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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) on liver injury induced by periodontitis in rats.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and periodontitis group, twelve per group. In periodontitis group, the periodontitis models were established for the maxillary first molars in rats by means of "wire ligation+vaccinationwith @*RESULTS@#The probing depth, tooth mobility and sulcus bleeding index in periodontitis group were significantly higher than that in control group. HE staining showed in periodontitis group, hepatic cords ranged disorderly and there were vacuoles in cells and inflammatory cells infiltrated in liver tissues of rats, and there was no obvious abnormality in control group. The qRT-PCR results showed that the mRNA expression levels of @*CONCLUSIONS@#PGC-1α may be involved in the process of periodontitis-induced liver injury in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Liver/injuries , Male , PPAR gamma , Periodontitis/pathology , Rats , Rats, Wistar
2.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287499

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze caries experience depending on periodontitis affection concomitant or not with cardiovascular risks or mental health issues with the hypothesis that worse accumulated caries experience is not necessarily the result of the presence of concomitant overall health issues. Material and Methods: All subjects of this cross-sectional study were participants of the Dental Registry and DNA Repository project. Variables age, ethnicity, sex, caries experience, periodontitis and mental disease statuses and blood pressure assessment, dental clinical data (DMFT, DMFS and periodontitis) were evaluated and collected from the clinical records. We used chi-square, Fisher's exact, or Student's t-tests to determine differences in frequencies of sex, age, ethnicity, and dental clinical data depending on caries experience, periodontitis, mental health status, and cardiovascular risks. The established alpha was 5%. Results: Of the total 1,437 subjects included in this study, 407 were individuals with high blood pressure and 1,030 were individuals without high blood pressure. Also, 558 were individuals with mental disease and 879 were individuals without mental disease. High blood pressure patients were mostly men (47.17%) and women were the majority when analyzing patients with mental illness (60.04%). Most of the patients in the different groups were white, with a mean age ranging from 15.4 to 88 years. Conclusion: We concluded that caries experience concomitant or not with periodontitis affection does not associate with high blood pressure and mental disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Periodontitis/pathology , Oral Health/education , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Mental Disorders/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , DMF Index , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical
3.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250459

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To measure the level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Material and Methods: A total of 158 patients aged >45 years were examined for periodontitis and interviewed regarding their menopausal status. The non-menopause group entailed female patients with periodontitis without menopause (n=23). The menopause group included females who stopped menstruating since >1 year, had a pocket depth of 4-5 mm, and did not have other systemic conditions (n=40). Samples were selected based on periodontal and menopausal status. In total, 63 samples of GCF were collected from the participants and tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for IgG. Results: The median level of IgG in the menopause group was 39.50 (g/mL, whereas that of the non-menopause group was 41.08 (g/mL. There was a positive correlation between the plaque index and IgG level in both groups. In contrast, there was a negative correlation between age and IgG level. However, there was no correlation between plaque index and age regarding the IgG level in both groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: The IgG levels in the menopause group were lower than those in the non-menopause group. As such, menopausal females should take great care of their overall health, including the periodontium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Periodontal Diseases/pathology , Periodontitis/pathology , Periodontium , Immunoglobulin G , Menopause , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia/epidemiology
4.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154998

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of commonly used smokeless tobacco forms on oral health at habitual placement sites of smokeless tobacco compared to non-placement sites among the North Indian population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 542 individuals using smokeless tobacco recruited from the outpatient wing of the Dental College. Subjects completed a questionnaire and received an oral examination. Periodontal pocket depth, gingival index, plaque index, gingival recession, and oral mucosal changes were assessed. Kendal's Tau test, paired t-test, and chi-square test were carried out to compare different variables among placement and non-placement sites. Results: Most of the subjects were male, reporting an average of 11.26 years of SLT use. Clinical inflammation of gingiva was significantly greater (p=0.01) at placement-sites (1.64 ± 0.53) of SLT in comparison to non-placement-sites (1.40 ± 0.41). The difference in the GR and PPD at placement and non-placement-sites was also statistically significant with p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively. Clinically, the majority of subjects had mucosal changes at the placement sites, and a statistically significant association (p=0.034) was observed between the duration of the use of smokeless tobacco and the mucosal changes. Conclusion: Smokeless tobacco use predisposes to increased risk of periodontal diseases and oral mucosal changes at the placement sites in an individual due to the local irritant effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Periodontitis/pathology , Oral Health/education , Tobacco, Smokeless/toxicity , India/epidemiology , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Chi-Square Distribution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180862

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify etiologic microbiota associated periodontal diseases among diabetes patients and the factors related to the most commonly identified bacteria species. Material and Methods: Periodontal plaque samples from 11 diabetic participants and 13 non-diabetic controls were collected to assess their aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth. Different distinct colonies were identified by microscopic and 16srDNA sequencing. Pearson's chi-square tests were conducted to examine any association between categorical variables. Results: The diabetic subjects revealed a more intense plaque formation with a mean plaque index of 2.4 compared to 1.8 in non-diabetics. A total of 86 bacteria were isolated from 24 plaque samples, 44 were aerobic, and 42 were anaerobic. Only aerobic isolates, 22 from diabetic patients and 22 from non-diabetic patients, were evaluated in these analyses. Bacillus spp. (B. cereus mainly) and Klebsiella spp. (K. pneumoniae, K. aerogenes, K. oxytoca) were detected markedly higher in non-diabetic individuals than in diabetic subjects (p=0.026 and p=0.021, respectively). Some bacteria were only identified in the dental plaque of diabetic individuals, namely, Bacillus mojavensis, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus pasteuri, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus pasteurianus. The presence of acid reflux and jaundice were significantly associated with the most common bacterial isolate, namely Bacillus spp., with the p-values of 0.007 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Type-2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a higher amount of dental plaques. Periodontal plaque samples from diabetic and non-diabetic subjects possess differential microbial communities. Diabetic plaques contain more versatile microbes predominated by gram-positive streptococci and staphylococci.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Periodontal Diseases/etiology , Periodontitis/pathology , Oral Health/education , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/microbiology , Microbiota/immunology , Streptococcus mutans/immunology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Chi-Square Distribution , Dental Care , Dental Plaque , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e015, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089381

ABSTRACT

Abstract We sought to compare the characteristics and clinical significance of neutrophil extracellular traps in gingival samples from patients with periodontitis and those with gingivitis. The clinical indexes of gingival samples from patients with periodontitis and gingivitis were measured; the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-8 was measured by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR; and the expression of TLR-8 and MMP-9 was measured by western blotting assays. Chemotaxis, phagocytosis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils were measured. Compared with the healthy group, the expression of TNF-α and IL-8 in the periodontitis group and the gingivitis group increased significantly (p < 0.05), and TNF-α in the gingivitis group was significantly lower than that in the healthy group (p < 0.05). The expression of IL-8 in the periodontitis group was significantly higher than that in the periodontitis group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of TLR-8 and MMP-9 in the periodontitis group was different from that in the gingivitis group and the healthy group, and the expression of TLR-8 and MMP-9 in the gingivitis group was significantly different from that in the healthy group (p < 0.05). In addition, the neutrophil mobility index in healthy people was 3.02 ± 0.53, that in the periodontitis group was 2.21 ± 0.13, and that in the gingivitis group was 2.31 ± 0.12. In conclusion, the chemotaxis of neutrophils in gingival samples of patients with periodontitis and gingivitis was decreased, the phagocytotic ability and activity of neutrophils were reduced, and the release of the extracellular trap-releasing inducible factors TNF-alpha and IL-8 also declined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Periodontitis/pathology , Extracellular Traps , Gingivitis/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Reference Values , RNA/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Periodontal Index , Blotting, Western , Interleukin-8/analysis , Actins/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Toll-Like Receptor 8/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Middle Aged
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e012, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055530

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lipoproteins are important bacterial immunostimulating molecules capable of inducing receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL) and osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo . Although these molecules are present in periodontopathogenic bacteria, their role in periodontitis is not known. In this study, we used Pam2CSK4 (PAM2), a synthetic molecule that mimics bacterial lipoprotein, to investigate the effects of lipoproteins on periodontitis in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: 1) Negative control group: animals received vehicle injection; 2) Positive control group: animals received injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); 3) PAM2 group: animals received PAM2 injection. All the injections were performed bilaterally every other day into the palatal mucosa between first and second molars. After twenty-four days, the animals were euthanized to assess alveolar bone volume (micro-CT), cellular and extracellular composition in the gingiva (stereometric analysis), and osteoclast numbers (TRAP staining). Treatment with either PAM2 or LPS induced gingival inflammation, as demonstrated by increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and enhanced angiogenesis, associated with a smaller number of fibroblasts and decreased extracellular matrix. Importantly, treatment not only with LPS but also with PAM2 resulted in a larger number of TRAP+ multinucleated osteoclasts and significant loss of alveolar bone. Collectively, our data demonstrate that PAM2 can induce gingival inflammation and bone loss in mice, broadening the avenues of investigation into the role of lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/pathology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Periodontitis/microbiology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , X-Ray Microtomography , Alveolar Process/drug effects , Alveolar Process/pathology , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase , Gingiva/drug effects , Gingiva/pathology , Gingivitis/etiology , Gingivitis/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e038, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1100932

ABSTRACT

Abstract The possible role of B-cell growth and differentiation-related cytokines on the pathogenesis of diabetes-related periodontitis has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the gene expression of proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), two major cytokines associated to survival, differentiation and maturation of B cells in biopsies from gingival tissue with periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were obtained from subjects with periodontitis (n = 17), with periodontitis and DM (n = 19) as well as from periodontally and systemically healthy controls (n = 10). Gene expressions for APRIL, BLyS, RANKL, OPG, TRAP and DC-STAMP were evaluated using qPCR. The expressions APRIL, BLyS, RANKL, OPG, TRAP and DC-STAMP were all higher in both periodontitis groups when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the expressions of BLyS, TRAP and RANKL were significantly higher in the subjects with periodontitis and DM when compared to those with periodontitis alone (p < 0.05). The mRNA levels of BLyS correlated positively with RANKL in the subjects with periodontitis and DM (p < 0.05). BLyS is overexpressed in periodontitis tissues of subjects with type 2 DM, suggesting a possible role of this cytokine on the pathogenesis DM-related periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Periodontitis/immunology , Periodontitis/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , B-Cell Activating Factor/analysis , Osteogenesis/immunology , Reference Values , Biopsy , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Gene Expression , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gingiva/immunology , Gingiva/pathology , Middle Aged
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e012, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lipoproteins are important bacterial immunostimulating molecules capable of inducing receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL) and osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo . Although these molecules are present in periodontopathogenic bacteria, their role in periodontitis is not known. In this study, we used Pam2CSK4 (PAM2), a synthetic molecule that mimics bacterial lipoprotein, to investigate the effects of lipoproteins on periodontitis in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: 1) Negative control group: animals received vehicle injection; 2) Positive control group: animals received injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); 3) PAM2 group: animals received PAM2 injection. All the injections were performed bilaterally every other day into the palatal mucosa between first and second molars. After twenty-four days, the animals were euthanized to assess alveolar bone volume (micro-CT), cellular and extracellular composition in the gingiva (stereometric analysis), and osteoclast numbers (TRAP staining). Treatment with either PAM2 or LPS induced gingival inflammation, as demonstrated by increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and enhanced angiogenesis, associated with a smaller number of fibroblasts and decreased extracellular matrix. Importantly, treatment not only with LPS but also with PAM2 resulted in a larger number of TRAP+ multinucleated osteoclasts and significant loss of alveolar bone. Collectively, our data demonstrate that PAM2 can induce gingival inflammation and bone loss in mice, broadening the avenues of investigation into the role of lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/pathology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Osteoclasts/physiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , X-Ray Microtomography , Alveolar Process/drug effects , Alveolar Process/pathology , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase , Gingiva/drug effects , Gingiva/pathology , Gingivitis/etiology , Gingivitis/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190140, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056590

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of systemic and topical ozone application on alveolar bone loss (ABL) by evaluating the effect of Hypoxia-inducible factor −1 alpha (HIF-1-α) and receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)-positive cells on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in a rat periodontitis model. Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 1) Group C (control group); 2) Group SO (systemic ozone group) and 3) Group TO (topical ozone group). Experimental periodontitis was induced with a 3/0 silk suture placed at the mandibular left first molars of rats, and the suture was removed 14 days later. Ozone gas was injected intraperitoneally (0.7 mg/kg) in SO group. Topical ozone application protocol was performed using an ozone generator at 80% concentration (4th grade) 90- degree probe for the duration of 30 s. Both ozone applications were carried out for two weeks at intervals of two days. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Results: ABL was significantly lower in Group SO compared to Group C (p: 0.0052). HIF-1α- positive cells were significantly lower in Group TO than in Group C (p: 0.0043). RANKL-positive cells were significantly lower in Group SO and in Group TO compared to the control group (p: 0.0033, p: 0.0075, respectively). Conclusion: Both ozone applications decreased RANKL-positive cell counts, TO application decreased HIF-1-α positive cells counts, and SO application was found to be more effective in reducing ABL compared to control group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ozone/administration & dosage , Periodontitis/pathology , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology , Alveolar Bone Loss/drug therapy , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Cell Count , Reproducibility of Results , Administration, Topical , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar
11.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135545

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze whether the FokI polymorphism (rs228570) present in the vitamin D receptor gene in type 2 diabetics is related to chronic periodontitis's clinical status and evaluates the influence of chronic periodontitis on the perception of quality of life. Material and Methods: It is a clinical and laboratory study, composed of a sample of 59 individuals with previous diagnosis of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and chronic periodontitis, of both sexes. On clinical examination, socio-epidemiological data and quality of life of patients with the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) were recorded and a periogram was performed. Subsequently, saliva was collected spontaneously in sterile Falcon tubes (15 ml) and stored in the freezer at -20 °C. The purification of the genetic material was done with a PROMEGA kit (Wizard®), and the polymorphism studied was FokI (rs228570), found in the vitamin D receptor promoting region, with rs: 228570. After extraction of saliva DNA and purification, genotyping was performed by real-time PCR using specific allele probes (TaqMan® System). Results: The polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor gene was not positively associated with the severity and clinical characteristics of periodontitis, but suggested a relationship with the extent of the disease. Periodontitis also had no positive association with patients' perception of quality of life. Conclusion: The perception of quality of life of patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus was compromised by the systemic condition, secondary to oral health, although some dimensions of OHIP-14 have been more frequently mentioned, such as psychological discomfort, physical pain and physical disability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Quality of Life , Receptors, Calcitriol , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Chronic Periodontitis/pathology , Periodontitis/pathology , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Oral Health , Statistics, Nonparametric , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180205, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1002408

ABSTRACT

Abstract Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the most important Gram-negative anaerobe bacteria involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. P. gingivalis has an arsenal of specialized virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity. Among them, fimbriae play a role in the initial attachment and organization of biofilms. Different genotypes of fimA have been related to length of fimbriae and pathogenicity of the bacterium. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify 5 types of fimA genotype strains in smokers and nonsmokers with periodontitis, before and after periodontal therapy. Material and Methods Thirty-one patients with periodontitis harboring P. gingivalis were selected: 16 nonsmokers (NS) and 15 smokers (SM). Clinical and microbiological parameters were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after periodontal treatment, namely: plaque index, bleeding on probe, probing depth, gingival recession and clinical attachment level. The frequency of P. gingivalis and fimA genotype strains were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results Type I fimA was detected in the majority of SM and NS at baseline, and the frequency did not diminish after 3 months of treatment. The frequency of type II genotype was higher in SM than NS at baseline. After 3 months, statistical reduction was observed only for types II and V fimA genotypes in SM. The highest association was found between types I and II at baseline for NS (37.5%) and SM (53.3%). Conclusion The most prevalent P. gingivalis fimA genotypes detected in periodontal and smoker patients were genotypes I and II. However, the presence of fimA genotype II was higher in SM. Periodontal treatment was effective in controlling periodontal disease and reducing type II and V P. gingivalis fimA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Periodontitis/microbiology , Periodontitis/therapy , Smoking/adverse effects , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Fimbriae Proteins/isolation & purification , Periodontitis/pathology , Time Factors , DNA, Bacterial , Periodontal Index , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fimbriae Proteins/genetics , Genotype , Middle Aged
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180316, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984569

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of salivary biomarkers IL-1β, IL-10, RANK, OPG, MMP-2, TG-β and TNF-α in individuals with diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis in the absence or presence of periodontal and peri-implant maintenance therapy (TMPP) over 5 years. Material and Methods Eighty individuals diagnosed with peri-implant mucositis were divided into two groups: one group that underwent periodontal and peri-implant regularly maintenance therapy, called GTP (n=39), and a second group that received no regular maintenance GNTP (n=41). Each participant underwent a complete periodontal and peri-implant clinical examination. Collection of saliva samples and radiographic examination to evaluate peri-implant bone levels were conducted at two times: initial examination (T1) and after 5 years (T2). The salivary samples were evaluated through ELISA for the following markers: IL-1β, IL-10, RANK, OPG, MMP-2, TGF and TNF-α. Results A higher incidence of peri-implantitis was observed in the GNTP group (43.9%) than in the GTP group (18%) (p=0.000). All individuals (n=12) who presented peri-implant mucositis and had resolution at T2 were in the GTP group. After 5 years, there was an increase in the incidence of periodontitis in the GNTP group compared to the GTP group (p=0.001). The results of the study revealed an increase in the salivary concentration of TNF-α in the GNTP group compared to the GTP group. The other salivary biomarkers that were evaluated did not show statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions The salivary concentration of TNF-α was increased in individuals with worse periodontal and peri-implant clinical condition and in those with a higher incidence of peri-implantitis, especially in the GNTP group. Longitudinal studies in larger populations are needed to confirm these findings and elucidate the role of this biomarker in peri-implant disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontitis/pathology , Saliva/chemistry , Stomatitis/pathology , Dental Implants/adverse effects , Cytokines/analysis , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , Periodontitis/diagnosis , Reference Values , Stomatitis/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Disease Progression
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180211, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984568

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gliclazide on oxidative stress, inflammation, and bone loss in an experimental periodontal disease model. Material and Methods Male albino Wistar rats were divided into no ligature, ligature, and ligature with 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg gliclazide groups. Maxillae were fixed and scanned using micro-computed tomography to quantify linear and bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) and volumetric bone loss. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses were conducted to examine matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), cathepsin K, members of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β (RANK), osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), NFKB p 50 (Cytoplasm), NFKB p50 NLS (nuclear localization signal), PI3 kinase and AKT staining. Myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde and glutathione levels, while interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were evaluated by spectroscopic ultraviolet-visible analysis. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the gene expression of the nuclear factor kappa B p50 subunit (NF-κB p50), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3k), protein kinase B (AKT), and F4/80. Results Micro-computed tomography showed that the 1 mg/kg gliclazide treatment reduced linear bone loss compared to the ligature, 5 mg/kg gliclazide, and 10 mg/kg gliclazide treatments. All concentrations of gliclazide increased bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) compared to the ligature group. Treatment with 1 mg/kg gliclazide reduced myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels (p≤0.05), and resulted in weak staining for COX-2, cathepsin k, MMP-2, RANK, RANKL, SOD-1, GPx-1,MIF and PI3k. In addition, down-regulation of NF-κB p50, PI3k, AKT, and F4/80 were observed, and OPG staining was strong after the 1 mg/kg gliclazide treatment. Conclusions This treatment decreased neutrophil and macrophage migration, decreased the inflammatory response, and decreased bone loss in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Alveolar Bone Loss/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Gliclazide/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Periodontitis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , RANK Ligand/analysis , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography , Cathepsin K/analysis , Gingiva/pathology , Gingiva/chemistry , Gliclazide/therapeutic use , Glutathione/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Neutrophils/drug effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e001, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989482

ABSTRACT

Abstract Colchicine is widely used in the treatment of several inflammatory diseases due to its anti-inflammatory effect, but effects on bone metabolism are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemically-administered colchicine on healthy periodontium and experimentally-induced periodontitis. In total, 42 male Wistar rats were included in this study. A non-ligated group constituting the negative control group (Control, C, n = 6) and a ligature-only group forming the positive control group (LO, n = 12) were created separately. Twelve rats were treated with 0.4 mg/kg colchicine and another 12 with 1 mg/kg colchicine. In the colchicine-administered groups, right mandibles constituted the ligated groups (1 mgC-L or 0.4 mgC-L) and left mandibles formed the corresponding non-ligated controls (1mgC or 0.4mgC). Silk ligatures were placed at the gingival margin of the lower first molars. The animals were euthanized at different time-points of healing (11 or 30 days). Alveolar bone loss was clinically measured and TRAP+ osteoclasts, osteoblastic activity, and MMP-1 expression were examined histologically. There was no increase in alveolar bone loss with either colchicine dose in healthy periodontium (p > 0.05) and the highest level of alveolar bone loss, TRAP+ osteoclast number, and MMP-1 expression were measured in the LO group (p < 0.05). The 0.4 mgC-L group showed less alveolar bone loss at 11 days (p < 0.05), but greater loss at 30 days. The 1 mgC-L group showed higher osteoblast number than the other ligated groups (p < 0.05) at both time-points. In summary, colchicine did not increase alveolar bone loss in healthy periodontium and also may tend to reduce periodontitis progression. However, further extensive study is necessary to understand the mechanism of colchicine action on alveolar bone loss in periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Colchicine/pharmacology , Alveolar Bone Loss/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/pathology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/analysis , Tubulin Modulators/pharmacology , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase/analysis , Ligation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e032, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001608

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of astragaloside IV (AsIV) on inflammation and immunity in rats with experimental periodontitis. Periodontitis was established in 48 Wistar rats, which were then randomly divided into model and 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg AsIV groups, with 12 rats in each group. The latter 3 groups were treated with AsIV at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, respectively. The control group (12 rats, without periodontitis) and model group were given the same amount of 5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. The treatment was performed once per day for 8 weeks. Before and after treatment, the tooth mobility scores of the rats were determined. After treatment, the salivary occult blood index (SOBI), plaque index (PLI), peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets, and serum inflammatory factor and immunoglobulin levels were determined. The results showed that, after treatment, compared with that in model group, in 40 mg/kg AsIV group, the general state of rats was improved, while the tooth mobility score, SOBI and PLI were significantly decreased (p < 0.05); the peripheral blood CD4+ T cell percentage and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the CD8+ T cell percentage was significantly decreased (p < 0.05); the serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-2 levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05); the serum immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, AsIV can alleviate inflammation and enhance immunity in rats with experimental periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Saponins/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Immune System/drug effects , Periodontitis/immunology , Periodontitis/pathology , Reference Values , Tooth Mobility , Immunoglobulins/blood , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Interleukin-2/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Interleukin-1beta/blood
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e025, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001603

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Recently, it has been suggested that the anti-inflammatory hormone ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor GHS-R may play a pivotal role in periodontal health and diseases. However, their exact regulation and effects in periodontitis are not known. The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the effect of microbial and inflammatory insults on the GHS-R1a expression in human osteoblast-like cells. MG-63 cells were exposed to interleukin (IL)-1β and Fusobacterium nucleatum in the presence and absence of GHRL for up to 2 d. Subsequently, gene expressions of GHS-R1a, inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinase were analyzed by real-time PCR. GHS-R protein synthesis and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation were assessed by immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. IL-1β and F. nucleatum caused a significant upregulation of GHS-R1a expression and an increase in GHS-R1a protein. Pre-incubation with a MEK1/2 inhibitor diminished the IL-1β-induced GHS-R1a upregulation. IL-1β and F. nucleatum also enhanced the expressions of cyclooxygenase 2, CC-chemokine ligand 2, IL-6, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinase 1, but these stimulatory effects were counteracted by GHRL. By contrast, the stimulatory actions of IL-1β and F. nucleatum on the GHS-R1a expression were further enhanced by GHRL. Our study provides original evidence that IL-1β and F. nucleatum regulate the GHS-R/GHRL system in osteoblast-like cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that the proinflammatory and proteolytic actions of IL-1β and F. nucleatum on osteoblast-like cells are inhibited by GHRL. Our study suggests that microbial and inflammatory insults upregulate GHS-R1a, which may represent a protective negative feedback mechanism in human bone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoblasts/chemistry , Fusobacterium nucleatum/physiology , Interleukin-1beta/pharmacology , Receptors, Ghrelin/analysis , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteoblasts/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Periodontitis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Up-Regulation/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Receptors, Ghrelin/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Fluorescence
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180713, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1040234

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vitamin D has been known to have important regulatory functions in inflammation and immune response and shows inhibitory effects on experimental periodontitis in animal models. However, the potential mechanism has yet to be clarified. Recent studies have highlighted Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and its downstream signaling as a crucial regulator of immune homeostasis and inflammatory regulation. Objective: This study aimed to clarify the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) on experimental periodontitis and AhR/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/NLR pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway in the gingival epithelium in a murine model. Methodology: We induced periodontitis in male C57BL/6 wild-type mice by oral inoculation of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), and subsequently gave intraperitoneal VD3 injection to the mice every other day for 8 weeks. Afterwards, we examined the alveolar bone using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and detected the gingival epithelial protein using western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Results: SEM images demonstrated that alveolar bone loss was reduced in the periodontitis mouse model after VD3 supplementation. Western blot analyses and immunohistochemical staining of the gingival epithelium showed that the expression of vitamin D receptor, AhR and its downstream cytochrome P450 1A1 were enhanced upon VD3 application. Additionally, VD3 decreased NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, caspase-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 protein expression. Conclusions: These results implicate the alleviation of periodontitis and the alteration of AhR/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway by VD3 in the mouse model. The attenuation of this periodontal disease may correlate with the regulation of AhR/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway by VD3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/metabolism , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Calcitriol/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/drug effects , Periodontitis/pathology , Reference Values , Calcitriol/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Alveolar Bone Loss , NF-kappa B/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/analysis , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/drug effects , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Caspase 1/analysis , Bone Density Conservation Agents/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/analysis , Gingiva/drug effects , Gingiva/metabolism , Gingiva/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
19.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180602, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1019974

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on periodontal repair in rats with induced periodontitis and arthritis. Methodology: Forty-five rats were submitted to periodontitis induction by insertion of ligatures into the upper second molars, maintained for 15 days. These animals were randomly allocated to 3 groups according to the presence of induced arthritis (ART) and the application of the ASU: Control (CTR) group-healthy animals, where saline solution was administered; ART-animals with induced arthritis, where saline solution was administered; ART/ASU-animals with induced arthritis, where ASU (0.6 mg/ kg) was administered. The drugs were administered daily by gavage and the animals were euthanized after 7, 15 and 30 days of the ligature removal. Bone resorption, inflammatory infiltrate composition and marker proteins expression of the differentiation and formation of osteoclasts (RANKL and TRAP) were assessed. Results: The ART/ASU group presented higher bone volume than the ART group at 7 and 30 days after the ligature removal. Furthermore, the ART group presented higher quantity of inflammatory cells and expression of TRAP and RANKL than the other groups. Conclusion: ASU administration improves the repair of periodontal tissues in an experimental periodontitis model in rats with induced arthritis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Arthritis/drug therapy , Soybeans/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Persea/chemistry , Periodontitis/pathology , Arthritis/pathology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , RANK Ligand/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase/analysis
20.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056835

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To examine the IFN-γ levels in patients with periodontitis and determine the difference in the levels of IFN-γ with the severity of the disease. Material and Methods: The study design was cross-sectional, and the sample consisted of 31 patients, aged between 18 and 64 years. Plaque index (PlI), calculus index (CI), and papillary bleeding index (PBI) were measured. Pocket depth (PD), recession, and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (mm) were measured at six sites per teeth. For mild/moderate periodontitis, pocket depth ≥4 mm in 1-3 sites was required, while the essential criteria for severe periodontitis were pocket depth ≥5 mm, clinical attachment loss >3 mm in more than 3 sites ≥2 quadrants. The IFN-γ levels were measured by performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples. The measurements were made in two different sites, and the severity of periodontitis was categorized based on the pocket depth, attachment loss, and the remaining natural teeth. Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were Results: The levels of IFN-γ (pg/mL) were correlated with the severity of the periodontal status, with p <0.05. Clinical parameters of periodontitis also correlated with the level of IFN-γ (pg/mL) Conclusion: Subjects with periodontitis presented greater levels of IFN-γ (pg/mL) in GCF than the periodontal healthy individuals. This result showed the role of IFN-γ in the inflammation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Periodontitis/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/diagnostic imaging , Interferon-gamma , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia/epidemiology
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