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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 166-172, feb. 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528834

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Peripheral nerve injury is an extremely important medical and socio-economic problem. It is far from a solution, despite on rapid development of technologies. To study the effect of long-term electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, we used a domestically produced electrical stimulation system, which is approved for clinical use. The study was performed on 28 rabbits. Control of regeneration was carried out after 3 month with morphologic techniques. The use of long-term electrostimulation technology leads to an improvement in the results of the recovery of the nerve trunk after an injury, both directly at the site of damage, when stimulation begins in the early period, and indirectly, after the nerve fibers reach the effector muscle.


La lesión de los nervios periféricos es un problema médico y socioeconómico extremadamente importante. Sin embargo, y a pesar del rápido desarrollo de las tecnologías, aún no tiene solución. Para estudiar el efecto de la estimulación eléctrica a largo plazo de los nervios periféricos, utilizamos un sistema de estimulación eléctrica de producción nacional, que está aprobado para uso clínico. El estudio se realizó en 28 conejos. El control de la regeneración se realizó a los 3 meses con técnicas morfológicas. El uso de tecnología de electro estimulación a largo plazo conduce a una mejora en los resultados de la recuperación del tronco nervioso después de una lesión, tanto directamente en el lugar del daño, cuando la estimulación comienza en el período temprano, como indirectamente, después de que las fibras nerviosas alcanzan el músculo efector.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Electric Stimulation/methods , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/therapy , Peripheral Nerves , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Recovery of Function , Nerve Regeneration
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 22(2): 188-196, set 2023. fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516244

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hansen's disease, or leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), is a major public health problem in developing countries, and affecting the skin and peripheral nerves. However, M. leprae can also affect bone tissue, mucous membranes, liver, eyes, and testicles, producing a variety of clinical phenotypes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been expressed in the various clinical forms of leprosy and could potentially be used for its diagnosis. Objective: in silico design of the molecular structure of miRNAs expressed in leprosy. Methodology: we performed a nucleotide sequence search of 17 miRNAs expressed in leprosy, designing in silico the molecular structure of the following miRNAs: miRNA-26a, miRNA-27a, miRNA-27b, miRNA-29c, miRNA-34c, miRNA-92a-1, miRNA- 99a-2, miRNA-101-1, miRNA-101-2, miRNA-125b-1, miRNA-196b, miRNA-425-5p, miRNA-452, miRNA-455, miRNA-502, miRNA-539, and miRNA-660. We extracted the nucleotides were from the GenBank of National Center for Biotechnology Information genetic sequence database. We aligned the extracted sequences with the RNA Folding Form, and the three-dimensional molecular structure design was performed with the RNAComposer. Results: we demonstrate the nucleotide sequences, and molecular structure projection of miRNAs expressed in leprosy, and produces a tutorial on the molecular model of the 17 miRNAs expressed in leprosy through in silico projection processing of their molecular structures. Conclusion: we demonstrate in silico design of selected molecular structures of 17 miRNAs expressed in leprosy through computational biology.


Introdução: a doença de Hansen, ou hanseníase é causada pelo Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), é um grande problema de saúde pública nos países em desenvolvimento e afeta, a pele e os nervos periféricos. Entretanto, o M. leprae também pode comprometer o tecido ósseo, membranas mucosas, fígado, olhos e testículos, produzindo uma variedade de fenótipos clínicos. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) têm sido expressos nas várias formas clínicas da hanseníase e podem ser potencialmente utilizados para seu diagnóstico. Objetivo: objetivou-se com esse experimento modelar computacionalmente a estrutura molecular dos miRNAs expressos na hanseníase. Metodologia: realizou-se como metodologia uma pesquisa das sequências nucleotídicas de 17 miRNAs expressos na hanseníase, desenhando em modelo computacional a estrutura molecular dos seguintes miRNAs: miRNA-26a, miRNA-27a, miRNA-27b, miRNA- 29c, miRNA-34c, miRNA-92a-1, miRNA-99a-2, miRNA-101-1, miRNA-101-2, miRNA-125b-1, miRNA-196b, miRNA-425-5p, miRNA-452, miRNA-455, miRNA-502, miRNA-539, e miRNA-660. Extraiu-se os nucleotídeos do banco de dados do GenBank of National Center for Biotechnology Information . Alinhou-se as sequências extraídas com o RNA Folding Form, e o projeto da estrutura molecular tridimensional foi realizado com o RNAComposer. Resultados: demonstrou-se como resultados as sequências dos nucleotídeos e a projeção da estrutura molecular dos miRNAs expressos na hanseníase, e produzimos um tutorial sobre o modelo molecular dos 17 miRNAs expressos em hanseníase através do processamento de suas estruturas moleculares em projeção computacional. Conclusão: foi demonstrado computacionalmente o projeto de estruturas moleculares selecionadas de 17 miRNAs expressos em hanseníase através da biologia computacional.


Subject(s)
Peripheral Nerves , Skin , Biomarkers , MicroRNAs , Leprosy , Mycobacterium leprae , Testis , Bone and Bones , Eye , Liver , Mucous Membrane
3.
Rev. venez. cir. ortop. traumatol ; 55(1): 59-65, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1513180

ABSTRACT

El Schwannoma o Neurilemoma es un tumor benigno de derivación neuroectodérmica que se origina en las células de Schwann, que constituyen la envoltura de los nervios. Es el tumor benigno más común de los nervios periféricos, tiene predisposición a originarse a partir de nervios periféricos sensoriales y puede presentarse como tumores en tejidos blandos. La presentación intraósea del Schwannoma es rara y corresponde al 0,2% de los tumores óseos primarios. Se presenta caso clínico de paciente masculino de 36 años de edad con tumor en cóndilo femoral medial de rodilla derecha de 4 años de evolución, cursando con dolor intermitente moderado a quien se le practicó el protocolo oncológico, imagenológico e histológico, de la Unidad de Oncología Ortopédica del estado Monagas. Se diagnosticó Schwannoma intraóseo, se procedió a realizar resección marginal y reconstrucción con alloinjerto y fijación con placa y tornillos con excelente evolución postoperatoria. El Schwannoma intraóseo es extraordinariamente raro y su ubicación en el fémur lo es aún más. El objetivo del presente trabajo es reportar un caso de Schwannoma Intraóseo, mostrar las estrategias para su diagnóstico y los tratamientos aplicados, así como la revisión de los datos al respecto existentes en la literatura(AU)


Schwannoma or Neurilemoma is a benign tumor of neuroectodermal derivation that originates in Schwann cells, which constitute the nerve sheath. It is the most common benign tumor of the peripheral nerves, has a predisposition to originate from peripheral sensory nerves, and can present as soft tissue tumors. The intraosseous presentation of Schwannoma is rare and corresponds to 0,2% of primary bone tumors. A clinical case of a 36-yearold male patient with a tumor in the medial femoral condyle of the right knee of 4 years of evolution is presented, presenting with moderate intermittent pain who underwent the oncological, imaging and histological protocol of the Oncology Unit. Monagas State Orthopedic. Intraosseous Schwannoma was diagnosed, marginal resection and allograft reconstruction and plate and screw fixation were performed with excellent postoperative evolution. Intraosseous Schwannoma is extraordinarily rare and its location in the femur is even more so. The objective of this paper is to report a case of Intraosseous Schwannoma, show the strategies for its diagnosis and the treatments applied, as well as the review of the existing data in the literature(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Peripheral Nerves/pathology , Bone Neoplasms , Neurilemmoma
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 555-568, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440323

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Upper limb nerve variations may be related to the absence of a nerve, an interconnection between two nerves or a variant course. The purpose of this review is to screen the existing literature on upper limb nerve variations that may alter the neurologic diagnostic process. A scoping review was performed following PRISMA for Scoping Reviews guidelines. Initially, 1331 articles were identified by searching Pubmed and Web of Science until the 22nd of October 2022. After screening, reading, and additional searching 50 articles were included in this review. Variations were divided into two categories: 1) variations causing a different innervation pattern involving sensory, motor, or both types of fibers, and 2) variations causing or related to compression syndromes. Two-thirds of the included articles were cadaver studies. Nine articles were diagnostic studies on symptomatic or healthy individuals involving medical imaging and/or surgery. Nerve variations that may cause a different innervation pattern concern most frequently their interconnection. The connection between the median and musculocutaneous nerve in the upper limb and the connection between the median and ulnar nerve in the forearm (Martin-Gruber) or hand (Riche-Cannieu) may be present in half of the population. Injury to these connections may cause compound peripheral neuropathies a result of variant sensory and motor branching patterns. Muscular, vascular, or combined anomalies in the forearm were reported as causes of entrapment neuropathies. These nerve variations may mimic classical entrapment syndromes such as carpal tunnel syndrome or compression at ulnar canal (Guyon's canal). Knowledge of frequent nerve variations in the arm may be important during the diagnostic process and examination. Variant innervation patterns may explain non-classical clinical signs and/or symptoms during provocative tests. Classical nerve compression syndromes in the arm may warrant for differential diagnosis, especially in the case of persistent or recurrent symptoms.


Las variaciones nerviosas del miembro superior pueden estar relacionadas con la ausencia de un nervio, una interconexión entre dos nervios o un curso variante. El objetivo de esta revisión fue examinar la literatura existente sobre las variaciones de los nervios de los miembros superiores que pueden alterar el proceso de diagnóstico neurológico. Se realizó una revisión de alcance siguiendo las pautas de PRISMA para revisiones de alcance. Inicialmente, se identificaron 1331 artículos mediante la búsqueda en Pubmed y Web of Science hasta el 22 de octubre de 2022. Después de la selección, la lectura y la búsqueda adicional, se incluyeron 50 artículos en esta revisión. Las variaciones se dividieron en dos categorías: 1) variaciones que causan un patrón de inervación diferente que involucra fibras sensoriales, motoras o de ambos tipos, y 2) variaciones que causan o están relacionadas con síndromes de compresión. Dos tercios de los artículos incluidos eran estudios de cadáveres. Nueve artículos fueron estudios de diagnóstico en individuos sintomáticos o sanos que involucraron imágenes médicas y/o cirugía. Las variaciones nerviosas que pueden causar un patrón de inervación diferente se refieren con mayor frecuencia a su interconexión. La conexión entre el nervio mediano y musculocutáneo en el miembro superior y la conexión entre el nervio mediano y ulnar en el antebrazo (Martin-Gruber) o la mano (Riche-Cannieu) puede estar presente en la mitad de la población. La lesión de estas conexiones puede causar neuropatías periféricas compuestas como resultado de patrones de ramificación variantes sensitivos y motores. Se informaron anomalías musculares, vasculares o combinadas en el antebrazo como causas de neuropatías por atrapamiento. Estas variaciones nerviosas pueden imitar los síndromes de atrapamiento clásicos, como el síndrome del túnel carpiano o la compresión en el canal ulnar. El conocimiento de las variaciones nerviosas frecuentes en el brazo puede ser importante durante el proceso de diagnóstico y examen. Los patrones de inervación variantes pueden explicar los signos y/o síntomas clínicos no clásicos durante las pruebas de provocación. Los síndromes clásicos de compresión nerviosa en el brazo pueden justificar el diagnóstico diferencial, especialmente en el caso de síntomas persistentes o recurrentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Upper Extremity/innervation , Anatomic Variation
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 188-194, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430540

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Microsurgical procedures are the treatment of choice of peripheral nerve injuries, but often fail to reach full functional recovery. Melatonin has neuroprotective actions and might be used as a possible proregenerative pharmacological support. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the time-dependence of the neuroprotective effect of melatonin on the overall fascicular structures of both ends of the transected nerve. Sciatic nerve transection was performed in 34 adult male Wistar rats divided in four groups: two vehicle groups (N=7) treated intraperitoneally for 7 (V7) or 21 (V21) consecutive days with vehicle (5 % ethanol in Ringer solution) and two melatonin groups (N=10) administered intraperitoneally 30 mg/kg of melatonin for 7 (M7) or 21 (M21) consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, proximal stump neuroma and distal stump fibroma were excised and processed for qualitative and quantitative histological analysis. Intrafascicular neural structures were better preserved and the collagen deposition was reduced in the melatonin treated groups than in the vehicle groups. Myelin sheath regeneration observed through its thickness measurement was statistically significantly (p<0,05) more pronounced in the M21 (1,23±0,18 µm) vs. V21 group (0,98±0,13 µm). The mean volume density of the endoneurium was lower in both melatonin treated groups in comparison to the matching vehicle treated groups. Although not statistically different, the endoneural tube diameter was larger in both melatonin groups vs. vehicle groups, and the effect of melatonin was more pronounced after 21 days (24,97 % increase) vs. 7 days of melatonin treatment (18,8 % increase). Melatonin exerts a time-dependent proregenerative effect on nerve fibers in the proximal stump and an anti-scarring effect in both stumps.


Los procedimientos microquirúrgicos son el tratamiento de elección de las lesiones de los nervios periféricos, pero a menudo no logran una recuperación funcional completa. La melatonina tiene acciones neuroprotectoras y podría ser utilizada como un posible apoyo farmacológico proregenerativo. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la dependencia del tiempo del efecto neuroprotector de la melatonina sobre las estructuras fasciculares generales de ambos extremos del nervio seccionado. La sección del nervio ciático se realizó en 34 ratas Wistar macho adultas divididas en cuatro grupos: dos grupos de vehículo (N=7) tratados por vía intraperitoneal durante 7 (V7) o 21 (V21) días consecutivos con vehículo (5 % de etanol en solución Ringer) y dos grupos grupos de melatonina (N=10) a los que se les administró por vía intraperitoneal 30 mg/kg de melatonina durante 7 (M7) o 21 (M21) días consecutivos. Al final del experimento, se extirparon y procesaron el neuroma del muñón proximal y el fibroma del muñón distal del nervio para un análisis histológico cualitativo y cuantitativo. Las estructuras neurales intrafasciculares se conservaron mejor y el depósito de colágeno se redujo en los grupos tratados con melatonina respecto a los grupos con vehículo. La regeneración de la vaina de mielina observada a través de la medición de su espesor fue estadísticamente significativa (p<0,05) más pronunciada en el grupo M21 (1,23±0,18 µm) vs V21 (0,98±0,13 µm). La densidad de volumen media del endoneuro fue menor en ambos grupos tratados con melatonina en comparación con los grupos tratados con vehículo equivalente. Aunque no fue estadísticamente diferente, el diámetro del tubo endoneural fue mayor en ambos grupos de melatonina frente a los grupos de vehículo, y el efecto de la melatonina fue más pronunciado después de 21 días (aumento del 24,97 %) frente a los 7 días de tratamiento con melatonina (18,8 % de aumento). La melatonina ejerce un efecto proregenerativo dependiente del tiempo sobre las fibras nerviosas del muñón proximal y un efecto anticicatricial en ambos muñones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/drug effects , Melatonin/pharmacology , Nerve Regeneration/drug effects , Peripheral Nerves , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Time Factors , Rats, Wistar , Myelin Sheath/drug effects , Nerve Regeneration/physiology
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20467, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439510

ABSTRACT

Abstract Prolonged overexposure to catecholamines causes toxicity, usually credited to continuous adrenoceptor stimulation, autoxidation, and the formation of reactive pro-oxidant species. Non-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were used to study the possible contribution of oxidative stress in adrenaline (ADR)-induced neurotoxicity, as a model to predict the toxicity of this catecholamine to peripheral nerves. Cells were exposed to several concentrations of ADR (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mM) and two cytotoxicity assays [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction] were performed at several time-points (24, 48, and 96h). The cytotoxicity of ADR was concentration- and time-dependent in both assays, since the lowest concentration tested (0.1mM) also caused significant cytotoxicity at 96h. N-acetyl-cysteine (1mM), a precursor of glutathione synthesis, prevented ADR-induced toxicity elicited by 0.5mM and 0.25mM ADR following a 96-h exposure, while the antioxidant Tiron (100µM) was non-protective. In conclusion, ADR led to mitochondrial distress and ultimately cell death in non-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, possibly because of ADR oxidation products. The involvement of such processes in the catecholamine-induced peripheral neuropathy requires further analysis.


Subject(s)
Epinephrine/agonists , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/classification , Toxicity , Neurons/classification , Peripheral Nerves/abnormalities , Bromides/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Rev. Headache Med. (Online) ; 14(4): 230-234, 30/12/2023. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dystonia is uncommon in Tourette's syndrome, and occipital neuralgia secondary to Tourette's dystonia is more rare, affecting quality of life. Occipital peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is an excellent alternative by being adjustable and minimally invasive. Our case demonstrates occipital PNS as an effective option for refractory Tourette's dystonia. CASE PRESENTATION: A thirty-four-year-old male with poorly controlled Tourette's cervical dystonia presented with severe occipital neuralgia. Various medications were prescribed including propranolol and amitriptyline, and bilateral third-occipital nerve rhizotomies and occipital nerve blocks were trialed. Distal nerve blocks at the occipital protuberance were most effective. Therefore, an occipital PNS trial was done, and a PNS was implanted with no complications. Upon follow-up, the patient reported drastic pain reduction. CONCLUSION: Our case illustrates neuromodulation benefits for a rare presentation of refractory occipital neuralgia secondary to Tourette's-related dystonia. Occipital PNS should be considered for refractory cases because it is safe, easy to implant, and effective.


FUNDAMENTO: A distonia é incomum na síndrome de Tourette, e a neuralgia occipital secundária à distonia de Tourette é mais rara, afetando a qualidade de vida. A estimulação do nervo periférico occipital (SNP) é uma excelente alternativa por ser ajustável e minimamente invasiva. Nosso caso demonstra o SNP occipital como uma opção eficaz para a distonia de Tourette refratária. APRESENTAÇÃO DO CASO: Um homem de 34 anos com distonia cervical de Tourette mal controlada apresentou neuralgia occipital grave. Vários medicamentos foram prescritos, incluindo propranolol e amitriptilina, e foram testadas rizotomias bilaterais do nervo terceiro-occipital e bloqueios do nervo occipital. Os bloqueios dos nervos distais na protuberância occipital foram mais eficazes. Portanto, foi feito um ensaio de PNS occipital e um PNS foi implantado sem complicações. Após o acompanhamento, o paciente relatou redução drástica da dor. CONCLUSÃO: Nosso caso ilustra os benefícios da neuromodulação para uma apresentação rara de neuralgia occipital refratária secundária à distonia relacionada a Tourette. O PNS occipital deve ser considerado para casos refratários porque é seguro, fácil de implantar e eficaz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients/classification , Tourette Syndrome/complications , Peripheral Nerves/abnormalities
8.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 207-213, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Peripheral nerve damage is an important cause of seeking medical attention. It occurs when the continuity of structures is interrupted and the propagation of nervous impulses is blocked, affecting the functional capacity of individuals. To assess the effects of the immunosuppressants tacrolimus and cyclosporine on the regeneration of peripheral nerves, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. The articles included were published until September 2018 and proposed to evaluate the effects of the immunosuppressants tacrolimus and cyclosporine on nerve regeneration and neuroprotection, available in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Oxford Pain Relief Database, and LILACS databases. The research analysed a total of 56 articles, of which 22 were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical analysis suggests the protective effect of tacrolimus in the regeneration of the number of myelinated axons (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-2.39; p< 0.01); however, such effect was not observed in relation to cyclosporine (95%CI: - 0.38-1.18; p» 0.08) It also suggests that there is a significant relationship between the use of tacrolimus and myelin thickness (95%CI» 2.00-5.71; p< 0. 01). The use of immunosuppressants in the regeneration of peripheral nerve damage promotes an increase in the number of myelinated axons in general, regardless of the administered dose. In addition, it ensures greater myelin thickness, muscle weight and recovery of the sciatic functional index. However, heterogeneity was high in most analyses performed.


Resumo As lesões nervosas periféricas são uma causa importante de busca por atendimento médico. Elas ocorrem quando há a interrupção da continuidade das estruturas e do bloqueio da propagação dos impulsos nervosos, afetando a capacidade funcional dos indivíduos. Para avaliar os efeitos dos imunossupressores tacrolimus e ciclosporina na regeneração de nervos periféricos, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura. Foram incluídos artigos publicados até setembro de 2018, que se propunham avaliar os efeitos dos imunossupressores tacrolimus e ciclosporina na regeneração nervosa e neuroproteção, disponíveis nas bases de dados MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Oxford Pain Relief Database e LILACS. A pesquisa analisou um total de 56 artigos, dos quais 22 foram para metanálise. A análise estatística sugere o efeito protetor do tacrolimus na regeneração do número de axônios mielinizados (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 0,93-2,39; p< 0,01); todavia tal efeito não foi observado em relação à ciclosporina (IC95%: - 0,38-1,18; p» 0,08). Ela também sugere haver uma relação significativa entre o uso do tacrolimus e a espessura da mielina (IC95%: 2,00-5,71; p< 0,01). O uso de imunossupressores na regeneração de lesão nervosa periférica promove um aumento no número de axônios mielinizados de forma geral, independentemente da dose administrada. Além disso, garante uma maior espessura da mielina, um maior peso muscular e restabelecimento do índice da função do nervo ciático. Todavia, a heterogeneidade foi alta na maioria das análises realizadas.


Subject(s)
Peripheral Nerves/pathology , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Nerve Regeneration/drug effects
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1035-1042, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405240

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Peripheral nerve damage (PNI) can cause demyelination, axonal degeneration and loss of motor and sensory function. Melatonin with its antioxidative effect, has been reported to reduce scar formation in nerve injury, take a role in repair process by suppressing fibroblast proliferation in the damaged area. It was aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin in the repair of peripheral nerve damage and the relationship between S100 proteins and angiogenic regulation. Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups. In the Defect group, 6 mm tibial bone defect using a motorized drill was created and kept immobile for 28 days. In Defect + graft group, tibial bone defect with allograft treatment was applied and kept immobile for 28 days. In Defect + graft + Melatonin group, melatonin was administered to defect + allograft group. All rats were sacrified by decapitation, skin and tibia bone were removed then fixed with 10 % neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin, sections were examined under light microscopy. In the Defect+Graft group, enlargement and occlusion of the vessels with degeneration of the epineural sheath, thickening of the endoneural sheath and mild hyperplasia of schwannocytus (Schwann cells) were remarkable. In the Defect+Graft+Melatonin group, the epineural sheath was tight and regular, the axonal structures were prominent in the endoneural area. Mild S100 expression was observed in Defect+Graft group in fibers of the endoneural region with a prominent expression in schwannocytus. In Defect+Graft+Melatonin group (10mg/kg), S100 expression was moderate in areas where schwannocytus proliferated and nerve-connective tissue sheaths were reconstructed. VEGF expression was moderate in endoneural, perineural and epineural connective tissue sheaths in the Defect+Graft+Melatonin group, with negative expression in blood vessel endothelial cells, but with a positive expression in schwannocytus. We conclude that with the application of melatonin; oxidative stress decreases, schwannocytus proliferation increases, having positive influence on nerve repair with the regulation of S100 signaling and angiogenetic structuring.


RESUMEN: El daño a los nervios periféricos puede causar desmielinización, degeneración axonal y pérdida de la función motora y sensorial. Se ha informado que la melatonina, con su efecto antioxidante, reduce la formación de cicatrices en lesiones nerviosas y desempeña un papel en el proceso de reparación al suprimir la proliferación de fibroblastos en el área dañada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar el efecto de la melatonina en la reparación del daño de los nervios periféricos y la relación entre las proteínas S100 y la regulación angiogénica. Ratas albinas Wistar se dividieron en 3 grupos. En el grupo Defecto, se creó un defecto óseo tibial de 6 mm con un taladro motorizado y se mantuvo inmóvil durante 28 días. En el grupo Defecto + injerto, se aplicó tratamiento de defecto óseo tibial con aloinjerto y se mantuvo inmóvil durante 28 días. En el grupo Defecto + injerto + Melatonina, se administró melatonina al grupo defecto + aloinjerto. Todas las ratas fueron sacrificadas por decapitación, se extrajo la piel y el hueso de la tibia y luego se fijaron con formalina tamponada neutra al 10 % y se incluyeron en parafina, las secciones se examinaron bajo microscopía óptica. En el grupo Defecto+Injerto, fueron notables el agrandamiento y la oclusión de los vasos con degeneración de la vaina epineural, engrosamiento de la vaina endoneural e hiperplasia leve de los schwannocitos (neurolemnocitos). En el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, la vaina epineural era estrecha y regular, las estructuras axonales eran prominentes en el área endoneural. Se observó expresión leve de S100 en el grupo Defecto+Injerto en fibras de la región endoneural con una expresión prominente en los schwannocitos. En el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, la expresión de S100 fue moderada en áreas donde proliferaron los schwannocitos y se reconstruyeron las vainas de tejido conectivo nervioso. La expresión de VEGF fue moderada en vainas de tejido conectivo endoneural, perineural y epineural en el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, con expresión negativa en células endoteliales de vasos sanguíneos, pero con expresión positiva en schwannocitos. Concluimos que con la aplicación de melatonina; disminuye el estrés oxidativo, aumenta la proliferación de schwannocitos, influyendo positivamente en la reparación nerviosa con la regulación de la señalización S100 y la estructuración angiogenética.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Tibia/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Peripheral Nerves/drug effects , Tibia/innervation , S100 Proteins , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Disease Models, Animal , Fibroblasts
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21010, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420430

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acrylamide is a neurotoxic compound. Moreover, anakinra is an interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. This study investigated the effect of anakinra on acrylamide-related neuropathy and neuropathic pain. Acrylamide exposure caused a significant decrease in the pain threshold; an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) levels; and a decrease in total glutathione (tGSH) values in the sciatic nerve. This indicates hyperalgesia presence, oxidative stress, and peripheral nerve tissue inflammation. Anakinra treatment significantly reduced the MDA, IL-1ß, and TNF-α levels, and increased the pain threshold and mean tGSH values. The analgesic effect of anakinra was 67.9% at the first hour, increasing to 74.9% and 76.7% at the second and third hours, respectively. The group receiving acrylamide exhibited histopathological changes (e.g., swollen and degenerated axons, hypertrophic and hyperplasic Schwann cells, and congested vessels). The use of anakinra significantly improved these morphological changes. Anakinra is concluded to reduce neuropathic pain and prevent neurotoxic effect of acrylamide on peripheral nerves due to its analgesic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Acrylamide/adverse effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation/classification , Peripheral Nerves/abnormalities , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Pain Threshold/classification , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(6): 1769-1775, dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385545

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El nervio interóseo posterior (NIP) ha sido utilizado como sinónimo ocontinuación inmediata del ramo profundo del nervio radial (RPNR) al emerger en el compartimiento posterior del antebrazo. Su origen tampoco es claro, describiéndose como nervio interóseo posterior a su trayecto proximal, intermedio o distal al músculo supinador. El objetivo de esta revisión es detallar la visión de diversos autores respecto al origen y trayecto del NIP, proponiendo una correcta terminología para estas estructuras. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de varios textos y de algunos artículos utilizados para la enseñanza de la anatomía humana, publicados entre los años 1800 y la actualidad. En la búsqueda, se determinaron criterios de inclusión que consideraban, anatomía humana, escritos en español, francés o inglés y que aludieran al NIP. Tras la exploración inicial se localizaron 18 libros, procedentes de Francia, Rusia, España, Argentina, Estados Unidos, Canadá, Reino Unido, Alemania, India y México. Una descripción del NIP más precisa, en cuanto al origen, trayecto y función, es aquella postulada por la vertiente francesa, correspondiendo a un origen terminal del ramo profundo del nervio radial, luego de emitir sus ramos musculares. Este delgado nervio transcurre adosado a la membrana interósea para luego avanzar por el cuarto compartimiento extensor, distribuyéndose en las articulaciones dorsales del carpo a quienes inerva sensitiva y propioceptivamente.


SUMMARY: The posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) has been used as a synonym or immediate continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve as it emerges in the posterior compartment of the forearm. Its origin is not clear either, being described as a posterior interosseous nerve to its proximal, intermediate or distal path to the supinator muscle. The objective of this review is to detail the vision of various authors regarding the origin and path of the PIN, proposing a correct terminology for these structures. A bibliographic review of several texts and some articles used for the teaching of human anatomy, published between the 1800s and the present day, was carried out. In the search, inclusion criteria were determined that considered human anatomy, written in Spanish, French or English and that alluded to the PIN. After the initial exploration, 18 books were located, coming from France, Russia, Spain, Argentina, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, India and Mexico. A more precise description of the PIN, in terms of origin, path and function, is that postulated by the French literature, corresponding to a terminal origin of the deep branch of the radial nerve, after emitting its muscular branches. This thin nerve runs attached to the interosseous membrane to then advance through the fourth extensor compartment, distributing itself in the dorsal carpal joints to which it innervates sensitively and proprioceptively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Forearm/innervation
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1309-1314, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355688

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a blind technique for sciatic and femoral nerve block in rabbit cadavers by evaluating the spread of 1% methylene blue at two different volumes. Nine recently euthanized rabbits weighing 2.5(0.3kg were used. The sciatic (SN) and femoral (FN) nerves of each limb were randomly assigned for injection with 1% methylene blue at 0.2mL/kg (G0.2) or 0.3mL/kg (G0.3). Nerves were dissected and measured for depth and extension of staining (cm). Mean comparisons were performed using paired t test. The relation between volume and nerve staining ( 2cm was assessed using chi-square test. The mean depth of SN was 1.9±0.2 and 1.6±0.3cm and staining 1.9±1.4 and 2.0±1.2cm, respectively in G0.2 and G0.3. No relation was found between depth and dye spread and there was no association between nerve staining ( 2.0cm and volume of solution. The FN failed to be stained in all subjects. In conclusion, SN injection can be successfully performed without guidance in rabbits. The lower volume (0.2mL/kg) is recommended to avoid systemic toxicity.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma técnica para bloqueio às cegas dos nervos isquiático e femoral em cadáveres de coelhos, por meio da avaliação da dispersão de azul de metileno 1% em dois volumes distintos. Nove coelhos recém-eutanasiados, com peso 2,5(0,3kg, foram utilizados. Os nervos isquiático (NI) e femoral (NF) de cada membro foram aleatoriamente designados para injeção com azul de metileno 1% a 0,2mL/kg (G0,2) ou 0,3mL/kg (G0,3). Em seguida, foram dissecados e mensurados em relação à sua profundidade e extensão corada (cm). As médias foram comparadas por meio de teste t pareado. A relação entre volume e extensão corada ( 2cm foi avaliada utilizando-se teste de qui-quadrado. A profundidade média do NI foi 1,9±0,2 e 1,6±0,3cm, e a extensão corada 1,9±1,4 e 2,0±1,2cm, respectivamente, no G0,2 e no G0,3. Não houve relação entre a profundidade e a extensão corada ou entre a extensão corada ( 2,0cm e o volume de solução. Não foi observada coloração do NF em nenhum cadáver. Concluiu-se que a injeção do NI pode ser realizada com sucesso sem auxílio de tecnologias em coelhos. O menor volume (0,2mL/kg) é recomendado para evitar toxicidade sistêmica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Peripheral Nerves , Sciatic Nerve , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods
13.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(4): 267-275, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423888

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Smartphone overuse may lead to musculoskeletal manifestations, such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and arthritis of hand joints, with an increased median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA). Objective: The aim of this study is the early detection of musculoskeletal hand disorders using ultrasound techniques, and to detect nerve entrapment using clinical evaluation, ultrasound, and electrophysiological studies, in university employees younger than 35 years using mobile phones. Function is assessed using the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ). Materials and methods: Cross-sectional controlled study included 74 smartphone users classified into two groups according to a smartphone addiction scale (SAS), into high and low smart phone users, with 35 non-smartphone users with matched age and gender as a control group. A clinical assessment of nerve entrapment symptoms was performed, and the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), with a total score from 0 to100, was used to assess hand function. Electrodiagnostic studies of median and ulnar nerves were used to detect early nerve entrapment. Bilateral ultrasound was performed in order to assess the median nerve CSA and involvement of thumb and small hand joints. The data collected were analyzed using the SPSS program version 20. Results: CSAs of median nerves were significantly higher in the dominant hand of high smartphone users than in low and non-smartphone users (p < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between CSA and SAS (r = 0.45), visual analogue scale (VAS) (r = 0.61), and duration of smartphone use (r = 0.80), with negative correlation with MHQ (r = -0.63). Significant differences in were found in the electrophysiological studies of median and ulnar nerves. The mean ultrasound score for both hands was higher in the high smartphone users compared to low smartphone users (15.08 ± 4.17 vs. 6.46 ± 1.38, p < .001). Conclusions: There is increased median nerve CSAs among high smartphone users associated with prolongation of both sensory and motor latencies and slow conduction velocities. Caution should be exercised when using mobile phones, in order to minimize the risk of developing hand musculoskeletal disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Peripheral Nerves , Diagnostic Imaging , Ultrasonography , Diagnosis , Median Nerve , Nervous System
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1473-1479, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385503

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Sonographic identification of suprascapular nerve (SSN) is essential for diagnosis of suprascapular neuropathy and ultrasound-guided suprascapular nerve block. This study aims to demonstrate the accuracy of identification of SSN at supraclavicular region by ultrasonography in fresh cadavers. Ninety-three posterior cervical triangles were examined. With ultrasonography, SSN emerging from the upper trunk of brachial plexus was identified and followed until it passed underneath the inferior belly of omohyoid muscle. Sonographic visualization of SSN in supraclavicular fossa was recorded. Then, cadaveric dissection was performed to determine the presence or absence of SSN. An agreement between sonographic identification and direct visualization was specified and categorized the following three patterns: "correctly identified" (pattern I), "incorrectly identified" (pattern II), and "unidentified" (pattern III). The identification of SSN using sonography was correct in almost 90 %. The diameter of SSN with pattern I was the largest compared to those of other two patterns. In pattern I, SSN ran laterally from the upper trunk of brachial plexus and passed underneath the inferior belly of omohyoid muscle. Therefore, SSN was easily identified under ultrasonography. In pattern II, nerve identified by ultrasonography was literally the dorsal scapular nerve. In pattern III, SSN was unable to be identified because of its anatomical variation. The accuracy of ultrasonographic identification of SSN at supraclavicular fossa is high and the key sonoanatomical landmarks are the lateral margin of brachial plexus and the inferior belly of omohyoid muscle. The anatomical variants of SSN are reasons of incorrect or unable identification of SSN under ultrasonography.


RESUMEN: La identificación ecográfica del nervio supraescapular (NSE) es esencial para el diagnóstico de neuropatía supraescapular y bloqueo del nervio supraescapular mediante la ecografía. Este estudio tiene como objetivo demostrar la precisión de la identificación de NSE en la región supraclavicular por ecografía en cadáveres frescos. Se examinaron noventa y tres triángulos cervicales posteriores. Se identificó el NSE emergente de la parte superior del tronco del plexo braquial con la ecografía, y se siguió hasta su trayecto por debajo del vientre inferior del músculo omohioideo. Se registró la visualización ecográfica del NSE en la fosa supraclavicular. Luego, se realizó disección cadavérica para determinar la presencia o ausencia de NSE. Se especificó un acuerdo entre la identificación ecográfica y la visualización directa y se categorizaron los siguientes tres patrones: "identificado correctamente" (patrón I), "identificado incorrectamente" (patrón II) y "no identificado" (patrón III). La identificación de NSE mediante ecografía fue correcta en casi el 90 %. El diámetro del NSE con el patrón I fue el más grande en comparación con los de los otros dos patrones. En el patrón I, NSE corría lateralmente desde la parte superior del tronco del plexo braquial y pasaba por debajo del vientre inferior del músculo omohioideo. Por lo tanto, el NSE se identificó fácilmente mediante ecografía. En el patrón II, el nervio identificado por ecografía era literalmente el nervio escapular dorsal; en el patrón III, el NSE no pudo ser identificado debido a su variación anatómica. La precisión de la identificación ecográfica del NSE en la fosa supraclavicular es alta y los puntos de referencia sonoanatómicos clave son el borde lateral del plexo braquial y el vientre inferior del músculo omohioideo. Las variantes anatómicas de NSE son razones de identificación incorrecta o incapaz de NSE bajo ecografía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Scapula/innervation , Scapula/diagnostic imaging , Clavicle/innervation , Clavicle/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Peripheral Nerves/diagnostic imaging , Cadaver , Ultrasonography
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 848-857, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385407

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The innervation of the pelvic limbs of the Van cat is investigated in this research. The origins of the nerves, the innervated muscles and nerve diameters were shown in a table. Five cat cadavers were used in the study. The pudendal nerve originated from the S1-S2 spinal nerves. The femoral nerve consisted of the ventral branches of the 5th and 6th lumbar nerves in 4 cats The ischiatic nerve was composed of the 6th and 7th lumbar (L6-L7) and S1 spinal nerves in all cadavers. The ischiatic nerve was the thickest branch of sacral plexus (the average diameter on the right side was 3.31 ± 0.27 mm and the average diameter on the left side was 3.28 ± 0.29 mm). The lumbosacral plexus was formed by the ventral branches of the L4-S3 spinal nerves. N.genitofemoralis consisted of only the ventral branches of L4 in all cadavers. N. femoralis did not give rise to a branch to the m. iliopsoas. N.plantaris lateralis was found to give a branch to the 3th finger. The quadriceps femoris muscles did not take any branches from either the ischiadicus nerve or the pudendal nerve. The obturator nerve did not receive any branches from the L4 spinal nerves. There was no branch to the skin from the caudal gluteal nerve. The thinnest nerve was the pudendal nerve. Due to the scarcity of studies on the lumbosacral plexus of cats, it is thought that this study will complete a gap in the field of veterinary anatomy.


RESUMEN: En esta investigación se estudió la inervación de los miembros pélvicos del gato Van. Los orígenes de los nervios, los músculos inervados y los diámetros de los nervios son mostrados en una tabla. En el estudio se utilizaron cinco cadáveres de gatos. En cuatro gatosel nervio pudendo se originaba a partir de los nervios espinales S1-S2. El nervio femoral consistió en los ramos ventrales de los nervios lumbares quinto y sexto. El nervio isquiático estaba compuesto por los nervios espinales sexto y séptimo lumbar (L6-L7) y S1 en todos los cadáveres. El nervio isquiático era el ramo más grueso del plexo sacro (el diámetro medio del lado derecho medía de 3,31 ± 0,27 mm y el diámetro medio izquierdo 3,28 ± 0,29 mm). El plexo lumbosacro estaba formado por los ramos ventrales de los nervios espinales L4-S3. N. genitofemoralis constaba solo de las ramas ventrales de L4 en todos los cadáveres. N. femoralis no dio lugar a un ramo a la m. iliopsoas. Los músculos del cuádriceps femoral no tomaron ningún ramo ni del nervio isquiático ni del nervio pudendo. El nervio obturador no recibió ramos de los nervios espinales L4. No existían ramos a la piel desde el nervio glúteo caudal. El nervio más delgado fue el nervio pudendo. Debido a la escasez de estudios sobre el plexo lumbosacro de los gatos, este estudio completará un vacío en el campo de la anatomía veterinaria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Cats/anatomy & histology , Lumbosacral Plexus/anatomy & histology
16.
Clinics ; 76: e2805, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Demonstrate that continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB) may be an alternative with adequate analgesia and a lower incidence of side effects for ischemic pain due peripheral obstructive arterial disease (POAD). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with 21 patients with POAD, Fontaine IV graded, with foot pain. Patients were submitted to continuous sciatic nerve block (CSNB), through a perineural catheter. Primary outcomes were pain intensity (by numerical rating scale) and opioid consumption (in oral morphine equivalents). RESULTS: During CSNB, pain scores markedly decreased in comparison to the pre-block period. CONCLUSIONS: CPNB may be a good option for ischemic pain treatment in in-patients, as it provides effective pain control with fewer adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Peripheral Nerves , Retrospective Studies , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Leg
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1542-1554, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922665

ABSTRACT

Our previous investigation suggested that faster seventh cervical nerve (C7) regeneration occurs in patients with cerebral injury undergoing contralateral C7 transfer. This finding needed further verification, and the mechanism remained largely unknown. Here, Tinel's test revealed faster C7 regeneration in patients with cerebral injury, which was further confirmed in mice by electrophysiological recordings and histological analysis. Furthermore, we identified an altered systemic inflammatory response that led to the transformation of macrophage polarization as a mechanism underlying the increased nerve regeneration in patients with cerebral injury. In mice, we showed that, as a contributing factor, serum amyloid protein A1 (SAA1) promoted C7 regeneration and interfered with macrophage polarization in vivo. Our results indicate that altered inflammation promotes the regenerative capacity of the C7 nerve by altering macrophage behavior. SAA1 may be a therapeutic target to improve the recovery of injured peripheral nerves.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Brachial Plexus , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/surgery , Nerve Transfer , Peripheral Nerves , Spinal Nerves
18.
Rev. chil. anest ; 50(5): 690-694, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532601

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hemophilia is a coagulation disorder; it is a recessive disease linked to the X chromosome. In patients with hemophilia (PWH), regional anesthetic blocks have been considered a contraindication. Safety has been increased by performing them guided by Ultrasound. The objective of our work is to show our experience in PWH and peripheral nerve blocks. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 41 PWH were operated under regional analgesia with Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Nerve Blocks associated with general anesthesia in the period 2006-2019. All patients were Hemophilia A. Three patients had inhibitors. The mean age was 35 years. 40 lower limb blocks and 2 upper limb blocks were performed. The Sonosite® equipment model Micromaxx was used. RESULTS: All patients presented adequate peripheral nerve block for an average time of 12.5 hours (8-24). There were no complications. CONCLUSIÓN: The present study shows that Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Nerve Blocks in PCH is a safe procedure, which reduces the requirements of opioids and the side effects of them, improving the postoperative period and the recovery of patients.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La hemofilia es un trastorno de la coagulación, es una enfermedad recesiva ligada al cromosoma X. En pacientes con hemofilia (PCH) los bloqueos regionales anestésicos se han considerado una contraindicación. Se ha aumentado la seguridad realizándolos guiados por Ecografía. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo es mostrar nuestra experiencia en PCH y bloqueos de nervios periféricos. MATERRIAL Y MÉTODO: 41 PCH fueron operados bajo analgesia regional con Bloqueos de Nervios Periféricos Guiados por Ecografía asociado a la anestesia general en el período 2006-2019. Todos los pacientes eran hemofilia A. Tres pacientes presentaban inhibidores. La edad media fue de 35 años. Se realizaron 40 bloqueos de miembros inferiores y 2 bloqueos miembros superiores. Se utilizó el equipo Sonosite® modelo Micromaxx. RESULTADOS: Todos los pacientes presentaron adecuado bloqueo de nervio periférico durante un tiempo promedio de 12,5 h (8-24). No se presentaron complicaciones. CONCLUSIÓN: El presente estudio muestra que los Bloqueos de Nervios Periféricos Guiados por Ecografía en PCH es un procedimiento seguro, que reduce los requisitos de los opioides y los efectos secundarios de ellos, mejorando el posoperatorio y la recuperación de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Peripheral Nerves/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Hemophilia A/complications , Nerve Block/methods , Anesthesia, General
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1549-1554, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1134476

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Hip joint chronic pain can severely compromise patients' life quality. Peripheral nerve blocks play an important role as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The aim of this work is to study the anatomy of the nerve to quadratus femoris (NQF) in view of the possibility of its percutaneous selective block. Forty-three gluteal cadaveric regions fixed in formaldehyde solution were dissected. The quadratus femoris, the obturator internus and superior and inferior gemellus were freed from their lateral insertion, exposing thus the posterior aspect of the hip joint. The NQF was identified, and the horizontal distance to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter at its upper, middle and lower thirds was registered. The number of the articular branches of the NQF was identified. Likewise, the horizontal distance to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter and the longitudinal distance to the line through the distal end of the posterior edge of the greater trochanter were measured. The distance between the NQF and the greater trochanter posterior edge at upper, middle and lower thirds was 46 mm, 41 mm and 35 mm, respectively. In most cases (85 %) the NQF presented one or two articular branches. The longitudinal distances between the line through the distal end of the posterior edge of the greater trochanter and the origin of the first, second and third articular branches of the NQF were 14.7 mm (-19.4 - 40), 16.4 mm (-9.3-42) and 27 mm (0-46), respectively. The distances to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter were 43.1 mm (16.3-66), 37.7 mm (6.5-53) and 39.8 mm (26-52), for the first, second and third articular branches, respectively. In conclusion, the articular branches of the nerve to quadratus femoris have a constant and predictable distribution. Our findings allow for generating a coordinate system for the selective block of the NQF by way of percutaneous techniques.


RESUMEN: El dolor crónico de la articulación coxal puede comprometer severamente la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Los bloqueos nerviosos periféricos juegan un papel importante como procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la anatomía del nervio del músculo cuadrado femoral (NCF) en vista de la posibilidad de su bloqueo selectivo percutáneo. Se utilizaron 22 cadáveres fijados en solución de formaldehído. Fueron disecadas en total 43 regiones glúteas. Los músculos cuadrado femoral, obturador interno y los gemelos superior e inferior fueron liberados de su inserción lateral, exponiendo así la cara posterior de la articulación coxal. Se identificó el NCF y se registró la distancia horizontal al margen posterior del trocánter mayor en sus tercios superior, medio e inferior. Se identificó el número de ramas articulares del NQF. Asimismo, se midió la distancia horizontal al margen posterior del trocánter mayor y la distancia longitudinal a la línea que pasa por el extremo distal del margen posterior del trocánter mayor. La distancia entre el NCF y el margen posterior del trocánter mayor en los tercios superior, medio e inferior fue de 46 mm, 41 mm y 35 mm, respectivamente. En la mayoría de los casos (85 %) el NCF presentó una o dos ramas articulares. Las distancias longitudinales entre la línea que pasa por el extremo distal del margen posterior del trocánter mayor y el origen de la primera, segunda y tercera ramas articulares del NQF fueron 14,7 mm (-19,4 - 40), 16,4 mm (-9,3-42) y 27 mm (0-46), respectivamente. Las distancias al margen posterior del trocánter mayor fueron 43,1 mm (16,3-66), 37,7 mm (6,5-53) y 39,8 mm (26-52), para la primera, segunda y tercera ramas articulares, respectivamente. En conclusión, las ramas articulares del nervio al cuadrado femoral tienen una distribución constante y predecible. Nuestros hallazgos permiten generar un sistema de coordenadas para el bloqueo selectivo del NCF por medio de técnicas percutáneas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Hip Joint/innervation , Nerve Block/methods , Cadaver
20.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(5): 629-636, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144223

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the epidemiological profile and evolution of 20 patients diagnosed with upper- and lower-limb schwannomas. Methods A group of patients was defined for a retrospective evaluation comprising the period between February 2002 and June 2018, in which we studied and evaluated 20 medical records of patients undergoing surgery due to schwannoma; the diagnosis was confirmed by an anatomopathological examination. Results Male and female patients were equally affected. The average age was 50.85 years, ranging from 12 to 77 years. There was a predominance of the upper limb and of the flexor face. The most affected nerve was the ulnar nerve. In total, 6 (30%) patients had transient postoperative complications. No cases of tumor recurrence were identified. Conclusion Schwannoma is a rare and difficult-to-diagnose lesion. It should always be considered as a hypothesis when facing a soft-tissue tumor affecting the limbs. The Tinel sign should be regarded, given its higher correlation with complications. The patients should be informed of the possible postoperative complications, which are frequent but usually transient.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar o perfil epidemiológico e a evolução de 20 pacientes diagnosticados com schwannoma nos membros superiores e inferiores. Métodos Definiu-se um grupo de pacientes para avaliação retrospectiva, compreendendo o período entre fevereiro de 2002 e junho de 2018, no qual foram estudados e avaliados 20 prontuários de pacientes submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico devido a schwannoma; a confirmação diagnóstica foi feita pelo exame anatomopatológico. Resultados Tanto os pacientes do sexo masculino quanto do feminino foram igualmente acometidos, e a média de idade foi de 50,85 anos, variando de 12 a 77 anos. Houve predomínio do membro superior e da face flexora. O nervo mais acometido foi o ulnar, e 6 (30%) pacientes apresentaram complicações pós-operatórias transitórias. Não foi identificado nenhum caso de recidiva tumoral. Conclusão O schwannoma é uma lesão rara e de difícil diagnóstico. Deve sempre ser considerada como hipótese quando se estiver diante de um tumor de partes moles acometendo os membros. O sinal de Tinel deve ser levado em consideração por conta de sua maior correlação com as complicações. Os pacientes devem ser informados quanto às possíveis complicações pós-operatórias, que são frequentes, mas, geralmente, transitórias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms/epidemiology , Peripheral Nerves , Lower Extremity , Upper Extremity , Neurilemmoma/epidemiology , Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms/surgery , Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Neurilemmoma/surgery , Neurilemmoma/diagnosis
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