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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468973

ABSTRACT

We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Avaliamos os efeitos de diferentes alimentos para peixes em relação à composição corporal, crescimento e atividades enzimáticas de Labeo rohita (Rohu). No total, foram estudados 240 peixes com pesos médios de 24,77 ± 2,15 g. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos de 60 peixes cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro alimentos diferentes para peixes: Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Foram avaliados a composição corporal, o desempenho de crescimento e as atividades enzimáticas. Houve uma variação significativa no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com diferentes tipos de ração. Peixes com alimentação Oryza apresentaram maior ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico (SGR) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR) em comparação com outros grupos que foram considerados significativos (P ≤ 0,05). Elevado ganho de peso líquido foi obtido em T4 quando comparado com T2 e T3. O valor da FCR de T4 foi menor que T1, mas maior que T2 e T3, que apresentaram os menores valores. A taxa de crescimento específico foi registrada como média em T4, mas T2 teve uma SGR alta do que T3. Da mesma forma, o nível de proteína bruta e a atividade das enzimas digestivas foram registrados significativamente mais altos nos peixes alimentados com Oryza (T1) em comparação com AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram registrados como significativos em todos os tratamentos, exceto pH e OD do tratamento (T1), significativamente diferente dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que Rohu (Labeo rohita) pode apresentar uma taxa de crescimento promissora e atividade da enzima protease quando alimentado com Oryza de 25% de proteína.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enzyme Activation , Cyprinidae/growth & development , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 476-483, Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339188

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A doença cardiovascular é a principal causa de morte em todo o mundo. A apoptose mediada por hipóxia em cardiomiócitos é uma das principais causas de distúrbios cardiovasculares. O tratamento com a proteína do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF, do inglês vascular endothelial growth factor) foi testado, mas as dificuldades operacionais limitaram seu uso. Entretanto, com os avanços da terapia gênica, aumentou o interesse na terapia gênica baseada no VEGF em doenças cardiovasculares. No entanto, o mecanismo preciso pelo qual a reposição de VEGF resgata os danos pós-hipóxia em cardiomiócitos não é conhecido. Objetivos: Investigar o efeito da expressão de VEGF121 pós-hipóxia utilizando cardiomiócitos de ratos neonatos. Métodos: Cardiomiócitos isolados de ratos neonatos foram utilizados para estabelecer um modelo in vitro de lesão cardíaca induzida por hipóxia. O efeito da superexpressão de VEGF, isolado ou em conjunto com inibidores de moléculas pequenas que têm como alvo os canais de cálcio, receptores sensíveis ao cálcio (CaSR, do inglês calcium-sensitive receptors) e calpaína, no crescimento e proliferação celular em lesão de cardiomiócitos induzidos por hipóxia, foram determinados com ensaio de MTT, coloração TUNEL, coloração com Anexina V/PI, lactato desidrogenase e atividade da caspase. Para análise estatística, um valor de p<0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Verificou-se que o efeito do VEGF121 foi mediado por CaSR e calpaína, mas não foi dependente dos canais de cálcio. Conclusões: Nossos resultados, mesmo em um ambiente in vitro, estabelecem as bases para uma validação futura e testes pré-clínicos da terapia gênica baseada em VEGF em doenças cardiovasculares.


Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death worldwide. Hypoxia-mediated apoptosis in cardiomyocytes is a major cause of cardiovascular disorders. Treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein has been tested but operational difficulties have limited its use. However, with the advancements of gene therapy, interest has risen in VEGF-based gene therapy in cardiovascular disorders. However, the precise mechanism by which VEGF replenishment rescues post-hypoxia damage in cardiomyocytes is not known. Objectives: To investigate the effect of post-hypoxia VEGF121 expression using neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Methods: Cardiomyocytes isolated from neonatal rats were used to establish an in vitro model of hypoxia-induced cardiac injury. The effect of VEGF overexpression, alone or in combination with small-molecule inhibitors targeting calcium channel, calcium sensitive receptors (CaSR), and calpain on cell growth and proliferation on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte injury were determined using an MTT assay, TUNEL staining, Annexin V/PI staining, lactate dehydrogenase and caspase activity. For statistical analysis, a value of P<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The effect of VEGF121 was found to be mediated by CaSR and calpain but was not dependent on calcium channels. Conclusions: Our findings, even though using an in vitro setting, lay the foundation for future validation and pre-clinical testing of VEGF-based gene therapy in cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Hypoxia , Mitochondria
3.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 381-389, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126135

ABSTRACT

El género Pseudomonas es una fuente importante de proteasas; sin embargo, su uso está restringido en la industria alimentaria. El clonaje permite aprovechar la capacidad catalítica de estas enzimas mediante su producción en microorganismos inocuos. Por otro lado, las leguminosas son fuentes ricas en proteínas, a partir de las cuales se pueden obtener compuestos con valor agregado mediante procesos de hidrólisis enzimática. En este estudio, se produjo y caracterizó una proteasa recombinante (PT4) alcalina y termoestable de Pseudomonas aeruginosa M211, para la obtención de hidrolizados proteicos de leguminosas. Para ello, el gen de la proteasa se clonó en el vector pJET1.2/blunt utilizando E. coli DHalfa como hospedero. El análisis de la secuencia nucleotídica parcial de la proteasa indicó un 99 % de similitud con Peptidasas de la Familia M4 de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. La enzima recombinante presentó un peso molecular de 80 kDa, demostró ser activa y estable en condiciones alcalinas y termófilas con un pH y temperatura óptimos de 8 y 60 °C, respectivamente, y fue inhibida por EDTA. Además, hidrolizó proteínas de semillas de Glycine max, Phaseolus lunatus, Lupinus mutabilis y Erythrina edulis, obteniéndose fracciones peptídicas menores a 40 kDa. Esta proteasa recombinante se podría utilizar en la elaboración de hidrolizados proteicos funcionales a partir proteínas de distintas fuentes y residuos agroalimentarios.


The genus Pseudomonas is an important source of proteases; however, in the food industry the use of this bacterium is restricted. Cloning allows for the use of the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas proteases through their production in innocuous microorganisms. Leguminous are protein-rich sources from which value-added compounds can be obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study, an alkaline and thermostable recombinant protease (PT4) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa M211 was cloned and characterized in order to obtain protein hydrolysates from leguminous. Therefore, protease gene was cloned into the pJET1.2 / blunt vector using E. coli DHalpha as a host. Analysis of protease partial nucleotide sequence showed 99% homology with Peptidases M4 Family from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme was 80 kDa, it was active and stable under alkaline and thermophilic conditions, presented an optimum pH and temperature of 8 and 60 °C, respectively, and was inhibited by EDTA. In addition, it hydrolysed Glycine max, Phaseolus lunatus, Lupinus mutabilis y Erythrina edulis proteins, obtaining peptide fractions less than 40 kDa. This recombinant protease could be used in the elaboration of functional hydrolysates using protein from different sources and agricultural waste.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protein Hydrolysates/metabolism , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Cloning, Molecular , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Fabaceae
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 33-40, Mar. 2020. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The preparation of broad bean koji is a key process in the production of Pixian broad bean paste (PBP). Protease is essential for the degradation of proteins during PBP fermentation. To obtain broad bean koji with high protease activity using the cocultivated strains of Aspergillus oryzae QM-6 (A. oryzae QM-6) and Aspergillus niger QH-3 (A. niger QH-3), the optimization of acid and neutral protease activities was carried out using Box­Behnken design with response surface methodology (RSM). RESULTS: The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: inoculation proportion (X1), 3:1 (A. oryzae QM-6: A. niger QH-3, w/w); culture temperature (X2), 33°C; inoculum size (X3), 0.5% (w/w); incubation time (X4), 5 d. The acid and neutral protease activities were 605.2 ± 12.4 U/g and 1582.9 ± 23.7 U/g, respectively, which were in good agreement with the predicted values. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles revealed that the broad bean koji extracellular proteins in the case of cocultivation were richer compared to those in the case of A. oryzae QM-6 or A. niger QH-3 strain only. In addition, the free amino acids (FAAs) in the fermentation product were 55% higher in the cocultivation process than in that involving only A. oryzae QM-6, further confirming the diversity of proteases in the fermentation products. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal conditions of koji-making in PBP were obtained using RSM. The cocultivation of A. oryzae and A. niger increases the overall enzyme activities in the culture medium and the FAAs content, which would thus have potential application in the PBP industry.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus oryzae , Fabaceae/enzymology , Coculture Techniques , Vicia faba , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Fermentation , Amino Acids
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 41-46, Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087698

ABSTRACT

Background: The main objective of this study was to isolate fungi associated with Anthopleura xanthogrammica and measure their antimicrobial and enzymatic activities. A total of 93 fungal strains associated with A. xanthogrammica were isolated in this study, of which 32 isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. The antibacterial activities of 32 fungal isolates were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda, Vibrio harveyi, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pyricularia oryzae by agar diffusion assay. Extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activities of the fungal isolates were determined by agar diffusion assays. Enzyme activities were detected from clear halo size. Results: The isolated fungi belonged to 18 genera within 7 taxonomic orders of 1 phylum. The genera Aspergillaceae were the most diverse and common. The antimicrobial activities of 32 isolates were evaluated, and 19 (59.4%) of fungi isolate displayed unique antimicrobial activities. All fungal strains displayed at least one enzyme activity. The most common enzyme activities in the fungi isolates were amylase and protease, while the least common were pectinase and xylanase. Conclusions: This is first report on the sea anemone-derived fungi with antimicrobial and enzyme activities. Results indicated that sea anemone is a hot spot of fungal diversity and a rich resource of bioactive natural products.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Sea Anemones/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phylogeny , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Aspergillus/enzymology , Aspergillus/genetics , Bacteria/drug effects , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Biodiversity , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/genetics , Amylases/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 52-60, may. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biologically active peptides produced from fish wastes are gaining attention because their health benefits. Proteases produced by halophilic microorganisms are considered as a source of active enzymes in high salt systems like fish residues. Hence, the aim of this study was the bioprospection of halophilic microorganisms for the production of proteases to prove their application for peptide production. RESULTS: Halophilic microorganisms were isolated from saline soils of Mexico and Bolivia. An enzymatic screening was carried out for the detection of lipases, esterases, pHB depolymerases, chitinases, and proteases. Most of the strains were able to produce lipases, esterases, and proteases, and larger hydrolysis halos were detected for protease activity. Halobacillus andaensis was selected to be studied for proteolytic activity production; the microorganism was able to grow on gelatin, yeast extract, skim milk, casein, peptone, fish muscle (Cyprinus carpio), and soy flour as protein sources, and among these sources, fish muscle protein was the best inducer of proteolytic activity, achieving a protease production of 571 U/mL. The extracellular protease was active at 50°C, pH 8, and 1.4 M NaCl and was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. The proteolytic activity of H. andaensis was used to hydrolyze fish muscle protein for peptide production. The peptides obtained showed a MW of 5.3 kDa and a radical scavenging ability of 10 to 30% on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and a ferric reducing ability of plasma. Conclusion: The use of noncommercial extracellular protease produced by H. andaensis for biologically active peptide production using fish muscle as the protein source presents a great opportunity for high-value peptide production.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Peptides/metabolism , Fish Proteins/metabolism , Halobacillus/enzymology , Soil , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bolivia , Esterases , Salinity , Hydrolysis , Lipase , Mexico , Muscle Proteins , Antioxidants
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 29: 32-38, sept. 2017. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1017075

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to test the possibility of improving polypeptide production from soybean meal fermentation by engineered Aspergillus oryzae strains. Four different protease genes were cloned and transformed into wild-type A. oryzae, and the engineered A. oryzae strains were then used for soybean meal fermentation. Results: The results showed different degrees of improvement in the protease activity of the four transformants when compared with wild-type A. oryzae. A major improvement in the polypeptide yield was achieved when these strains were used in soybean meal fermentation. The polypeptide conversion rate of one of the four transformants, A. oryzae pep, reached 35.9%, which was approximately twofold higher than that exhibited by wild-type A. oryzae. Amino acid content analysis showed that the essential amino acid content and amino acid composition of the fermentation product significantly improved when engineered A. oryzae strains were used for soybean meal fermentation. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cloning of microbial protease genes with good physicochemical properties and expressing them in an ideal host such as A. oryzae is a novel strategy to enhance the value of soybean meal.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Aspergillus oryzae/enzymology , Aspergillus oryzae/genetics , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , Glycine max , Transformation, Genetic , Genetic Engineering , Cloning, Molecular , Fermentation , Flour , Amino Acids/analysis
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 28: 101-112, July. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015977

ABSTRACT

Background: The hydrolysis of keratin wastes by microorganisms is considered a biotechnological alternative for recycling and valorization through keratinolytic microorganisms. Despite their resistant structure, keratin wastes can be efficiently degraded by various microorganisms through the secretion of keratinases, which are promising enzymes for several applications, including detergents, fertilizers, and leather and textile industry. In an attempt to isolate keratinolytic microorganisms that can reach commercial exploitation as keratinase producers, the current work assesses the dynamics of keratin biodegradation by several keratinolytic fungal strains isolated from soil. The activity of fungal strains to degrade keratin substrates was evaluated by SEM, FTRIR-ATR spectra and TGA analysis. Results: SEM observations offered relevant information on interactions between microorganism and structural elements of hair strands. FTIR spectra of the bands at 1035­1075 cm-1 assigned to sulfoxide bond appeared because of S­S bond breaking, which demonstrated the initiation of keratin biodegradation. According to TGA, in the second zone of thermal denaturation, where keratin degradation occurs, the highest weight loss of 71.10% was obtained for sample incubated with Fusarium sp. 1A. Conclusions: Among the tested strains, Fusarium sp. 1A was the most active organism in the degradation process with the strongest denaturation of polypeptide chains. Because keratinolytic microorganisms and their enzymes keratinases represent a subject of scientific and economic interest because of their capability to hydrolyze keratin, Fusarium sp. 1A was selected for further studies.


Subject(s)
Fungi/enzymology , Fungi/metabolism , Keratins/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Thermogravimetry , Trichoderma/metabolism , Trichophyton/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cladosporium/metabolism , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Fusarium/metabolism , Hydrolysis , Keratins/chemistry , Microsporum/metabolism
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 691-700, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755810

ABSTRACT

Keratinolytic microorganisms have become the subject of scientific interest due to their ability to biosynthesize specific keratinases and their prospective application in keratinic waste management. Among several bacterial classes, actinobacteria remain one of the most important sources of keratin-degrading strains, however members of the Micrococcaceae family are rarely scrutinized in regard to their applicatory keratinolytic potential. The tested Micrococcus sp. B1pz isolate from poultry feather waste was identified as M. luteus. The strain, grown in the medium with 1–2% chicken feathers and a yeast extract supplement, produced keratinases of 32 KU and lower level of proteases, 6 PU. It was capable to effectively decompose feathers or “soft” keratin of stratum corneum, in contrast to other “hard” hair-type keratins. The produced keratinolytic enzymes were mainly a combination of alkaline serine or thiol proteases, active at the optimum pH 9.4, 55 °C. Four main protease fractions of 62, 185, 139 and 229 kDa were identified in the crude culture fluid. The research on the auxiliary role of reducing factors revealed that reducing sulfur compounds could be applied in keratinolysis enhancement during enzymatic digestion of keratin, rather than in culture conditions. The presented M. luteus isolate exhibits a significant keratinolytic potential, which determines its feasible applicatory capacity towards biodegradation of poultry by-products or formulation of keratin-based feed components.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Keratins/metabolism , Micrococcus luteus/enzymology , Micrococcus luteus/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Chickens/microbiology , Feathers/microbiology , Micrococcus luteus/isolation & purification , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Poultry/microbiology , Sulfur Compounds/metabolism , Waste Management
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 701-706, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755833

ABSTRACT

The bacterial spot of tomato, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a very important disease, especially in the hot and humid periods of the year. The chemical control of the disease has not been very effective for a number of reasons. This study aimed to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the efficacy of leaf-spraying chemicals (acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) (0.025 g.L−1), fluazinam (0.25 g.L−1), pyraclostrobin (0.08 g.L−1), pyraclostrobin + methiran (0.02 g.L−1 + 2.2 g.L−1), copper oxychloride (1.50 g.L−1), mancozeb + copper oxychloride (0.88 g.L−1 + 0.60 g.L−1), and oxytetracycline (0.40 g.L−1)) on control of bacterial spot. Tomatoes Santa Clara and Gisele cultivars were pulverized 3 days before inoculation with Xanthomonas perforans. The production of enzymes associated with resistance induction (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase, and protease) was quantified from leaf samples collected 24 hours before and 24 hours after chemical spraying and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after bacterial inoculation. All products tested controlled bacterial spot, but only ASM, pyraclostrobin, and pyraclostrobin + metiram increased the production of peroxidase in the leaves of the two tomato cultivars, and increased the production of polyphenol oxidase and β-1,3-glucanase in the Santa Clara cultivar.

.


Subject(s)
Disease Resistance/drug effects , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Xanthomonas/growth & development , Catechol Oxidase/metabolism , /metabolism , Solanum lycopersicum/enzymology , Solanum lycopersicum/immunology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Peroxidase/metabolism , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase/metabolism , Plant Diseases/immunology , Xanthomonas/drug effects
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 359-366, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749714

ABSTRACT

Endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. Microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. In the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp., Phyllosticta citricarpa and Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also examined the proteolytic activities of endophytes grown in liquid medium and conducted cup plate assays. The results showed that certain strains in the assemblage of P. hispidum endophytes are important sources of antifungal properties, primarily Lasiodiplodia theobromae JF766989, which reduced phytopathogen growth by approximately 54 to 65%. We detected 28 endophytes producing enzymatic halos of up to 16.40 mm in diameter. The results obtained in the present study highlight the proteolytic activity of the endophytes Phoma herbarum JF766995 and Schizophyllum commune JF766994, which presented the highest enzymatic halo diameters under at least one culture condition tested. The increased activities of certain isolates in the presence of rice or soy flour as a substrate (with halos up to 17.67 mm in diameter) suggests that these endophytes have the potential to produce enzymes using agricultural wastes.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Piper/microbiology , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Microbiological Techniques , Molecular Sequence Data , Sequence Analysis, DNA
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 337-346, Apr-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749736

ABSTRACT

Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Fungi/enzymology , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 251-260, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748253

ABSTRACT

An Aspergillus niger UFV-1 phytase was characterized and made available for industrial application. The enzyme was purified via ultrafiltration followed by acid precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. This protein exhibited a molecular mass of 161 kDa in gel filtration and 81 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), indicating that it may be a dimer. It presented an optimum temperature of 60 °C and optimum pH of 2.0. The KM for sodium phytate hydrolysis was 30.9 mM, while the kcat and kcat/KM were 1.46 ×105 s−1 and 4.7 × 106 s−1.M−1, respectively. The purified phytase exhibited broad specificity on a range of phosphorylated compounds, presenting activity on sodium phytate, p-NPP, 2- naphthylphosphate, 1- naphthylphosphate, ATP, phenyl-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, calcium phytate and other substrates. Enzymatic activity was slightly inhibited by Mg2+, Cd2+, K+ and Ca2+, and it was drastically inhibited by F−. The enzyme displayed high thermostability, retaining more than 90% activity at 60 °C during 120 h and displayed a t1/2 of 94.5 h and 6.2 h at 70 °C and 80 °C, respectively. The enzyme demonstrated strong resistance toward pepsin and trypsin, and it retained more than 90% residual activity for both enzymes after 1 h treatment. Additionally, the enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed phytate in livestock feed, liberating 15.3 μmol phosphate/mL after 2.5 h of treatment.


Subject(s)
/isolation & purification , /metabolism , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , /chemistry , Chemical Precipitation , Chromatography, Gel , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme Stability , Enzyme Inhibitors/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Kinetics , Molecular Weight , Protein Multimerization , Proteolysis , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phytic Acid/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Temperature , Ultrafiltration
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 207-217, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748260

ABSTRACT

The practice of refrigerating raw milk at the farm has provided a selective advantage for psychrotrophic bacteria that produce heat-stable proteases and lipases causing severe quality problems to the dairy industry. In this work, a protease (AprX) and a lipase (LipM) produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens 041, a highly proteolytic and lipolytic strain isolated from raw milk obtained from a Brazilian farm, have been purified and characterized. Both enzymes were purified as recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli. The AprX metalloprotease exhibited activity in a broad temperature range, including refrigeration, with a maximum activity at 37 °C. It was active in a pH range of 4.0 to 9.0. This protease had maximum activity with the substrates casein and gelatin in the presence of Ca+2. The LipM lipase had a maximum activity at 25 °C and a broad pH optimum ranging from 7.0 to 10. It exhibited the highest activity, in the presence of Ca+2, on substrates with long-chain fatty acid residues. These results confirm the spoilage potential of strain 041 in milk due to, at least in part, these two enzymes. The work highlights the importance of studies of this kind with strains isolated in Brazil, which has a recent history on the implementation of the cold chain at the dairy farm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lipase/metabolism , Milk/microbiology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Pseudomonas fluorescens/isolation & purification , Brazil , Enzyme Stability , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipase/chemistry , Lipase/genetics , Lipase/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas fluorescens/genetics , Refrigeration , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Temperature
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 389-393, Apr.-June 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723093

ABSTRACT

Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/enzymology , Bacillus/genetics , Lipase/genetics , Lipase/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Lipase/chemistry , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Phylogeny , Protein Multimerization , Proteolysis , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Sequence Homology
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Nov; 51(11): 1024-1031
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149413

ABSTRACT

A new antagonistic bacterial strain PGPR2 was isolated from the mungbean rhizosphere and documented for the production of hydrolytic enzymes with antifungal activity. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotyping, this strain was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Maximum protease activity (235 U/mL) was obtained at 24 h of fermentation. The protease was purified to homogeneity in three steps: ammonium sulphate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography on DEAE- cellulose resin and gel filtration chromatography using P6 column. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of ~33 kDa. The purified protease exhibited maximum activity at pH 6.0 and retained 80% of activity in a pH range of 5.0 - 9.0. Proteolytic activity was maximum in a temperature range of 40–70 °C. However, the enzyme was stable at 40 °C for 60 min. Among the metals tested, Mg2+ enhanced the protease activity. Internal amino acid sequence of the protease obtained by MALDI -ToF and subsequent Mascot database search showed maximum similarity to the HtpX protease of P. aeruginosa strain PA7. Thus, by virtue of its early production time, thermostability and effective antifungal ability, the protease purified and characterized from P. aeruginosa PGPR2 has several potential applications as fungicidal agents in agriculture.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/drug effects , Chromatography, Liquid , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme Stability , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/pharmacology , Proteolysis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
17.
Invest. clín ; 54(3): 270-283, sep. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-740325

ABSTRACT

Mediante dos métodos de ensayo de peptidasas, uno en fase líquida y otro en fase gel (zimografía en geles), se detectó una peptidasa, en extractos proteicos crudos de epimastigotes de Trypanosoma cruzi, provenientes de un área rural de Venezuela endémica para el mal de Chagas. La peptidasa mostró actividad en el intervalo de pH comprendido entre 2,0 y 2,9. Bajo las condiciones experimentales descritas, la peptidasa resultó insensible a concentraciones usuales de inhibidores clásicos de peptidasas de tipo: serina, cisteína, metalo-peptidasas y aspártico. No obstante, a semejanza de la pepsina porcina a pH 2,9, la peptidasa es inhibida en presencia de 5mM DTT.


Through two peptidase assay methods, one in liquid-phase and another, in gel-phase (gel zymography), an acid peptidase was detected in protein crude extracts of epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, from a rural area of Venezuela where Chagas disease is endemic. The peptidase shows activity at a pH range between 2.0 and 2.9. Under the experimental conditions described, the acid peptidase was insensitive to usual concentrations of peptidase inhibitors of the types: serine, cysteine, aspartic and metallo-peptidases. Nevertheless, like porcine pepsin at pH 2.9, the peptidase was inhibited in the presence of 5mM DTT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Protozoan Proteins/isolation & purification , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzymology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Endemic Diseases , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Pepstatins/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protozoan Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Venezuela
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Aug; 50(4): 305-311
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148612

ABSTRACT

An alkaline protease was purified from a halophilic and thermotolerant potent alkaline protease-producing strain Streptomyces pseudogrisiolus NRC-15 using ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The enzyme was purified to 77.24-folds with a yield of 91.8% and the specific activity was 112 U/mg of protein. The protease showed a single band on SDS-PAGE with its molecular mass at 20 kDa and exhibited a maximum relative activity of 100% using casein as a substrate and. The enzyme had an optimum pH of 9.5 and displayed optimum activity at 50°C. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor PMSF, suggesting the presence of serine residue in the active site. The enzyme activity was increased by the metal ions Ca2+, Co2+, K+ and Mg2+. The enzyme significantly enhanced the removal of stains when used with wheel detergent, indicating the potential of the enzyme for using as a laundry detergent additive to improve the performance of heavy-duty laundry detergent.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Stability , Extracellular Space/enzymology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Species Specificity , Streptomyces/cytology , Streptomyces/enzymology , Temperature
19.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 44(1): 36-42, mar. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-639716

ABSTRACT

The surface coverage of certain dry fermented sausages such as Italian salami by some species of Penicillium provides their characteristic flavor and other beneficial properties. One of them is the protective effect by means of a uniform film of white mold against undesirable microorganisms. The aim of this work was to identify and to isolate the fungal species present in mature Italian type of salami and to evaluate if it is possible to obtain some of them as starters. In addition, the effects of temperature (14 °C and 25 °C), water activity (a w) (0.90, 0.95 and 0.995) and 2.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) on fungal growth were determined. Similarly, the proteolytic and lipolytic activity and the ability to produce toxic secondary metabolites were evaluated in order to characterize some possible starter strain. All species found belong to the genus Penicillium, including a performing starter as Penicillium nalgiovense and some potentially toxicogenic species. All the strains showed a higher growth rate at 25 °C. The production of extracellular proteases and lipases was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 14 °C with and without sodium chloride. Only Penicillium expansum produced patulin. On the other hand, Penicillium griseofulvum was the only species that produced ciclopiazonic acid but none of the strains produced penicillin. The species present on salami, Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium minioluteum, Penicillium brevicompactum and Penicillium puberulum were unable to produce any of the evaluated toxins. These findings suggest that some fungal isolates from the surface of salami such as P. nalgiovense are potentially useful as starters in sausage manufacture.


La cobertura de la superficie de los embutidos fermentados secos -como el salamín tipo italiano- por algunas especies de Penicillium les proporciona un sabor característico y otras propiedades beneficiosas. Una de ellas es el efecto de protección contra microorganismos indeseables, al formarse una película blanca uniforme de mohos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue aislar e identificar los hongos filamentosos encontrados en la superficie de salamines tipo italiano y evaluar la posibilidad de obtener especies para utilizarse como cultivos iniciadores. Se determinó el efecto de la temperatura, la actividad de agua y del cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento fúngico. La actividad proteolítica y lipolítica y la capacidad de producir metabolitos secundarios tóxicos fueron evaluadas con el fin de caracterizar algunos posibles cultivos iniciadores. Todas las cepas fúngicas aisladas e identificadas correspondieron a especies del género Penicillium, algunas benéficas, como Penicillium nalgiovense, y otras potencialmente toxicogénicas. Estas cepas tuvieron diferentes tasas de crecimiento en respuesta a las diferentes condiciones de cultivo. Todas las cepas mostraron mayor crecimiento a 25 °C. La producción de proteasas y lipasas extracelulares fue significativamente mayor a 25 °C que a 14 °C. Penicillium expansum fue la única especie que produjo patulina y Penicillium griseofulvum fue la única que produjo ácido ciclopiazónico. Ninguna de las especies produjo penicilina. Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium minioluteum, Penicillium brevicompactum y Penicillium puberulum no produjeron ninguna de las toxinas evaluadas. Estos resultados sugieren que algunos aislamientos fúngicos, como P. nalgiovense, son potencialmente útiles como cultivos iniciadores en la fabricación de estos productos.


Subject(s)
Food Microbiology , Meat Products/microbiology , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Fermentation , Food Preservation/methods , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Indoles/analysis , Lipase/metabolism , Mycotoxins/analysis , Patulin/analysis , Penicillins/analysis , Penicillium/classification , Penicillium/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Species Specificity , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Temperature , Uruguay , Water
20.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(1): 17-24, Jan.-Feb. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-614891

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In HIV-infected patients, colonization of the oral cavity by potential pathogenic yeast may lead to development of systemic fungemia. We evaluated the prevalence of yeast in the oral cavity of Brazilian HIV-positive patients and verified whether or not the species characterized were enzymatically active. Furthermore, the species identified were tested for their susceptibility to antifungal treatment. METHODS: Patient saliva and oropharyngeal candidiasis samples were collected from 60 seropositive HIV patients and identified by the API20C system. Enzymatic activity was evaluated by the production of proteinase and phospholipase. Susceptibility to antifungal treatments were determined using the broth microdilution method. RESULTS: the most commonly isolated species were C. albicans (51.56 percent) followed by non-albicans Candida species (43.73 percent), Trichosporon mucoides (3.12 percent) and Kodamaea ohmeri (1.56 percent). Oral colonization by association of different species was observed in 42 percent of the patients. Enzymatic activity was verified in most of species isolated, except for C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii. Resistance to Fluconazole and Amphotericin B was observed in isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and K. ohmeri. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive patients are orally colonized by single or multiple species of yeast that are occasionally resistant to Fluconazole or Amphotericin B.


INTRODUÇÃO: Em pacientes infectados pelo HIV, a colonização da cavidade bucal por leveduras patogênicas pode levar ao desenvolvimento de fungemias. No presente estudo, avaliamos a prevalência de leveduras na cavidade bucal de pacientes HIV-positivos e verificamos se as espécies isoladas foram enzimaticamente ativas. Além disso, as espécies identificadas foram testadas quanto à suscetibilidade a antifúngicos. MÉTODOS: Amostras de saliva e de candidose orofaríngea foram coletadas de 60 pacientes soropositivos para HIV e identificados pelo sistema API20C. A atividade enzimática foi avaliada pela produção de proteinase e fosfolipase. A suscetibilidade a antifúngicos foi determinada utilizando o método de microdiluição em caldo. RESULTADOS: As espécies mais comumente isoladas foram C. albicans (51,56 por cento), seguido por espécies de Candida não-albicans (43,73 por cento), Trichosporon mucoides (3,12 por cento) e Kodamaea ohmeri (1,56 por cento). A colonização bucal por associação de diferentes espécies foi observada em 42 por cento dos pacientes. A atividade enzimática foi verificada na maioria das espécies isoladas, com exceção de C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae e C. guilliermondii. Resistência ao fluconazol e anfotericina B foi observada em isolados de C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, e K. ohmeri. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes HIV-positivos são colonizados por espécies únicas ou múltiplas de levedura que ocasionalmente são resistentes ao fluconazol ou anfotericina B.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , HIV Seropositivity/microbiology , Candida/drug effects , Candida/enzymology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phospholipases/metabolism
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