Male , Rats , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Ventricular Function , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
J. bras. pneumol ; 42(1): 9-14, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-776473


Objective : To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods : Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results : In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions : Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection.

Objetivo : Investigar os efeitos da N-acetilcisteína (NAC) e pentoxifilina em um modelo de lesão pulmonar remota após isquemia/reperfusão (I/R) de membro posterior em ratos. Métodos : Trinta e cinco ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em cinco grupos (n = 7/grupo), cada qual submetido ao seguinte: operação simulada (grupo controle); isquemia de membro posterior, induzida por pinçamento da artéria femoral esquerda por 2 h, seguida por de 24 h de reperfusão (grupo I/R); e isquemia de membro posterior, como descrito acima, seguida de injeção intraperitoneal (antes da reperfusão) de 150 mg/kg de NAC (grupo I/R+NAC), 40 mg/kg de pentoxifilina (grupo I/R+PTX) ou ambas (grupo I/R+NAC+PTX). Ao final do experimento, tecidos pulmonares foram removidos para análise histológica e avaliação do estresse oxidativo. Resultados : Comparados aos ratos dos outros grupos, os do grupo I/R apresentaram menor atividade de superóxido dismutase e menores níveis de glutationa, além de maiores níveis de malondialdeído e maiores escores de lesão pulmonar (p < 0,05 para todos). Infiltração celular inflamatória intersticial dos pulmões também foi bem maior no grupo I/R do que nos outros grupos. Além disso, os ratos do grupo I/R apresentaram vários sinais de edema intersticial e hemorragia. Nos grupos I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX e I/R+NAC+PTX, a atividade de superóxido dismutase, níveis de glutationa, níveis de malondialdeído e escores de lesão pulmonar foram preservados (p < 0,05 para todos). As diferenças entre a administração de NAC ou pentoxifilina isoladamente e a das duas combinadas não foi significativa para nenhum desses parâmetros (p > 0,05 para todos). Conclusões : Nossos resultados sugerem que tanto NAC quanto pentoxifilina protegem o tecido pulmonar dos efeitos de I/R de músculo esquelético. Entretanto, seu uso combinado não parece aumentar o nível dessa proteção.

Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Lung/blood supply , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Glutathione/analysis , Hindlimb/blood supply , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Oxidative Stress , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 576-583, May-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755872



The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of pentoxifylline (PTX) on remote testicular injury caused by unilateral hind limb ischemia/reperfusion of rats.

Materials and Methods

Twenty healthy male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into two groups: ischemia/reperfusion (IR group) and ischemia/reperfusion + pentoxifylline (IR+PTX group). Ischemia was induced by placement of a rubber tourniquet at the greater trochanter for 2h. Rats in IR+PTX group received PTX (40 mg/kg IP) before the reperfusion period. At 24h after reperfusion, testes were removed and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were determined in testicular tissues. Three rats of each group were used for wet/ dry weight ratio measurement. Testicular tissues were also examined histopathologically under light microscopy.


Activities of SOD and CAT in testicular tissues were decreased by ischemia/ reperfusion (P<0.05). Significantly increased MDA levels in testicular tissues were decreased by PTX treatment (P<0.05). MPO activity in testicular tissues in the IR group was significantly higher than in the IR+PTX group (P<0.05). The wet/dry weight ratio of testicular tissues in the IR group was significantly higher than in the IR+PTX group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, there was a statistically significant difference between two groups (P<0.05).


According to histological and biochemical findings, we conclude that PTX has preventive effects in the testicular injury induced by hind limb ischemia/reperfusion.


Animals , Male , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Hindlimb/blood supply , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Testis/drug effects , Catalase/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Ischemia/complications , Ischemia/prevention & control , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Peroxidase/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Testis/chemistry , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 30(2): 115-119, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741025


PURPOSE: To investigate the action of pentoxifylline (PTX) and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on ischemia and reperfusion of small intestine tissue in rats, using immunohistochemical analysis. METHODS: Thirty-five Wistar rats were distributed as follows: group A (n=10): subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion for 60 min, with no drugs; group B (n=10): PTX given during tissue ischemia and reperfusion; group C (n=10): PGE1 given during tissue ischemia and reperfusion; group D (n=5): sham. A segment of the small intestine was excised from each euthanized animal and subjected to immunohistochemical examination. RESULTS: Mean number of cells expressing anti-FAS ligand in the crypts was highest in Group A (78.9 ± 17.3), followed by groups B (16.7 ± 2.8), C (11.3 ± 1.8), and D (2.5 ± 0.9), with very significant differences between groups (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of pentoxifylline or prostaglandin E1 proved beneficial during tissue reperfusion. The immunohistochemical results demonstrated a decrease in apoptotic cells, while protecting other intestinal epithelium cells against death after reperfusion, allowing these cells to renew the epithelial tissue. .

Animals , Male , Alprostadil/pharmacology , Intestine, Small/blood supply , Ischemia/drug therapy , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Disease Models, Animal , Immunohistochemistry , Intestinal Mucosa/blood supply , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestine, Small/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Acta cir. bras ; 29(11): 735-741, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728650


PURPOSE: To evaluate intestinal inflammatory and apoptotic processes after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury, modulated by pentoxifylline and hypertonic saline. METHODS: It was allocated into four groups (n=6), 24 male Wistar rats (200 to 250g) and submitted to intestinal ischemia for 40 min and reperfusion for 80 min: IR (did not receive any treatment); HS group (Hypertonic Saline, 4ml/kg-IV); PTX group (Pentoxifylline, 30mg/kg-IV); HS+PTX group (Hypertonic Saline and Pentoxifylline). All animals were heparinized (100U/kg). At the end of reperfusion, ileal fragments were removed and stained on hematoxylin-eosin and histochemical studies for COX-2, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3. RESULTS: The values of sO2 were higher on treated groups at 40 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0081) and 80 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0072). Serum lactate values were lower on treated groups after 40 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0003) and 80 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0098). Morphologic tissue injuries showed higher grades on IR group versus other groups: HS (p=0.0006), PTX (p=0.0433) and HS+PTX (p=0.0040). The histochemical study showed lesser expression of COX-2 (p=0.0015) and Bcl-2 (p=0.0012) on HS+PTX group. A lower expression of cleaved caspase-3 was demonstrated in PTX (p=0.0090; PTXvsIR). CONCLUSION: The combined use of pentoxifylline and hypertonic saline offers best results on inflammatory and apoptotic inhibitory aspects after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion. .

Animals , Male , Apoptosis/drug effects , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemia/complications , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , /analysis , /analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Intestines/drug effects , Ischemia/prevention & control , Lactic Acid/blood , Oxygen/metabolism , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/blood , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use , Time Factors
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.2): 34-37, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-721385


PURPOSE: To investigate the blood vessels' concentration in TRAM flap's rat model, in the presence of pentoxifylline. METHODS: 32 male, Wistar-EPM rats were divided into two groups. Control group (C): 0.5 ml of saline, intraperitoneally, once a day, for seven days before flap elevation; PTX group (P): pentoxifylline (20mg/kg/day), intraperitoneally, for seven days before flap elevation. After that, they were submitted to a caudal unipedicle TRAM flap. On the fifth postoperative day, percentages of flap necrosis were determined via the "paper template" method and Tram flap's zone IV skin biopsies were taken for histological analysis. RESULTS: the mean percentage of flap necrosis in group C was 58.7 % and in group P, 31.1 (Wilcoxon test; p = 0.003). Mean capillary vessels number in zone IV's skin in C group was 33.4 and in P group was 71.9 (p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Pentoxifylline was effective reducing the necrosis in the caudal unipedicle TRAM flap in the rat as well as increasing the number of capillaries in an ischemic zone (zone IV). .

Animals , Male , Capillaries/drug effects , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Rectus Abdominis/drug effects , Surgical Flaps/blood supply , Tissue Survival/drug effects , Biopsy , Capillaries/pathology , Models, Animal , Necrosis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Rectus Abdominis/blood supply , Rectus Abdominis/pathology , Skin/blood supply , Skin/drug effects , Skin/pathology , Surgical Flaps/pathology
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 756-763, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227268


PURPOSE: Limited studies have shown antifibrotic effects of pentoxifylline, captopril, simvastatin, and tamoxifen. No comparisons are available of the effects of these drugs on prevention of renal and bladder changes in partial urethral obstruction (PUO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were divided into six groups (n=7). The sham-operated rats (group I) only underwent laparotomy and did not receive any treatments. The PUO groups (group II-VI) received normal saline (PUO+NS), pentoxifylline (100 mg/kg/d; PUO+PEN), captopril (35 mg/kg/d; PUO+CAP), simvastatin (15 mg/kg/d; PUO+SIM), or tamoxifen (10 mg/kg/d; PUO+TAM) by gavage for 28 days. Then, the volume and/or length of the kidney components (tubules, vessels, and fibrous tissue) and the bladder components (epithelial and muscular layers, fibrous tissue, fibroblast and fibrocyte number) were quantitatively evaluated on the microscopic sections by use of stereological techniques. RESULTS: The volume of renal and bladder fibrosis was significantly ameliorated in the PUO+PEN group, followed by the PUO+CAP, PUO+SIM, and PUO+TAM groups. Also, the volume and length of the renal tubules and vessels and bladder layers were more significantly protected in the PUO+PEN group, followed by the PUO+CAP, PUO+SIM, and PUO+TAM groups. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of PUO with PEN was more effective in the prevention of renal and bladder fibrosis and in the preservation of renal and bladder structures.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Captopril/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Male , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Rats , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Tamoxifen/pharmacology , Urethral Obstruction/drug therapy , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/drug therapy
Acta cir. bras ; 28(11): 767-773, Nov. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695956


PURPOSE: To investigate the small intestinal tissue alterations in rats submitted to ischemia and tissue reperfusion using pentoxyfilline or prostaglandin E1. METHODS: Thirty five Wistar rats were used, distributed into group control (A) n=10 were submitted to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion during 60 minutes and no one drug have been utilized. In the group pentoxyfilline (B) n=10 have been utilized during tissue ischemia and reperfusion as well as prostaglandin E1 (C) n=10, but separately. In the group sham (D) n=5, the animals were submitted to surgical. After euthanasia of the animals, a segment of the small intestine was cut, stained by hematoxilin-eosin and histological analysis according to Chiu criteria. RESULTS: Histological results showed that using pentoxyflline or prostaglandin E1 the results during tissue reperfusion were better, since the levels of criteria from Chiu that predominated were level 2 and 3, indicating less tissue damage in comparison to the control group (group A) that showed levels 4 and 5, what means more severe histological tissue alterations. CONCLUSION: Use of pentoxyfilline or prostaglandin E1 promoted a beneficial effect during intestinal reperfusion, demonstrated by less severe histological lesions in the small intestine mucosa of rats submitted to ischemia and tissue reperfusion when helped by the drugs.

Animals , Male , Rats , Alprostadil/pharmacology , Intestine, Small/blood supply , Ischemia/drug therapy , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Intestinal Mucosa/blood supply , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestine, Small/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
Medical Sciences Journal of Islamic Azad University. 2013; 23 (1): 1-6
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-130395


Ecstasy is a psychoactive, hallucinogen drug and a member of amphetamines family and is used commonly worldwide. Ecstasy overdose leads to restlessness, anxiety, hallucination, cardiovascular disorders and liver toxicity. Recently, the use of vasodilators, such as pentoxifylline [PTX], is one of the new strategies for protection against liver lesions caused by some substances such as alcohol consumption. There are few studies about the protective effect of pentoxifylline on liver damages due to MDMA long administration. Therefore, a comprehensive study on the protective effect of pentoxifylline on liver lesions caused by prolonged use of ecstasy seems to be necessary. This experimental study was performed on five groups: control, Ecstasy [7.5 mg/kg], Experimental 1 [100 mg/kg PTX simultaneously with the last dose of Ecstasy], experimental 2 [100 mg/kg PTX a week before Ecstasy injection], and vehicle [normal saline] groups [n=25]. After two weeks, animals were killed and their livers were prepared for histological studies [H and E method] and TUNEL technique for investigating of apoptotic bodies. The apoptotic bodies and hepatocytes lesions in experimental group 1 were lower than the other groupsm except control. It seems that the use of pentoxifylline after consumption of pure ecstasy can decrease tissue damage and prevent the induction of apoptosis in rat liver

Animals, Laboratory , Rats, Wistar , Pentoxifylline , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Liver , Hepatocytes/drug effects
Clinics ; 67(12): 1455-1461, Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660475


OBJECTIVE: During the neonatal and infancy periods, some chronic liver diseases may lead to progressive hepatic fibrosis, which is a condition that can ultimately result in the loss of organ function and severe portal hypertension necessitating hepatic transplantation. In a previous report, pharmacological interventions were demonstrated to modulate hepatic fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in young rats. The administration of pentoxifylline or prednisolone, or the combination of both, resulted in reduced fibrogenesis in portal spaces. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor after bile duct ligation in young rats and to assess the effect of those same drugs on cytokine expression. METHODS: In this experimental study, 80 young rats (21 or 22 days old) were submitted either to laparotomy and common bile duct ligation or to sham surgery. The animals were allocated into four groups according to surgical procedure, and the following treatments were administered: (1) common bile duct ligation + distilled water, (2) sham surgery + distilled water, (3) common bile duct ligation + pentoxifylline, or (4) common bile duct ligation + prednisolone. After 30 days, a hepatic fragment was collected from each animal for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies against transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor. Digital morphometric and statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: The administration of pentoxifylline reduced the transforming growth factor β-marked area and the amount of transforming growth factor β expressed in liver tissue. This effect was not observed after the administration of prednisolone. There was a significant reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor expression after the administration of either drug compared with the non-treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of pentoxifylline to cholestatic young rats resulted in the diminished expression of transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor in liver tissue. The administration of steroids resulted in the diminished expression of vascular endothelial growth factor only. These pathways may be involved in hepatic fibrogenesis in young rats submitted to bile duct ligation and exposed to pentoxifylline or prednisolone.

Animals , Rats , Cholestasis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/prevention & control , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prednisolone/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Cholestasis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Random Allocation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28115


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Renal hypoxia is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Pentoxifyllin (PTX), a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is used to attenuate peripheral vascular diseases. To determine whether PTX can improve renal hypoxia, we investigated its effect in the streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney. METHODS: PTX (40 mg/kg, PO) was administered to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 8 weeks. To determine tissue hypoxia, we examined hypoxic inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) levels. We also tested the effect of PTX on HIF-1alpha in renal tubule cells. RESULTS: PTX reduced the increased protein creatinine ratio in diabetic rats at 8 weeks. HIF-1alpha, VEGF, and GLUT-1 mRNA expression increased significantly, and the expression of HO-1 also tended to increase in diabetic rats. PTX significantly decreased mRNA expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF at 4 and 8 weeks, and decreased HO-1 and GLUT-1 at 4 weeks. The expression of HIF-1alpha protein was significantly increased at 4 and 8 weeks in tubules in the diabetic rat kidney. PTX tended to decrease HIF-1alpha protein expression at 8 weeks. To examine whether PTX had a direct effect on renal tubules, normal rat kidney cells were stimulated with CoCl2 (100 microM), which enhanced HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein levels under low glucose conditions (5.5 mM). Their expressions were similar even after high glucose (30 mM) treatment. PTX had no effect on HIF-1alpha expression. CONCLUSIONS: PTX attenuates tubular hypoxia in the diabetic kidney.

Animals , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Cell Line , Cobalt/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 1/genetics , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Kidney Tubules/drug effects , Male , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Time Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(11): 1134-1140, Nov. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604281


Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a disease mediated by the immune response. HTLV-1 induces a spontaneous proliferation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by T cells, and increasing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels are potentially involved in tissue damage in diseases related to HTLV-1. This exaggerated immune response is also due to an inability of the natural regulatory mechanisms to down-modulate the immune response in this group of patients. TNF-α inhibitors reduce inflammation and have been shown to improve chronic inflammatory diseases in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of pentoxifylline, forskolin, rolipram, and thalidomide to decrease in vitro production of TNF-α and IFN-γ in cells of HTLV-1-infected subjects. Participants of the study included 19 patients with HAM/TSP (mean age, 53 ± 11; male:female ratio, 1:1) and 18 HTLV-1 carriers (mean age, 47 ± 11; male:female ratio, 1:2.6). Cytokines were determined by ELISA in supernatants of mononuclear cell cultures. Pentoxifylline inhibited TNF-α and IFN-γ synthesis with the minimum dose used (50 µM). The results with forskolin were similar to those observed with pentoxifylline. The doses of rolipram used were 0.01-1 µM and the best inhibition of TNF-α production was achieved with 1 µM and for IFN-γ production it was 0.01 µM. The minimum dose of thalidomide used (1 µM) inhibited TNF-α production but thalidomide did not inhibit IFN-γ production even when the maximum dose (50 µM) was used. All drugs had an in vitro inhibitory effect on TNF-α production and, with the exception of thalidomide, all of them also decreased IFN-γ production.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , HTLV-I Infections/metabolism , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Case-Control Studies , Colforsin/pharmacology , HTLV-I Infections/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Rolipram/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Thalidomide/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(9): 776-782, Sept. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-524324


The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of oxidative damage in pancreatitis-induced hepatic injury. Thirty-five rats were divided into five groups (each of 7 rats): control, cerulein (100 µg/kg body weight), cerulein and pentoxifylline (12 mg/kg body weight), cerulein plus L-NAME (10 mg/kg body weight) and cerulein plus L-arginine (160 mg/kg body weight). The degree of hepatic cell degeneration differed significantly between groups. Mean malondialdehyde levels were 7.00 ± 2.29, 20.89 ± 10.13, 11.52 ± 4.60, 18.69 ± 8.56, and 8.58 ± 3.68 nmol/mg protein for the control, cerulein, pentoxifylline, L-NAME, and L-arginine groups, respectively. Mean catalase activity was 3.20 ± 0.83, 1.09 ± 0.35, 2.05 ± 0.91, 1.70 ± 0.60, and 2.85 ± 0.47 U/mg protein for the control, cerulein, pentoxifylline, L-NAME, and L-arginine groups, respectively, and mean glutathione peroxidase activity was 0.72 ± 0.25, 0.33 ± 0.09, 0.37 ± 0.04, 0.34 ± 0.07 and 0.42 ± 0.1 U/mg protein for the control, cerulein, pentoxifylline, L-NAME, and L-arginine groups, respectively. Cerulein-induced liver damage was accompanied by a significant increase in tissue malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in catalase (P < 0.05) and GPx activities (P < 0.05). L-arginine and pentoxifylline, but not L-NAME, protected against this damage. Oxidative injury plays an important role not only in the pathogenesis of AP but also in pancreatitis-induced hepatic damage.

Animals , Female , Rats , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver Diseases/etiology , Pancreatitis/complications , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Acute Disease , Arginine/pharmacology , Ceruletide , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Diseases/prevention & control , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Pancreatitis/chemically induced , Pancreatitis/metabolism , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar
Clinics ; 64(8): 797-802, 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-524001


OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of buflomedil and pentoxifylline, both of which are used in reconstructive surgery of hamster skin flap microcirculation, and evaluated the skin flap survival rate by orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. METHOD: Twenty-four adult male Syrian golden hamsters were divided into three groups: a control (C, 0.1 ml 0.9 percent saline), buflomedil (B, 3 mg/kg/day), and pentoxifylline group (P, 14.5 mg/kg/day). Treatments administered intraperitoneally were initiated 1 hour before skin flap preparation and continued for 7 days post-operatively at 12-hour intervals. Preparations (skin flaps) were divided into 12 fields, which were organized into six bands. Functional capillary density (FCD, in mm/mm²), distance from the skin flap base to blood flow cessation (Dist with flow, in cm), percentage of viable skin (VA, in percent), and qualitative analysis of blood flow by orthogonal polarization spectral imaging were performed at 1 and 24 hours and on the seventh post-operative day. RESULT: Bands IV, V, and VI presented no flow independent of time. The functional capillary density group B was higher than that of groups C and P, primarily after 24 hours. All groups showed an increase in D with time but reached similar final distances (C = 2.73, B = 2.78 and P = 2.70 cm). Moreover, the percentage of viable areas remained at approximately 50 percent. The orthogonal polarization spectral imaging was useful to assess viability by counting fields with and without blood flow. CONCLUSIONS: Functional capillary density values were higher in the buflomedil group compared to the control and pentoxifylline groups in this model. Functional capillary density did not influence D or the percentage of VA, and the technique showed favorable potential to assess/predict the viability of skin flaps within 1 h after surgery.

Animals , Cricetinae , Male , Graft Survival/drug effects , Microcirculation/drug effects , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Surgical Flaps/blood supply , Capillaries/drug effects , Capillaries/physiopathology , Mesocricetus , Microscopy, Polarization/standards , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Spectrophotometry/standards
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(1): 21-26, Feb. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-478872


Infection of C3H/He mice with the Peruvian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (Biodeme type I, Z2b), a macrophagotropic strain, determined severe parasitism of macrophages, necrosis of the spleen, and high host mortality. In the present study, pentoxifylline (PTX), an inhibitor of TNF-alpha was investigated on its action upon splenic necrosis, parasitemia and host survival. Immunohistochemical data suggested the importance of this cytokine in parasite destruction and decreasing of parasitemia, although paradoxically contributing to the high mortality of infected mice. Necrotic lesions involving several organs, specially the heart, in acute Chagas disease, are important aggravating factors, increasing cardiac morbidity. Advantage of inhibiting TNF-alpha action was herein investigated. Infected mice were divided into two groups: untreated (n = 24), and PTX treated mice (n = 25). PTX was administered in two daily doses of 30 mg/kg/bw, by intraperitoneal route. Normal controls either treated with PTX or saline were also included. Histopathology of the spleen and in situ immunolabeling of TNF-alpha, using anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody, were performed. Necrotic areas were evaluated by morphometry. Mice treated with PTX showed a significant decrease of necrotic areas and diminution of TNF-alpha expression in spleen tissue, suggesting that PTX treatment could control TNF-alpha effects, and thus be used as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute Chagas' disease.

Animals , Mice , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Splenic Diseases/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Acute Disease , Chagas Disease/immunology , Chagas Disease/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Necrosis/drug therapy , Parasitemia/immunology , Spleen/pathology , Splenic Diseases/pathology , Time Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis