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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3039-3045, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981434

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the role of slient mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1(SIRT1)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2(TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR) signaling pathways in the Periplaneta americana extract CⅡ-3-induced senescence of human leukemia K562 cells. K562 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with 0(control), 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 μg·mL~(-1) of P. americana extract CⅡ-3. Cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) and flow cytometry were employed to examine the proliferation and cell cycle of the K562 cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase stain kit(SA-β-gal) was used to detect the positive rate of senescent cells. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by flow cytometry. The relative mRNA level of telomerase reverse transcriptase(TERT) was determined by fluorescence quantitative PCR. The mRNA and protein levels of SIRT1, TSC2, and mTOR were determined by fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results showed that CⅡ-3 significantly inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells and the treatment with 80 μg·mL~(-1) CⅡ-3 for 72 h had the highest inhibition rate. Therefore, 80 μg·mL~(-1) CⅡ-3 treatment for 72 h was selected as the standard for subsequent experiments. Compared with the control group, CⅡ-3 increased the proportion of cells arrested in G_0/G_1 phase, decreased the proportion of cells in S phase, increased the positive rate of SA-β-Gal staining, elevated the mitochondrial membrane potential and down-regulated the mRNA expression of TERT. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of SIRT1 and TSC2 was down-regulated, while the mRNA expression of mTOR was up-regulated. The protein expression of SIRT1 and p-TSC2 was down-regulated, while the protein expression of p-mTOR was up-regulated. The results indicated that P. americana extract CⅡ-3 induced the senescence of K562 cells via the SIRT1/mTOR signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Periplaneta , Sirtuin 1/genetics , K562 Cells , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Mammals
2.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 1-16, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976577

ABSTRACT

Aims@#Several cockroach and ant species have been revealed to infest households with inadequate insect control and food storage practices. These household insects harbor countless bacteria species of public health, agricultural and industrial importance. Many studies have reported disease-causing bacteria from both cockroaches and ant’s species collected from hospitals and residential areas. The aim of this study was to characterize the culturable bacterial communities of two common household insects, big headed ants (Pheidole rugaticeps) and American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) using 16S rRNA genes sequencing.@*Methodology and results@#A total of 64 bacterial sequences were obtained from P. rugaticeps (48.44%) and P. americana (51.56%) and Firmicutes was the most dominant phylum from both insect species. Bacillus was the most dominant bacterial genus from both cockroach and ant samples. Other important genera isolated were Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas which have previously been suggested to have members that are of biotechnological importance. Food poisoning bacterial species, B. cereus and other bacterial strains such as B. subtilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Burkholderia cepacia, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcescens and S. pseudintermedius with the history of human infections were isolated from some of the insect’s specimens.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#Thus, these household insect pests harbor bacterial species known to cause diseases of serious public health importance that needs serious attentions. Similarly, the insects harbor other bacteria species that may provide opportunities for biotechnological exploration.


Subject(s)
Ants , Periplaneta , Public Health
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(1): e360102, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152689

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To study the Periplaneta americana L. extract Ento-B on the treatment of chronic ulcerative colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and acetic acid in rats and to explore its primary mechanism of action. Methods Using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene combined with acetic acid to induce chronic ulcerative colitis (chronic UC) in rats. The sulfasalazine (400 mg/kg) and Ento-B (200 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg,50 mg/kg) were given by intragastric administration and the effect was evaluated according to the disease activity index (DAI) score, colon mucosal injury index (CMDI) score, histopathological score (HS) and the serum levels of Interleukin-4(IL-4), Interleukin-10(IL-10), Tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), Malondialdehyde(MDA), Superoxide dismutase(SOD) and Inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS.) Results Compared with the model group, all doses of Ento-B could reduce the score of CMDI (p < 0.05), HS(p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), significantly increased the expression of IL-4, IL-10, SOD (p < 0.01) and decreased the levels of TNF-α, MDA, iNOS in serum of UC rats, significantly improving the degree of colon lesionsin UC rats. Conclusions Ento-B may play an important role in the treatment of ulcerative colitis induced byUC rats. The mechanism may be related to the increased expression of IL-4, IL-10, SOD and reduced expression of TNF-α, MDA, iNOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Periplaneta , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Colon , Acetic Acid , Dinitrochlorobenzene
4.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342262

ABSTRACT

A study to phenotypically characterize and determine the antibiogram of coagulase positive Staphylococci (CoPS) from the external surfaces of hospital cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) was conducted using standard microbiological methods. Out of the 50 cockroaches collected from various hospitals in Uyo, sixty-two percent (n = 31) had coagulase positive Staphylococci which consisted of Staphylococcus aureus (44.0 %; n = 22) and Staphylococcus intermedius (18.0 %; n = 9). The CoPS isolates showed 100% resistance to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Clindamycin and 80.6% sensitivity to Amoxicillin-clavulanate. The CoPS showed multiple antibiotic resistances to ≥ 3 antibiotics, with 60 % exhibiting resistance to 6 antibiotics. Out of the 80 % (n = 31) of the multidrug resistant CoPS that were sensitive to Amoxicillin-clavulanate, none of them showed production of beta lactamase. The cockroaches bore multiple antibiotic resistant CoPS on their external surfaces and their contact can initiate contamination of patients' food. Pest control measures in hospital are hereby recommended to minimize cockroach related infections


Subject(s)
Humans , Periplaneta , Clindamycin , beta-Lactamases , Staphylococcinum
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 73-80, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089279

ABSTRACT

Abstract Stresses can be caused by multiple biotic and abiotic factors and their effects can affect both the biology and the immune system of insects. American cockroach - Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattaria: Blattidae) -besides being an excellent model species, has great medical importance because it can act as a mechanical vector of several pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of starvation, dehydration and both stresses on weight, and total and differential haemocyte count in P. americana adults. Each specimen was isolated in glass flasks containing or not food and/or water. They were weighed periodically. Another group received water for 24 h after the end of stress period. In the immunologic bioassay, we counted their haemocytes after the final weighing. All stresses reduced the insect weight, especially when the stresses were combined. Females of the control group gained weight and males had it unaltered. Different stress conditions and time did not influence on total haemocyte count. Insects without food and water had the proportion of prohaemocytes increased and plasmatocytes decreased. This study can serve as a basis of further studies of bioecology, behaviour and the ability of resisting insecticides, besides serving as a model to studies in other insect species.


Resumo Os estresses podem ser causados por múltiplos fatores bióticos e abióticos e seus efeitos podem afetar tanto a biologia como o sistema imune dos insetos. A barata-americana - Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattaria: Blattidae) - além de ser uma excelente espécie modelo, tem grande importância médica, pois pode atuar como vetor mecânico de diversos patógenos. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a influência da inanição, desidratação e ambos os estresses sobre o peso e o número total e diferencial de hemócitos em adultos de P. americana. Cada espécime foi isolado em frascos de vidro contendo ou não alimento e/ou água. Eles foram pesados periodicamente. Outro grupo recebeu água por 24 h após o término do período de estresse. Nos ensaios imunológicos, foram contados os seus hemócitos após a última pesagem. Todos os estresses reduziram o peso dos insetos, especialmente quando os estresses foram combinados. As fêmeas do grupo controle ganharam peso e os machos tiveram seu peso inalterado. As diferentes condições de estresse e tempo não influenciaram no número total de hemócitos. Os insetos sem alimento e água tiveram a proporção de pró-hemócitos aumentada e a de plasmatócitos reduzida. Esse estudo pode servir como base para estudos posteriores de bioecologia, comportamento e da habilidade de resistir aos inseticidas químicos, além de servir como modelo para estudos em outras espécies de insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Periplaneta , Cockroaches , Insecticides , Diet , Immune System
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(10): e202001002, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130615

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the mechanism of Periplaneta americana extract promoting intestinal mucosal repair of OXZ-induced colitis in rat. Methods: All experiments used an equal number of male and female SD rats (n=48). We injected OXZ into the colon to induce UC rat model. To determine the optimal concentration of P. Americana's extract (PA-40), it was classified into low (L), medium (M), and high (H) doses. After OXZ treatment, each drug was administered by enema for 7 consecutive days. Rats were divided into the following 6 groups: (1) Saline treatment group (NC), (2) OXZ treatment UC model group (MC), (3) OXZ + budesonide group (BUN), (4) OXZ + PA-40 L group, (5) OXZ + PA-40 M group, (6) OXZ + PA-40 H group. Disease activity index (DAI) scores, colon length, histopathological score, serum cytokine level (IL-4, IL-10, iNOS, tNOS), and amount of MPO, EGF, IL-13 in colonic mucosa were measured. Results: PA treatment had a significant healing effect on the OXZ-colitis model and significantly reduced the lesioned area, especially in the PA-40H groups. PA treatment did not alter the expression of IL-10 and MPO level, but increased EGF (epidermal growth factor) and decrease IL-13 in the colonic tissue. PA inhibited the rise of NOSs (nitric oxide synthase) and decreased the serum IL-4 level. Conclusions: The data suggest that Periplaneta americana extract may be a potential compound for the treatment of colonic lesions. The mechanism may be related to inhibiting the secretion of IL-13 and promoting the formation of EGF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Periplaneta , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Colon , Intestinal Mucosa
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4217-4219, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775356

ABSTRACT

Periplaneta americana is an important medicinal insect. A series of new drugs developed from it have remarkable clinical effects and are in great demand in the market. Because of unclear biology, the quality and yield of P. americana are affected. Understanding the developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature of P. americana can provide theoretical basis for standardized culture of P.americana. Under climate chamber, the threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature for egg development of P. americana to were determined through effective accumulated temperature law. The threshold temperature was (15.8±0.71)°C, the effective accumulated temperature was 415.8±38.05 degree days. A model of the relationship between temperature and developmental rates was established.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum , Physiology , Periplaneta , Physiology , Temperature
8.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 499-508, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114697

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Inhalant allergen sensitization is one of the major factors involved in the pathogenesis of allergic respiratory diseases. However, the sensitization is determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Thus, testing panels of inhalant allergens may differ among geographical areas. Here we aimed to determine 10 common inhalant allergens in Korean adult patients with suspected respiratory allergies and to examine the variation between different geographical locations. METHODS: A total of 28,954 patient records were retrieved for retrospective analysis, from 12 referral allergy clinics located in 9 different areas. Inclusion criteria were Korean adults (≥18 years old) who underwent the inhalant allergen skin prick test for suspected history of respiratory allergy. The primary outcome was inhalant allergen skin prick response. Demographic and clinical information were also collected. Positive skin prick responses to allergens were defined as allergen-to-histamine wheal ratio ≥1. Based on skin test results, the most prevalent aeroallergens were determined. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of allergic sensitization was 45.3%. Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were the most commonly sensitized allergens. Other common inhalant allergens were cat epithelium (8.1%), birch (7.7%), mugwort (6.9%), alder (6.7%), hazel (6.7%), beech (6.7%), oak (6.6%), and Tyrophagus putres (6.2%), in decreasing order frequency. These 10 inhalant allergens explained 90% of inhalant allergen sensitization in the study participants. However, distinct patterns of the 10 inhalant sensitization were observed in patients living in Chungnam and Jeju. American cockroach, Gernam cockroach, and Trichophyton metagrophytes were unique in Chungnam. Orchard, Japanese cedar, and Velvet were unique in Jeju. CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis suggests a panel of 10 most common inhalant allergens in Korean adult patients with suspected respiratory allergies, which explained 90% of inhalant allergen sensitization. This panel can be utilized as a practical and convenient tool for primary practice and epidemiological surveys of respiratory allergic diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cats , Humans , Allergens , Alnus , Artemisia , Betula , Cockroaches , Cryptomeria , Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Epithelium , Fagus , Hypersensitivity , Periplaneta , Prevalence , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Skin Tests , Trichophyton
9.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 376-383, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89603

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cockroaches are the second leading allergen in Taiwan. Sensitization to Per a 2, the major American cockroach allergen, correlates with clinical severity among patients with airway allergy, but there is limited information on IgE epitopes and tissue localization of Per a 2. This study aimed to identify Per a 2 linear IgE-binding epitopes and its distribution in the body of a cockroach. METHODS: The cDNA of Per a 2 was used as a template and combined with oligonucleotide primers specific to the target areas with appropriate restriction enzyme sites. Eleven overlapping fragments of Per a 2 covering the whole allergen molecule, except 20 residues of signal peptide, were generated by PCR. Mature Per a 2 and overlapping deletion mutants were affinity-purified and assayed for IgE reactivity by immunoblotting. Three synthetic peptides comprising the B cell epitopes were evaluated by direct binding ELISA. Rabbit anti-Per a 2 antibody was used for immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Human linear IgE-binding epitopes of Per a 2 were located at the amino acid sequences 57-86, 200-211, and 299-309. There was positive IgE binding to 10 tested Per a 2-allergic sera in 3 synthetic peptides, but none in the controls. Immunostaining revealed that Per a 2 was localized partly in the mouth and midgut of the cockroach, with the most intense staining observed in the hindgut, suggesting that the Per a 2 allergen might be excreted through the feces. CONCLUSIONS: Information on the IgE-binding epitope of Per a 2 may be used for designing more specific diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cockroach allergy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acid Sequence , Cockroaches , DNA Primers , DNA, Complementary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Feces , Hypersensitivity , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin E , Immunohistochemistry , Mouth , Peptides , Periplaneta , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Sorting Signals , Taiwan
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2210-2213, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337957

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of total matrines and extracts from Periplaneta americana on negative endometrial cancer cell JEC of progesterone receptors. After detecting the effect of total matrine, extracts from P. americana and their combination on JEC cells' growth inhibition, cell cycle, P53 and c-erbB-2 gene protein expressions through MTT, flow cytometry instrument and Western blot method, the author found that, (1) MTT: total matrines and extracts from P. americana could inhibit the growth of JEC cell, with significant increase in the inhibitory effect in the combination group. (2) Flow cytometry instrument: the cell cycle at G0/G1 increased after the treatment with total matrines, the cell cycle at G2/M increased after the treatment with extracts from periplaneta americana, and the ratio of G0/G1 cell cycle in the combination group was significantly higher than the other groups, with inhibition in cell growth and statistical difference in inter-group comparison (P < 0.05). (3) Western blot: the expression level of P53 increased and c-erbB-2 decreased after the treatment with total matrines, extracts from P. americana and their combination on JEC cell, with statistical difference in inter-group comparison (P < 0.05). The above results suggested that total matrines, extracts from P. americana and their combination could induce cell cycle arrest and inhibit the growth of JEC cell by up-regulating P53 and down-regulating the c-erbB-2 level.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Alkaloids , Therapeutic Uses , Cell Line, Tumor , Endometrial Neoplasms , Chemistry , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Flow Cytometry , Periplaneta , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Therapeutic Uses , Quinolizines , Therapeutic Uses , Receptors, Progesterone , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Physiology
12.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 325-332, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132504

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cockroach (CR) is a common source of indoor allergens, and Per a 1 is a major American CR (Periplaneta americana) allergen; however, several attributes of this protein remain unknown. This study identifies a novel specific B cell epitope and anatomical locations of Per a 1.0105. METHODS: Recombinant Per a 1.0105 (rPer a 1.0105) was used as BALB/c mouse immunogen for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The MAb specific B cell epitope was identified by determining phage mimotopic peptides and pair-wise alignment of the peptides with the rPer a 1.0105 amino acid sequence. Locations of the Per a 1.0105 in P. americana were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The rPer a 1.0105 (~13 kDa) had 100%, 98% and > or =90% identity to Per a 1.0105, Per a 1.0101, and Cr-PII, respectively. The B-cell epitope of the Per a 1.0105 specific-MAb was located at residues99 QDLLLQLRDKGV110 contained in all 5 Per a 1.01 isoforms and Per a 1.02. The epitope was analogous to the Bla g 1.02 epitope; however, this B-cell epitope was not an IgE inducer. Per a 1.0105 was found in the midgut and intestinal content of American CR but not in the other organs. The amount of the Per a 1 was ~544 degrees Cg per gram of feces. CONCLUSIONS: The novel Per a 1 B-cell epitope described in this study is a useful target for allergen quantification in samples; however, the specific MAb can be used as an allergen detection reagent. The MAb based-affinity resin can be made for allergen purification, and the so-purified protein can serve as a standard and diagnostic allergen as well as a therapeutic vaccine component. The finding that the Per a 1 is contained in the midgut and feces is useful to increase yield and purity when preparing this allergen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Allergens , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Bacteriophages , Cockroaches , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Feces , Gastrointestinal Contents , Hybridomas , Immunoglobulin E , Peptides , Periplaneta , Protein Isoforms
13.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 325-332, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132501

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cockroach (CR) is a common source of indoor allergens, and Per a 1 is a major American CR (Periplaneta americana) allergen; however, several attributes of this protein remain unknown. This study identifies a novel specific B cell epitope and anatomical locations of Per a 1.0105. METHODS: Recombinant Per a 1.0105 (rPer a 1.0105) was used as BALB/c mouse immunogen for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The MAb specific B cell epitope was identified by determining phage mimotopic peptides and pair-wise alignment of the peptides with the rPer a 1.0105 amino acid sequence. Locations of the Per a 1.0105 in P. americana were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The rPer a 1.0105 (~13 kDa) had 100%, 98% and > or =90% identity to Per a 1.0105, Per a 1.0101, and Cr-PII, respectively. The B-cell epitope of the Per a 1.0105 specific-MAb was located at residues99 QDLLLQLRDKGV110 contained in all 5 Per a 1.01 isoforms and Per a 1.02. The epitope was analogous to the Bla g 1.02 epitope; however, this B-cell epitope was not an IgE inducer. Per a 1.0105 was found in the midgut and intestinal content of American CR but not in the other organs. The amount of the Per a 1 was ~544 degrees Cg per gram of feces. CONCLUSIONS: The novel Per a 1 B-cell epitope described in this study is a useful target for allergen quantification in samples; however, the specific MAb can be used as an allergen detection reagent. The MAb based-affinity resin can be made for allergen purification, and the so-purified protein can serve as a standard and diagnostic allergen as well as a therapeutic vaccine component. The finding that the Per a 1 is contained in the midgut and feces is useful to increase yield and purity when preparing this allergen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Allergens , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Bacteriophages , Cockroaches , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Feces , Gastrointestinal Contents , Hybridomas , Immunoglobulin E , Peptides , Periplaneta , Protein Isoforms
14.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(6): 708-710, Nov.-Dec. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624061

ABSTRACT

The present work tested whether Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola shows behavioral traits indicating that it is capable of feeding on arthropods. We consistently observed nymphs extending their proboscis in the direction of cockroaches and attempting to bite. Insects presented a preference for biting specific cockroach body parts. Our results suggest that arthropod hemolymph represents an alternative source of food that increases the survival of T. pseudomaculata individuals undergoing long starvation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Periplaneta/parasitology , Triatoma/physiology , Feeding Behavior
15.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 77(4): 701-706, out.-dez. 2010. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1395484

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento de ovos e ninfas de Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius) à temperatura de 30 ± 0,2° C, umidade relativa 80 ± 15% e fotofase de 12h e em condições ambientais de laboratório, sem controle de temperatura e umidade relativa; visando à subsídios para medidas de prevenção e controle. As ootecas foram individualizadas em tubos de ensaio até a eclosão. As ninfas foram transferidas para cubas de vidro e alimentadas com ração comercial para coelhos e água ad libitum até a emergência das imagos. Avaliou-se, período de incubação, número de ovos/ ooteca, viabilidade de ovos, número de ninfas/ooteca, período ninfal, viabilidade de ninfas e período ovo/adulto. A diferença do período médio de incubação à temperatura de 30° C (38 dias) e no ambiente (44,5 dias) foi significativa (p < 0,0001); eclodiram, em média 18,1 ninfas/ooteca a 30° C e 21 ninfas/ooteca em condições ambientais (p = 0,006); o período médio de ninfa a 30° C foi de 155,9 dias e no ambiente 279,7 dias (p < 0,0001); a viabilidade de ninfas foi superior a 50%, tanto a 30° C (55,1%) quanto em condições de laboratório (57,2%); no período médio de ovo-adulto de P. australasiae, houve diferença significativa (p< 0,001) entre a temperatura de 30 °C (194,1 dias) e em condições ambientais de laboratório (337,3 dias). Em condições de laboratório, os períodos de incubação, de ninfa e de ovo-adulto de P. australasiae foram aumentados em relação à temperatura de 30° C, não ocorrendo, entretanto, perda nem redução de viabilidade em nenhuma das fases.


With the objective of obtaining standards of measurement for prevention and control, this study compared the development of the eggs and nymphs of Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius) at a temperature of 30 ± 0.2° C, relative humidity 80 ± 15% and photoperiod of 12 hours versus ambient conditions in the laboratory without controls of temperature and RH. Single ootheca were maintained in test tubes until ecolosion, and nymphs were transferred to glass cubes and fed commercial rabbit ration and water ad libitum until emergence of the imagos. The incubation period, number of eggs/ ootheca, viability of the eggs, number of nymphs/ootheca, nymphal duration, viability of nymphs and duration of egg to adult were all evaluated. The mean difference in the incubation period between the temperature of 30° C (38 days) and ambient conditions (44.5 days) was significant (p < 0.0001); a mean of 18.1 nymphs/ootheca ecloded at 30° C, while 21 nymphs/ootheca ecloded under ambient conditions (p = 0.006); the mean nymphal period at 30° C was 155.9 days while for the ambient it was 279.7 days (p < 0.0001); nymphal viability was greater than 50% for both the 30° C laboratory (55.1%) and the ambient (57.2%); and the mean period from egg to adult of P. australasiae was significantly different (p < 0.001) between the 30° C temperature (194.1 days) and the ambient conditions of the laboratory (337.3 days). Under ambient conditions, the duration of nymphal incubation and egg to adult development of P. australasiae were increased relative to the temperature of 30° C without a reduction in viability in any of the stages.


Subject(s)
Periplaneta/growth & development , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Temperature , Humidity
16.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 740-743, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-313548

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>to investigate the effect of deoxypodophyllotoxin (DOP) on membrane potential of dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM, neurons) and its correlation with sodium channel.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>DUM neurons were labeled with DiBAC4(3). Laser scanning confocal microscope was used to monitor the changes of membrane potential at real time on these neurons that were treated with different concentrations of the DOP. The effect of sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the changes was also observed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>membrane potential depolarization induced by the DOP peaked at 5 min and became stabilized after 8min. After compared with fluorescence intensity without treatment, the normalized fluorescence intensity was 69.6 ± 3.0, 72.1 ± 2.7, 77.8 ± 3.6, 86.2 ± 3.1 in cells which were treated with 1, 5, 25, 125 micromol/L DOP, respectively. These numbers were significantly lower than those from untreated control cells (P < 0.01). When DUM neurons were co-incubated with 1 micromol/L TTX for 20 min, then treated with 25 micromol/L DOP, the intensity changed to 63.6 ± 5.4, which was similar to that of the control (P > 0.05). This indicated that the effect of DOP could be completely inhibited by TTX.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>DOP induced membrane depolarization of DUM neurons in the range of 1 approximately 125 micromol/L and the sodium channel should be involved in this process.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Ganglia, Invertebrate , Physiology , Membrane Potentials , Physiology , Neurons , Physiology , Periplaneta , Physiology , Podophyllotoxin , Pharmacology , Sodium Channels , Metabolism
17.
J. infect. dev. ctries ; 4(4): 194-201, 2009.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1263602

ABSTRACT

Background: Flies and cockroaches are two insects in close contact with human beings. They are carriers of human pathogenic bacteria on the external areas of their bodies or in their digestive tracts. This study examines Periplaneta americana and Musca domestica collected from the residential areas of six districts in Tangier; Morocco. Methodology: In total; 251 bacteria were isolated from external areas of the participants' bodies and the antimicrobial susceptibility was calculated. Results: The predominant bacterial species included Escherichia coli (17.9); Klebsiella spp. (14.7); Providencia spp. (9.6); Staphylococcus spp. (15.1) and Enterococcus spp. (11.6). The study showed no difference between the species of bacterial strains from American cockroaches and houseflies. Carbapenems and aminoglycosides were active against 100of the Gram-negative bacilli isolated in this study. Staphylococcus spp. strains were susceptible to linezolid; vancomycin; daptomycin; levofloxacin and cotrimoxazole; and no antibiotic resistance was found in Enterococcus spp. Conclusions: In our setting; although both cockroaches and flies collected from residential areas may be vectors of human pathogenic bacteria; the infections caused by them are easily treatable as a result of the high susceptibility of their bacteria to antibiotics routinely used in the community or in hospitals


Subject(s)
Houseflies , Periplaneta , Sprains and Strains
18.
Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 2009; 3 (2): 1-6
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-101159

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta Americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory. The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen [r] lppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme. Exposure of essential oil to females P. americanca at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT 50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h- 189.19 h and 14.90 h- 2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same concentrations against males P. americana, the LT50 LT 90 were 2.08 h- 181.73h and 5.4 h - 8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT 50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h- 381.02 h and 28.71h - 5313.36 h, respectively. The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cockroaches. Treatment with Resigen [R] at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54h- 9.47h for the females, 1.47h -4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h - 8.92 h for the nymphs. The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach. Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peripatetic americana


Subject(s)
Periplaneta , Oils, Volatile , Cockroaches , Adult , Plant Oils , Plants, Medicinal
19.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 683-686, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304616

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Xinmailong, a compound extracted from Periplaneta americana, is used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the effects of Xinmailong on myocardial hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and plasma endothelin-1(ET-1) levels in neonatal rats with asphyxia and explored the protection mechanism of Xinmailong in hypoxia-ischemic myocardial injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=30 each): sham-operated, asphyxia, Xinmailong-treated asphyxia. Each group was randomly subdivided into three groups according to the observed time points: 6 hrs, 24 hrs and 72 hrs. Xinmailong (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to the rats in the Xinmailong-treated group five minutes before asphyxia. Myocardial HIF-1alpha expression, and plasma ET-1 and creatine kinase (CK) levels were measured. The histopathologic changes of the myocardium were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Four rats died in the asphyxia group while only one died in the Xinmailong-treated group during the experiment. The plasma ET-1 and CK levels as well as myocardial HIF-1alpha expression increased at 6 hrs, reached a peak at 24 hrs, and declined at 72 hrs after asphyxia in the asphyxia group, being higher than that in the sham-operated group (P<0.01). Myocardial ischemia was observed in the three time points, and cell necrosis occurred at 24 hrs after asphyxia in the asphyxia group. Myocardial HIF-1alpha expression was positively correlated with plasma ET-1 levels (r=0.876, P<0.01). In the Xinmailong-treated group, plasma levels of CK and ET-1 as well as myocardial HIF-1alpha expression were significantly lower than those in the asphyxia group (P<0.01). Myocardial ischemia was alleviated and no cell necrosis was found in the Xinmailong-treated group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Asphyxia leads to increase in myocardial HIF-1alpha expression and plasma levels of ET-1 and CK. Xinmailong can reduce the myocardial expression of HIF-1alpha and decrease plasma ET-1 levels, thus alleviating hypoxia-ischemic myocardial injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Asphyxia , Metabolism , Creatine Kinase , Blood , Endothelin-1 , Blood , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Immunohistochemistry , Myocardial Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Myocardium , Pathology , Periplaneta , Chemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2008 Jun-Sep; 26(2-3): 143-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36906

ABSTRACT

An animal model resembling the human immuno-pathological features of CR allergy is needed for CR allergy research, e.g., measuring allergenicity of novel allergens, testing immunotherapeutic efficacies of drugs and vaccines. In this study we develop a murine model of American CR, P. americana allergy. BALB/c mice, 6 weeks old, were individually intraperitoneally injected with three doses (days 0, 7 and 14) of alum adjuvanted-crude extract of P. americana. On days 21 and 23, they were given crude CR extract in PBS intranasally (10 microl) and aerosolically (10 ml) via an air-pressure nebulizer, respectively. Mice received alum alone and PBS instead of the CR extract served as non-allergenic controls. All mice were bled twenty four hours after the nebulization and sacrificed. Their serum samples, broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF), and lung tissues were collected. BALF of all allergen-treated mice had marked cellular infiltration notably neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes. The average total cell count in BALF of the allergenic mice was 1.9 x 10(5) cells/ml which out-numbered those of the non-allergenic controls (8 x 10(4) cells/ml). The eosinophil infiltration was pronounced in lungs of the allergen-treated mice. Specific serum IgE to the CR extract elevated in serum samples of all allergen treated mice and nil in the sera of the controls. None of the mice showed detectable level of IgG2a to the CR extract. RT-PCR revealed that all allergen-treated mice had marked increase of IL-13, IL-4 and TNF-alpha gene expressions, slight increase of IL-5 gene expression, and absence of detectable IFN-gamma gene expression in comparison to the non-allergenic controls. None of the allergen-treated mice and 50% of the non-allergenic controls had IL-12 gene expression as detected by RT- PCR. One allergen treated-mouse (25%) had subpar level of the IL-18 gene expression compared to the controls. Results of the quantitative real-time PCR conformed to those of the RT-PCR. A murine model of P. americana resembling human allergic manifestations was successfully developed.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Alum Compounds , Animals , Cell Movement , Complex Mixtures/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/blood , Immunization, Secondary , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Leukocyte Count , Lung/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Periplaneta/immunology
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