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1.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(3): e1160, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347543

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ascariasis es una enteroparasitosis con alta prevalencia en la población pediátrica tercermundista, la cual puede asociarse a otras enfermedades intestinales y tener graves complicaciones que requieren tratamiento quirúrgico. Objetivo: Informar el caso de un infante operado por coinfección de ascariasis intestinal y fiebre tifoidea complicadas. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 9 años de edad asistido y operado en el hospital provincial N´gola Kimbanda de la provincia Namibe, Angola, por presentar evidencia clínica de peritonitis aguda generalizada por perforación intestinal de causa tifoidea y por cuyo orificio salían además áscaris lumbricoides vivos. Su evolución no fue satisfactoria y falleció 24 horas después de la operación. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico y tratamiento quirúrgico oportuno de la coinfección letal de ascariasis y fiebre tifoidea complicadas permitirá disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad por esta prevalente asociación(AU)


Introduction: Ascariasis is an enteroparasitosis with high prevalence in the third-world pediatric population, which can be associated with other bowel diseases and have serious complications that require surgical treatment. Objective: Report the case of an infant operated by the co-infection of complicated intestinal ascariasis and typhoid fever. Case presentation: 9-year-old male patient attended and operated at N'gola Kimbanda Provincial Hospital in Namibe Province, Angola, after presenting clinical evidence of generalized acute peritonitis due to intestinal perforation of typhoid-causing and through which live ascaris lumbricoide also came out. His evolution was unsatisfactory and he died 24 hours after the operation. Conclusions: The timely diagnosis and surgical treatment of lethal co-infection of complicated ascariasis and typhoid fever will reduce morbidity and mortality from this prevalent association(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Peritonitis/etiology , Ascariasis/epidemiology , Ascaris lumbricoides/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases/complications , Intestinal Perforation/surgery , Research Report , Coinfection/mortality
2.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(1): e968, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289370

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las reintervenciones en la cirugía abdominal, son causa de una alta mortalidad en los servicios de cirugía general. Objetivo: Caracterizar morbimortalidad de las reintervenciones de la cirugía abdominal urgente y electiva en el servicio de cirugía general del Hospital Universitario "Manuel Ascunce Domenech". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal, de los pacientes que requirieron de reintervención quirúrgica abdominal. El universo estuvo conformado por 236 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se utilizaron métodos estadísticos descriptivos y cálculos con valores porcentuales. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de edades de 40-49 años, así como el sexo masculino, con un 25 por ciento y 64,8 por ciento, respectivamente. En cuanto al tiempo en que se realizó la reintervención 72,5 por ciento se realizó luego de las 48 horas. El 88,6 por ciento de los pacientes resolvió la causa que lo originó en la primera reintervención. Las causas más frecuentes fueron la peritonitis generalizada seguida de los abscesos intrabdominales con un 19,5 por ciento y 17,4 por ciento respectivamente. La mortalidad fue de 30,1 por ciento y el tromboembolismo pulmonar la causa directa de muerte en 12,3 por ciento de los casos. Conclusiones: Casi la totalidad de los casos fueron reintervenidos luego de las 48 horas y las dos terceras partes resolvieron en la primera intervención. La peritonitis generalizada y los abscesos intrabdominales fueron la causa de la reintervención en un número importante(AU)


Introduction: Abdominal surgery re-interventions cause high mortality in general surgery services. Objective: To characterize morbidity and mortality of urgent and elective abdominal surgery re-interventions in the general surgery service of Manuel Ascunce Domenech University Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study was carried out with patients who required abdominal surgical re-intervention. The universe consisted of 236 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical methods and calculations with percentage values were used. Results: There was a predominance of the age group 40-49 years and the male sex, accounting for 25 percent and 64.8 percent, respectively. Regarding time of performance of re-intervention, 72.5 percent was carried out after 48 hours. 88.6 percent of the patients had, in the first re-intervention, a solution for the cause that originated it. The most frequent causes were generalized peritonitis, followed by intraabdominal abscesses, accounting for 19.5 percent and 17.4 percent, respectively. Mortality was 30.1 percent and pulmonary embolism was the direct cause of death in 12.3 percent of cases. Conclusions: Almost all the cases were re-intervened after 48 hours and two thirds had a solution the first re-intervention. Generalized peritonitis and intraabdominal abscesses were the cause of re-intervention, in a significant number(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Peritonitis/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Reoperation/methods , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Abdominal Cavity/surgery , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880805

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of the first episode of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP) in patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of patients with the first episode of PDAP in 4 general hospitals in Jilin Province from 2013 to 2019 were collected retrospectively. According to the duration of dialysis, the patients were divided into long-term (≥36 months) and short-term (< 36 months) dialysis groups for comparison of the clinical data, treatment outcomes and long-term prognostic events.@*RESULTS@#A total of 625 patients with PDAP were enrolled, including 93 on long-term and 532 on short-term dialysis. Compared with those on short-term dialysis, the patients on long-term dialysis had significantly higher hemoglobin levels and lower glomerular filtration rates when the first episode of PDAP occurred (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with those on short-term dialysis, patients on long-term dialysis are prone to gram-negative bacterial infection when the first episode of PDAP occurs with worse treatment outcomes but similar long-term outcomes. Long-term dialysis is an independent risk factor of extubation and treatment failure for the first episode of PDAP, and fungal and mixed bacterial infections are independent risk factors for treatment failure of the first PDAP in patients with long-term dialysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Peritonitis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1546, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152618

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The Hartmann procedure remains the treatment of choice for most surgeons for the urgent surgical treatment of perforated diverticulitis; however, it is associated with high rates of ostomy non-reversion and postoperative morbidity. Aim: To study the results after the Hartmann vs. resection with primary anastomosis, with or without ileostomy, for the treatment of perforated diverticulitis with purulent or fecal peritonitis (Hinchey grade III or IV), and to compare the advantages between the two forms of treatment. Method: Systematic search in the literature of observational and randomized articles comparing resection with primary anastomosis vs. Hartmann's procedure in the emergency treatment of perforated diverticulitis. Analyze as primary outcomes the mortality after the emergency operation and the general morbidity after it. As secondary outcomes, severe morbidity after emergency surgery, rates of non-reversion of the ostomy, general and severe morbidity after reversion. Results: There were no significant differences between surgical procedures for mortality, general morbidity and severe morbidity. However, the differences were statistically significant, favoring primary anastomosis in comparison with the Hartmann procedure in the outcome rates of stoma non-reversion, general morbidity and severe morbidity after reversion. Conclusion: Primary anastomosis is a good alternative to the Hartmann procedure, with no increase in mortality and morbidity, and with better results in the operation for intestinal transit reconstruction.


RESUMO Racional: O procedimento a Hartmann permanece sendo o tratamento de escolha da maioria dos cirurgiões para o tratamento cirúrgico de urgência da diverticulite perfurada, entretanto está associado com altas taxas de não reversão da ostomia e de morbidade pós-operatória. Objetivo: Estudar os resultados após o procedimento de Hartmann vs. ressecção com anastomose primária, com ou sem ileostomia, para o tratamento da diverticulite perfurada com peritonite purulenta ou fecal (grau de Hinchey III ou IV), e comparar as vantagens entre as duas formas de tratamento. Método: Busca sistemática na literatura de artigos observacionais e randomizados comparando ressecção com anastomose primária vs. procedimento de Hartmann no tratamento de urgência da diverticulite perfurada. Analisar como desfechos primários a mortalidade após a operação de urgência e a morbidade geral após ela; como desfechos secundários, a morbidade severa após a operação de urgência, as taxas de não reversão da ostomia, a morbidade geral e severa após a reversão. Resultados: Não houve diferenças significativas entre os procedimentos cirúrgicos para mortalidade, morbidade geral e morbidade severa. Contudo, as diferenças foram significativas estatisticamente favorecendo anastomose primária na comparação com procedimento de Hartmann nos desfechos taxas de não reversão do estoma, morbidade geral e morbidade severa após reversão. Conclusão: A anastomose primária apresenta-se como boa alternativa ao procedimento de Hartmann, sem aumento de mortalidade e morbidade, e com melhores resultados na operação de reconstrução do trânsito intestinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritonitis/etiology , Colon, Sigmoid/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Diverticulitis/surgery , Diverticulitis/complications , Intestinal Perforation/surgery , Peritonitis/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Colostomy/adverse effects , Ileostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Diverticulitis/pathology , Intestinal Perforation/pathology
7.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 30(4): 104-113, dic. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096799

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los pacientes que se presentan con cuadros de peritonitis de origen diverticular (estadios Hinchey III o IV) en un contexto de sepsis severa con inestabilidad hemodinámica (shock séptico) la realización de anastomosis primaria presenta una alta tasa de dehiscencia anastomótica y mortalidad operatoria, aconsejándose la realización de una resección y abocamiento a la manera de Hartmann. Sin embargo, la alta tasa de complicaciones relacionadas a la confección del ostoma, la complejidad de la cirugía de restauración del tránsito intestinal, asociado a que entre el 40 % y el 60 % de los Hartmann no se reconstruyen, ha estimulado a que se intenten otras variables de resolución para esta compleja y grave patología. Diversas publicaciones en los últimos años han propuesto la táctica de "cirugía del control del daño" con el objeto de disminuir la morbimortalidad de estos gravísimos cuadros sépticos y a su vez reducir la tasa de ostomías. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar nuestra experiencia inicial con esta modalidad de manejo de la peritonitis diverticular Hinchey III/IV sepsis severa e inestabilidad hemodinámica (shock séptico) y realizar una revisión bibliográfica del tema. Material y método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de series de casos. Entre noviembre de 2015 y diciembre de 2016. Servicio de coloproctología del complejo médico hospitalario Churruca-Visca de la ciudad de Buenos Aires y práctica privada de los autores. Se utilizó la técnica de laparotomía abreviada y cierre temporal del abdomen mediante un sistema de presión negativa. Resultados: En el periodo descripto se operaron 17 pacientes con peritonitis generalizada purulenta o fecal de origen diverticular. Catorce casos fueron Hinchey III (82,36%) y 3 casos Hinchey IV (17,64%). En 3 casos se observó inestabilidad hemodinámica en el preoperatorio o intraoperatorio. Todos ellos correspondientes al estadio IV de Hinchey. Se describen los 3 casos tratados mediante esta táctica quirúrgica. Discusión: La alta tasa de morbimortalidad de este subgrupo de pacientes incentivó a diversos grupos quirúrgicos a implementar la técnica de control del daño, permitiendo de esta manera estabilizar a los pacientes hemodinámicamente y en un segundo tiempo evaluar la reconstrucción del tránsito intestinal. En concordancia con estas publicaciones, dos de nuestros pacientes operados con esta estrategia, pudieron ser anastomosados luego del segundo lavado abdominal. Conclusión: En pacientes con peritonitis diverticular severa asociado a shock séptico el concepto de laparotomía abreviada con control inicial del foco séptico, cierre temporal del abdomen con sistema de presión negativa y posterior evaluación de la reconstrucción del tránsito intestinal, es muy alentador. Permitiendo una disminución de la morbimortalidad como así también del número de ostomías. (AU)


Introduction: Patients presenting with diverticular peritonitis (Hinchey III or IV stages) in a context of severe sepsis with hemodynamic instability (septic shock), performing primary anastomosis has a high rate of dehiscence anastomotic and operative mortality, advising the realization of a resection and ostoma in the manner of Hartmann. However, the high rate of complications related to performing of ostoma, the complexity of intestinal transit restoration surgery, associated with the 40% to 60% of Hartmann reversal not performed, has encouraged other variables to be attempted resolution for this complex and serious pathology. Several publications in recent years have proposed the tactic of "damage control surgery" in order to reduce the morbidity of these serious septic charts while reducing the rate of ostomies. The objective of this study is to present our initial experience with this modality of management of the diverticular peritonitis Hinchey III/IV severe sepsis and hemodynamic instability (septic shock) and to carry out a bibliographic review of the subject. Material and method: Observational, descriptive study of case series. Between November 2015 and December 2016. Coloproctology service of the Churruca-Visca hospital medical complex in the city of Buenos Aires and private practice of the authors. The technique of abbreviated laparotomy and temporary closure of the abdomen was used by a negative pressure system. Results: In the period described, 17 patients with generalized purulent or fecal peritonitis of diverticular origin were operated. Fourteen cases were Hinchey III (82.36%) and 3 cases Hinchey IV (17.64%).In 3 cases, hemodynamic instability was observed in the preoperative or intraoperative period. all of them corresponding to Hinchey's Stage IV. The 3 cases treated using this surgical tactic are described. Discussion: The high morbidity rate of this subgroup of patients encouraged various surgical groups to implement the damage control technique, thus allowing patients to stabilize hemodynamically and in a second time evaluate reconstruction intestinal transit. In line with these publications, two of our patients operated on with this strategy could be anastomosated after the second abdominal wash. Conclusion: In patients with severe diverticular peritonitis associated with septic shock, the concept of abbreviated laparotomy with initial control of the septic focus, temporary closure of the abdomen with negative pressure system and subsequent evaluation of transit reconstruction intestinal, it's encouraging. Allowing a decrease in morbidity as well as the number of ostomies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Peritonitis/surgery , Shock, Septic , Diverticulitis, Colonic/surgery , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy , Laparotomy/methods , Peritonitis/etiology , Reoperation , Peritoneal Lavage , Colostomy/methods , Colostomy/mortality , Acute Disease , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Sepsis , Diverticulitis, Colonic/complications , Abdominal Wound Closure Techniques , Laparotomy/mortality
8.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 16(3): 28-32, oct. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046286

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN La peritonitis meconial (PM) es una peritonitis localizada o generalizada, aséptica, química o de cuerpo extraño; producto del paso de meconio a la cavidad peritoneal y esta correlacionada con la perforación prenatal del tracto digestivo. Se presenta en 1 de cada 30.000 recién nacidos (RN). El diagnostico ecográfico prenatal mejora los resultados perinatales, el hallazgo más frecuente es la ascitis. La PM requiere un tratamiento multidisciplinario urgente, la mayoría es de resolución quirúrgica. OBJETIVO Dar a conocer una patología infrecuente, que requiere un alto grado de sospecha diagnostica para otorgar un manejo perinatal específico y oportuno. Caso clínico Primigesta de 29 años sin antecedentes mórbidos, cursando embarazo controlado de 36+5 semanas. En control ecográfico se evidencia ascitis fetal. Se hospitaliza en alto riesgo obstétrico, descartando patología metabólica e infecciosa. A las 37 semanas por cesárea de urgencia, se obtiene RN con distensión abdominal y hepatomegalia. En laparotomía exploradora se evidencia asas intestinales indemnes. En re intervención se encuentra hernia de íleon distal perforada, se confecciona ostomia, evoluciona favorablemente y es dado de alta. DISCUSIÓN Es fundamental considerar la PM dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales de ascitis fetal. Un diagnóstico oportuno mejora los resultados perinatales y permite prevenir posibles complicaciones.


INTRODUCTION Meconial peritonitis (PM) is localized or generalized peritonitis, aseptic, chemical or strange body; a product of meconium steps to the peritoneal cavity and is correlated with prenatal perforation of the digestive tract. It occurs in 1 in 30,000 newborns. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis improves perinatal outcomes, the most frequent finding is ascites. PM requires urgent multidisciplinary treatment, most of cases need surgical resolution. OBJECTIVE To present an infrequent pathology, which requires a high degree of diagnostic suspicion to grant a specific and timely perinatal management. Clinical case Pregnant 29 years old woman without morbid history, 36 weeks of controlled pregnancy. Ultrasound control shown fetal ascites. He is hospitalized at high obstetric risk, ruling out metabolic and infectious pathology. At 37 weeks by emergency caesarean section, is obtained a baby boy with abdominal distension and hepatomegaly. In exploratory laparotomy there are undamaged intestinal handles. In re intervention it is noted herniated perforated distal ileum, ostomy is made. Patient evolves favourably and is discharged. DISCUSSION It is essential consider PM within the differential diagnoses of fetal ascites. An opportune diagnosis improves the perinatal results and could avoids possible complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Peritonitis/diagnosis , Peritonitis/etiology , Prenatal Diagnosis , Meconium , Peritonitis/surgery , Ascites/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential
12.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(3): 147-155, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958967

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endometriosis can have several different presentations, including overt ascites and peritonitis; increased awareness can improve diagnostic accuracy and patient outcomes. We aimto provide a systematic review and report a case of endometriosis with this unusual clinical presentation. The PubMed/MEDLINE database was systematically reviewed until October 2016. Women with histologically-proven endometriosis presenting with clinically significant ascites and/or frozen abdomen and/or encapsulating peritonitis were included; thosewith potentially confounding conditionswere excluded.Our search yielded 37 articles describing 42 women, all of reproductive age. Ascites was mostly hemorrhagic, recurrent and not predicted by cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) levels. In turn, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and infertility were not consistently reported. The treatment choices and outcomes were different across the studies, and are described in detail. Endometriosis should be a differential diagnosis of massive hemorrhagic ascites in women of reproductive age.


Resumo A endometriose pode ter várias apresentações, incluindo ascite e peritonite, que são apresentações incomuns. O aumento da conscientização sobre essa doença podemelhorar a precisão diagnóstica e os resultados das pacientes. Nosso objetivo é fornecer uma revisão sistemática e relatar um caso de endometriose com esta apresentação clínica incomum. O banco de dados PubMed/MEDLINE foi revisado sistematicamente até outubro de 2016. Foram incluídas mulheres comendometriosedemonstrada histologicamente, compresença de ascite clinicamente significativa e/ou abdômen congelado e/ou peritonite encapsulante; foram excluídas aquelas com comorbidades que pudessem provocar confusão. A pesquisa selecionou 37 artigos que descrevem42mulheres, todas emidade reprodutiva. A ascite foi principalmente hemorrágica, recorrente, e não indicada pelos níveis de antígeno associado ao câncer 125 (AC-125). Por sua vez, a dismenorreia, a dispareunia e a infertilidade não foram relatadas de forma consistente. As escolhas e os resultados do tratamento foram diferentes entre os estudos, e são descritos em detalhes. A endometriose deveria ser um diagnóstico diferencial de ascite hemorrágica maciça em mulheres em idade reprodutiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Peritonitis/etiology , Ascites/etiology , Endometriosis/complications , Endometriosis/diagnosis
13.
Rev. inf. cient ; 97(1): i:67-f:75, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-995789

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en la unidad de cuidados intensivos no siempre se conocen los factores que determinan el pronóstico del paciente con peritonitis. Objetivo: precisar los factores determinantes de la mortalidad por peritonitis secundaria en esta unidad en el Hospital "Dr. Agostinho Neto" durante los años 2014­2016. Método: se realizó un estudio analítico prospectivo y longitudinal de todos los pacientes ingresados en la citada UCI por peritonitis secundaria en los años 2014­2016 (n=70), los que se agruparon según fueran egresados vivos o fallecidos. Se precisaron las variables más relacionadas con la probabilidad de que el paciente falleciera y las más frecuentes en los fallecidos. Se calculó el riesgo absoluto (RA) de cada variable. Resultados: los factores más frecuentes fueron: fiebre (n=53), Síndrome respuesta inflamatoria sistémica (n=51) y la leucocitosis/desviación izquierda (n=51). Los factores con mayor probabilidad de determinar la muerte fueron: fallo multiorgánico (RA 17.8), fluido peritoneal fecaloideo (RA 7.8) y choque séptico (RA 7.3). Conclusión: Los factores que determinan la mortalidad por peritonitis secundaria son: la peritonitis difusa, presencia de fallo multiorgánico, hipoxemia ≤ 85 mmHg y/o Sp02 ≤ 90 %, edad ≥ 60 años, presión intrabdominal poscirugía ≥ 21 cm H2O (15 mmHg), síntomas ≥ 24 h antes de cirugía, choque séptico, fluido peritoneal fecaloideo, origen colónico de la peritonitis(AU)


Introduction: the factors that determine the prognosis of the patient with peritonitis are not always known in the intensive care unit. Objective: to determine the determinants of mortality due to secondary peritonitis in this unit at the Hospital "Dr. Agostinho Neto" during the years 2014-2016. Method: a prospective, longitudinal, and analytical study was conducted of all the patients admitted to the ICU for secondary peritonitis in the years 2014-2016 (n=70), which were grouped according to graduates alive or deceased. The variables most related to the probability of the patient's death and the most frequent in the deceased were specified. The absolute risk (AR) of each variable was calculated. Results: the most frequent factors were: fever (n = 53), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (n = 51) and left leukocytosis/deviation (n = 51); the factors most likely to determine death were multiorgan failure (RA 17.8), fecaloid peritoneal fluid (RA7.8) and septic shock (RA 7.3). Conclusions: The factors that determine mortality due to secondary peritonitis: diffuse peritonitis, presence of multi-organ failure, hypoxemia ≤ 85 mmHg or Sp02 ≤ 90 %, age ≥ 60 years, intra-abdominal pressure after surgery ≥ 21 cm H2O (15 mmHg), symptoms ≥ 24 h before surgery, septic shock, fecaloid peritoneal fluid, colonic origin of peritonitis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritonitis/etiology , Peritonitis/mortality , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Critical Care
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(1): 41-48, ene. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845502

ABSTRACT

Background: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) with a low prevalence but high mortality. It is characterized by peritoneal inflammation and fibrosis with subsequent development of intestinal encapsulation. It is associated with a long lapse on PD, frequent episodes of peritonitis, high glucose solution use, and high peritoneal transport status. Aim: To report the clinical features of patients on PD, who developed EPS. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of 12 patients aged 43 ± 10 years (eight women) who developed EPS. Results: The mean time spent on PD was 98 months. The main clinical manifestations were abdominal pain in 82% and ultrafiltration failure in 63%. In 92%, there was a history of peritonitis and 75% had high peritoneal transport at the time of diagnosis. The main findings in computed tomography were peritoneal calcification and thickening. There was a biopsy compatible with the diagnosis in 10 cases. Treatment consisted in withdrawal from PD, removal of PD catheter and the use of corticoids and tamoxifen. After withdrawal from PD 50% of patients became asymptomatic. The rest had intermittent abdominal pain and altered bowel movements. Two patients died (17%). Conclusions: EPS is a serious complication of PD, which should be suspected in any patient with compatible clinical symptoms, long time on PD, multiple episodes of peritonitis and high peritoneal transport profile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Peritonitis/diagnosis , Peritonitis/etiology , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Peritoneal Fibrosis/etiology , Peritonitis/pathology , Peritonitis/therapy , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Peritoneal Fibrosis/pathology , Peritoneal Fibrosis/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic
15.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 28(2): 85-87, 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118650

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication in cirrhotic patients. Listeria monocytogenes is a rare cause of SBP, which should be suspected in individuals with impaired immunity such as advanced liver disease and inadequate response to standard antibiotic therapy. We report a case of a 72 year-old patient with liver cirrhosis secondary to alcohol consumption, asymptomatic carrier of Hepatitis B virus, diabetes Type II and coronary artery disease; who is admitted with a diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy and suspicion of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis receiving empiric antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxona. Initially he showed clinical response but a few days later he got worse. Ascitic culture confirmed infection by Listeria monocytogenes. Antibiotic treatment was adjusted but patient continued deteriorating progressively, and finally died due to renal dysfunction.


La peritonitis bacteriana espontánea (PBE) es una complicación frecuente y grave en los pacientes cirróticos. Listeria monocytogenes es una causa poco frecuente de PBE, que debe sospecharse en individuos con inmunidad alterada como es la enfermedad hepática avanzada y con respuesta inadecuada a terapia antibiótica habitual. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 72 años con antecedentes de cirrosis hepática secundaria a consumo de alcohol, portador asintomático del virus de la Hepatitis B (VHB), diabético tipo II y cardiópata coronario. Se hospitaliza por encefalopatía hepática secundaria a PBE, recibe tratamiento antibiótico empírico con ceftriaxona con respuesta clínica inicial y deterioro posterior. Cultivo de líquido ascítico confirma infección por Listeria monocytogenes. Pese a ajuste de tratamiento antibiótico, continúa empeorando y finalmente fallece por disfunción renal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Peritonitis/etiology , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic/complications , Peritonitis/microbiology , Fatal Outcome , Listeriosis/complications , Listeria monocytogenes , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 32(3): 166-177, set. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-796339

ABSTRACT

La peritonitis es una complicación grave de la diálisis peritoneal (DP), por lo que interesa conocer la incidencia y sensibilidad antibiótica de los gérmenes causantes. En Uruguay, desde el 1° de enero de 2004, se realiza un registro nacional de las peritonitis en DP, gérmenes, sensibilidad y evolución. Método: se analizaron los registros desde el 1° de enero de 2004 al 31 de diciembre de 2013. El registro fue aprobado por comités de ética institucionales. Resultados: en el período se registraron 850 peritonitis, con una incidencia que descendió de 0,49/paciente-año (2004-2005) a 0,37/paciente-año (2013). La incidencia de Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo (SCoN) fue menor en 2009-2013 vs 2004-2005 (0,2 vs 0,12 peritonitis/paciente-año, test Poisson p<0,05). En 2009-2013: 14/54 S. aureus y 26/71 SCoN fueron meticilinorresistente, similar al período previo. El 98% de los gérmenes gramnegativos fueron sensibles a amikacina. En 145/467 (31%) episodios no se identificó germen. Se logró cura primaria en 71% de las peritonitis por grampositivos y en 45% por gramnegativos (chi2 p<0,05). En 2013 se observó mayor incidencia de peritonitis en los centros en los que no se controló el estado de portador nasal. Comentarios y conclusiones: se justifica implementar el control de portador de Staphylococcus aureus. La incidencia de peritonitis por S. aureus y SCoN meticilinorresistentes, la incidencia sostenida de gérmenes gramnegativos (con peor evolución), y el elevado porcentaje de cultivos sin desarrollo justifica mantener el protocolo antibiótico empírico inicial con vancomicina y amikacina. El descenso de la incidencia de S. aureus + SCoN podría ser atribuido a una mejor educación de los pacientes en DP.


Abstract Peritonitis is a severe complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), so it is important to learn about the incidence and antibiotic sensitivity of the germs that cause it. In Uruguay, since January 1, 2004, a national record is kept for peritonitis in PD, germs, sensitivity and evolution. Method: the records from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2013 were analyzed. The registry was approved by institutional ethical committes. Results: during the above mentioned period, 850 cases of peritonitis were recorded, and incidence dropped from 0.49/patient-year (2004-2005) to 0.37/patient-year (2013). Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (SCoN) was lower in 2009-2013 vs 2004-2005 (0.2 vs 0.12 peritonitis/patient-year, test Poisson p<0.05). In 2009-2013: 14/54 S. aureus and 26/71 SCoN were methicillin-resistant, similar to the previous period. 98% of Gram-negative were sensitive to amikacin. No germ was identified in 145/467 (31%) of episodes. Primary cure was achieved in 71% of peritonitis for Gram-positive and 45% for Gram-negative bacteria (chi2 p<0.05). In 2013 a greater incidence of peritonitis was observed in those centers where the nasal carriage was not controlled. Comments and conclusions: controlling Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriages is worth doing. The incidence of peritonitis by methicillin-resistant S. aureus y SCoN, the sustained incidence of Gram-negative germs (with a worse evolution), and the high percentage of cultures with no development justify keeping the initial empirical antibiotic protocol with vancomycin and amikacin. Reduction in the incidence of S. aureus + SCoN could be explained by a greater education in PD patients.


Resumo A peritonite é uma complicação grave da diálise peritoneal (DP), sendo, portanto, importante conhecer a incidência e a sensibilidade antibiótica dos gérmens causadores. No Uruguai, desde 1 de janeiro de 2004, realiza-se um registro nacional das peritonites em DP, com dados sobre gérmens, sensibilidade e evolução. Método: foram analisados os registros do período 1 de janeiro de 2004 - 31 de dezembro de 2013. O registro foi aprovado pelos comitês de ética das instituições envolvidas. Resultados: foram registradas 850 peritonites no período estudado; a incidência diminuiu de 0,49/paciente-ano no período 2004-2005 a 0,37/paciente-ano em 2013. A incidência de Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (SCoN) foi menor no período 2009-2013 comparada com 2004-2005 (0,2 vs 0,12 peritonite/paciente-ano, teste de Poisson p<0,05). No período 2009-2013: 14/54 S. aureus e 26/71 SCoN foram resistentes à meticilina, similar ao período prévio. 98% dos gérmens gramnegativos eram sensíveis a amicacina. Não se pode identificar o gérmen em 145/467 (31%) episódios. Em 71% das peritonites por grampositivos e em 5% por gramnegativos (chi2 p<0,05) foi possível obter cura primária. Em 2013 foi observada uma maior incidência de peritonite nos centros em que não se realizava controle de portador nasal. Comentários e conclusões: justifica-se a realização de controle de portador de Staphylococcus aureus. A incidência de peritonite por S. aureus e SCoN resistentes à meticilina, a incidência constante de gérmens gramnegativos (com pior evolução), e a alta porcentagem de cultivos sem crescimento justificam manter o protocolo antibiótico empírico inicial com vancomicina e amicacina. A redução da incidência de S. aureus + SCoN poderia ser atribuída a melhor educação dos pacientes em DP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Peritonitis/epidemiology , Peritonitis/etiology , Uruguay/epidemiology
17.
Clinics ; 71(3): 169-178, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778996

ABSTRACT

To compare the complications and mortality related to gastrostomy procedures performed using surgical and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques, this review covered seven studies. Five of these were retrospective and two were randomized prospective studies. In total, 406 patients were involved, 232 of whom had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and 174 of whom had undergone surgical gastrostomy. The analysis was performed using Review Manager. Risk differences were computed using a fixed-effects model and forest and funnel plots. Data on risk differences and 95% confidence intervals were obtained using the Mantel-Haenszel test. There was no difference in major complications in retrospective (95% CI (-0.11 to 0.10)) or randomized (95% CI (-0.07 to 0.05)) studies. Regarding minor complications, no difference was found in retrospective studies (95% CI (-00.17 to 0.09)), whereas a difference was observed in randomized studies (95% CI (-0.25 to -0.02)). Separate analyses of retrospective and randomized studies revealed no differences between the methods in relation to mortality and major complications. Moreover, low levels of minor complications were observed among endoscopic procedures in randomized studies, with no difference observed compared with retrospective studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Gastrostomy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/mortality , Gastrostomy/adverse effects , Gastrostomy/mortality , Intestinal Perforation/etiology , Peritonitis/etiology , Pneumonia, Aspiration/etiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retrospective Studies
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 52(3): 195-199, July-Sep. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762877

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSpontaneous bacterial peritonitis is defined as an ascetic fluid infection without an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is one of the severe complications in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Without early antibiotic treatment, this complication is associated with high mortality rate; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is necessary for survival. Leukocyte esterase reagent can rapidly diagnose the spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.ObjectiveThis study aimed to find out the diagnostic accuracy of leukocyte esterase dipstick test for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.MethodsA single centered hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted during July 2013 to August 2014 on children with cirrhotic liver disease and ascites who were admitted in the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology in Nemazee Hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Iran). All patients underwent abdominal paracentesis, and the ascitic fluid was processed for cell count, leukocyte esterase reagent strip test (Combiscreen SL10) and culture. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was defined as having a polymorphonuclear count (PMN ≥250/m3) in ascitic fluid. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of leukocyte esterase test were calculated according to the formula.ResultsTotally, 150 ascitic fluid sample of cirrhotic male patients (53.2%) and their mean age (4.33±1.88 years) were analyzed. Biliary atresia (n=44, 29.4%) and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (n=29, 19.3%) were the most frequent etiology of cirrhosis. Also, abdominal pain (68.6%) and distension (64%) were the most common presenting complaint. Of all cases, 41patients (27.35%) were diagnosed to have spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (PMN ≥250/mm3). Sensitivity and specificity of leukocyte esterase reagent test according to PMNs ≥250mm3 were 87.80% and 91.74%, also on ascitic fluid culture results were 88.23% and 77.44%. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of this test in PMNs ≥250mm3 were 80% and 95.23% and in cases with positive culture 33.33% and 98.09% were obtained, respectively. Efficiency of leukocyte esterase reagent test in diagnosing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, according to PMNs ≥250mm3 and culture results were 90.66% and 78.66%.ConclusionThe leukocyte esterase strip test may be used as rapid test for diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to its high diagnostic validity.


ContextoA peritonite bacteriana espontânea é definida como uma infecção do fluido ascítico sem evidente origem intra-abdominal cirurgicamente tratável. A peritonite bacteriana espontânea é uma das complicações graves em pacientes com cirrose e ascite. Sem tratamento antibiótico precoce, esta complicação é associada com alta taxa de mortalidade. Portanto, o diagnóstico precoce e tratamento de peritonite bacteriana espontânea são necessários para a sobrevivência. O reagente de esterase de leucócitos pode rapidamente diagnosticar a peritonite bacteriana espontânea.ObjetivoEste estudo teve como objetivo descobrir a acurácia diagnóstica do teste com tiras de esterase de leucócitos para o diagnóstico de peritonite bacteriana espontânea.MétodosUm estudo transversal hospitalar unicêntrico foi realizado entre julho de 2013 e agosto de 2014 em crianças com cirrose hepática e ascite que foram admitidas no Departamento de Gastroenterologia Pediátrica no Hospital de Nemazee afiliado à Universidade de Ciencias Médicas de Shiraz (Irã). Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a paracentese abdominal, e o líquido ascítico foi processado para contagem de células, teste de tira de reagente de esterase de leucócitos (Combiscreen SL10) e cultura. Peritonite bacteriana espontânea foi definida como tendo uma contagem de polimorfonucleares (PMN ≥250/m3) no líquido ascítico. Sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo negativo do teste de esterase de leucócitos foram calculados de acordo com a fórmula.ResultadosForam analisados um total de 150 amostras de líquido ascítico de pacientes cirróticos; (53,2%) eram do sexo masculino e sua média de idade (4,33±1,88 anos). A atresia biliar (n=44, 29,4%) e hepatite neonatal idiopática (n=29, 19,3%) foram as etiologias mais frequentes de cirrose. Além disso, dor abdominal (68,6%) e distensão (64%) foram as queixas mais comuns de apresentação. De todos os casos, 41 (27,35%) foram diagnosticados com peritonite bacteriana espontânea (PMN ≥250/mm3). A sensibilidade e especificidade do teste de reagente de esterase de leucócitos segundo PMN ≥250mm3 foi de 87,80% e 91,74% e, para os resultados de cultura de líquido ascítico, de 88,23% e 77,44%. Valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo do teste em PMN ≥250mm3 foi de 80% e 95,23% e em casos com cultura positiva 33,33% e 98,09%, respectivamente. A eficiência do teste de reagente esterase de leucócitos no diagnóstico de peritonite bacteriana espontânea, de acordo com resultados de ≥250mm3 e cultura PMN, foi de 90,66% e 78,66%.ConclusãoO teste de tiras de esterase de leucócitos pode ser usado como um teste rápido para diagnóstico de peritonite bacteriana espontânea, devido a sua alta validade diagnóstica.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Ascites/complications , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Peritonitis/diagnosis , Peritonitis/etiology , Reagent Strips , Ascitic Fluid , Ascites/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Peritonitis/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(8): 568-573, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757992

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of copaiba oil as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic substance on survival of rats subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, describing histopathological and oxidative stress findings.METHODS:Forty rats (Ratus norvegicus) were distributed into five study groups (N=8): Sham group (ShG): normal standard animals; Sepse group (SepG): submitted a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP); Pre group (PreG): administered copaiba oil once daily by subcutaneous injection for five days before carrying out CLP; Post CLP group (PostG): administered copaiba oil once daily by subcutaneous injection from the first day of CLP until death by sepsis; and Pre/Post group (Pre/PostG): administered copaiba oil once daily by subcutaneous injection for five days before carrying out CLP and from the first day of CLP until de death by sepsis. After the death of the animals, blood was collected for assessment of oxidative stress and histological analysis were performed. The Kaplan-Meier curves of surviving time were realized.RESULTS: Survival analysis demonstrated that animals treated with copaiba oil prior to the execution of the CLP (PreG and Pre/Post groups) had longer survival compared to the sepsis group (p<0.0001) whereas animals receiving copaiba only after the completion of CLP (PostG) showed no statistically significant difference compared to the sepsis group. However, when comparing the two groups in which was administered copaiba previously (PreG and Pre/PostG groups), there was no statistical significance between the groups (p=0.4672). There was no statistical difference between histopathological findings or the levels of oxidative stress.CONCLUSION: Prophylactic subcutaneous administration of copaiba increases survival of rats subjected to severe sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Fabaceae/chemistry , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Cecum/surgery , Disease Models, Animal , Feces , Injections, Subcutaneous , Ligation , Malondialdehyde/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Punctures , Peritonitis/etiology , Peritonitis/prevention & control , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Survival Analysis , Sepsis/prevention & control , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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