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1.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e200151, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279477

ABSTRACT

The deep-sea anglerfishes of the suborder Ceratioidei (Lophiiformes) are represented by about 170 valid species with some of the most extraordinary morphological and reproductive adaptations among vertebrates, including extreme sexual dimorphism and male parasitism. Here we report on the diversity and distribution of rare ceratioids collected during the ABRACOS (Acoustics along the BRAzilian COaSt) expeditions off northeastern Brazil and the Fernando de Noronha Ridge (Rocas Atoll, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, and associated seamounts). Chaenophryne ramifera, Oneirodes anisacanthus, O. carlsbergi, Gigantactis watermani, and unidentified specimens of Caulophryne, Dolopichthys, and Rhynchactis are recorded for the first time in the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone. Ceratias uranoscopus, Melanocetus johnsonii, and Chaenophryne draco have their distributions extended in Brazilian waters. Caulophryne, O. anisacanthus, and G. watermani are also recorded for the first time in the western South Atlantic. The specimen of G. watermani reported here represents the third known specimen of the species, and variations of its escal anatomy in relation to the holotype are described. Based on specimens examined and a review of records in the literature, 20 species of the Ceratioidei, in addition to unidentified species of Caulophryne, Dolopichthys, and Rhynchactis, are confirmed in the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone.(AU)


Os peixes-pescadores de profundidade da subordem Ceratioidei (Lophiiformes) são representados por cerca de 170 espécies válidas que apresentam algumas das adaptações anatômicas e reprodutivas mais extraordinárias entre os vertebrados, incluindo extremo dimorfismo sexual e parasitismo masculino. No presente estudo reportamos sobre a diversidade e distribuição de espécies raras de Ceratioidei coletadas durante as expedições ABRACOS (Acoustics along the BRAzilian COaSt) realizadas ao largo do nordeste do Brasil e na Cadeia de Fernando de Noronha (Atol das Rocas, Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha e montes submarinos associados). Chaenophryne ramifera, Oneirodes anisacanthus, O. carlsbergi, Gigantactis watermani e espécimes não identificados de Caulophryne, Dolopichthys e Rhynchactis são registrados pela primeira vez na Zona Econômica Exclusiva brasileira. Ceratias uranoscopus, Melanocetus johnsonii e Chaenophryne draco tiveram suas distribuições estendidas em águas brasileiras. Caulophryne, O. anisacanthus e G. watermani também são registrados pela primeira vez no Atlântico Sul ocidental. O espécime de G. watermani reportado aqui representa o terceiro espécime conhecido da espécie, e variações anatômicas de sua esca em relação à do holótipo são descritas. Com base nos espécimes examinados e na revisão de registros na literatura, 20 espécies de Ceratioidei, além de espécies não identificadas de Caulophryne, Dolopichthys, and Rhynchactis, são confirmadas na Zona Econômica Exclusiva brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Perciformes/genetics , Sex Characteristics , Fishes , Parasitic Diseases
2.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e180109, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002703

ABSTRACT

Lutjanidae comprises 21 genera and 135 species widespread throughout Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Nonetheless, the phylogenetic relationships of Lutjaninae remain uncertain. Furthermore, phylogenetic hypotheses for Lutjanus alexandrei, an endemic species from northeastern Brazilian coast, in Lutjanidae are absent so far. Therefore, we carried out multiloci analyses, combining both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences in Lutjaninae species from Western Atlantic focusing on the controversial relationships among Lutjanus, Rhomboplites, and Ocyurus. Besides, we determined the phylogenetic position and dated the origin of L. alexandrei. The phylogenetics trees based on the 4.4 kb for 11 species corroborated the synonym among Lutjanus and the putative monotypic genera. For the dating of L. alexandrei, another nucleotide dataset (3.0 kb; 40 species) validated the genetic identity of this species that diverged from the sister taxon L. apodus between 2.5 - 6.5 Mya, probably as a result of the barrier caused by the muddy outflow from Orinoco and Amazon rivers along the coastal zone. This report is the most robust multiloci analysis to confirm the synonymy of the three genera of Lutjaninae from Western Atlantic and the first reliable inference about the phylogenetic relationships and origin of L. alexandrei.(AU)


A Família Lutjanidae compreende 21 gêneros e 135 espécies, distribuídas ao longo dos oceanos Atlântico, Índico e Pacífico. As relações filogenéticas dos Lutjaninae são incertas. Além disso, a espécie Lutjanus alexandrei, endêmica da costa nordeste do Brasil, não foi inclusa em nenhuma hipótese filogenética até o presente. Assim, realizamos uma análise integrando DNA mitocondrial e nuclear para espécies de Lutjaninae do Atlântico Ocidental, direcionada para a controversa relação entre Lutjanus, Rhomboplites e Ocyurus. Além disso, alocamos filogeneticamente L. alexandrei e datamos sua origem. As árvores filogenéticas baseadas em 4.4 kb de 11 espécies corroboraram a sinonímia entre os monotípicos e Lutjanus. Para a datação de L. alexandrei, outro banco de nuclueotídeos foi analisado (3.0 kb; 40 espécies), validando geneticamente a espécie e a colocando como irmã de L. apodus, da qual se separou entre 2.5 - 6.5 Mya, o que provavelmente foi provocado pela faixa enlameada na região costeira, influenciada pelas descargas dos rios Amazonas e Orinoco, que funciona como barreira. Este trabalho representa a mais robusta análise multiloci direcionada para a sinonimização dos três gêneros de Lutjaninae e a primeira hipótese filogenética a propor um posicionamento e origem para L. alexandrei.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Perciformes/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis
3.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(1): e170068, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895117

ABSTRACT

The Caribbean Red Snapper (Pargo) Lutjanus purpureus is the most economically important snapper in Brazil, which is sold, among other forms, as frozen fillets. During the process of transformation into fillets there is the removal of the distinctive morphological traits, being able to favor the substitution by less valued species. In addition, there is no national legislation requiring the insertion of the specific name on the product label. However, according to a Normative Instruction (IN N ° 29/2015 MAPA) that correlates the common and specific names of the products destined to the national trade, in Brazil only L. purpureus and L. campechanus can be denominated "Pargo". Thus, the DNA barcode tool was used to identify the fillets sold in north of Brazil, labeled "Pargo", with the aid of sequences from the public and control databases. The results showed that among 142 fillets examined, 78% was identified as L. purpureus and 22% as Rhomboplites aurorubens, a snapper with low commercial value in the country, revealing commercial fraud. The molecular identification method successfully used in this study to authenticate fillets snappers may also be used by surveillance authorities in the quality control of processed fish products, towards ensuring consumer rights.(AU)


O Pargo Lutjanus purpureus, lutjanídeo mais importante economicamente no Brasil, é vendido, entre outras formas, como filés congelados. Durante a transformação em filés, há a remoção das características morfológicas distintivas, podendo favorecer a substituição por espécies menos valorizadas. Além disso, não há legislação nacional que exija a inserção do nome específico no rótulo. Porém, de acordo com uma Instrução Normativa (IN N° 29 /2015 MAPA) que correlaciona os nomes comuns e específicos dos produtos destinados ao comércio nacional, no Brasil somente L. purpureus e L. campechanus podem ser denominados "Pargo". Assim, a ferramenta DNA barcode foi usada para identificar os filés vendidos no norte do Brasil, rotulados como "Pargo", com o auxílio de sequências dos bancos de dados públicos e banco controle. Os resultados mostraram que entre os 142 filés examinados, 78% foi identificado como L. purpureus e 22% como Rhomboplites aurorubens, um lutjanídeo com baixo valor comercial no país, revelando fraude comercial. O método de identificação molecular, utilizado com êxito neste estudo para autenticar filés de lutjanídeos, pode também ser utilizado pelas autoridades de vigilância no controle de qualidade de produtos processados derivados de peixes em geral, para garantir os direitos dos consumidores.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA/analysis , Economics/trends , Perciformes/genetics
4.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2095-2100, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886813

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In the present study, a novel set of eight EPIC primers were developed for Lutjanus purpureus and assayed in five other marine teleosts including three lutjanids, one scianid and one anablepid. Most of the genomic regions used in this study presented genetic diversity indexes equal or greater than the intragenic regions commonly used in population genetics studies. Moreover, six out of eight markers showed cross-amplification with other taxa. Thus, the primers described here may be used to elucidate questions at the intraspecific level for a large number of taxa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Perciformes/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation , Perciformes/classification , Genetic Markers , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Genetics, Population
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(4): e170056, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895105

ABSTRACT

The main goal of this research was to investigate the differences in diet composition among three species of the genus Lutjanus inhabiting a coastal lagoon as juveniles. The working hypothesis was that these species feed on a common base of food resources and therefore, some niche overlap is present in terms of general diet composition. However, changes in the trophic niche with size and differences in some morphological traits among species explain observed differences in diet. Fish were collected during 42 sampling trips conducted regularly from February 2011 to January 2012 using several types of fishing gear. Total number of analyzed stomachs was 288 for Lutjanus argentiventris from 2.3 to 19.9 cm total length (TL); 178 for Lutjanus colorado ranging from 2.4 to 30.1 cm TL; and 183 for Lutjanus novemfasciatus with 1.2 to 20.0 cm TL. Results indicate that juveniles of all three lutjanid species share a general diet based on decapods and fishes. However, L. novemfasciatus has a more piscivorous habit, which can be explained by a more slender body shape and larger teeth, characteristics, which increase fish catching performance. Larger fish of all three species eat larger prey, which is consistent with the optimum foraging theory.(AU)


Se investigaron las diferencias en la composición de la dieta de juveniles de tres especies del género Lutjanus que habitan una laguna costera. La hipótesis de trabajo fue que estas especies se alimentan de una base común de recursos alimentarios y, por tanto, alguna superposición del nicho está presente en términos de la composición general de la dieta. Sin embargo, los cambios en el nicho trófico con la talla y diferencias entre especies en algunas características morfológicas, explican las diferencias observadas en la dieta. Los peces fueron colectados durante 42 viajes de muestreo realizados de febrero del 2011 a enero del 2012 usando varios tipos de artes de pesca. Se analizaron 288 estómagos de Lutjanus argentiventris de 2.3 a 19.9 cm de largo total (LT); 178 de Lutjanus colorado entre 2.4 y 30.1 cm LT; y 183 de Lutjanus novemfasciatus de 1.2 a 20.0 cm LT. Los resultados indican que los juveniles de las tres especies de lutjánidos comparten una dieta general basada en decápodos y peces. Sin embargo, Lutjanus novemfasciatus tiene un hábito piscívoro mayor, el cual puede ser explicado por la forma del cuerpo más delgada y dientes mayores, características que incrementan la eficiencia para capturar peces. Los peces mayores de las tres especies comieron presas mayores y este cambio ontogénico es consistente con la teoría del forrajeo óptimo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Perciformes/genetics , Perciformes/metabolism , Diet/classification , Ecosystem
6.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 14(3): e150128, 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-794736

ABSTRACT

The Atlantic goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara , is a critically endangered species, threatened by illegal fishing and the destruction of its habitats. A number of other closely related grouper species found in the western Atlantic are also fished intensively. While some countries apply rigorous legislation, illegal harvesting followed by the falsification of fish products, which impedes the correct identification of the species, is a common practice, allowing the catch to be marketed as a different grouper species. In this case, molecular techniques represent an important tool for the monitoring and regulation of fishery practices, and are essential for the forensic identification of a number of different species. In the present study, species-specific primers were developed for the Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I gene, which were applied in a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous identification of nine different species of Epinephelidae: Epinephelus itajara , E. quinquefasciatus , E. morio , Hyporthodus flavolimbatus , H. niveatus , Mycteroperca acutirostris , M. bonaci , M. marginata , and M. microlepis . Multiplex PCR is a rapid, reliable and cost-effective procedure for the identification of commercially-valuable endangered fish species, and may represent a valuable tool for the regulation and sustainable management of fishery resources.(AU)


O mero, Epinephelus itajara , encontra-se criticamente ameaçado, resultado da pesca ilegal e destruição dos habitas. Filogeneticamente relacionadas a este táxon encontram-se garoupas que atualmente são intensamente pescadas no Atlântico Oeste. Apesar de leis mais restritivas aplicadas em alguns países, a captura ilegal com a descaracterização morfológica é uma prática comum que impossibilita a identificação correta da espécie permitindo que seja comercializada como garoupas, badejos ou chernes. A este respeito, técnicas moleculares representam ferramentas importantes para o monitoramento e fiscalização da pesca, provando ser essencial, na identificação forense de diversas espécies. Primers espécie-específicos foram desenvolvidos com base no gene Citocromo Oxidase subunidade I que aplicados em PCR-Multiplex possibilitam a identificação simultânea de nove espécies Epinephelidae: Epinephelus itajara , E. quinquefasciatus , E. morio , Hyporthodus flavolimbatus , H. niveatus , Mycteroperca acutirostris , M. bonaci , M. marginata e M. microlepis . A identificação via PCR multiplex de espécies de peixes ameaçadas e comercialmente importantes é um método rápido, prático, seguro e de baixo custo, que poderá ser útil o controle do uso e manejo sustentável de recursos pesqueiros.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Perciformes/genetics , Perciformes/immunology , Fishing Industry , Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
7.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(2): 431-438, 26/06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752453

ABSTRACT

This study highlights the analysis of the morphological and genetic variation of the common sea bream Pagrus pagrus, and compares its two main areas of concentration: the northern (35ºS - 38ºS) and the southern areas (39ºS - 41ºS) of the Buenos Aires coast of the Argentine Sea. Body shape characterization presented two significantly different morphotypes (Wilks' Lambda=0.224, P<0.001). Northern individuals displayed a higher middle area while southern ones were smaller and their caudal peduncle was shorter. The northern and southern areas did not yield significant genetic differences either with the control region or the microsatellite loci, revealing that P. pagrus is not genetically structured. However, individuals from these areas should not be managed as a single group since they display distinct life history traits, responsible for morphological differentiation. The presence of two spawning areas with distinctive characteristics would define two stocks of P. pagrus from the Buenos Aires coast.


El estudio comprende un análisis de la variación morfológica y genética del besugo Pagrus pagrus, comparando dos áreas principales de concentración, una Norte (35ºS - 38ºS) y otra Sur (39ºS - 41ºS) en la costa bonaerense del Mar Argentino. La caracterización de la forma del cuerpo mostró dos morfotipos diferenciados significativamente (Wilks´ Lambda= 0.224, P<0.001), presentando en el área Norte una mayor altura en la parte media del cuerpo y una menor longitud y altura del pedúnculo caudal que los correspondientes al área Sur. Las áreas Norte y Sur no presentaron diferencias genéticas significativas, tanto para la región control del ADN mitocondrial como para los loci microsatélites, revelando que P. pagrus no está estructurado genéticamente. Sin embargo, los individuos de estas áreas no deberían manejarse como un mismo grupo ya que presentan distintas características de historia de vida, responsables de la diferenciación morfológica. La presencia de dos sitios de cría con características distintivas, definiría para P. pagrus dos stocks en la costa bonaerense.


Subject(s)
Animals , Perciformes/anatomy & histology , Perciformes/classification , Perciformes/genetics , Population
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1365-1373, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753696

ABSTRACT

The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P. volitans and P. miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela). Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P. volitans from Indo-Pacific Ocean. Considering the lack of more detailed information about cytogenetic characteristics of this invasive species, the objective of the present study was to investigate the basic and molecular cytogenetic characteristics of P. volitans in Venezuela, and compare the results with those from the original distribution area. For this, the karyotypic characteristics of four lionfish caught in Margarita Island, Venezuela, were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes by Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-colour-Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. Comparing the sequences of the 16S gene of the specimens analyzed, with sequences already included in the Genbank, we corroborated that our specimens identified as P. volitans are in fact this species, and hence exclude the possibility of a misidentification of P. miles. The diploid number was 2n=48 (2m+10sm+36a) with FN=60. Chromosomes uniformly decreased in size, making it difficult to clearly identify the homologues except for the only metacentric pair, and the pairs number two, the largest of the submetacentric series. C-banding revealed only three pairs of chromosomes negative for C-band, whereas all remaining chromosomes presented telomeric and some interstitial C-positive blocks. Only two chromosomes were C-banding positive at the pericentromeric regions. Sequential staining revealed Ag-NOR on the tips of the short arms of chromosome pair number two and the FISH assay revealed that 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA genes are co-located on this chromosome pair. The co-localization of 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA is discussed. Both constitutive heterochromatin and NOR location detected in samples examined in this study, differ from those reported for P. volitans in previous analysis of specimens collected in Indian Ocean (Java), suggesting the occurrence of chromosome microrearrangements involving heterochromatin during the spread of P. volitans.Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4): 1365-1373. Epub 2014 December 01.


El género Pterois contiene nueve especies válidas, nativas del Mar Rojo y el Océano Índico en el Pacífico occidental. P. volitans y P. miles son nativas del Indo-Pacífico, y fueron introducidas en las aguas de Florida como resultado de la liberación de peces confinados en acuario y han sido reconocidas recientemente como invasoras en el Atlántico Occidental y Mar Caribe (Costa Rica hasta Venezuela). Los estudios citogenéticos realizados hasta ahora en el género Pterois cubren solamente aspectos básicos de tres especies que incluyen a P. volitans del océano Indo-Pacífico. Debido a la ausencia de información detallada sobre las características cromosómicas de esta especie invasora, el objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar las características citogenéticas en ejemplares de Venezuela mediante técnicas convencionales y moleculares y comparar los resultados con los reportados para el área de distribución original. Para ello, se investigaron las características cariotípicas mediante tinción con Giemsa, bandeo-C, impregnación con Nitrato de Plata (Ag-NOR) e hibridación fluorescente in situ (FISH) dual para localizar los genes ribosomales 18S rDNA y 5S rDNA en cuatro ejemplares de pez león capturados en la Isla Margarita, Venezuela. La comparación de secuencias del gen 16S de los especímenes analizados con secuencias ya incluidas en el Genbank permitieron corroborar la identificación de P. volitans excluyendo así la posibilidad de una identificación errónea de P. miles. El número diploide fue 2n=48 (2m+10sm+36a) con un FN=60. Los cromosomas presentaron tamaños que disminuyen de manera uniforme dificultando la identificación de homólogos, excepto el único par metacéntrico y el par cromosómico número 2. El bandeo-C reveló tres pares de cromosomas bandas-C negativos, mientras que los restantes presentaron bloques bandas-C positivos en posición telomérica y, en algunos casos, intersticial. Sólo dos cromosomas mostraron bandas-C pericentroméricas. La tinción secuencial reveló las Ag-NOR localizadas en los extremos de los brazos cortos del par número dos y el ensayo FISH demostró que los genes 18S rDNA y 5S rDNA se localizan en ese mismo par. Se discute la co-localización de los genes 5S rDNA y 18S rDNA. La distribución de la heterocromatina constitutiva y localización de las NORs en los peces examinados difirió de la reportada para ejemplares de P. volitans del Océano Índico (Java), sugiriendo que durante la propagación de P. volitans han ocurrido reorganizaciones cromosómicas que involucran la heterocromatina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Introduced Species , Perciformes/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Perciformes/classification , Venezuela
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 627-636, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715458

ABSTRACT

The Common Snook, Centropomus undecimalis, inhabits riverine and marine areas of Southern Gulf of Mexico, where it is subject to intense use and exploitation. It has been reported that the genetic identification of fish stocks constitutes a valuable tool for wild population management; nevertheless, there is no available information on the genetic identification on fish stocks of this species in the region. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic relationship between C. undecimalis captured in marine and freshwater environments of the Gulf of Mexico and the San Pedro River. For this, muscle tissue samples of 79 specimens were obtained from areas located more than 300km apart. The genotype of each individual was determined using seven microsatellite primer pairs. Five primers amplified efficiently presenting between six and 28 alleles per locus. High levels of heterozygosis were observed in samples from both environments. Deviation from HWE due to an excess of heterozygotes was observed. The values of genetic difference indicate an absence of population structure (F ST=0.0075 and R ST=0.016, p=0.051) and similarity in the allele frequencies, defined by Nei’s index (0.805). Data showed the existence of a high gene flow due to the number of migrants (Nm=18.7). Our results suggest that individuals living in these environments belong to the same genetic population. We suggest the development of management and protection plans for this fish species population in the wild. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2): 627-636. Epub 2014 June 01.


El robalo común Centropomus undecimalis habita en áreas ribereñas y marinas del sur del Golfo de México donde es sujeto a explotación intensiva. Aunque la identificación de las poblaciones de peces representa una valiosa herramienta para el manejo de las poblaciones silvestres, no hay información disponible para identificar genéticamente las poblaciones de peces de esta especie en la región. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la relación genética entre C. undecimalis capturado en ambiente marino y dulceacuícola del Golfo de México y río San Pedro. Muestras de tejido muscular de 79 individuos fueron obtenidas en áreas separadas por más de 300km. El genotipo de cada individuo fue determinado usando siete pares de cebadores microsatélites. Cinco cebadores amplificaron eficientemente presentando entre seis y 28 alelos por locus. Altos niveles de heterocigosidad se observaron en las muestras de ambos ambientes. Se observó desviación del equilibrio HW debido a exceso de heterocigotos. Los valores de diferenciación genética indican ausencia de estructuración poblacional F ST (0.0075) y R ST (0.016, p=0.051) y similitud en las frecuencias alélicas definidas por el índice de Nei (0.805). Los datos mostraron elevado flujo genético debido al número de migrantes (Nm=18.7). Estos resultados sugieren que los individuos en estos ambientes provienen de la misma población genética. La información obtenida en este estudio, por lo tanto contribuirá con elementos que pueden ser considerados en el desarrollo de programas de manejo y protección de las poblaciones de peces silvestres.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation/genetics , Perciformes/genetics , Mexico , Microsatellite Repeats , Perciformes/classification
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(1): 217-221, 2/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715587

ABSTRACT

This work aims to establish baseline frequencies of micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in native fish species collected in situ from the Paraná River. For this purpose, the micronucleus test was applied in peripheral blood erythrocytes from specimens obtained from samplings collected at two localities (Posadas and Candelaria, Misiones, Argentina) during the period 2007-2010. The results were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis test. Data from nine fish species were obtained, among which Steindachnerina brevipinna (Characiformes) revealed the highest baseline frequency of MN and NA, showing statistically significant differences with regard to the other analyzed species. These results are the first report of baseline MN and NA frequencies for native fish species studied and could be useful for future comparisons with data of fishes belonging to other environments.


O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estabelecer frequências basais de micronúcleos (MN) e anormalidades nucleares (AN) em espécies nativas de peixes obtidas in situ no Rio Paraná. Para este efeito, o teste do micronúcleo foi aplicado em eritrócitos de sangue periférico de espécimes provenientes de amostragens efetuadas em duas localidades (Posadas e Candelaria, Misiones, Argentina) durante o período 2007-2010. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente empregando o teste de Kruskal Wallis. Foram coletados dados de nove espécies e dentre estas Steindachnerina brevipinna (Characiformes) revelou a maior frequência basal de MN e AN, mostrando diferenças estatisticamente significativas com respeito às outras espécies analisadas. Estes resultados são o primeiro relatório de frequências basais de MN e AN para espécies nativas de peixes estudadas e poderiam ser úteis para futuras comparações com dados de peixes pertencentes a outros ambientes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/genetics , Cell Nucleus/genetics , Characiformes/genetics , Erythrocytes/cytology , Micronucleus Tests/veterinary , Perciformes/genetics , Argentina , Catfishes/classification , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Characiformes/classification , Environmental Monitoring , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Perciformes/classification , Rivers , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
12.
Genet. mol. biol ; 34(1): 152-160, 2011. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-573717

ABSTRACT

Nucleotide sequences of a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were used to assess the manner in which historical processes and geomorphological effects may have influenced genetic structuring and phylogeographic patterns in Channa striata. Assaying was based on individuals from twelve populations in four river systems, which were separated into two regions, the eastern and western, of the biodiversely rich state of Perak in central Peninsular Malaysia. In 238 specimens, a total of 368-bp sequences with ten polymorphic sites and eleven unique haplotypes were detected. Data on all the twelve populations revealed incomplete divergence due to past historical coalescence and the short period of separation. Nevertheless, SAMOVA and F ST revealed geographical structuring existed to a certain extent in both regions. For the eastern region, the data also showed that the upstream populations were genetically significantly different compared to the mid- and downstream ones. It is inferred that physical barriers and historical processes played a dominant role in structuring the genetic dispersal of the species. A further inference is that the Grik, Tanjung Rambutan and Sungkai are potential candidates for conservation and aquaculture programmes since they contained most of the total diversity in this area.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial , Electron Transport Complex IV , Perciformes/genetics , Biodiversity , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Malaysia , Phylogeography
13.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 7(4): 587-594, 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-536332

ABSTRACT

Lutjanidae, commonly known as snappers, includes 105 species, grouped in four subfamilies. In spite of the high number of species and of its worldwide distribution, the family has been little investigated and the phylogenetic relationships among some of its genera and species are still cause for debate. Only a small number of the species has been cytogenetically analysed. This study reports the first description of the karyotype of Rhomboplites aurorubens as well as data concerning the distribution of the constitutive heterochromatin and the location of the 18S rRNA and the 5S rRNA genes. Specimens of Ocyurus chrysurus from Venezuela were also investigated for the same cytogenetic features. Both species have a 48 uniarmed karyotype, but R. aurorubens has a single subtelocentric chromosome pair, the smallest of the chromosome complement, among the other acrocentric chromosomes. The C-positive heterochromatin is limited to the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes. Both species show a single chromosome pair bearing the Nucleolus Organizer Regions, but NORs are differently located, in a terminal position on the short arms of the smallest chromosomes in R. aurorubens and in a paracentromeric position in a chromosome pair of large size in O. chrysurus. In O. chrysurus, the 5S rDNA gene cluster is located on a medium-sized chromosome pair, whereas in R. aurorubens it is syntenic with the 18S rDNA gene cluster on chromosome pair number 24. The obtained cytogenetic data, along with previous cytogenetic, morphological and molecular data for the family, reinforce the proposal to synonymize genus Ocyurus with Lutjanus. A review of Lutjanidae cytogenetics is also included.


Lutjanidae, comumente conhecidos como snappers, inclui 105 espécies, reunidas em quatro subfamílias. A despeito do grande número de espécies e de sua distribuição mundial, a família tem sido pouco estudada e as relações filogenéticas entre alguns de seus gêneros e espécies ainda é motivo de debates. Apenas um pequeno número de espécies foi citogeneticamente analisada. Esse estudo apresenta a primeira descrição do cariótipo de Rhomboplites aurorubens assim como dados relativos à distribuição de heterocromatina constitutiva e localização dos genes 18S rRNA e 5S rRNA. Espécimes de Ocyurus chrysurus da Venezuela foram também analisados quanto às mesmas características citogenéticas. Ambas as espécies têm cariótipos compostos de 48 cromossomos com um único braço, entretanto R. aurorubens tem um único par de cromossomos subtelocêntrico, o menor do complemento cromossômico, entre os outros cromossomos acrocêntricos. A heterocromatina C-positiva é limitada à região pericentromérica de todos os cromossomos. Ambas as species apresentam um único par com Regiões Organizadoras de Nucléolo, mas as RONs são localizadas em posições diferentes, em posição terminal no braço curto dos menores cromossomos de R. aurorubens e em posição paracentromérica no braço longo de um par de cromossomos grandes de O. chrysurus. Em O. chrysurus, os genes 5S rDNA estão localizados em um par de cromossomos de tamanho médio, enquanto em R. aurorubens eles são sintenicamente localizados com os genes 18S rDNA no par de cromossomos número 24. Os dados citogenéticos obtidos, junto com os dados morfológicos e moleculares disponíveis para a família reforçam a proposta de sinonimizar o gênero Ocyurus com Lutjanus. Uma revisão da citogenética dos Lutjanidae é também apresentada


Subject(s)
Animals , Perciformes/genetics , Cytogenetics/classification , Heterochromatin , Genes, rRNA/genetics
14.
Genet. mol. biol ; 31(1,suppl): 337-342, 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-484608

ABSTRACT

Kinetic properties and thermal stabilities of Geophagus brasiliensis skeletal muscle unfractionated malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) and its isolated isoforms were analyzed to examine a possible sMDH-B* locus duplication in a fixation process influenced by genetic drift. Two optimal pHs were detected: 7.5 for AB1 unfractionated muscle phenotype and its B1 isoform, and 8.0 for AB1B2 unfractionated muscle phenotype, A and B2 isoforms. While G. brasiliensis A isoform could be characterized as thermostable, the duplicated B isoform cannot be assumed as thermolabile. Km values for isolated B2 isoforms were 1.6 times lower than for B1. A duplication event in progress best explains the electrophoretic six-band pattern detected in G. brasiliensis, which would be caused by genetic drift.


Subject(s)
Animals , Malate Dehydrogenase , Perciformes/genetics , Gene Duplication , Fishes/genetics
15.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 7(2): 358-370, 2008. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-641003

ABSTRACT

Fishes from the families Sciaenidae and Sparidae, the former comprising coastal species associated with shallow waters on the continental shelf and the latter composed of typically marine species, are of significant economic value. Karyotypic data are available for about 20% of the total number of species in these groups. In the present study, cytogenetic analyses were carried out in three Sciaenidae species, Menticirrhus americanus, Ophioscion punctatissimus and Pareques acuminatus, as well as in the sparid fish, Archosargus probatocephalus, using conventional staining (Giemsa) and Ag-nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and C-banding techniques. The diploid values (2n) and number of chromosome arms were equal to 48 in all species analyzed. NORs were located at pericentromeric positions, equivalent to large heterochromatic blocks, in M. americanus (1st pair), O. punctatissimus (10th pair), P. acuminatus (2nd pair), and A. probatocephalus (3rd pair). Heterochromatin was detected at the centromeric position in most chromosome pairs, being more conspicuous among Scianidae members. The remarkable karyotypic conservativeness detected in these species is similar to that observed in other perciform groups previously studied, regarding both the number of acrocentric chromosomes and NOR location. However, unusual events of heterochromatinization seem to have taken place along the karyotypic evolution of members of the family Sciaenidae. For the family Sparidae, distinct cytotypes between samples of Northeast Brazil and those previously analyzed on the southeastern coast were identified, suggesting that putative biogeographic barriers could be present throughout both regions on South Atlantic coast.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Perciformes/genetics , Brazil , Chromosome Banding , Diploidy , Heterochromatin/genetics , Karyotyping , Marine Biology , Species Specificity
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 67(4,supl): 919-924, Dec. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-474232

ABSTRACT

Scomberomorus cavalla is a pelagic fish species widely distributed on the Atlantic west coast, and a noticeable decrease in its capture level in the USA and Gulf of Mexico is occurring, compared to the levels reached by the species in the past. Likewise, in some areas of Brazil, there has been indication of over-harvesting. However, there are no molecular studies focusing on the management of such an important item. Thus, in the present study, 380 nucleotide base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA D-Loop region of samples from Macapá, Bragança, and Fortaleza were sequenced. Phylogenetic and population analyses revealed that there is only one panmitic population, and low levels of genetic variability were verified. These results, as well as the noticed over-harvesting of S. cavalla, represent very important data to determine the management of such stock in order to prevent a collapse or the risk of future extinction.


Scomberomorus cavalla é uma espécie de peixe pelágico amplamente distribuído na costa oeste do Atlântico, e uma diminuição no seu nível de captura tem sido verificada nos E.U.A e Golfo do México, comparada com os níveis alcançados pela espécie no passado. Da mesma forma, em algumas áreas do Brasil, há indícios de sobre-exploração. Entretanto, não existem estudos moleculares que visam o manejo deste importante item. Desta forma, no presente estudo, foram seqüenciados 380 pares de bases nucleotídicas da região da Alça-D do DNA mitocondrial de amostras provenientes de desembarque em Macapá, Bragança e Fortaleza. As análises filogenéticas e populacionais revelaram que há apenas uma população panmítica e baixos níveis de variabilidade genética foram observados. Estes resultados, assim como a observada sobre-exploração de S. cavala, representam dados muito importantes para o estabelecimento do manejo deste estoque a fim de prevenir um colapso ou risco de extinção no futuro.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Genetic Variation , Perciformes/genetics , Brazil , Geography
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 67(4,supl): 925-933, Dec. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-474233

ABSTRACT

Reef fishes of the families Pomacanthidae (angelfish) and Chaetodontidae (butterflyfish) are popular ornamental species, intensively harvested for the aquarium trade. The impacts of such activity on intra-specific diversity and reef ecosystems are still poorly understood in the south Atlantic. In the present work, a fine-scale genetic analysis using RAPD markers was performed in distinct samples of the queen angelfish (Holacanthus ciliaris), French angelfish (Pomacanthus paru), and banded butterflyfish (Chaetodon striatus) along the Brazilian coast. Most of the genetic variation in the three species was related to intra-population diversity. However, AMOVA results demonstrated that H. ciliaris presents a subtle population structure (sigmast = 0.132, P = 0.003), while P. paru and C. striatus present low genetic differentiation, especially remarkable in the latter (sigmast = 0.090, P = 0.001 and sigmast = 0.041, P = 0.028, respectively). Gene flow (Nm) was also higher in C. striatus than in the angelfish species. The reported patterns of genetic differentiation contrast with the similar pelagic stage of the selected species, suggesting that larval dispersal per se is a poor predictor of population structure in these reef fishes. Ecological features coupled with biogeographic history and distinct local selective pressures might play a major role on the genetic composition of each species. Although preliminary, the present results provide a baseline for monitoring the genetic variability in these reef species. These differences in the genetic structure among co-occurring species should be taken into consideration for the conservation of eventual evolutionary units along the Brazilian Province.


Os peixes recifais das famílias Pomacanthidae (peixes-anjo) e Chaetodontidae (peixes-borboleta) são espécies ornamentais populares, intensivamente coletadas para o comércio aquariófilo. Os impactos dessa atividade na diversidade intra-específica e no ecossistema recifal ainda são pouco conhecidos no Atlântico Sul. No presente trabalho, uma análise genética em fina escala usando marcadores RAPD foi realizada em diferentes amostras de Holacanthus ciliaris (anjo ciliaris), Pomacanthus paru (peixe frade) e Chaetodon striatus (borboleta striatus) ao longo da costa brasileira. A maior parte da variação genética nas três espécies relacionou-se à diversidade intrapopulacional. Contudo, resultados da AMOVA demonstraram que H. ciliaris apresenta uma estruturação populacional sutil (sigmast = 0,132, P = 0,003), enquanto P. paru e C. striatus apresentam uma baixa diferenciação genética, particularmente reduzida na última (sigmast = 0,090, P = 0,001 e sigmast = 0,041, P = 0,028, respectivamente). O fluxo gênico (Nm) também foi mais alto em C. striatus do que nas espécies de Pomacanthidae. Os padrões de diferenciação genética registrados contrastam com o estágio pelágico inicial similar nas espécies selecionadas, sugerindo que a dispersão larval per se não é um bom indicador de estrutura populacional nesses peixes recifais. Fatores ecológicos associados à história biogeográfica e distintas pressões seletivas locais podem desempenhar um papel fundamental na composição genética de cada espécie. Embora preliminares, os resultados apresentados fornecem subsídios para o monitoramento da variabilidade genética dessas espécies recifais. Tais diferenças na estrutura genética entre espécies co-existentes devem ser consideradas para a conservação de eventuais unidades evolutivas dentro da Província Brasileira.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA , Genetic Variation , Perciformes/genetics , Brazil , Geography , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Perciformes/classification , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
18.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(4): 1097-1106, 2007. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520039

ABSTRACT

The family Pomacentridae comprises about 326 species belonging to 28 genera. The genus Stegastes is composed of nearly 33 species, and 8 are endemic to the Brazilian Province, inhabiting the Brazilian coast (Stegastes fuscus, S. variabilis, S. leucosticus, S. uenfi, and S. pictus) or Western Atlantic oceanic islands (S. trindadensis, S. rocasensis and S. sanctipauli). Stegastes species play a major role in the reef ecosystem since they interfere significantly with the composition of benthonic organisms. Studies about population genetics and speciation of Neotropical ichthyofauna are scarce, particularly at insular areas from the Western Atlantic. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to analyze the population genetic structure of the continental species S. fuscus and S. variabilis (Northeastern Brazil) as well as the insular species S. sanctipauli (Saint Paul’s Rocks). Analysis of population parameters revealed a high index of intrapopulation genetic variability in the species, except for S. sanctipauli, which showed low values. The phiST values in samples of S. fuscus and S. variabilis obtained at distinct collection sites 35 km apart from each other indicated a lack of population genetic structure. An intermediary profile of species-specific markers was detected in some individuals of S. fuscus and S. variabilis from Santa Rita, Rio Grande do Norte, suggesting a putative introgression event between the two species. The genetic profiles observed in Stegastes populations indicate a higher genetic variability along the shoreline than at oceanic sites, related to a reduced effective population size on islands. The lack of genetic differentiation among coastal populations suggests that, despite some biological features such as non-migratory behavior and territoriality, the pelagic larval phase of these species is able to promote an interpopulation homogeneity among sampled areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Perciformes/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Base Sequence , Brazil , DNA , Ecosystem , Species Specificity , Genetics, Population , Perciformes/classification , DNA Primers/genetics
19.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(3): 575-580, 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-498914

ABSTRACT

The parrotfishes (family Scaridae) are comprised of the subfamilies Sparisomatinae and Scarinae. They are important agents of marine bioerosion, which rework the substrate with their beaklike jaws. Despite their importance, there are no published cytogenetic data on this group. We made cytogenetic analyses of Sparisoma axillare (Sparisomatinae) and Scarus coelestinus (Scarinae) from the Brazilian coast. Differentiation in the diploid number in S. axillare compared to the basal karyotype of the Perciformes apparently occurred due to a Robertsonian fusion, combined with pericentric inversions. S. coelestinus presented a conserved diploid number, but showed considerable structural karyotypic changes, resulting mainly from pericentric inversions. The Ag-NOR sites were unique and located on the short arm of the 1st subtelocentric pair in both species (possibly homeologous), corresponding to the 11th pair in S. axillare and the 9th pair in S. coelestinus. The constitutive heterochromatin is reduced in these species and is distributed in centromeric and pericentromeric regions in most of the chromosomes. The low fundamental number compared to the Scarus genus suggests a more basal condition for Sparisoma. The chromosome formula in S. coelestinus was more diversified, deriving from large-scale pericentric inversions. Karyotypic evolution patterns observed for these representatives of the Sparisomatinae and Scarinae subfamilies, added to new data from a larger number of species, would allow us to determine if there is a tendency among the Sparisomatinae for centric fusion events.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromosome Banding , Chromosome Inversion , Cytogenetic Analysis , Heterochromatin/chemistry , Perciformes/genetics , Chromosomes , Cytogenetics/methods , Diploidy , Evolution, Molecular , Karyotyping , Nucleolus Organizer Region , Silver/metabolism
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