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1.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e012, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lipoproteins are important bacterial immunostimulating molecules capable of inducing receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL) and osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo . Although these molecules are present in periodontopathogenic bacteria, their role in periodontitis is not known. In this study, we used Pam2CSK4 (PAM2), a synthetic molecule that mimics bacterial lipoprotein, to investigate the effects of lipoproteins on periodontitis in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: 1) Negative control group: animals received vehicle injection; 2) Positive control group: animals received injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); 3) PAM2 group: animals received PAM2 injection. All the injections were performed bilaterally every other day into the palatal mucosa between first and second molars. After twenty-four days, the animals were euthanized to assess alveolar bone volume (micro-CT), cellular and extracellular composition in the gingiva (stereometric analysis), and osteoclast numbers (TRAP staining). Treatment with either PAM2 or LPS induced gingival inflammation, as demonstrated by increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and enhanced angiogenesis, associated with a smaller number of fibroblasts and decreased extracellular matrix. Importantly, treatment not only with LPS but also with PAM2 resulted in a larger number of TRAP+ multinucleated osteoclasts and significant loss of alveolar bone. Collectively, our data demonstrate that PAM2 can induce gingival inflammation and bone loss in mice, broadening the avenues of investigation into the role of lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/pathology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Osteoclasts/physiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , X-Ray Microtomography , Alveolar Process/drug effects , Alveolar Process/pathology , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase , Gingiva/drug effects , Gingiva/pathology , Gingivitis/etiology , Gingivitis/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
2.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e012, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055530

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lipoproteins are important bacterial immunostimulating molecules capable of inducing receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL) and osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo . Although these molecules are present in periodontopathogenic bacteria, their role in periodontitis is not known. In this study, we used Pam2CSK4 (PAM2), a synthetic molecule that mimics bacterial lipoprotein, to investigate the effects of lipoproteins on periodontitis in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: 1) Negative control group: animals received vehicle injection; 2) Positive control group: animals received injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); 3) PAM2 group: animals received PAM2 injection. All the injections were performed bilaterally every other day into the palatal mucosa between first and second molars. After twenty-four days, the animals were euthanized to assess alveolar bone volume (micro-CT), cellular and extracellular composition in the gingiva (stereometric analysis), and osteoclast numbers (TRAP staining). Treatment with either PAM2 or LPS induced gingival inflammation, as demonstrated by increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and enhanced angiogenesis, associated with a smaller number of fibroblasts and decreased extracellular matrix. Importantly, treatment not only with LPS but also with PAM2 resulted in a larger number of TRAP+ multinucleated osteoclasts and significant loss of alveolar bone. Collectively, our data demonstrate that PAM2 can induce gingival inflammation and bone loss in mice, broadening the avenues of investigation into the role of lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/pathology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Periodontitis/microbiology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , X-Ray Microtomography , Alveolar Process/drug effects , Alveolar Process/pathology , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase , Gingiva/drug effects , Gingiva/pathology , Gingivitis/etiology , Gingivitis/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200501, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143149

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to clarify the association between oral human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and periodontitis in Japanese adults. Methodology In total, 190 patients (75 men and 115 women; mean age, 70.2 years) who visited Hiroshima University Hospital between March 2018 and May 2020 were included. Oral rinse samples were taken to examine the presence of HCMV DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). P. gingivalis was detected by semi-quantitative PCR analysis. Results HCMV DNA was present in nine of 190 patients (4.7%). There were significant associations between HCMV presence and the presence of ≥4-mm-deep periodontal pockets with bleeding on probing (BOP) (P<0.01) and ≥6-mm-deep periodontal pockets with BOP (P=0.01). However, no significant relationship was observed between HCMV presence and periodontal epithelial surface area scores. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of ≥4-mm-deep periodontal pockets with BOP was significantly associated with HCMV (odds ratio, 14.4; P=0.01). Propensity score matching was performed between patients presenting ≥4-mm-deep periodontal pockets with BOP (i.e., active periodontitis) and patients without ≥4-mm-deep periodontal pockets with BOP; 62 matched pairs were generated. Patients who had ≥4-mm-deep periodontal pockets with BOP showed a higher rate of HCMV presence (9.7%) than those who lacked ≥4-mm-deep periodontal pockets with BOP (0.0%). There was a significant relationship between HCMV presence and ≥4-mm-deep periodontal pockets with BOP (P=0.03). A significant relationship was found between HCMV/P. gingivalis DNA presence and ≥4-mm-deep periodontal pockets with BOP (P=0.03). Conclusions Coinfection of oral HCMV and P. gingivalis was significantly associated with active periodontitis. Moreover, interactions between oral HCMV and P. gingivalis may be related to the severity of periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Periodontitis/microbiology , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Periodontitis/virology , Bacteroidaceae Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Periodontal Pocket/microbiology , Periodontal Pocket/virology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Cytomegalovirus , Coinfection , Japan/epidemiology
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190694, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134777

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Obesity is a chronic disease that negatively affects an individual's general and oral health. The present study aimed to compare the clinical and microbiological effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy with the full mouth disinfection (FMD) protocol on obese and non-obese individuals at 9 months post-therapy. Methodology This clinical study was first submitted and approved by the Ethics Committee. Fifty-five obese patients and 39 non-obese patients with periodontitis were evaluated. The full-mouth periodontal clinical parameters, clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI), were monitored at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months after periodontal treatment with full mouth disinfection (FMD) protocol. The mean count of Tannerella forsythia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Treponema Denticola , and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction on subgingival biofilm samples. Demographic data were assessed by Chi-square test. For clinical and microbiological parameters, two-factor repeated-measures ANOVA was used. Results In both groups, periodontal therapy using the one-stage full-mouth disinfection protocol significantly improved CAL, PD, GI, and PI (p<0.05). Obese and non-obese patients equally responded to non-surgical periodontal therapy (p>0.05). Microbial count found no major differences (p>0.05) between obese and non-obese individuals who had undergone non-surgical periodontal therapy. Conclusions Obesity did not affect the clinical and microbiological outcomes of non-surgical periodontal therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Periodontitis/microbiology , Periodontitis/therapy , Obesity/microbiology , Time Factors , Periodontal Index , Anthropometry , Dental Plaque Index , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/isolation & purification , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Statistics, Nonparametric , Treponema denticola/isolation & purification , Tannerella forsythia/isolation & purification , Middle Aged , Obesity/physiopathology
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190266, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056586

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The microbial composition of pericoronitis (Pc) is still controversial; it is not yet clear if the microbial profile of these lesions is similar to the profile observed in periodontitis (Pd). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the microbial profile of Pc lesions and compare it directly with that of subjects with Pd. Methodology: Subjects with Pc and Pd were selected, and subgingival biofilm samples were collected from (i) third molars with symptomatic Pc (Pc-T), (ii) contralateral third molars without Pc (Pc-C) and (iii) teeth with a probing depth >3 mm from subjects with Pd. Counts and proportions of 40 bacterial species were evaluated using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Results: Twenty-six patients with Pc and 18 with Pd were included in the study. In general, higher levels of microorganisms were observed in Pd. Only Actinomyces oris and Eubacterium nodatum were present in higher mean counts in the Pc-T group in comparison with the Pc-C and Pd-C groups (p<0.05). The microbiota associated with Pc-T was similar to that found in Pc-C. Sites with Pc lesions had lower proportions of red complex in comparison with the Pd sites. Conclusion: The microbiota of Pc is very diverse, but these lesions harbour lower levels of periodontal pathogens than Pd.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pericoronitis/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Activation Analysis , DNA Probes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Biofilms , Bacterial Load , Gingiva/microbiology
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(12): 933-941, Dec. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056925

ABSTRACT

Bovine periodontitis is a multifactorial disease primarily associated with a potentially pathogenic microbiota housed in the oral biofilm of animals. Biofilms are organized structures, in which the constituents coexist in symbiosis, already described as a predisposing factor to periodontitis in other species. The objective of the present study was to characterize the structure and chemical aspects of the bovine black pigmented supragingival biofilm using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively, and determine its relationship with bovine periodontitis. Eleven premolar teeth from different animals were evaluated; five non-pigmented samples and six samples with black pigmented biofilms were initially submitted to SEM, and three areas of these samples were selected for EDS. The structure of the pigmented biofilm was more complex and irregular because of a higher content of mineral elements. The semi-quantitative EDS data indicated an association of iron (p<0.014) and magnesium (p<0.001) with the occurrence of periodontitis, whereas carbon, phosphorus, calcium, manganese, sodium, and potassium were not associated with the disease. Carbon (p<0.039), manganese (p<0.007), and iron (p<0.015) were associated with pigmentation, whereas phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium were not associated with it. Spearman correlation test showed the relationships between calcium and phosphorus, and iron and silicon. The strong association of iron in the pigmented supragingival biofilm and with the occurrence of periodontitis suggests the presence of microorganisms that use this element in their metabolism and that are also associated with bovine periodontitis. This study suggests that the pigmented deposits in the crown of the teeth of cattle are an true biofilm with the deposition of iron, and it indicates that the presence of iron and magnesium in these formations may be involved in the metabolism of some microorganisms associated with the etiology of bovine periodontitis.(AU)


A periodontite bovina é uma infecção multifatorial associada primariamente à microbiota potencialmente patogênica presente no biofilme bucal. Biofilmes são estruturas organizadas, nas quais os constituintes convivem em simbiose, descritos em outras espécies como um fator predisponente à periodontite. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar estrutural e quimicamente o biofilme supragengival pigmentado de preto em bovinos, utilizando-se as técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e espectroscopia de dispersão de energia (EDS), respectivamente, correlacionando os elementos identificados à ocorrência de periodontite e pigmentação. Foram avaliados 11 dentes primeiro-molares; cinco amostras sem pigmentação visível e seis amostras com biofilme pigmentado de preto, que foram submetidas inicialmente à MEV; posteriormente foram selecionadas três áreas aleatórias de cada dente para realização da EDS. A estrutura do biofilme pigmentado revelou formações irregulares e mais complexas, provavelmente devido ao maior acúmulo de elementos minerais. Os resultados semi-quantitativos da EDS apontaram associações entre a presença de ferro (p<0,014) e magnésio (p<0,001) com a ocorrência de periodontite. Carbono, fósforo, cálcio, manganês, sódio e potássio não apresentaram associação com a periodontite. Em relação à pigmentação, carbono (p<0,039), manganês (p<0,007) e ferro (p<0,015) foram os elementos estatisticamente significantes, enquanto fósforo, cálcio e magnésio não apresentaram associação com a pigmentação. O teste de correlação de Spearman demonstrou associações entre os elementos cálcio e fósforo, e ferro e silício. A forte associação do ferro presente no biofilme supragengival com a ocorrência de periodontite, sugere a presença de micro-organismos que utilizam este elemento em seu metabolismo e que possivelmente tenham envolvimento com o desenvolvimento da periodontite bovina. Os resultados inéditos do presente trabalho sugerem que os depósitos pigmentados que se formam na coroa dos dentes de bovinos são um biofilme verdadeiro com deposição de ferro, e indicam que a presença de ferro e magnésio nestas formações pode estar envolvida no metabolismo de alguns dos principais micro-organismos associados à etiologia da periodontite bovina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/veterinary , Dental Plaque/etiology , Dental Plaque/veterinary , Dental Plaque/chemistry , Periodontitis/microbiology , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/veterinary , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/veterinary , Iron , Magnesium
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e025, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001603

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Recently, it has been suggested that the anti-inflammatory hormone ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor GHS-R may play a pivotal role in periodontal health and diseases. However, their exact regulation and effects in periodontitis are not known. The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the effect of microbial and inflammatory insults on the GHS-R1a expression in human osteoblast-like cells. MG-63 cells were exposed to interleukin (IL)-1β and Fusobacterium nucleatum in the presence and absence of GHRL for up to 2 d. Subsequently, gene expressions of GHS-R1a, inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinase were analyzed by real-time PCR. GHS-R protein synthesis and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation were assessed by immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. IL-1β and F. nucleatum caused a significant upregulation of GHS-R1a expression and an increase in GHS-R1a protein. Pre-incubation with a MEK1/2 inhibitor diminished the IL-1β-induced GHS-R1a upregulation. IL-1β and F. nucleatum also enhanced the expressions of cyclooxygenase 2, CC-chemokine ligand 2, IL-6, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinase 1, but these stimulatory effects were counteracted by GHRL. By contrast, the stimulatory actions of IL-1β and F. nucleatum on the GHS-R1a expression were further enhanced by GHRL. Our study provides original evidence that IL-1β and F. nucleatum regulate the GHS-R/GHRL system in osteoblast-like cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that the proinflammatory and proteolytic actions of IL-1β and F. nucleatum on osteoblast-like cells are inhibited by GHRL. Our study suggests that microbial and inflammatory insults upregulate GHS-R1a, which may represent a protective negative feedback mechanism in human bone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoblasts/chemistry , Fusobacterium nucleatum/physiology , Interleukin-1beta/pharmacology , Receptors, Ghrelin/analysis , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteoblasts/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Periodontitis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Up-Regulation/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Receptors, Ghrelin/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Fluorescence
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33(supl.1): e064, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039323

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim was of this study was to determine the current weight of evidence for the existence of specific differences between the microbiota of healthy teeth and healthy implants, or of teeth with periodontitis and implants with peri-implantitis. A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched up to February 2018 for studies comparing microbiological data of biofilm samples collected from healthy teeth and implants or from teeth with periodontitis and implants with peri-implantitis. The weight of evidence was defined in three categories (strong, moderate and mild/some), according to the difference in number of studies showing statistically significantly higher counts and/or proportions and/or abundance and/or prevalence of microorganisms in health or in disease. Of the 132 articles identified, 8 were included. A wide range of microorganisms were present in different conditions but no microorganisms showed strong, moderate or mild/some evidence for a specific association with either teeth or implants. The results of this systematic review indicated that there is insufficient evidence in the literature to support specific differences between microorganisms colonizing teeth and implants, either in health or in disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontitis/microbiology , Dental Implants/microbiology , Peri-Implantitis/microbiology , Gingiva/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Microbiota
9.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 32(1): 36-43, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015020

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the deproteinization of primary enamel by analyzing etching pattern types, with and without the application of 5% NaOCl before acid etching with 37% H3PO4. Fifteen extracted human primary molars were randomly selected for the present in vitro study; 1mm x 1mm blocks were prepared and divided into two groups (n = 21). These groups were treated as follows: Group AAcid Etching with 37% H3PO4 gel for 15 s; Group B5% NaOCl for 60 s + Acid Etching with 37% H3PO4for 15 s. The specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis. The images were evaluated for quality types I and II etching of the enamel surface using ImageJ software. Datasets were checked for normality by KolgomorvSmirnov test and the nonparametric unpaired MannWhitney test was applied. The mean surface area of type I and II etching pattern values was 1922.314 µm2for Group A and 3840.473 µm2Group B. We conclude that deproteinization with 5% NaOCl prior to acid etching can be used to increase the area of adhesion and the quality of the etching pattern (AU)


El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la desproteinización del esmalte primario a través de los tipos de patrones de grabado, con y sin NaOCl 5% utilizado antes del grabado ácido con H3PO4 37%. Quince dientes primarios humanos extraídos se seleccionaron al azar para el presente estudio in vitro, se prepararon bloques de 1mm x 1 mm y se dividieron en dos grupos (n = 21). Estos grupos se trataron de la siguiente manera: Grupo A: Grabado ácido con H3PO4 37% en gel durante 15 segundos; Grupo B: NaOCl 5% durante 60 segundos + Grabado ácido con H3PO4 37% durante 15 segundos. Las muestras se prepararon para el análisis de microscopía electrónica de barrido. Las imágenes obtenidas se evaluaron principalmente por la calidad de los grabados tipo I y II de la superficie del esmalte primario, utilizando el software Image J. Los datos se analizaron en cuanto a su normalidad mediante la prueba de KolgomorvSmirnov, se utilizó pruebas no paramétricas: Prueba de MannWhitney no pareada. Como resultado, se encontró que el área de superficie media de los valores de patrón de grabado de tipo I y II para el Grupo A era 1922,314 µm2 y el Grupo B era 3840,473 µm2. Finalmente, llegamos a la conclusión de que se puede usar la desproteinización con NaOCl 5% antes del grabado ácido para aumentar el área de adhesión y la calidad del patrón de grabado (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Periodontitis/microbiology , Culture Media , Colony Count, Microbial/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Dominican Republic
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180205, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1002408

ABSTRACT

Abstract Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the most important Gram-negative anaerobe bacteria involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. P. gingivalis has an arsenal of specialized virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity. Among them, fimbriae play a role in the initial attachment and organization of biofilms. Different genotypes of fimA have been related to length of fimbriae and pathogenicity of the bacterium. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify 5 types of fimA genotype strains in smokers and nonsmokers with periodontitis, before and after periodontal therapy. Material and Methods Thirty-one patients with periodontitis harboring P. gingivalis were selected: 16 nonsmokers (NS) and 15 smokers (SM). Clinical and microbiological parameters were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after periodontal treatment, namely: plaque index, bleeding on probe, probing depth, gingival recession and clinical attachment level. The frequency of P. gingivalis and fimA genotype strains were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results Type I fimA was detected in the majority of SM and NS at baseline, and the frequency did not diminish after 3 months of treatment. The frequency of type II genotype was higher in SM than NS at baseline. After 3 months, statistical reduction was observed only for types II and V fimA genotypes in SM. The highest association was found between types I and II at baseline for NS (37.5%) and SM (53.3%). Conclusion The most prevalent P. gingivalis fimA genotypes detected in periodontal and smoker patients were genotypes I and II. However, the presence of fimA genotype II was higher in SM. Periodontal treatment was effective in controlling periodontal disease and reducing type II and V P. gingivalis fimA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Periodontitis/microbiology , Periodontitis/therapy , Smoking/adverse effects , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Fimbriae Proteins/isolation & purification , Periodontitis/pathology , Time Factors , DNA, Bacterial , Periodontal Index , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fimbriae Proteins/genetics , Genotype , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 105(4): 159-164, dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973114

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar el complejo rojo periodontal, formado por Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola y Tannerella forsythia, en la infección endodóntica primaria de necrosis pulpar, con cámara abierta y cerrada, utilizando técnicas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Materiales y métodos: se realizó la toma para reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en 27 dientes con necrosis pulpar, 13 con cámara pulpar abierta y 14 con cámara cerrada. Resultados: en las muestras de necrosis abierta se identificaron P. gingivalis en un 92 por ciento, T. denticola en un 76 por ciento, T. forsythia en un 76 por ciento y el complejo rojo en un 61 por ciento. Las tomas de necrosis cerrada mostraron P. gingivalis en un 78 por ciento y T. denticola en un 57 por ciento; no se identificaron T. forsythia ni el complejo rojo. El análisis estadístico evidenció diferencias significativas entre los dos grupos (P<0,05). Conclusión: el sinergismo de las tres bacterias que forman el complejo rojo agravaría la patogénesis de la infección endodóntica y permitiría relacionar la microbiología endodóntica con la microbiología de periodontitis crónica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Necrosis/microbiology , Dental Pulp Exposure/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Dental Pulp Diseases/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Treponema denticola/isolation & purification , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Tannerella forsythia/isolation & purification , Data Interpretation, Statistical
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(6): 586-595, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893663

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Single dose of systemic antibiotics and short-term use of mouthwashes reduce bacteremia. However, the effects of a single dose of preprocedural rinse are still controversial. This study evaluated, in periodontally diseased patients, the effects of a pre-procedural mouth rinse on induced bacteremia. Material and Methods: Systemically healthy individuals with gingivitis (n=27) or periodontitis (n = 27) were randomly allocated through a sealed envelope system to: 0.12% chlorhexidine pre-procedural rinse (13 gingivitis and 13 periodontitis patients) or no rinse before dental scaling (14 gingivitis and 15 periodontitis patients). Periodontal probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque, and gingival indices were measured and subgingival samples were collected. Blood samples were collected before dental scaling, 2 and 6 minutes after scaling. Total bacterial load and levels of P. gingivalis were determined in oral and blood samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction, while aerobic and anaerobic counts were determined by culture in blood samples. The primary outcome was the antimicrobial effect of the pre-procedural rinse. Data was compared by Mann-Whitney and Signal tests (p<0.05). Results: In all sampling times, polymerase chain reaction revealed higher blood bacterial levels than culture (p<0.0001), while gingivitis patients presented lower bacterial levels in blood than periodontitis patients (p<0.0001). Individuals who experienced bacteremia showed worse mean clinical attachment level (3.4 mm vs. 1.1 mm) and more subgingival bacteria (p<0.005). The pre-procedural rinse did not reduce induced bacteremia. Conclusions: Bacteremia was influenced by periodontal parameters. In periodontally diseased patients, pre-procedural rinsing showed a discrete effect on bacteremia control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Dental Scaling , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Gingivitis/drug therapy , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Periodontitis/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Rev. Círc. Argent. Odontol ; 75(225): 15-18, nov. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973129

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estandarizar y optimizar la técnica de PCR convencional para detección de Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277. Materiales y métodos: la cepa de P. gingivalis ATCC332227 se sembró en agar Bruella enriquecido con sangre de cordero, suplementado con hemina y vitamina K. El ADN se extrajo empleando el protocolo que usa bromuro de cetil trimetilamonio (CTAB). Se evaluó la cantidad y calidad del material genético obtenido con el fotómetro UV Ampli-Quat, AQ-07 Nucleic Acid. Se realizó la PCR convencional con diferentes concentraciones de MgCl2 1 mM, 1,5 mM y 2.0 mM y a dos temperaturas de alineamiento: 60ºC y 55ºC. Los productos PCR se separaron por electroforesis en un gel de agarosa 1 por ciento. Las bandas se visualizaron en un fotodocumentador. La sensibilidad se calculó teniendo en cuenta el número de bacterias en diferentes diluciones. Resultados: se obtuvo una concentración 1,55x10(6) ng/ul de ADN genómico a partir de una suspensión bacteriana de 10a células bacterianas/ml, con índice de pureza 1,648 (relación de OD260/OD280). Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con una concentración de 2 mM de MgCl2 y una temperatura de alineación de 55ºC. En cuanto a la sensibilidad, se obtuvo un límite de detección de 5 x 10/5 uL células bacterianas en suspensión. Conclusión: en la prueba de PCR convencional para Prophyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277, las condiciones óptimas de estandarización son la concentración de 2 mM de MgCl y 55ºC y es necesaria una carga bacteriana mínima de 5 x 10 células/5 ul como límite de detección.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontitis/diagnosis , Periodontitis/microbiology , Porphyromonas gingivalis/growth & development , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genome Components/physiology , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Culture Media
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e63, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952122

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the roles of different Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis)-induced and ligature-induced experimental periodontal bone resorption in mice. Wild-type (WT), TLR2 knockout (KO), TLR4KO, and TLR2&4 KO mice with C57/BL6 background were divided into three groups: control, P. gingivalis infection, and ligation. Live P. gingivalis or silk ligatures were placed in the sulcus around maxillary second molars over a 2-week period. Images were captured by digital stereomicroscopy, and the bone resorption area was measured with ImageJ software. The protein expression level of gingival RANKL was measured by ELISA. The gingival mRNA levels of RANKL, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10 were detected by RT-qPCR. The results showed that P. gingivalis induced significant periodontal bone resorption in WT mice and TLR2 KO mice but not in TLR4 KO mice or TLR2&4 KO mice. For all four types of mice, ligation induced significant bone loss compared with that in control groups, and this bone loss was significantly higher than that in the P. gingivalis infection group. RANKL protein expression was significantly increased in the ligation group compared with that in the control group for all four types of mice, and in the P. gingivalis infection group of WT, TLR2 KO, and TLR4 KO mice. Expression patterns of RANKL, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10 mRNA were different in the P. gingivalis infection group and the ligation group in different types of mice. In summary, P. gingivalis-induced periodontal bone resorption is TLR4-dependent, whereas ligation-induced periodontal bone resorption is neither TLR2- nor TLR4-dependent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Periodontitis/microbiology , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Porphyromonas gingivalis/pathogenicity , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 2/physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/physiology , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Reproducibility of Results , Alveolar Bone Loss/microbiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Mice, Knockout , Toll-Like Receptor 2/analysis , Toll-Like Receptor 4/analysis , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ligation , Metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
15.
Rev. ADM ; 73(6): 280-285, nov.-dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869337

ABSTRACT

El Fusobacterium nucleatum es una bacteria anaerobia Gram negativa,es un residente común en el biofi lm oral y se ha encontrado una estrechaasociación entre las fusobacterias y las periodontitis. El Fusobacteriumnucleatum se ha asociado con el cáncer colorrectal, pero la causalidad y el mecanismo subyacente aún no se han establecido. La microbiota intestinal humana tiene un papel reconocido en el cáncer colorrectal. Se ha encontrado que el Fn se adhiere, invade, e induce respuestas inflamatorias oncogénicas que estimulan el crecimiento de las células de cáncer colorrectal a través de un factor de la adhesina FadA.


The anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterial species Fusobacterium nucleatumis common in oral biofi lm and the association between it andperiodontitis is well-established. Fusobacterium nucleatum has beenassociated with colorectal cancer, though causality and the underlyingmechanism have yet to be determined. The role of the human gutmicrobiota in colorectal cancer has been acknowledged. Fusobacteriumnucleatum has been found to adhere to, invade, and induce oncogenicand infl ammatory responses that stimulate the growth of colorectalcancer cells through its unique FadA adhesin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dysbiosis , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Fusobacterium nucleatum/pathogenicity , Colorectal Neoplasms/etiology , Adhesins, Bacterial/physiology , Drug Synergism , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Dental Plaque/microbiology
16.
ImplantNewsPerio ; 1(8): 1580-1587, nov.-dez. 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-848563

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: revisar quais seriam os diferentes fatores envolvidos na transmissão de periodontopatógenos entre membros de uma mesma família e quais as suas consequências. Material e métodos: uma revisão da literatura foi realizada na base de dados PubMed, utilizando os termos "vertical transmission", "periodontal pathogens", "oral colonization", e "periodontitis". Resultados: após a leitura do título e resumo, 30 artigos foram incluídos nesta revisão. A transmissão de patógenos periodontais entre indivíduos de uma mesma família está relacionada à passagem via salivar e ao compartilhamento alimentar e de higiene, aos cuidados dos filhos pelos pais ou cuidadores, e ao contato íntimo entre cônjuges. Estudos que avaliaram a transmissão do Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans entre indivíduos de uma mesma família mostraram a ocorrência da transmissão vertical, embora também ocorra transmissão horizontal. Entretanto, resultados semelhantes não puderam ser observados para o Porphyromonas gingivalis. Enquanto alguns relatos indicam a ocorrência de transmissão horizontal desta bactéria, diversos outros estudos indicam características bacterianas que reduzem sua ocorrência. Conclusão: a colonização oral por microrganismos patogênicos está relacionada à transmissão vertical e horizontal de patógenos, embora a persistência dos microrganismos pareça estar relacionada a fatores individuais do hospedeiro e características dos patógenos. Além disso, atividades preventivas e terapêuticas devem ser realizadas de forma a alterar o processo de transmissão, colonização e o maior risco do desenvolvimento de problemas periodontais.


Objective: to review the different factors involved in the transmission of periodontopathogens between members of the same family and their consequences. Material and methods: an electronic literature review was conducted at the PubMed using the keywords "vertical transmission", "periodontal pathogens", "oral colonization", and "periodontitis". Results: after reading of title and abstract, 30 articles were included. The transmission of periodontal pathogens among individuals of the same family is related to the passage through salivary and food and hygiene sharing, the care of the children by parents or caregivers, and the intimate contact between individuals. Studies evaluating the transmission of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans among individuals from the same family showed the occurrence of vertical transmission and horizontal transmission. However, similar results could not be observed for Porphyromonas gingivalis. While some reports indicate the occurrence of horizontal transmission, several other studies indicate bacterial characteristics that reduce its occurrence. Conclusion: oral colonization by pathogenic microorganisms is related to its vertical and horizontal transmission, although the persistence of the microorganisms seems to be related to individual host factors and pathogen characteristics. In addition, preventive and therapeutic activities must be performed in a way that will alter the transmission, colonization and the greater risk of developing periodontal problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Saliva/microbiology
17.
Rev. ADM ; 73(5): 235-240, sept.-oct. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-835300

ABSTRACT

Varios estudios han sugerido una asociación entre la periodontitissevera, la prevalencia de la bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis y el desarrollo de artritis reumatoide. Como fundamento de esta relación, se ha observado que esta bacteria secreta una enzima, peptidil-arginina deiminasa, que es capaz de citrulinar proteínas del hospedero y así favorecer una respuesta autoinmune. Sin embargo, debido a la heterogeneidad de diseños experimentales, selección de pacientes y valoración de los desenlaces, los resultados no han mostrado la reproducibilidad deseada. Asimismo, observaciones recientes apuntan a que la actividad enzimática podría ser generada por otras especies bacterianas, lo que hace más compleja su relación. Sin embargo, por otro lado, algunos estudios sugieren que el tratamiento periodontal puede limitar el desarrollo de la artritis reumatoide.


Various studies have suggested a link between severe periodontitis,the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, and the development ofrheumatoid arthritis. As evidence of this relationship, P. gingivalis hasbeen found to secrete an enzyme, peptidyl arginine deiminase, which isable to citrullinate host proteins and thus help activate an autoimmuneresponse. However, due to the heterogeneity of experimental designs,patient selection, and assessment of clinical outcomes, the results havenot shown the desired reproducibility. Furthermore, recent fi ndingsindicate that the enzymatic activity may be produced by other species ofbacteria, which suggests the relationship is more complex. However, anumber of studies have shown that periodontal treatment could inhibitthe development of rheumatoid arthritis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/etiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Porphyromonas gingivalis/pathogenicity , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/microbiology , Chronic Disease , Antigen-Antibody Complex/physiology
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(3): 229-238, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-787542

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives This cross-sectional study compared the frequency of oral periodontopathogens and H. pylori in the mouths and stomachs of obese individuals with or without periodontitis submitted to bariatric surgery. Material and Methods One hundred and fifty-four men and women aged 18-65 were conveniently distributed into four groups. Two groups were composed of individuals who underwent bariatric surgery with (BP) (n=40) and without (BNP) (n=39) periodontitis and two obese control groups with (CP) (n=35) and without (CNP) (n=40) periodontitis. The oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, and Helicobacter pylori were detected by a polymerase chain reaction technique using saliva, tongue and stomach biopsy samples. Results Statistical analysis demonstrated that periodontopathogens were highly frequent in the mouth (up to 91.4%). In the bariatric surgically treated group, orally, P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia were more frequent in periodontitis, while C. rectus was more frequent in non-periodontitis subjects. Stomach biopsies also revealed the high frequency of five oral species in both candidates for bariatric surgery (91.6%) and the bariatric (83.3%) groups. H. pylori was frequently detected in the mouth (50.0%) and stomach (83.3%). In the stomach, oral species and H. pylori appeared in lower frequency in the bariatric group. Conclusions Obese individuals showed high frequencies of periodontopathogens and H. pylori in their mouths and stomachs. Bariatric surgery showed an inverse microbial effect on oral and stomach environments by revealing higher oral and lower stomach bacterial frequencies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Stomach/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Bariatric Surgery , Mouth/microbiology , Obesity/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Biopsy , Body Mass Index , Periodontal Index , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Obesity/surgery
19.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(1): 67-75, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-777353

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT An increasing body of evidence suggests that the use of probiotic bacteria is a promising intervention approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases with a polymicrobial etiology. P. gingivalis has been noted to have a different way of interacting with the innate immune response of the host compared to other pathogenic bacteria, which is a recognized feature that inhibits CXCL8 expression. Objective The aim of the study was to determine if P. gingivalis infection modulates the inflammatory response of gingival stromal stem cells (G-MSSCs), including the release of CXCL8, and the expression of TLRs and if immunomodulatory L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 could prevent CXCL8 inhibition in experimental inflammation. Material and Methods G-MSSCs were pretreated with L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 and then stimulated with P. gingivalis ATCC33277. CXCL8 and IL-10 levels were investigated with ELISA and the TLR-4 and 2 were determined through flow cytometer analysis. Results CXCL8 was suppressed by P. gingivalis and L. rhamnosus ATCC9595, whereas incubation with both strains did not abolish CXCL8. L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 scaled down the expression of TLR4 and induced TLR2 expression when exposed to P. gingivalis stimulation (p<0.01). Conclusions These findings provide evidence that L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 can modulate the inflammatory signals and could introduce P. gingivalis to immune systems by inducing CXCL8 secretion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Interleukin-8/analysis , Porphyromonas gingivalis/immunology , Probiotics/pharmacology , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Bacterial Adhesion/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cells, Cultured , Interleukin-8/immunology , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10 , Statistics, Nonparametric , Toll-Like Receptor 4/analysis , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Immunity, Innate
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e87, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952058

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was aimed to provide a longitudinal overview of the subgingival bacterial microbiome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, in women in the second trimester of pregnancy (between 14 and 24 weeks), and 48 h and 8 weeks postpartum. Of 31 women evaluated during pregnancy, 24 returned for the 48-h and 18 for their 8-week exams postpartum. Probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected, and FISH was used to identify the numbers of eight periodontal pathogens. Friedman test was used to compare differences between follow-up examinations, followed by a multiple comparison test for a post hoc pairwise comparison. Clinically, a significantly greater number of teeth with PD = 4-5 mm were found during pregnancy than on postpartum examinations. Microbial analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in cell count over the study period for Prevotella nigrescens. P. intermedia, Campylobacter rectus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis also decrease, although not significantly, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans increased. No significant changes were found for Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, or Tannerella forsythia. Our data demonstrate a change in the subgingival microbiota during pregnancy, at least for P. nigrescens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Periodontitis/microbiology , Gestational Age , Gingiva/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Periodontium/microbiology , Periodontal Index , Longitudinal Studies , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Postpartum Period , Bacterial Load , Microbiota , Tannerella forsythia/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification
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