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2.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 69-73, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a foldable pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap to repair soft tissue defects in the shoulder and back.@*METHODS@#Between August 2018 and January 2023, the foldable pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps were used to repair soft tissue defects in the shoulder and back of 8 patients. There were 5 males and 3 females with the age ranged from 21 to 56 years (mean, 35.4 years). Wounds were located in the shoulder in 2 cases and in the shoulder and back in 6 cases. The causes of injury were chronic infection of skin and bone exposure in 2 cases, secondary wound after extensive resection of skin and soft tissue tumor in 4 cases, and wound formation caused by traffic accident in 2 cases. Skin defect areas ranged from 14 cm×13 cm to 20 cm×16 cm. The disease duration ranged from 12 days to 1 year (median, 6.6 months). A pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was designed and harvested. The flap was divided into A/B flap and then were folded to repair the wound, with the donor area of the flap being pulled and sutured in one stage.@*RESULTS@#All 7 flaps survived, with primary wound healing. One patient suffered from distal flap necrosis and delayed healing was achieved after dressing change. The incisions of all donor sites healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 6 months to 4 years (mean, 24.7 months). The skin flap has a good appearance with no swelling in the pedicle. At last follow-up, 6 patients had no significant difference in bilateral shoulder joint motion, and 2 patients had a slight decrease in abduction range of motion compared with the healthy side. The patients' daily life were not affected, and linear scar was left in the donor site.@*CONCLUSION@#The foldable pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is an ideal method to repair the soft tissue defect of shoulder and back with simple operation, less damage to the donor site, and quick recovery after operation.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Myocutaneous Flap/surgery , Shoulder/surgery , Skin Transplantation , Superficial Back Muscles/transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Wound Healing , Treatment Outcome , Perforator Flap
3.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 62-68, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical application of high-frequency color Doppler ultrasound (HFCDU) in detecting perforators in the deep adipose layers for harvesting super-thin anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF).@*METHODS@#Between August 2019 and January 2023, 45 patients (46 sides) with skin and soft tissue defects in the foot and ankle were treated, including 29 males and 16 females, aged from 22 to 62 years, with an average of 46.7 years. The body mass index ranged from 19.6 to 36.2 kg/m 2, with an average of 23.62 kg/m 2. The causes of injury included traffic accident injury in 15 cases, heavy object crush injury in 20 cases, mechanical injury in 8 cases, heat crush injury in 1 case, and chronic infection in 1 case. There were 20 cases on the left side, 24 cases on the right side, and 1 case on both sides. After thorough debridement, the wound size ranged from 5 cm×4 cm to 17 cm×11 cm. All patients underwent free super-thin ALTF transplantation repair. HFCDU was used to detect the location of the perforators piercing the deep and superficial fascia, as well as the direction and branches of the perforators within the deep adipose layers before operation. According to the preoperative HFCDU findings, the dimensions of the super-thin ALTF ranged from 6 cm×4 cm to 18 cm×12 cm. The donor sites of the flaps were directly sutured.@*RESULTS@#A total of 55 perforators were detected by HFCDU before operation, but 1 was not found during operation. During operation, a total of 56 perforators were found, and 2 perforators were not detected by HFCDU. The positive predictive value of HFCDU for identifying perforator vessels was 98.2%, and the sensitivity was 96.4%. Among the 54 perforators accurately located by HFCDU, the orientation of the perforators in the deep adipose layers was confirmed during operation. There were 21 perforators (38.9%) traveled laterally and inferiorly, 12 (22.2%) traveled medially and inferiorly, 14 (25.9%) traveled laterally and superiorly, 5 (9.3%) traveled medially and superiorly, and 2 (3.7%) ran almost vertically to the body surface. Among the 54 perforators accurately located by HFCDU, 35 were identified as type 1 perforators and 12 as type 2 perforators (HFCDU misidentified 7 type 2 perforators as type 1 perforators). The sensitivity of HFCDU in identifying type 1 perforators was 100%, with a positive predictive value of 83.3%. For type 2 perforators, the sensitivity was 63.2%, and the positive predictive value was 100%. The surgeries were successfully completed. The super-thin ALTF had a thickness ranging from 2 to 6 mm, with an average of 3.56 mm. All super-thin ALTF survived, however, 1 flap experienced a venous crisis at 1 day after operation, but it survived after emergency exploration and re-anastomosis of the veins; 1 flap developed venous crisis at 3 days after operation but survived after bleeding with several small incisions; 3 flaps had necrosis at the distal edge of the epidermis, which healed after undergoing dressing changes. All 45 patients were followed up 6-18 months (mean, 13.6 months). Three flaps required secondary defatting procedures, while the rest had the appropriate thickness, and the overall appearance was satisfactory.@*CONCLUSION@#Preoperative application of HFCDU to detect the perforator in the deep adipose layers can improve the success and safety of the procedure by facilitating the harvest of super-thin ALTF.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Thigh/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Prospective Studies , Skin Transplantation , Free Tissue Flaps , Burns , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Crush Injuries/surgery , Perforator Flap , Treatment Outcome
4.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 29(1): 32-37, 20230000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1428587

ABSTRACT

Los procedimientos reconstructivos en cabeza y cuello son todo un desafío debido a que son áreas expuestas, con gran movimiento, y desempeñan funciones esenciales de la vida como el habla, la alimentación y la respiración. El colgajo supraclavicular es un colgajo locorregional, fasciocutáneo, fino, axial a la arteria supraclavicular, versátil, con baja morbilidad, que se usa ampliamente para cubrir defectos en cuello y sector inferior de la cara ya que proporciona tejido similar al de estas regiones, y técnicamente rápido y sencillo.Se puede usar en asociación con otros colgajos para reconstrucciones complejas. Es un colgajo infrautilizado que es una buena alternativa frente a los colgajos tradicionales musculares regionales y libres. Las principales indicaciones son secuelas de quemaduras como las contracturas esternomentonianas, defectos oncológicos ya sea piel o mucosa oral, faringostomas y fístulas traqueocutáneas. Se mencionan 3 casos clínicos en los cuales se llevó a cabo un colgajo supraclavicular en el Hospital Pasteur, Montevideo, Uruguay.


Reconstructive head and neck procedures are challenging because they are exposed areas, are highly mobile, and perform essential life functions such as speaking, eating, and breathing. The supraclavicular flap is a locoregional, fasciocutaneous, thin flap, axial to the supraclavicular artery, versatile, with low morbidity, which is widely used to cover defects in the neck and lower face since it provides tissue similar to that of these regions, and Technically fast and simple. It can be used in association with other flaps for complex reconstructions. It is an underutilized flap that is a good alternative to traditional regional and free muscle flaps. The main indications are sequelae of burns such as sternomental contractures, oncological defects in the skin or oral mucosa, pharyngostomies and tracheocutaneous fistulas. Three clinical cases are mentioned in which a supraclavicular flap was performed at the Pasteur Hospital, Montevideo, Uruguay


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perforator Flap/transplantation , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery
5.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 601-604, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effectiveness of folded transverse superficial epigastric artery perforator flap in repairing the large penetrating defect after buccal carcinoma resection.@*METHODS@#Between January 2019 and June 2021, 12 patients with buccal squamous cell carcinoma were treated. There were 6 males and 6 females with an average of 66.9 years (range, 53-79 years). The pathological stage was T3a-T4b, and the preoperative mouth opening was (3.08±0.46) cm. The disease duration ranged from 6 to 24 months, with an average of 15 months. After buccal carcinoma radical resection and neck lymph node dissection, the penetrating defects in size of 8 cm×6 cm to 16 cm×8 cm and in depth of 0.5-1.5 cm were remained. The transverse superficial epigastric artery perforator flap in size of 8 cm×6 cm to 14 cm×8 cm were harvested and folded to repair the penetrating defects. The donor site was sutured directly.@*RESULTS@#All 12 skin flaps survived after operation, and the wounds healed by first intention. No internal or external fistula complications occurred. All incisions at the recipient site healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 12-18 months (mean, 14 months). There was no obvious abnormality in the color and texture of the flap, the oral and facial appearances were symmetrical, and there was no obvious swelling in the cheek. At last follow-up, the patient's mouth opening was (2.89±0.33) cm, which was not significantly different from that before operation ( t=1.879, P=0.087). The subjective satisfaction scores of 12 patients were 6-8 points, with an average of 7.3 points. Significant scars remained at the donor site but concealed in location.@*CONCLUSION@#The folded transverse superficial epigastric artery perforator flap can be used as a surgical method for repairing large penetrating defects after the buccal carcinoma resection, with a good recovery of facial appearance and oral function.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Skin Transplantation/methods , Epigastric Arteries/surgery , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Treatment Outcome
6.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 482-487, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effectiveness of Flow-through bridge anterolateral thigh flap transplantation in the treatment of complex calf soft tissue defects.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of the patients with complicated calf soft tissue defects, who were treated with Flow-through bridge anterolateral thigh flap (study group, 23 cases) or bridge anterolateral thigh flap (control group, 23 cases) between January 2008 and January 2022, were retrospectively analyzed. All complex calf soft tissue defects in the two groups were caused by trauma or osteomyelitis, and there was only one major blood vessel in the calf or no blood vessel anastomosed with the grafted skin flap. There was no significant difference between the two groups in general data such as gender, age, etiology, size of leg soft tissue defect, and time from injury to operation ( P>0.05). The lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) was used to evaluate the sufferred lower extremity function of the both groups after operation, and the peripheral blood circulation score of the healthy side was evaluated according to the Chinese Medical Association Hand Surgery Society's functional evaluation standard for replantation of amputated limbs. Weber's quantitative method was used to detect static 2-point discrimination (S2PD) to evaluate peripheral sensation of the healthy side, and the popliteal artery flow velocity, toenail capillary filling time, foot temperature, toe blood oxygen saturation of the healthy side, and the incidence of complications were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#No vascular or nerve injury occurred during operation. All flaps survived, and 1 case of partial flap necrosis occurred in both groups, which healed after free skin grafting. All patients were followed up 6 months to 8 years, with a median time of 26 months. The function of the sufferred limb of the two groups recovered satisfactorily, the blood supply of the flap was good, the texture was soft, and the appearance was fair. The incision in the donor site healed well with a linear scar, and the color of the skin graft area was similar. Only a rectangular scar could be seen in the skin donor area where have a satisfactory appearance. The blood supply of the distal limb of the healthy limb was good, and there was no obvious abnormality in color and skin temperature, and the blood supply of the limb was normal during activity. The popliteal artery flow velocity in the study group was significantly faster than that in the control group at 1 month after the pedicle was cut, and the foot temperature, toe blood oxygen saturation, S2PD, toenail capillary filling time, and peripheral blood circulation score were significantly better than those in the control group ( P<0.05). There were 8 cases of cold feet and 2 cases of numbness on the healthy side in the control group, while only 3 cases of cold feet occurred in the study group. The incidence of complications in the study group (13.04%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (43.47%) ( χ 2=3.860, P=0.049). There was no significant difference in LEFS score between the two groups at 6 months after operation ( P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Flow-through bridge anterolateral thigh flap can reduce postoperative complications of healthy feet and reduce the impact of surgery on blood supply and sensation of healthy feet. It is an effective method for repairing complex calf soft tissue defects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thigh/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Leg/surgery , Cicatrix/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Lower Extremity/surgery , Skin Transplantation/methods , Perforator Flap
7.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 478-481, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of fascial tissue flaps and skin flaps with layered sutures for repairing wounds after excision of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus.@*METHODS@#Between March 2019 and August 2022, 9 patients with sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus were admitted, including 7 males and 2 females with an average age of 29.4 years (range, 17-53 years). The disease duration ranged from 1 to 36 months, with a median of 6 months. There were 7 cases with obesity and dense hair, 3 cases with infection, and 2 cases with positive bacterial culture of sinus secretion. The wound area after excision ranged from 3 cm×3 cm to 8 cm×4 cm, with a depth of 3-5 cm, reaching the perianal or caudal bone; there were 2 cases with perianal abscess formation and 1 case with caudal bone inflammatory edema. Enlarged resection was performed during operation, and the fascial tissue flap and skin flap were designed and excised at both left and right sides of the buttock, ranging from 3.0 cm×1.5 cm to 8.0 cm×2.0 cm. A cross drainage tube was placed at the bottom of the wound, and the fascial tissue flap and skin flap were advanced and sutured in three layers, namely, 8-string sutures in the fascial layer, barbed wire reduction sutures in the dermis, and interrupted skin sutures.@*RESULTS@#All 9 patients were followed up 3-36 months, with an average of 12 months. All incisions healed by first intention, and no complication such as incisional dehiscence or infection in the operative area occurred. There was no recurrence of sinus tracts, the shape of gluteal sulcus was satisfactory, both sides of buttocks were symmetrical, local incision scar was concealed, and the shape disruption was minimal.@*CONCLUSION@#Fascial tissue flaps and skin flaps with layered sutures for repairing wounds after excision of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus can effectively fill the cavity and reduce the incidence of poor incision healing, with the advantages of small trauma and simple operation.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Pilonidal Sinus/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Surgical Flaps , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Sutures , Perforator Flap
8.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 469-472, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981617

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the effectiveness of the temporal island flap pedicled with the perforating branch of zygomatic orbital artery for repairing defects after periocular malignant tumor resection.@*METHODS@#Between January 2015 and December 2020, 15 patients with periocular malignant tumors were treated. There were 5 males and 10 females with an average age of 62 years (range, 40-75 years). There were 12 cases of basal cell carcinoma and 3 cases of squamous carcinoma. The disease duration ranged from 5 months to 10 years (median, 2 years). The size of tumors ranged from 1.0 cm×0.8 cm to 2.5 cm×1.5 cm, without tarsal plate invasion. After extensive resection of the tumors, the left defects in size of 2.0 cm×1.5 cm to 3.5 cm×2.0 cm were repaired with the temporal island flap pedicled with the perforating branch of zygomatic orbital artery via subcutaneous tunnel. The size of the flaps ranged from 3.0 cm×1.5 cm to 5.0 cm×2.0 cm. The donor sites were separated subcutaneously and sutured directly.@*RESULTS@#All flaps survived after operation and the wounds healed by first intention. The incisions at donor sites healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 6-24 months (median, 11 months). The flaps were not obviously bloated, the texture and color were basically the same as the surrounding normal skin, and the scars at recipient sites were not obviously. There was no complication such as ptosis, ectropion, or incomplete closure of the eyelids and recurrence of tumor during follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#The temporal island flap pedicled with the perforating branch of zygomatic orbital artery can repair the defects after periorbital malignant tumors resection and has the advantages of reliable blood supply, flexible design, and good morphology and function.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Surgical Flaps , Arteries/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Perforator Flap/blood supply
9.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 358-362, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986895

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the efficacies of different forms of free radial collateral artery perforator flaps in repairing the defects after oral tumor surgeries. Methods: From May 2016 to March 2021, 28 patients (22 males, 6 females, aged 35-62 years) with oral tumors admitted by Hunan Cancer Hospital received the reconstructive surgeries with the free radial collateral artery perforator flaps after removal of oral tumors, including 24 cases of tongue cancer (11 cases of tongue marginal cancer, 9 cases of tongue belly cancer and 4 cases of tongue cancer involved in the floor of the mouth) and 4 cases of buccal and oral cancer. Four forms of radial collateral artery perforator flaps were used: single perforator flaps for 6 cases, double perforators flaps for 7 cases, flaps without perforator visualization for 10 cases and chimeric perforator myocutaneous flaps for 5 cases. The recipient vessels were the superior thyroid artery and superior thyroid vein, and if second concomitant vein available, it was anastomosed with internal jugular vein in end-to-side fashion. SPSS 20.0 statistical software was used to analyze the data. Results: The mean length of flaps was (9.7±0.4) cm, mean width (4.4±0.3) cm and mean thickness (1.1±0.4) cm. The mean length of the vascular pedicles was (7.1±0.6)cm (6.0-8.0 cm), the mean diameter of the radial accessory arteries was (1.1±0.3)mm (0.8-1.3 mm). Eleven cases(39.3%) had respectively one accompanying vein and 17 cases(60.7%) had respectively two accompanying veins, with the mean diameter of (1.1±0.3) mm (0.8-1.3 mm). All the 28 flaps survived, the donor and recipient wounds healed in one stage, the appearances of the flaps were satisfactory, only linear scars remained in the donor sites, and the upper arm functions were not significantly affected. Follow up for 12-43 months showed that the flaps were soft with partially mucosalization, the reconstructed tongue and buccal cavity were in good shape, and the swallowing and language functions were satisfactory. The swallowing and language functions were retained to the greatest extent in 3 cases with near total tongue resection, although the functions were still significantly affected. There was no local recurrence of the tumor during follow-up. One case had regional lymph node metastasis, and further lymph node dissection and comprehensive treatment were performed, with satisfactory outcomes. Conclusions: The vascular pedicle of the radial collateral artery perforator flap has a constant anatomy, which can be prepared in different forms to improve the safety of the operation and minimize the donor site damage. It is an ideal choice for the repair of small and medium-sized defects after oral tumor surgery.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Perforator Flap/transplantation , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Tongue Neoplasms/surgery , Arm/surgery , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Arteries , Skin Transplantation , Treatment Outcome
10.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 719-723, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009124

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore clinical effects of the stageⅠrepair of full-thickness skin defect at dorsal skin of middle phalanx fingers using artificial dermis combing with digital artery perforator fascial flaps.@*METHODS@#From January 2019 to May 2020, 21 patients(27 middle phalanx fingers)with full-thickness skin defect were repaired at stageⅠusing artificial dermis combing with digital artery perforator fascial flaps. All patients were emergency cases, and were accompanied by the exposure of bone tendon and the defects of periosteum and tendon membrane. Among patients, including 11 males and 10 females aged from 18 to 66 years old with an average age of (39.00±8.01) years old;9 index fingers, 10 middle fingers and 8 ring fingers;range of skin defect area ranged from (2.5 to 3.5) cm×(1.5 to 3.0) cm;range of exposed bone tendon area was (1.5 to 2.0) cm×(1.0 to 2.0) cm. The time from admission to hospital ranged from 1 to 6 h, operation time started from 3 to 8 h after injury.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up from 6 to12 months with an average of (9.66±1.05) months. The wounds in 26 cases were completely healed at 4 to 6 weeks after operation. One finger has changed into wound infection with incompletely epithelialized dermis, and achieved wound healing at 8 weeks after dressing change. All fingers were plump with less scars. The healed wound surface was similar to the color and texture of the surrounding skin. These fingers have excellent wearability and flexibility. According to the upper limb function trial evaluation standard of Hand Surgery Society of Chinese Medical Association, the total score ranged from 72 to 100. 26 fingers got excellent result and 1 good.@*CONCLUSION@#StageⅠrepair of full-thickness skin defect at dorsal skin of middle phalanx fingers using artificial dermis combing with digital artery perforator fascial flaps is easy to operate with less trauma. It has made satisfactory recovery of appearance and function of fingers. It could provide an effective surgical method for clinical treatment of full-thickness skin loss of fingers with tendon and bone exposure.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Aged , Fingers , Skin , Perforator Flap , Ulnar Artery , Dermis
11.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 714-718, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009123

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore clinical effects of repairing skin and soft tissue defect of finger with free posterior interosseous artery perforator flap.@*METHODS@#Totally 8 patients with finger skin and soft tissue defect repaired with free posterior interosseous artery perforator flap were treated from May 2021 to November 2022, including 7 males and 1 female aged from 24 to 54 years old, and soft tissue defect area ranged from 3.0 cm×1.5 cm to 5.0 cm×3.0 cm. The time from injury to flap repair ranged from 3 to 83 h. The free posterior interosseous artery perforator flap was applied to repair finger defect, the area of the flap ranged from 3.5 cm×2.0 cm to 5.2 cm×3.5 cm, the donor area of flap was sutured directly. The survival, appearance, texture and donor complications of the flap were observed after operation, and Dargan functional standard was used to evaluate clinical effect of finger function.@*RESULTS@#All flap of 8 patients were survived, and followed up from 3 to 12 months. There was no obvious swelling, soft texture, obvious pigmentation, linear intaglio in donor area only, and without obvious complications were found. Among them, 3 patients'skin flaps were repaired for the defect of palm of the fingers, and sensory recovery was good, two-point discrimination ranged from 5 to 9 mm. According to Dargan functional evaluation, 3 patients excellent, and 5 good.@*CONCLUSION@#Free posterior interosseous artery perforation branch flap could be used to repair the defect of finger. The thickness of flap is moderate, operation is convenient, appearance and texture of the operative flap are good, and the donor site is small without obvious complications, and obtain satisfactory clinical effect.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Perforator Flap , Fingers , Upper Extremity , Ulnar Artery , Skin
12.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 701-707, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009121

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore method and clinical effect of microsurgical thinned anterolateral thigh perforator flap to repair soft tissue defects of foot and ankle.@*METHODS@#From March 2017 to January 2022, totally 20 patients with soft tissue defects of ankle joint were treated with micro-thinning anterolateral perforator flap for free transplantation, included 13 males and 7 females, aged from 22 to 58 years old with an average of (36.45±12.36) years old. The size of flap ranged from 8.0 cm×5.0 cm to 20.0 cm×12.0 cm. Before operation, perforating vessels on the anterolateral thigh region were detected and marked with a portable Doppler detector. For the defect width less than 8 cm, 11 patients were repaired with a single flap. For the defect width more than 8 cm, the wound could not be sutured directly, and the lobulated flap technique was used in 9 patients, the width was converted to length, and the donor site was closed directly. Under the microscope, all flaps were thinened in a stepwise manner from the center of the pedicle to the periphery. After operation, survival of the flap, the shape, texture, sensory function recovery were observes, and recovery of foot function was evaluated by Maryland foot function evaluation standard.@*RESULTS@#All 20 patients with microsurgical thinned anterolateral thigh perforator flaps were survived. Venous crisis occurred in 1 patient due to subcutaneous hematoma, after removal of the hematoma, the crisis was relieved and the flap survived successfully. The wounds in the donor and recipient sites healed well, and only linear scars left in the donor sites. Twenty patients were followed up for 3 to 26 months after operation, good shape of flaps without bloated, and good texture. The two-point discrimination of free flaps ranged from 9.0 to 16.0 mm, and the protective sensation was restored. The ankle flexion and extension function recovered well and patients could walk normally. According to Maryland foot function evaluation standard, 8 patients got excellent result, 10 patients good and 2 middle.@*CONCLUSION@#Microsurgical thinned anterolateral thigh perforator flap is an ideal method to repair soft tissue defects in functional area of foot and ankle, with good appearance and texture of the flap, no need for re-plastic surgery, reduced hospitalization costs, and less donor site damage.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Ankle/surgery , Thigh/surgery , Ankle Joint , Perforator Flap , Hematoma
13.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1501-1504, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of plantar medial thin skin flaps preserving plantar fascia with its superficial fascia tissue to repair skin defects in hands and feet.@*METHODS@#Between July 2017 and January 2023, 35 cases of hand and foot defects were repaired with plantar medial thin skin flaps preserving plantar fascia with its superficial fascia tissue (13 pedicled flaps and 22 free flaps). There were 18 males and 17 females, with an average age of 38.8 years (range, 8-56 years). Thirty cases of defects were caused by trauma, and the interval between injury and admission ranged from 2 to 6 hours (mean, 3.3 hours). Three cases were ulcer wounds with a course of 3.0, 3.8, and 7.0 months, respectively. Two cases were malignant melanoma. Eight cases of wounds located in the fingers, 13 cases in the palm, 12 cases in the heel, and 2 cases in the distal foot. The size of skin defects ranged from 4.0 cm×3.5 cm to 12.0 cm×10.0 cm, and the size of flap ranged from 5.0 cm×4.5 cm to 13.0 cm×11.0 cm. The donor sites were repaired with skin grafts.@*RESULTS@#All flaps were survived and the wounds healed by first intention after operation. The partial necrosis at the edge of the skin graft occurred in 1 case, which healed after dressing change; the other skin grafts survived successfully. All patients were followed up 6-24 months (mean, 18 months). The flaps exhibited similar color and thickness to the surrounding hand and foot skin. Two-point discrimination ranged from 7 to 10 mm in the flaps with an average of 8 mm. The donor sites had no painful scars or sensory abnormalities. Foot and ankle functions were good and gaits were normal.@*CONCLUSION@#Application of plantar medial thin skin flaps preserving plantar fascia with its superficial fascia tissue to repair skin defects in hands and feet had good flap shape, high survival rate of skin graft at the donor site, and no obvious complications.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Subcutaneous Tissue/surgery , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Skin Transplantation , Fascia , Free Tissue Flaps , Treatment Outcome , Perforator Flap
14.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1418-1422, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To conduct anatomical study on the iliac crest chimeric tissue flap and summarize its effectiveness of clinical application in repairing limb wounds.@*METHODS@#Latex perfusion and anatomical study were performed on 6 fresh adult cadaver specimens with 12 sides, to observe the initial location, distribution, quantity, and direction of the common circumflexa iliac artery, the deep circumflexa iliac artery, and the superficial circumflexa iliac artery, and to measure their initial external diameter. Between December 2020 and September 2022, the iliac crest chimeric tissue flap repair was performed on 5 patients with soft tissue of limbs and bone defects. There were 3 males and 2 females, with an average age of 46 years (range, 23-60 years). Among them, there were 3 cases of radii and skin soft tissue defects and 2 cases of tibia and skin soft tissue defects. The length of bone defects was 4-8 cm and the area of skin soft tissue defects ranged from 9 cm×5 cm to 15 cm×6 cm. The length of the iliac flap was 4-8 cm and the area of skin flap ranged from 12.0 cm×5.5 cm to 16.0 cm×8.0 cm. The donor sites were directly sutured.@*RESULTS@#Anatomical studies showed that there were 10 common circumflex iliac arteries in 5 specimens, which originated from the lateral or posterolateral side of the transition between the external iliac artery and the femoral artery, with a length of 1.2-1.6 cm and an initial external diameter of 0.8-1.4 mm. In 1 specimen without common circumflexa iliac artery, the superficial and deep circumflex iliac arteries originated from the external iliac artery and the femoral artery, respectively, while the rest originated from the common circumflex iliac artery. The length of superficial circumflex iliac artery was 4.6-6.7 cm, and the initial external diameter was 0.4-0.8 mm. There were 3-6 perforator vessels along the way. The length of deep circumflex iliac artery was 7.8-9.2 cm, and the initial external diameter was 0.5-0.7 mm. There were 3-5 muscular branches, 4-6 periosteal branches, and 2-3 musculocutaneous branches along the way. Based on the anatomical observation results, all iliac crest chimeric tissue flaps were successfully resected and survived after operation. The wounds at recipient and donor sites healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 8-24 months, with an average of 12 months. The tissue flap has good appearance and soft texture. X-ray film reexamination showed that all the osteotomy healed, and no obvious bone resorption was observed during follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#The common circumflex iliac artery, deep circumflex iliac artery, and superficial circumflex iliac artery were anatomically constant, and it was safe and reliable to use iliac crest chimeric tissue flap in repairing the soft tissue and bone defects of limbs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Ilium/surgery , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Skin Transplantation/methods , Lower Extremity/surgery , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome
15.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1266-1269, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of bilateral facial perforator artery flap in repairing large area defect in middle and lower part of nose.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 18 patients with large area defect in middle and lower part of nose repaired by bilateral facial perforator artery flap between January 2019 and December 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, there were 13 males and 5 females, the age ranged from 43 to 81 years, with an average of 63 years. There were 3 cases of nasal trauma, 4 cases of basal cell carcinoma, 8 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 1 case of lymphoma, and 2 cases of large area solar keratosis. The size of the defect ranged from 3.0 cm×3.0 cm to 4.5 cm×4.0 cm; the size of unilateral flap ranged from 3.0 cm×1.3 cm to 3.5 cm×2.0 cm, and the size of bilateral flaps ranged from 3.3 cm×2.6 cm to 4.5 cm×4.0 cm.@*RESULTS@#One patient developed skin flap necrosis after operation, and a frontal skin flap was used to repair the wound; 1 case gradually improved after removing some sutures due to venous congestion in the skin flap, and the wound healing was delayed after dressing change; the remaining 16 cases of bilateral facial perforator artery flaps survived well and all wounds healed by first intention, without any "cat ear" malformation. All 18 patients had first intention healing in the donor area, leaving linear scars without obvious scar hyperplasia, and no facial organ displacement. All patients were followed up 3-12 months, with an average of 6 months. Due to the appropriate thickness of the flap, none of the 18 patients underwent secondary flap thinning surgery. All flaps had good blood circulation, similar texture and color to surrounding tissues, symmetrical bilateral nasolabial sulcus, and high patient satisfaction.@*CONCLUSION@#The bilateral facial perforator artery flaps for repairing large area defect in middle and lower part of nose can achieve good appearance and function, and the operation is relatively simple, with high patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Skin Transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Arteries/surgery , Cicatrix/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Skin Neoplasms/surgery
16.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1259-1265, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility of using indocyanine green angiography in mapping the superficial temporal vessels and assisting design and harvesting of the superficial temporal artery based forehead flap.@*METHODS@#A clinical data of 14 patients with facial soft tissue defects repaired with superficial temporal artery based forehead flaps between October 2015 and November 2022 was retrospectively analyzed. There were 9 males and 5 females with a median age of 9.5 years (range, 3-38 years). The forehead flaps were used to reconstruct facial soft tissue defects following excision of facial scar (8 cases) or congenital melanocyte nevus (6 cases). The size of defects ranged from 3 cm×2 cm to 24 cm×9 cm. Before operation, the indocyanine green angiography was used to map the superficial temporal artery and vein, and to analyze the relationship of the arteries and veins. The forehead flaps with unilateral superficial temporal fascia as the pedicle was transferred to repair the small facial defect in 2 cases. The facial pedicle contained the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery and 2 cm of the superficial temporal fascia around the vessel, and the tiny accompanying vein of the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery was used as the outflow of the flap. The forehead flaps with the skin pedicle including bilateral or unilateral superficial temporal fascia and the overlying skin was pre-expanded and transferred to repair the large facial defect in 12 cases. The skin pedicle contained the frontal branch of superficial temporal artery and one of main branches of superficial temporal vein. Among the 12 cases, the frontal branch of superficial temporal vein was used as the outflow in 4 cases, and the parietal branch was used as the outflow in 8 cases. The size of the flaps ranged from 3 cm×2 cm to 30 cm×13 cm. The skin pedicles were divided at 3 weeks after the flap transfer.@*RESULTS@#Indocyanine green angiography could clearly showed the course and branching of the superficial temporal artery and vein. Individual differences existed in the location where the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery entered the forehead. The superficial temporal vein had great variability and did not follow the artery. One patient had expander-related complication, which resulted in 3-cm flap necrosis. The necrotic tissue was debrided and repaired with skin grafting. The other flaps totally survived and the incisions healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 2-24 months, with a median of 11.5 months. The color, texture, and thickness of the flaps matched well with those of recipient sites. Hypertrophic scar was not observed in recipient or donor site. All patients were satisfied with the reconstructive outcomes.@*CONCLUSION@#Indocyanine green angiography can clearly visualize the course and the branches of the superficial temporal arteries and veins, which can help surgeons understand the position, distribution, and concomitant relationship of the superficial temporal vessels, and make a rational surgical plan of the forehead flap.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Temporal Arteries/surgery , Indocyanine Green , Forehead/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Skin Transplantation , Angiography , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Treatment Outcome
17.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1138-1141, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effectiveness of dorsal perforator flap of cross-finger proper digital artery in the treatment of finger soft tissue defect caused by high-pressure injection injury.@*METHODS@#Between July 2011 and June 2020, 14 cases of finger soft tissue defect caused by high-pressure injection injury were repaired with dorsal perforator flap of cross-finger proper digital artery. All patients were male, with a mean age of 36 years (range, 22-56 years). The defects were located on the index finger in 8 cases, middle finger in 4 cases, and ring finger in 2 cases. The causes of injury include 8 cases of emulsion paint injection, 4 cases of oil paint injection, and 2 cases of cement injection. The time from injury to debridement was 2-8 hours, with a mean time of 4.5 hours. The soft tissue defects sized from 4.0 cm×1.2 cm to 6.0 cm×2.0 cm. The flaps sized from 4.5 cm×1.5 cm to 6.5 cm×2.5 cm. The donor site of the flap was repaired with skin graft. The pedicle was cut off at 3 weeks after operation, and followed by functional exercise.@*RESULTS@#All flaps and skin grafts at donor sites survived, and the wounds healed by first intention. Twelve patients were followed-up 16-38 months (mean, 22.6 months). The texture and appearance of all flaps were satisfactory. The color and texture of the flaps were similar to those of the surrounding tissues. The two-point discrimination of the flap was 10-12 mm, with a mean of 11.5 mm. There were different degrees of cold intolerance at the end of the affected fingers. At last follow-up, the finger function was evaluated according to the Upper Extremity Functional Evaluation Standard set up by Hand Surgery Branch of Chinese Medical Association, 3 cases were excellent, 8 cases were good, and 1 case was poor.@*CONCLUSION@#The dorsal perforator flap of cross-finger proper digital artery can effectively repair finger soft tissue defect caused by high-pressure injection injury. The operation was simple, and the appearance and function of the finger recover well.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Perforator Flap , Upper Extremity , Fingers/surgery , Ulnar Artery , Skin Transplantation
18.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 47-51, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971406

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of only surgical resection for nasal vestibular squamous cell carcinoma and the efficacy of perforator flap of ipsilateral nasolabial sulcus in repairing postoperative defects. Methods: The clinical data of 8 cases with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule who admitted to Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University were analyzed, including 6 males and 2 females, aged from 38 to 75 years. The tumor of the nasal vestibule was eradicated in time after making definite diagnosis of lesions, then the perforators flap of the ipsilateral nasolabial sulcus was used for repairment, without performing further chemotherapy or radiotherapy after surgery. The tumor recurrence, facial appearance, nostril form, donor area scar, nasal ventilation function, and cutaneous sensation were evaluated after surgery. Descriptive analysis was used in this research. Results: There were 2 cases of stage T1 and 6 cases of stage T2 in 8 cases. After 32 to 45 months of following-up, no recurrence accurred and all the flaps survived well. However, there was about 2 mm necrosis of the transplanted flap in the lateral foot of the alar in one case, which was healed well by carrying out wound care after 10 d. And the dark color flap was occurred in another case, showing the flap's backflow trouble, yet it was improved with addressing timely during 5 d postoperation. Pincusion-like deformity of the transplanted flap occurred in 4 cases (50%), which subsided gradually after 6 months. The morphology of the anterior nostril was altered in 4 cases (50%), but there was no ventilation trouble and no need for addressment in any case. The postoperative facial appearance was rated as excellentor good with hidden scar in the donor site, and the sensation of the transplanted flaps was indistinct from the surrounding tissue after 3 months. Conclusions: Surgical resection of nasal vestibular squamous cell carcinoma with tumor stage T1-2 is a feasible treatment. And it is the one of the best reconstructive methods of the perforator flap of the ipsilateral nasolabial sulcus to repair the deformities after the surgery.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Perforator Flap/transplantation , Cicatrix/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Skin Transplantation/methods , Treatment Outcome
19.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 37-41, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971404

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the anatomical classification of adductor magnus perforator flap and its application in head and neck reconstruction. Methods: From January 2017 to January 2020, Hunan Cancer Hospital treated 27 cases of oral tumor patients (15 cases of tongue cancer, 9 cases of gingival cancer and 3 cases of buccal cancer), including 24 males and 3 females, aged 31-56 years old. The course of disease was 1-12 months. Secondary soft tissue defects with the sizes of 5.0 cm × 3.5 cm to 11.0 cm × 8.0 cm were left after radical resection of the tumors, and were repaired with free adductor magnus perforator flaps. The flaps based on the origing locations of perforator vessels were divided into three categories: ① intramuscular perforator: vessel originated between the gracilis muscle and the adductor magnus or passed through a few adductor magnus muscles; ② adductor magnus middle layer perforator: vessel run between the deep and superficial layers of adductor magnus; ③ adductor magnus deep layer perforator: vessel run between the deep layer of adductor magnus and the semimembranous muscle. Descriptive analysis was used in this research. Results: Perforator vessels of adductor magnus were found in all cases, with a total of 62 perforator branches of adductor magnus. The anatomical classification of the perforator vessels was as follows: 12 branches for class ①, 31 branches for class ② and 19 branches for class ③. The vascular pedicles of the free adductor major perforator flaps included type ① for 3 cases, type ② for 16 cases and type ③ for 8 cases. All 27 flaps survived and the donor sites were closed directly. In 18 cases, the perforator arteries and the venae comitan were respectively anastomosed with the superior thyroid arteries and veins. In 9 cases, the pedicle arteries and the venae comitan were respectively anastomosed with the facial arteries and veins. Follow up for 12-40 months showed that the appearances of the flaps and the swallowing and language functions of patients were satisfactory, apart from linear scars were left in the donor sites with no significant affect on the functions of thigh. Local recurrence occurred in 3 cases and radical surgeries were performed again followed by repairs with pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurred in 2 cases and cervical lymph node dissection was performed again. Conclusions: The adductor magnus perforator flap has soft texture, constant perforator vessel anatomy, flexible donor location and harvesting forms, and less damage to the donor site. It is an ideal choice for postoperative reconstruction in head and neck tumors.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Perforator Flap/transplantation , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Thigh/surgery , Head/surgery , Skin Transplantation , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
20.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 65-70, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971151

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical effects of island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps in the repair of sinus cavity pressure ulcers in the areas of ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter. Methods: The retrospective observational study was conducted. From December 2018 to December 2021, 23 patients with sinus cavity pressure ulcers in the areas of ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to Ganzhou People's Hospital, including 16 males and 7 females, aged 45 to 86 years. The size of pressure ulcers in ischial tuberosity ranged from 1.5 cm×1.0 cm to 8.0 cm×5.0 cm, and the size of pressure ulcers in greater trochanter ranged from 4.0 cm×3.0 cm to 20.0 cm×10.0 cm before debridement. After treatment of underlying diseases, debridement and vacuum sealing drainage for 5 to 14 days were performed. All the wounds were repaired by island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps, with area of 4.5 cm×3.0 cm-24.0 cm×12.0 cm, pedicle width of 3-5 cm, pedicle length of 5-8 cm, and rotation radius of 30-40 cm. Most of the donor site wounds were sutured directly, and only 4 donor site wounds were repaired by intermediate thickness skin graft from the contralateral thigh. The survival of composite tissue flaps, wound healing of the donor and recipient sites and the complications were observed. The recurrence of pressure ulcers, and the appearance and texture of flaps were observed during follow-up. Results: A total of 32 wounds in 23 patients were repaired by island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps (including 3 fascio subcutaneous flaps, 24 fascial flaps+fascio subcutaneous flaps, 2 fascial flaps+fascial dermal flaps, 2 fascial flaps+fascio subcutaneous flaps+femoral biceps flaps, and one fascial flap+fascio subcutaneous flap+gracilis muscle flap). Among them, 31 composite tissue flaps survived well, and a small portion of necrosis occurred in one fascial flap+fascio subcutaneous flap post surgery. The survival rate of composite tissue flap post surgery was 96.9% (31/32). Twenty-nine wounds in the recipient sites were healed, and 2 wounds were torn at the flap pedicle due to improper postural changes, and healed one week after bedside debridement. One wound was partially necrotic due to the flap bruising, and healed 10 days after re-debridement. Thirty-one wounds in the donor sites (including 4 skin graft areas) were healed, and one wound in the donor site was torn due to improper handling at discharge, and healed 15 days after re-debridement and suture. The complication rate was 12.5% (4/32), mainly the incision dehiscence of the flap pedicle and the donor sites (3 wounds), followed by venous congestion at the distal end of flap (one wound). During the follow-up of 3 to 24 months, the pressure ulcers did not recur and the flaps had good appearance and soft texture. Conclusions: The island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps has good blood circulation, large rotation radius, and sufficient tissue volume. It has a high survival rate, good wound healing, low skin grafting rate in the donor site, few postoperative complications, and good long-term effect in the repair of sinus cavity pressure ulcers in the areas of ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Skin Transplantation , Femur/surgery , Necrosis/surgery , Perforator Flap
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