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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6551-6571, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008855

ABSTRACT

Perilla frutescens is a widely used medicinal and edible plant with a rich chemical composition throughout its whole plant. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia categorizes P. frutescens leaves(Perillae Folium), seeds(Perillae Fructus), and stems(Perillae Caulis) as three distinct medicinal parts due to the differences in types and content of active components. Over 350 different bioactive compounds have been reported so far, including volatile oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenes, sterols, and fatty acids. Due to the complexity of its chemical composition, P. frutescens exhibits diverse pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antidepressant, and antitumor activities. While scholars have conducted a substantial amount of research on different parts of P. frutescens, including analysis of their chemical components and pharmacological mechanisms of action, there has yet to be a systematic comparison and summary of chemical components, pharmacological effects, and mechanisms of action. Therefore, this study overviewed the chemical composition and structures of Perillae Folium, Perillae Fructus, and Perillae Caulis, and summarized the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of P. frutescens to provide a reference for better development and utilization of this valuable plant.


Subject(s)
Perilla frutescens/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6185-6195, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921776

ABSTRACT

The present study compared the appearance and chemical composition of fruits of Perilla frutescens var. arguta(PFA) and P. frutescens var. frutescens(PFF). VHX-6000 3 D depth of field synthesis technology was applied for the appearance observation. The metabolites were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by pre-column derivatization combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Finally, cluster analysis(CA), principal component analysis(PCA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were applied for exploring the differences in their chemical compositions. The results indicated that the size and color of PFA and PFF fruits were different. PFF fruits were significantly larger than PFA fruits. The surface color of PFA fruits was brown, while PFF fruits were in multiple colors, such as white, grayish-white, and brown. Amino acids, saccharides, organic acids, fatty acids, and phenolic acids were identified in PFA and PFF fruits. The results of CA, PCA, and OPLS-DA indicated significant differences in the content of components between PFA and PFF fruits. Three metabolites, including D-glucose, rosmarinic acid, and D-fructose, which were significantly higher in PFA fruits than in PFF fruits, were screened out as differential metabolites. Considering the regulation on the content of rosmarinic acid in Perillae Fructus in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition), the medicinal value of PFA fruits is higher than that of PFF. In conclusion, there are differences in appearance and chemical composition between PFA fruits and PFF fruits. These results are expected to provide fundamental data for specifying plant source and quality control of Perillae Fructus.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids , Fruit , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Perilla frutescens , Plant Extracts
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 567-574, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878880

ABSTRACT

A method was established for content determination of two kinds of phenolic acids, including rosmarinic acid)(RA) and caffeic acid(CA), and six kinds of flavonoids including scutellarein-7-O-diglucuronide(SDG), luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide(LDG), apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide(ADG), scutellarin-7-O-glucuronide(SG), luteolin-7-O-glucuronide(LG), and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide(AG) in Perilla frutescens leaves. The content of eight chemical components was measured based on ten P. frutescens germplasms of different chemotypes of volatile oil, different cultivated years, and different harvesting periods. The results showed that there was a great difference between the two kinds of constituents of different germplasms. The total content of the two phenolic acids was 2.24-34.44 mg·g~(-1), and the total content of the six flavonoids was 11.55-34.71 mg·g~(-1). Then according to content from most to least, the order of each component was RA(2.13-33.97 mg·g~(-1)), LDG(1.31-14.80 mg·g~(-1)), SG(1.97-8.45 mg·g~(-1)), ADG(2.68-7.60 mg·g~(-1)), SDG(1.16-5.87 mg·g~(-1)), LG(0.78-1.91 mg·g~(-1)), AG(0.56-1.00 mg·g~(-1)), and CA(0.11-0.68 mg·g~(-1)). The chemical contents of the 5 PA-type germplasms in 2017 were mostly higher than those in 2018 showing a large variation with the cultivation years. These contents of two kinds of phenolic acids of 9 germplasms fluctuated with the harvesting time. The content decreased before early flower spike(the 3~(rd) to 18~(th) in August) at first and began to increase in flowering and fruiting period(the 18~(th) in August to 2~(nd) in September). However, these contents had slowly decreasing trend after 2~(nd) in September till 17~(th) in the same month. Interestingly, the content raised again in the maturity of fruits. The variation tendency of contents in six kinds of flavonoids components was inconsistent in different germplasms with the variation of harvesting time. The content of flavonoids in part of germplasms was negatively correlated with the fluctuation of phenolic acids. There was no correlation between phenolic acids and chemical type of the volatile oil. This paper may provide a reference for the high-quality germplasm of P. frutescens cultivation.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Oils, Volatile , Perilla frutescens , Phenols , Plant Leaves
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 454-459, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777480

ABSTRACT

Fifty cultivated Perilla seeds were collected all over the country and planted in Beijing experiment field for morphology and chemical-type researches. Twenty morphological characteristics were selected and observed, and the essential oil from leaves was extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS to confirm chemical-types. There were significant diversities in plant height, leaf color and morphology, and fruit color and weight. Clustering analysis was carried out based on these morphological characteristics. Six types were divided with their chemical-type designated. Type Ⅰ: Six germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. crispa, with dwarf plants, thin creased purple leaf, named Crispa, their chemical types were diversified, including EK, PAPK, PA and PK. Type Ⅱ: Six germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. crispa, plants were taller than type I and with thin and creased green leaf, named Big Crispa, all PK type. Type Ⅲ: Seventeen germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. frutescens with leaf color upside green and underside purple, tall plant and wide distribution all over the China, named Ordinary Frutescens, all PK. Type Ⅳ: Four germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. acuta with tall plant and small seed, named Acuta, all PK. Type Ⅴ: Seven germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. frutescens with green leaves, tall plants and long clusters, named Long-spike Frutescens, all PK. Type Ⅵ: Ten germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. frutescens with big, thick and creased leaf, named Thick-leaf Frutescens, including PK, PP, PL and PA. The morphological classification of this paper would lay the foundation for the taxonomic naming and following evaluation of the Perilla germplasm resources.This study also showed that there was no correspondence but a certain correlation between volatile oil chemical-types and subspecies classification and morphological characteristics of Perilla.


Subject(s)
China , Oils, Volatile , Perilla frutescens , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4588-4595, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008233

ABSTRACT

Perilla frutescens,an annual plant in Labiatae family,is grown throughout China and can be used for medicine purposes and as food additives. The present field experiment was carried out to study the effects of different fertilizer treatments on the concentrations and accumulations of antioxidant components,including flavonoids and polyphenols,growth,seed yields and qualities of this plant.The main aim of this study is to provide farmers some advice for improving the yields and qualities of P. frutescens in theory and practice.Five treatments were set up,including a no fertilizer control(CK),chemical fertilizers(CF),organic fertilizers(M),organic fertilizers plus chemical fertilizers at the rates of 1 ∶1 and 1 ∶3 in terms of nitrogen(50 M,25 M). Plant growth parameters were recorded and total flavonoids and polyphenols were determined in three key growth stages of P. frutescens. At the fast growth period,samples of roots,leaves,and stems were collected for determining a total of flavonoids and polyphenols as well as DPPH removal rate of ethanol extracts. Seed yields and qualities were also recorded at harvest. The results showed fertilization enhanced growth and seed yields although no significant difference was observed in growth and seed yields in inorganic-organic fertilizer treatments. The total flavonoids,polyphenols,and DPPH removal rate of ethanol extracts followed the sequence leaves>stems>roots,indicating synthesis of these metabolites in the leaves. DPPH removal rate showed a positive linear correlation with total flavonoid and polyphenol concentrations. In addition,organic-inorganic fertilization significantly increased the numbers of both effective panicles and paniclegrains. Fertilizer treatments had no effect on seed qualities of P. frutescens,while 50 M achieved the highest yield,which increased by 14. 73% compared to CF alone. In general,50 M increased antioxidant components,biomass,and seed yield of P. frutescens,meriting advocate in cultivation.


Subject(s)
China , Fertilizers , Nitrogen , Perilla frutescens , Plant Leaves , Seeds , Soil
6.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 20-28, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. (PF) sprout is a plant of the labiate family. We have previously reported the protective effects of PF sprout extract on cytokine-induced β-cell damage. However, the mechanism of action of the PF sprout extract in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has not been investigated. The present study was designed to study the effects of PF sprout extract and signaling mechanisms in the T2DM mice model using C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male db/db mice were orally administered PF sprout extract (100, 300, and 1,000 mg/kg of body weight) or rosiglitazone (RGZ, positive drug, 1 mg/kg of body weight) for 4 weeks. Signaling mechanisms were analyzed using liver tissues and HepG2 cells. RESULTS: The PF sprout extract (300 and 1,000 mg/kg) significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in db/db mice. PF sprout extract also significantly improved glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity, decreased hepatic gluconeogenic protein expression, and ameliorated histological alterations of the pancreas and liver. Levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein expression also increased in the liver after treatment with the extract. In addition, an increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK and decrease in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6-phosphatase proteins in HepG2 cells were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results sugges that PF sprout displays beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes via modulation of the AMPK pathway and inhibition of gluconeogenesis in the liver.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus , Fasting , Gluconeogenesis , Glucose Intolerance , Glucose-6-Phosphatase , Hep G2 Cells , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Pancreas , Perilla frutescens , Perilla , Phosphoenolpyruvate , Phosphorylation , Plants , Triglycerides
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4033-4043, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775382

ABSTRACT

The research is aimed to study of the influence of environmental factors on the yield and quality traits, and find out the regularity of the growth and development of perilla. The main environmental factor data in six ecological area in Guizhou province were collected, and the correlation analysis with yield and quality traits of 15 perilla strains was conducted. The results showed that the cultivation environment has significant effects on the yield and quality traits of perilla. The effect of environment on main yield composed traits, contained grain number in top spike, effective panicle number per plant, plant height, top spike length, growth period, and thousand seed weight was degressive. In the different environmental factors, the latitude showed positive correlation with yield, growth period and effective panicle number per plant, and negative correlation with top spike length and grain number in top spike. Elevation showed negative correlation with the growth period of perilla. The perilla yield increased at first and then decreased with altitude rising, with the maximum in the 800 m altitude. The 600-900 m altitude is suitable area for perilla. Except for positive correlation with the plant height, and negative correlation with top spike length, the longitude showed in apparent impact on other traits. Sunshine duration, temperature and rainfall accumulation showed different effect on the different perilla strains. For yield composed traits, the sunshine duration was negatively correlation with the plant length. The accumulated temperature and mean temperature showed negative correlation with the main spike length, the rainfall showed negative correlation with the precipitation and growth period, plant height, ear number. The environmental impact on the oil compounds decreased with oleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, -linolenic acid, palmitic acid and oil content. Correlation analysis showed that the significantly negative correlation between the oil content and palmitic acid and linoleic acid content, and the positive correlation between linolenic acid content, -linolenic acid content showed significant negative correlation with other fatty acids composition, and palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid showed significant positive correlation with each other. The influence of different environmental factors on the quality of perilla were as follows: the oil content was positively associated with elevation and sunshine duration. -Linolenic acid content showed negative correlation with longitude, latitude, accumulated temperature and mean temperature, but positive correlation with altitude, sunlight and rainfall capacity. The correlation between palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and environmental factors showed contrast character of -linolenic acid. This study detailed discussed the influence of environmental factors on the quality of perilla, which provided the foundation of ecological planting technology and geoherbalism research of perilla.


Subject(s)
Environment , Fatty Acids , Perilla frutescens , Chemistry , Phytochemicals , Plant Oils
8.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 105-111, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226872

ABSTRACT

It has been known that RA, one of major constituents of Perilla frutescens which has been used as a traditional folk remedy for sedation in oriental countries, shows the anxiolytic-like and sedative effects. This study was performed to know whether RA may enhance pentobarbital-induced sleep through γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A)-ergic systems in rodents. RA (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the locomotor activity in mice. RA decreased sleep latency and increased the total sleep time in pentobarbital (42 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced sleeping mice. RA also increased sleeping time and number of falling sleep mice after treatment with sub-hypnotic pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, i.p.). In electroencephalogram (EEG) recording, RA (2.0 mg/kg) not only decreased the counts of sleep/wake cycles and REM sleep, but also increased the total and NREM sleep in rats. The power density of NREM sleep showed the increase in δ-waves and the decrease in α-waves. On the other hand, RA (0.1, 1.0 and 10 μg/ml) increased intracellular Cl− influx in the primary cultured hypothalamic cells of rats. RA (p.o.) increased the protein expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65/67) ) and GABA(A) receptors subunits except β1 subunit. In conclusion, RA augmented pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors through GABA(A)-ergic transmission. Thus, it is suggested that RA may be useful for the treatment of insomnia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Accidental Falls , Electroencephalography , Eye Movements , Glutamate Decarboxylase , Hand , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Medicine, Traditional , Motor Activity , Pentobarbital , Perilla frutescens , Receptors, GABA-A , Rodentia , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep, REM
9.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 510-516, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201378

ABSTRACT

Isoegomaketone (IK) was isolated from Perilla frutescens, which has been widely used as a food in Asian cuisine, and evaluated for its biological activity. We have already confirmed that IK induced the HO-1 expression via Nrf2 activation in RAW264.7 cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of IK on the mechanism of HO-1 expression. IK upregulated HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose dependent manner. The level of HO-1 mRNA peaked at 4 h after 15 μM IK treatment. To investigate the mechanisms of HO-1 expression modulation by IK, we used pharmacological inhibitors for the protein kinase C (PKC) family, PI3K, and p38 MAPK. IK-induced HO-1 mRNA expression was only suppressed by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK. ROS scavengers (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC, and glutathione, GSH) also blocked the IK-induced ROS production and HO-1 expression. Furthermore, both NAC and SB203580 suppressed the IK-induced Nrf2 activation. In addition, ROS scavengers suppressed other oxidative enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and NADH quinone oxidoreductase (NQO-1) in IK-treated RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, it can be concluded that IK induced the HO-1 expression through the ROS/p38 MAPK/ Nrf2 pathway in RAW264.7 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Catalase , Glutathione , Glutathione Transferase , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , NAD , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Perilla frutescens , Protein Kinase C , RNA, Messenger
10.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 275-281, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146016

ABSTRACT

Perilla frutescens was empirically used for controlling airway inflammatory diseases in folk medicine. We investigated whether caffeic acid, myristicin and rosemarinic acid derived from Perilla frutescens significantly affect the gene expression and production of mucin from airway epithelial cells. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with caffeic acid, myristicin or rosemarinic acid for 30 min and then stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 24 h. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression and production were measured by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Additionally, we examined whether caffeic acid, myristicin or rosemarinic acid affects MUC5AC mucin production indued by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), the other two stimulators of production of airway mucin. The results were as follows: (1) Caffeic acid, myristicin and rosemarinic acid inhibited the gene expression and production of MUC5AC mucin induced by PMA from NCI-H292 cells, respectively; (2) Among the three compounds derived from Perilla frutescens, only rosemarinic acid inhibited the production of MUC5AC mucin induced by EGF or TNF-α, the other two stimulators of production of airway mucin. These results suggest that rosemarinic acid derived from Perilla frutescens can regulate the production and gene expression of mucin, by directly acting on airway epithelial cells and, at least in part, explains the traditional use of Perilla frutescens as remedies for diverse inflammatory pulmonary diseases.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epidermal Growth Factor , Epithelial Cells , Gene Expression , Lung Diseases , Medicine, Traditional , Mucins , Necrosis , Perilla frutescens , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription
11.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 338-345, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51938

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative diseases are often associated with oxidative damage in neuronal cells. This study was conducted to investigate the neuro-protective effect of methanolic (MeOH) extract of Perilla frutescens var. japonica and its one of the major compounds, rosmarinic acid, under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in C6 glial cells. Exposure of C6 glial cells to H2O2 enhanced oxidative damage as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assays. The MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid prevented oxidative stress by increasing cell viability and inhibiting cellular lipid peroxidation. In addition, the MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid reduced H2O2-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcriptional level. Moreover, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression was down-regulated in H2O2-indcued C6 glial cells treated with the MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid. These findings suggest that P. frutescens var. japonica and rosmarinic acid could prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases through attenuation of neuronal oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Hydrogen Peroxide , Lipid Peroxidation , Methanol , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroglia , Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Oxidative Stress , Perilla frutescens , Perilla
12.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 274-281, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and plays a key role in cognitive dysfunction. Perilla frutescens var. japonica extract (PFE) and its major compound, rosmarinic acid (RA), have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated whether administration of PFE and RA contributes to cognitive improvement in an Aβ25-35-injected mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male ICR mice were intracerebroventricularly injected with aggregated Aβ25-35 to induce AD. Aβ25-35-injected mice were fed PFE (50 mg/kg/day) or RA (0.25 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and examined for learning and memory ability through the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Our present study demonstrated that PFE and RA administration significantly enhanced cognition function and object discrimination, which were impaired by Aβ25-35, in the T-maze and object recognition tests, respectively. In addition, oral administration of PFE and RA decreased the time to reach the platform and increased the number of crossings over the removed platform when compared with the Aβ25-35-induced control group in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, PFE and RA significantly decreased the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain, kidney, and liver. In particular, PFE markedly attenuated oxidative stress by inhibiting production of NO and MDA in the Aβ25-35-injected mouse brain. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PFE and its active compound RA have beneficial effects on cognitive improvement and may help prevent AD induced by Aβ.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Administration, Oral , Alzheimer Disease , Brain , Cognition , Discrimination, Psychological , Kidney , Learning , Liver , Malondialdehyde , Memory , Mice, Inbred ICR , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Perilla frutescens , Perilla , Water
13.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 274-281, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and plays a key role in cognitive dysfunction. Perilla frutescens var. japonica extract (PFE) and its major compound, rosmarinic acid (RA), have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated whether administration of PFE and RA contributes to cognitive improvement in an Aβ25-35-injected mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male ICR mice were intracerebroventricularly injected with aggregated Aβ25-35 to induce AD. Aβ25-35-injected mice were fed PFE (50 mg/kg/day) or RA (0.25 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and examined for learning and memory ability through the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Our present study demonstrated that PFE and RA administration significantly enhanced cognition function and object discrimination, which were impaired by Aβ25-35, in the T-maze and object recognition tests, respectively. In addition, oral administration of PFE and RA decreased the time to reach the platform and increased the number of crossings over the removed platform when compared with the Aβ25-35-induced control group in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, PFE and RA significantly decreased the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain, kidney, and liver. In particular, PFE markedly attenuated oxidative stress by inhibiting production of NO and MDA in the Aβ25-35-injected mouse brain. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PFE and its active compound RA have beneficial effects on cognitive improvement and may help prevent AD induced by Aβ.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Administration, Oral , Alzheimer Disease , Brain , Cognition , Discrimination, Psychological , Kidney , Learning , Liver , Malondialdehyde , Memory , Mice, Inbred ICR , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Perilla frutescens , Perilla , Water
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2937-2944, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284820

ABSTRACT

The volatile oil is the main component in the leaves of Perilla frutescens. According to the main types of monoterpenoids or aromatic compounds, it can be divided into different chemotypes and the main chemotypes of Chinese producing Perilla are PA type (mainly containing Perilla aldehyde and limonene), PK type (mainly containing perillaketone) and PP type (subdivided as PP-a type, with apiole as its main component; PP-m type, with myristicin as its main component; PP-e type, with elemicin as main component; PP-as type, with asarone as main component). Based on the biosynthetic pathways analysis, we also found that the formation of the particular chemotype is usually controlled by a single gene or a few genes, and different types have different pharmacological effects. In this paper, the classification under the species P. frutescens, main chemotypes of the volatile oil, and their biogenesis and regulation, pharmacological effect and influence factors are summarized and reviewed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Oils, Volatile , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Perilla frutescens , Chemistry , Classification , Metabolism , Plant Leaves , Chemistry
15.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 11-16, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Perilla frutescens Britton leaves are a commonly consumed vegetable in different Asian countries including Korea. Cancer is a major cause of human death worldwide. The aim of the current study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of perilla leaf (PLE) against important characteristics of cancer cells, including unrestricted growth, resisted apoptosis, and activated metastasis, using human cancer cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: Two human cancer cell lines were used in this study, HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells and H1299 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide were performed for measurement of cell growth. Soft agar and wound healing assays were performed to determine colony formation and cell migration, respectively. Nuclear staining and cell cycle analysis were performed for assessment of apoptosis. Fibronectin-coated plates were used to determine cell adhesion. RESULTS: Treatment of HCT116 and H1299 cells with PLE resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of growth by 52-92% (at the concentrations of 87.5, 175, and 350 microg/ml) and completely abolished the colony formation in soft agar (at the concentration of 350 microg/ml). Treatment with PLE at the 350 microg/ml concentration resulted in change of the nucleus morphology and significantly increased sub-G1 cell population in both cells, indicating its apoptosis-inducing activity. PLE at the concentration range of 87.5 to 350 microg/ml was also effective in inhibiting the migration of H1299 cells (by 52-58%) and adhesion of both HCT116 and H1299 cells (by 25-46%). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that PLE exerts anti-cancer activities against colon and lung cancers in vitro. Further studies are needed in order to determine whether similar effects are reproduced in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agar , Apoptosis , Asian People , Cell Adhesion , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Movement , Colon , Colorectal Neoplasms , Ethanol , Korea , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Perilla , Perilla frutescens , Vegetables , Wound Healing
16.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 62-67, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138509

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to find some potential natural products and/or constituents inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine generation in lung inflammation, since cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are pivotal for provoking airway inflammation. In our preliminary screening procedure, the 70% ethanol extract of the leaves of Perilla frutescens (PFE) was found to clearly inhibit TNF-alpha production in the lung at 100 mg/kg, after intranasal lipopolysaccharide treatment of mice. Based on this result, ten constituents including phenylpropanoids (allyltetramethoxybenzene, caffeic acid, dillapiole, elemicin, myristicin, nothoapiole, rosmarinic acid methyl ester, rosmarinic acid) and monoterpenes (perilla aldehyde and perilla ketone) were successfully isolated from the extract. Among them, elemicin and myristicin were found for the first time to concentration-dependently inhibit IL-1beta-treated IL-6 production from lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549) at concentrations of 10-100 microM. These findings suggest that the phenylpropanoids including elemicin and myristicin have the potential to be new inhibitory agents against lung inflammation and they may contribute, at least in part, to the inhibitory activity of PFE on the lung inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Biological Products , Bronchitis , Cytokines , Epithelial Cells , Ethanol , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Lung , Mass Screening , Monoterpenes , Perilla , Perilla frutescens , Pneumonia , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
17.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 62-67, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138508

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to find some potential natural products and/or constituents inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine generation in lung inflammation, since cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are pivotal for provoking airway inflammation. In our preliminary screening procedure, the 70% ethanol extract of the leaves of Perilla frutescens (PFE) was found to clearly inhibit TNF-alpha production in the lung at 100 mg/kg, after intranasal lipopolysaccharide treatment of mice. Based on this result, ten constituents including phenylpropanoids (allyltetramethoxybenzene, caffeic acid, dillapiole, elemicin, myristicin, nothoapiole, rosmarinic acid methyl ester, rosmarinic acid) and monoterpenes (perilla aldehyde and perilla ketone) were successfully isolated from the extract. Among them, elemicin and myristicin were found for the first time to concentration-dependently inhibit IL-1beta-treated IL-6 production from lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549) at concentrations of 10-100 microM. These findings suggest that the phenylpropanoids including elemicin and myristicin have the potential to be new inhibitory agents against lung inflammation and they may contribute, at least in part, to the inhibitory activity of PFE on the lung inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Biological Products , Bronchitis , Cytokines , Epithelial Cells , Ethanol , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Lung , Mass Screening , Monoterpenes , Perilla , Perilla frutescens , Pneumonia , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
18.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 753-759, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812204

ABSTRACT

Perilla frutescens (Perilla leaf), a garnishing vegetable in East Asian countries, as well as a plant-based medicine, has been used for centuries to treat various conditions, including depression. Several studies have demonstrated that the essential oil of P. frutescens (EOPF) attenuated the depressive-like behavior in mice. The present study was designed to test the anti-depressant effects of EOPF and the possible mechanisms in an chronic, unpredictable, mild stress (CUMS)-induced mouse model. With the exposure to stressor once daily for five consecutive weeks, EOPF (3, 6, and 9 mg·kg(-1)) and a positive control drug fluoxetine (20 mg·kg(-1)) were administered through gastric intubation to mice once daily for three consecutive weeks from the 3(rd) week. Open-field test, sucrose consumption test, tail suspension test (TST), and forced swimming test (FST) were used to evaluate the behavioral activity. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in mouse hippocampus were determined by HPLC-ECD. Serum interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that CUMS significantly decreased the levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus, with an increase in plasma IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels. CUMS also reduced open-field activity, sucrose consumption, as well as increased immobility duration in FST and TST. EOPF administration could effectively reverse the alterations in the concentrations of 5-HT and 5-HIAA; reduce the IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels. Moreover, EOPF could effectively reverse alterations in immobility duration, sucrose consumption, and open-field activity. However, the effect was not dose-dependent. In conclusion, EOPF administration exhibited significant antidepressant-like effects in mice with CUMS-induced depression. The antidepressant activity of EOPF might be related to the relation between alteration of serotonergic responses and anti-inflammatory effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Antidepressive Agents , Behavior, Animal , Chronic Disease , Therapeutics , Cytokines , Blood , Depression , Blood , Drug Therapy , Psychology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred ICR , Oils, Volatile , Perilla frutescens , Chemistry , Plant Oils , Stress, Physiological
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3260-3265, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260676

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To find a method for improving the salt resistance of seeds and seedlings for Perilla Frutescens under NaCl stress, seed germination and physiological characteristics of P. frutescens seedlings were studied.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Several physiological indexes of P. frutescens seeds treated with different concentrations of Ca2+, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), salicylic acid (SA) and spermidine (Spd) under NaCl stress like the germination vigor, germination rate, germination index and vigor index were measured. And other indexes like the biomass of the seedlings, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in leaves, the activities of superoxide (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were also measured.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The germination of P. frutescens seeds under NaCl stress (100 mmol x L(-1)) was inhibited obviously. But after the treatment with Ca2+, ALA , SA and Spd, all germination indexes were increased. Ca2+ (10 mmol x L(-1)), ALA (100 mg x L(-1)), SA (50 mg x L(-1)) and Spd (0.25 mmol x L(-1)) could obviously alleviate the damage of salt stress to the seeds of P. frutescens. ALA (100 mg x L(-1)) significantly increased all indexes. The germination vigor was 65.3%, the germination rate was 89.7%, the germination index and vigor index were 15.2 and 0.1238, respectively. All treatments decreased the content of MDA in leaves. The activities of three enzymes including SOD, POD and CAT were all increased. ALA (100 mg x L(-1)) had the enzymes activity reach the maximum with 0.72, 6, 82 and 5.64 U x mg(-1), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Ca2+ ALA , SA and Spd with appropriate concentration could significantly alleviate the damages to the seeds and seedlings of P. frutescens under NaCl stress and promote the salt resistance of the seeds and seedlings.</p>


Subject(s)
Aminolevulinic Acid , Pharmacology , Calcium , Pharmacology , Catalase , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Germination , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Perilla frutescens , Metabolism , Physiology , Peroxidase , Metabolism , Salicylic Acid , Pharmacology , Seedlings , Metabolism , Physiology , Sodium Chloride , Pharmacology , Spermidine , Pharmacology , Stress, Physiological , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2087-2090, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262219

ABSTRACT

To improve the quality control specification of Perillae Fructus, the identification methods and assay were developed. Rosmarinic acid, luteolin and apigenin in the sample were identified by TLC. The content of rosmarinic acid was determined by HPLC. The linear calibration curve of rosmarinic acid was obtained in the ranges of 19.4-194.2 g x L(-1) (R2 = 0.9999). The arerage coveriy (n=9) for the assay was 99.8% (RSD 3.6%). The established methods are accuracy, sensitivity and reproducible, and can be used for the quality control of Perillae Fructus.


Subject(s)
Apigenin , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Cinnamates , Depsides , Luteolin , Perilla frutescens , Chemistry , Reproducibility of Results
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