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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 461-465, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440326

ABSTRACT

Comparar la permeabilidad de las vías aéreas y el tamaño de los senos maxilares en relación con la clase esqueletal. se midieron 90 radiografías lateral de cráneo, divididas en 3 grupos, comparando las 3 clases esqueletales, las cuales se determinaron con la medida ANB de Steiner, y estas a su vez en dos subgrupos que fueron hombres y mujeres, en las cuales se utilizó el análisis de McNamara para el análisis de vías aéreas y para el área del seno maxilar se tomaron dos medidas una antero-posterior y cefálica-caudal. Al comparar los hombres con las mujeres se identificó significancia estadística en vía área superior de clase II (p=≤0.017), vía aérea inferior de clase III (p=≤0.006). Al comparar las clases esqueletales en hombres se identificó diferencias en la vía aérea superior en las clases I vs III (p=≤0.05), inferior en la clase I vs III (p=≤0,001) y II vs III (p=≤0.044). Con respecto a mujeres se identificó significancia en la vía aérea superior al comparar la clase I vs II (p=≤0,043), vía aérea inferior en la clase II vs III (p=≤0.05), longitud del seno maxilar al comparar clase I vs II (p=≤0.017). Entre la clase I esqueletal y la clase II, el tamaño de los senos maxilares resulto menor en longitud en las mujeres de clase II esqueletal. Entre la clase I y clase III esqueletal en hombres, se encontró una longitud menor en la vía aérea superior e inferior en la clase I. Las vías aéreas resultaron en menor tamaño en sujetos de clase II.


SUMMARY: To compare the airway permeability and the size of the maxillary sinuses in relation to the skeletal class. 90 lateral skull radiographs were divided into 3 groups, comparing the 3 skeletal classes, which were determined with Steiner's ANB measurement, and these were once in two subgroups that were men and women, in any McNamara analysis was used for the analysis of airways and for the maxillary sinus area measurements were made an antero-posterior and cephalic-caudal. When comparing males with females, statistical significance was identified in the upper class II route (p=≤0,017), lower class III airway (p=≤0.006). At least skeletal classes in men, differences were identified in the upper airway in classes I vs III (p=≤0.05), lower in class I vs III (p=≤0.001) and II vs III (p=≤0.044). With respect to women, significance was identified in the upper airway when comparing class I vs II (p=≤0.043), lower airway in class II vs. III (p=≤0.05), maxillary sinus length to class I vs II (p=≤0.017). Between skeletal class I and class II, maxillary sinus size was shorter in length in skeletal class II women. Between class I and skeletal class III in men, a lower length was found in the upper and lower airways in class I. The airways were found to be smaller in class II subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Permeability , Nasopharynx/diagnostic imaging , Maxillary Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/anatomy & histology , Malocclusion, Angle Class I , Malocclusion, Angle Class II , Malocclusion, Angle Class III , Maxillary Sinus/anatomy & histology , Mexico
2.
Hepatología ; 4(1): 75-89, 2023. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1415978

ABSTRACT

La interrupción de la simbiosis que existe entre el cuerpo humano y su microbioma puede resultar en una disbiosis, un desequilibrio en la interacción huésped-microbiota, que puede asociarse al desarrollo de diversas enfermedades como el síndrome de intestino irritable, hígado graso no alco-hólico, enfermedad hepática alcohólica y cirrosis, entre otras. En ciertas condiciones patológicas y por múltiples factores de riesgo, la capacidad de autorregulación del intestino se puede alterar, contribuyendo al incremento de la permeabilidad con inflamación intestinal crónica. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento, así como la relación entre la permeabilidad intestinal, la disbiosis y las patologías gastrointestinales y hepatobiliares, todavía no tienen estudios clínicos validados o con el soporte científico adecuado, por lo que se realiza una revisión de la literatura con la finalidad de aportar conceptos que puedan orientar con respecto a la importancia del estudio del microbioma humano en estas enfermedades.


Disruption of the symbiosis that exists between the human body and its microbiome can result in dys-biosis, an imbalance in the host-microbiota interaction, which may be associated with the develop-ment of various diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis, among others. In certain pathological conditions and due to multiple risk factors, the self-regulating capacity of the intestine may be lost, contributing to increased permeability with chronic intestinal inflammation. Its diagnosis and treatment as well as the relationship between intestinal permeability, dysbiosis and gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary pathologies have not been validated in clinical studies or have adequate scientific support, so a review of the literature is carried out in order to provide concepts that can guide with respect to the importance of the study of the human microbiome in these diseases


Subject(s)
Humans , Permeability , Dysbiosis , Microbiota , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Risk Factors , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Fatty Liver , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971594

ABSTRACT

Bacteremia induced by periodontal infection is an important factor for periodontitis to threaten general health. P. gingivalis DNA/virulence factors have been found in the brain tissues from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is essential for keeping toxic substances from entering brain tissues. However, the effect of P. gingivalis bacteremia on BBB permeability and its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, rats were injected by tail vein with P. gingivalis three times a week for eight weeks to induce bacteremia. An in vitro BBB model infected with P. gingivalis was also established. We found that the infiltration of Evans blue dye and Albumin protein deposition in the rat brain tissues were increased in the rat brain tissues with P. gingivalis bacteremia and P. gingivalis could pass through the in vitro BBB model. Caveolae were detected after P. gingivalis infection in BMECs both in vivo and in vitro. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression was enhanced after P. gingivalis infection. Downregulation of Cav-1 rescued P. gingivalis-enhanced BMECs permeability. We further found P. gingivalis-gingipain could be colocalized with Cav-1 and the strong hydrogen bonding between Cav-1 and arg-specific-gingipain (RgpA) were detected. Moreover, P. gingivalis significantly inhibited the major facilitator superfamily domain containing 2a (Mfsd2a) expression. Mfsd2a overexpression reversed P. gingivalis-increased BMECs permeability and Cav-1 expression. These results revealed that Mfsd2a/Cav-1 mediated transcytosis is a key pathway governing BBB BMECs permeability induced by P. gingivalis, which may contribute to P. gingivalis/virulence factors entrance and the subsequent neurological impairments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bacteremia/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/microbiology , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Gingipain Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Permeability , Porphyromonas gingivalis/pathogenicity , Transcytosis , Virulence Factors/metabolism
4.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 558-560, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982633

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common cause of death in critically ill patients. At present, the pathogenesis of ARDS has not been clarified, which is mainly related to excessive inflammatory response, increased endothelial and epithelial permeability, and decreased alveolar surfactant. In recent years, many studies have shown that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is involved in the occurrence and development of ARDS by inducing inflammation and activating immune response, and has the potential to be used as biomarkers for ARDS. This article reviews the role of mtDNA in the pathogenesis of ARDS, aiming to provide new strategies for the treatment of ARDS, and ultimately reduce the mortality of ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA, Mitochondrial , Mitochondria , Inflammation , Permeability , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn
5.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(1): 50-59, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1368371

ABSTRACT

Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory condition that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract due to an exacerbated and inadequate immune system response. Objective. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review, through clinical trials, about the use of probiotics in humans with CD. Materials and methods. Research was carried out in the PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct databases using the keywords "Crohn's disease" and "probiotics". We conducted the review by searching clinical trials published from 2000 to December 2019. Results. Of 2,164 articles found, only nine were considered eligible for this review. The studies investigated patients with CD at different stages of the pathology, and in three studies the potential effect of probiotics in the active phase was observed; in two, in the remission phase; and in four, after intestinal surgery. The sample size of the studies ranged from 11 to 165 individuals and the age of the participants between 5 and 71 years. Gram-positive bacteria were used in six clinical interventions and in two studies yeasts were used. As for the significant results obtained with the treatment with probiotics, in one study there was beneficial clinical effects in patients and, in another, there was an improvement in intestinal permeability. Conclusion. Currently, it is not possible to establish a recommendation for probiotic therapy to control CD due to the few clinical trials with significant results. There is a need for more research on clinical intervention with probiotics in CD to clarify the action, define doses and time of use(AU)


La enfermedad de Crohn (EC) es una afección inflamatoria que puede afectar todo el tracto gastrointestinal debido a una respuesta del sistema inmunitario exacerbada e inadecuada. Objetivo. Realizar una revisión sistemática, a través de ensayos clínicos, sobre el uso de probióticos en humanos con EC. Materiales y métodos. La investigación se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus y Science Direct utilizando las palabras clave "enfermedad de Crohn" y "probióticos". La revisión se hizo en ensayos clínicos publicados desde 2000 hasta diciembre 2019. Resultados. De 2164 artículos encontrados, solo nueve fueron considerados elegibles. Los estudios investigaron pacientes con EC en diferentes etapas de la patología, y en tres estudios se observó el efecto potencial de los probióticos en la fase activa; en dos, en remisión; y en cuatro, tras cirugía intestinal. El tamaño de la muestra fue entre 11 y 165 individuos y la edad entre 5 y 71 años. Se utilizaron bacterias grampositivas en seis intervenciones clínicas y en dos estudios se utilizaron levaduras. En cuanto a los resultados significativos obtenidos con el tratamiento con probióticos, en un estudio hubo efectos clínicos beneficiosos en los pacientes y, en otro, hubo una mejora en la permeabilidad intestinal. Conclusión. Actualmente, no es posible establecer una recomendación de terapia con probióticos para el control de la EC debido a los pocos ensayos clínicos con resultados significativos. Existe la necesidad de más investigación sobre la intervención clínica con probióticos en EC para aclarar la acción, definir dosis y tiempo de uso(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Crohn Disease , Probiotics , Gastrointestinal Tract , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Permeability , Yeasts , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , PubMed , Immune System
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 168 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425795

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O aumento da expectativa de vida da população faz com que as pessoas passem a viver por mais tempo com doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT). Dentre as mulheres, as fases da vida que mais se destacam pelos acometimentos em saúde são aquelas relacionadas à menopausa; além do risco aumentado para o desenvolvimento da síndrome metabólica (SM), há destaque para os transtornos mentais comuns (TMC) e as doenças articulares (DA). Já entre os homens, uma vez que a andropausa não é tão claramente identificada como a menopausa, acaba-se atribuindo essa ocorrência à idade e às baixas concentrações séricas de testosterona. Todavia, em ambos os sexos, um processo de inflamação sistêmica crônica e de baixo grau (ISBG) tem sido apontado como um importante fator associado ao desenvolvimento e agravo de todas as condições acima mencionadas. A ISBG decorre de alterações próprias do envelhecimento no sistema imune (SI), particularmente a imunossenescência, mas também por outros fatores externos ao SI, em especial as modificações na gordura corporal e no ambiente intestinal. Nesse contexto, estudar a relação e fatores associados a essas condições permite o delineamento de estratégias de intervenção em saúde. Objetivos: Investigar, em pessoas a partir 40 anos de idade, a prevalência e as associações entre desfechos em saúde relacionados a DCNT, incluindo fatores relacionados à ISBG. Métodos: O presente estudo, que consistiu na elaboração de três manuscritos, foi desenvolvido a partir de dados do Inquérito de Saúde de São Paulo de 2015, um estudo transversal, de base populacional e com amostra representativa dos moradores da área urbana do município de São Paulo. No primeiro manuscrito, foi investigada a associação entre a presença de TMC, DA, Índice de massa corporal (IMC) e outras doenças crônicas. As análises incluíram também dados sociodemográficos (idade, escolaridade, raça/etnia); essas associações foram testadas por modelos de regressão logística múltipla. No segundo manuscrito foram testadas as associações entre TMC e DA com o potencial inflamatório da dieta (identificado a partir do cálculo do Índice Inflamatório da Dieta), o nível de atividade física (utilizando o International Physical Activity Questionnaire- IPAq) classificado conforme recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), a presença de outras doenças crônicas e o IMC. As análises também incluíram variáveis sociodemográficas (faixa etária, escolaridade, raça/etnia). O terceiro manuscrito consistiu em uma subamostra não representativa do banco de dados do estudo ISA, com participantes que tiveram a composição corporal avaliada por DEXA (raios-x de dupla energia), de onde se obteve a massa magra apendicular e o total de gordura corporal. Foi também avaliada a força de preensão manual, que determina a qualidade do músculo esquelético. Foi realizada a dosagem de marcadores inflamatórios (TNF-α) e de permeabilidade intestinal (LPS, zonulina e iFABP). Ainda, esses participantes tiveram realizadas as dosagens de HDL-c plasmático, glicemia de jejum e triacilglicerol, além das medidas de pressão arterial. Esses parâmetros foram utilizados para a classificação da síndrome metabólica (SM). As associações, mediações e direções entre essas variáveis foram testadas a partir de modelos generalizados de equações estruturais. Principais Resultados: Manuscrito 1. A prevalência de TMC entre as mulheres investigadas no estudo esteve entre 26,9% e 38,0%, a de DA ficou entre 18,7% e 31,1%. Foram encontradas associações entre TMC e DA (OR = 1,998; p<0,001), idade entre 56 e 60 anos (OR= 0,542; p=0,018), e a presença de três diagnósticos de outras doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (OR= 2,696; p= 0,027). Manuscrito 2. Avaliando simultaneamente as associações entre TCM, DA, potencial inflamatório da dieta, e o nível de atividade física, observou-se que as associações entre TMC, DA e número de diagnósticos de outras doenças crônicas foram mantidas, e o maior tercil do escore do índice inflamatório da dieta se mostrou positivamente associado a presença de TCM (OR=2,240; p=0,006). O nível de atividade física não apresentou significância, porém permaneceu ajustando os modelos. Manuscrito 3. A síndrome metabólica foi identificada em 45,8% dos participantes, e associações diretas foram observadas entre TNF-α e massa gorda corporal, e entre a permeabilidade intestinal e a massa muscular apendicular. Conclusões: Os resultados aqui apresentados confirmaram uma associação significativa entre transtornos mentais e aspectos inflamatórios, representados pela presença de doenças articulares e outras doenças crônicas, além do potencial inflamatório da dieta. A atividade física mostrou uma associação marginal protetora em relação à inflamação sistêmica e consequentemente aos transtornos mentais. Finalmente, componentes da composição corporal, massa gorda e massa magra apendicular, se mostraram diretamente associados a marcadores inflamatórios e a presença de síndrome metabólica.


Background: The increase in population life expectancy allows individuals to live longer time periods with noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Among women, the life phases that stand out the most by the health compliment are those related to menopause, with emphasis to the common mental disorders (CMD), and the joint diseases (JD), and an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome presentation. Among men, once andropause is not as clearly identified as menopause, the occurrence of these conditions is attributed to age and to the low level of circulating testosterone. The called low-grade systemic inflammation (LGSI) has been pointed as an important factor associated to the development and worsening of all the mentioned conditions. The LGSI results from the immune system (IS) proper alterations, but also from factor aside IS, especially the body fat and gut environment changes. In this context, investigating the relations and factors associated to those conditions allows designing health intervention strategies. Aims: To investigate, in persons aged 40+ years old, the prevalence and associations between CMD related outcomes, with emphasis on the factors associated to the LGSI. Methods: The present study, which is constituted of three manuscript elaboration, was developed from data of the 205 Health Survey of São Paulo, a population-based cross-sectional study, with representative sample of urban residents of the city of São Paulo. In the first manuscript, associations of CMD, JD, and other chronic conditions, and body mass index (BMI), were investigated. The analysis also included sociodemographic data (age, schooling, race/ethnicity); these associations were testes by multiple logistic regression models. In the second manuscript, associations were tested between CMD and JD, with the inflammatory potential of the diet (identified from the Dietary Inflammatory Index calculation), the leisure physical activity level [classified according to WHO (World Health Organization) proposition using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire- IPAq], the presence of other chronic conditions and BMI. Analysis also included sociodemographic variables (age intervals, schooling, race/ethnicity). Third manuscript consisted of a sub-sample, which was not representative of the Health Survey of São Paulo, with participants who had their body composition evaluated by DXA (dual energy x-ray), from which appendicular muscle mass and total body fat were obtained. Also, handgrip strength, that determinate skeletal muscle quality, was evaluated. Inflammatory (TNF-α) and gut permeability (LPS, zonulin and iFABP) were evaluated. Yet, these participants had plasmatic HDL-c, fasting blood glucose and triacylglycerol, and arterial blood pressure evaluated. These parameters were used for the metabolic syndrome (MS) classification. Associations, mediations, and directions among those variables were tested by Generalized Structural Equation Models. Main results: Manuscript 1. The prevalence of CMD among investigated women was found between 26.9% and 38.0%, and from 18.7% to 31.1% for JD. Associations were found between CMD and DA (OR= 1.998; p<0.0001), age from 56 to 60 years old (OR= 0.542; p=0,018), and the presence of the diagnostics of three chronic conditions other than JD (OR= 2.696; p=0.027). Manuscript 2. Simultaneously evaluating the associations between CMD, JD, and dietary inflammatory potential, physical activity level, and the number of other chronic conditions diagnosis, and the higher dietary inflammatory index score presented positively associated to the presence of CMD (OR= 2.240; p=0.006). Physical activity level did not present significant associations, but it adjusted the models. Manuscript 3. Metabolic Syndrome was identified in 45.8% of the participants, and direct associations were observed between TNF-α and body fat mass, and from gut permeability and the appendicular muscle mass. Conclusions: The here presented results confirm a significant association between common mental disorders and inflammatory aspects, represented by the presence of joint diseases and other chronic conditions, and also the dietary inflammatory potential. Physical activity presented marginal protective association in relation to systemic inflammation, and consequently to common mental disorders. Finally, body composition components, body fat and appendicular muscle mass, were directly associated to inflammatory markers and to the presence of metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Permeability , Menopause , Exercise , Metabolic Syndrome , Andropause , Diet , Noncommunicable Diseases , Inflammation , Joint Diseases , Mental Disorders
7.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE039007434, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1374036

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Identificar os indicadores clínicos mais relevantes para o Diagnóstico de Enfermagem Desobstrução ineficaz de vias aéreas. Método Estudo metodológico de análise de conteúdo organizado em três fases: definição conceitual do fenômeno de interesse, construção da estrutura do fenômeno de interesse e análise dos juízes sobre a estrutura construída. Resultados Foram identificados 21 indicadores clínicos. Apenas Sons respiratórios aumentados e Retração subcostal não foram indicadores significativamente relevantes para o diagnóstico. Conclusão Os indicadores de maior relevância para o diagnóstico Desobstrução ineficaz de vias aéreas foram: Dispneia, Mudanças no ritmo respiratório, Ruídos adventícios respiratórios, Taquipneia, Acúmulo excessivo de muco, Tosse ineficaz, Sons respiratórios diminuídos, Ortopneia, Cianose, Inquietação, Dificuldade para verbalizar e Uso da musculatura acessória para respirar.


Resumen Objetivo Identificar a los indicadores clínicos más relevantes para el Diagnóstico de Enfermería Desobstrucción ineficaz de las vías aéreas. Métodos Estudio metodológico de análisis de contenido organizado em tres fases: definición conceptual del fenómeno de interés, construcción de la estructura del fenómeno de interés y análisis de los jueces sobre la estructura construida. Resultados Se identificaron 21 indicadores clínicos. Únicamente Sonidos respiratorios aumentados y Retracción subcostal no fueron indicadores significantemente relevantes para el diagnóstico. Conclusión Los indicadores de mayor relevancia para el diagnóstico Desobstrucción ineficaz de las vías aéreas fueron: Disnea, Cambios en el ritmo respiratorio, Ruidos adventicios respiratorios, Taquipnea, Acúmulo excesivo de mucosidad, Tos ineficaz, Sonidos respiratorios disminuidos, Ortopnea, Cianosis, Inquietud, Dificultad para verbalizar y Uso de la musculatura accesoria para respirar.


Abstract Objective To identify the most relevant clinical indicators for the Ineffective airway clearance Nursing Diagnosis. Method This is a methodological study of content analysis organized into a conceptual definition of the phenomenon of interest, construction of the phenomenon of interest structure and analysis by judges on the constructed structure. Results Twenty-one clinical indicators were identified. Only Increased breath sounds and Subcostal retraction were not significantly relevant for the diagnosis. Conclusion The most relevant indicators for the Ineffective airway clearance diagnosis were: Dyspnea, Alteration in respiratory rate, Adventitious respiratory noises, Tachypnea, Excessive sputum, Ineffective cough, Decreased breathing sounds, Orthopnea, Cyanosis, Restlessness, Difficulty verbalizing and Use of accessory muscles to breathe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Nursing Diagnosis , Nursing Diagnosis/standards , Telemedicine , Airway Obstruction , Permeability , Indicators (Statistics) , Validation Studies as Topic
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 101 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416975

ABSTRACT

Os parâmetros de permeabilidade e solubilidade são fundamentais à absorção oral de fármacos e a partir dessas características, foi criado o Sistema de Classificação Biofarmacêutica, através do qual os fármacos são divididos em quatro classes. Atualmente, para a determinação da solubilidade de um fármaco, existem diversos métodos padronizados por agências regulatórias, no entanto, para a determinação da permeabilidade, os ensaios são passíveis de diversas variações em sua execução, diminuindo a confiabilidade dos resultados obtidos e impossibilitando a comparação dos mesmos quando realizados com técnicas diferentes umas das outras. O objetivo do presente trabalho é avaliar as variáveis experimentais do modelo do saco intestinal que podem influenciar nos resultados de permeabilidade aparente de fármacos e na viabilidade do tecido. O presente estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética no Uso de Animais da FCF-USP (109.2018-P574). Foram utilizados 33 Rattus norvegicus da linhagem Wistar, machos, jovens adultos, com peso entre 200 g e 300 g. Para realização do procedimento, cada animal permaneceu em jejum por cerca de quatro horas e após adequada anestesia a porção do jejuno do intestino delgado foi retirada e dividida em seis segmentos de aproximadamente 8,5cm cada. Foram realizados experimentos com e sem inversão do saco intestinal, submetidos a diferentes tempos de banho de gelo após sua ressecção, na presença ou ausência de inibidor da glicoproteína-P (verapamil). Os fármacos naproxeno e famotidina foram empregados como marcadores de alta e baixa permeabilidade, respectivamente. A losartana foi utilizada como substrato da glicoproteína P. Cada um dos sacos intestinais foi colocado em um tubo de ensaio contendo tampão Krebs, a 37°C, saturado com gás carbogênio. Para avaliação da integridade e viabilidade dos segmentos intestinais, observou-se a presença de movimentos peristálticos e coletaram-se amostras do meio de incubação nos tempos 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 e 120 minutos para quantificação dos fármacos e de glicose, uma vez que esta é ativamente transportada para a serosa do intestino delgado. Determinou-se a permeabilidade aparente de cada fármaco e as concentrações de glicose nas diferentes condições experimentais, realizou-se planejamento fatorial multinível e os resultados foram analisados por análise variância (ANOVA), seguida de pós-teste de Tukey. Observou-se que as variáveis experimentais interferiram de forma significativa na viabilidade tecidual e na permeabilidade aparente dos fármacos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas da permeabilidade de fármacos nos diferentes segmentos do jejuno. A glicose mostrou-se um bom marcador de viabilidade tecidual e foi constatado que a presença ou ausência de movimentos peristálticos não está relacionada diretamente com a viabilidade do tecido. Uma vez que foram constatadas tantas interferências nos resultados, é imprescindível que os procedimentos experimentais sejam padronizados, para que os resultados apresentem menor variabilidade e possam ser comparados entre si


The permeability and solubility parameters are fundamental to the oral absorption of drugs and from these characteristics, the Biopharmaceutical Classification System was created, through which drugs are divided into four classes. Currently, for the determination of the solubility of a drug, there are several methods standardized by regulatory agencies, however, for the determination of permeability, the tests are subject to several variations in their execution, reducing the reliability of the results obtained and making it impossible to compare the results obtained. same when performed with different techniques. The aim of this study is to evaluate if different experimental conditions can influence the results of apparent drug permeability and tissue viability on gut sac model. The present study was approved by the Ethics Committee for the Use of Animals of FCF-USP (109.2018-P574). Thirty-three male, young adult Rattus norvegicus were used, weighing between 200 g and 300 g. To perform the procedure, each animal fasted for about four hours and after adequate anesthesia, the portion of the jejunum of the small intestine was removed and divided into six segments of approximately 8.5 cm each. Experiments were performed with and without inversion of the gut sac, submitted to different times of ice bath after its resection, in the presence or absence of a P-glycoprotein inhibitor (verapamil). The drugs naproxen and famotidine were used as markers of high and low permeability, respectively. Losartan was used as a substrate for P-glycoprotein. Each of the gut sacs was placed in a test tube containing Krebs buffer, at 37°C, saturated with carbogen gas. To evaluate the integrity and viability of the intestinal segments, the presence of peristaltic movements was observed and samples of the incubation medium were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes for quantification of drugs and glucose, as it is actively transported to the serosa of the small intestine. The apparent permeability of each drug and the glucose concentrations were determined under different experimental conditions, multilevel factorial design was performed and the results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey's post-test. It was observed that the experimental variables significantly interfered in the tissue viability and in the apparent permeability of the drugs. No significant differences in drug permeability were observed in the different segments of the jejunum. Glucose proved to be a good marker of tissue viability and it was found that the presence or absence of peristaltic movements is not directly related to tissue viability. Since so many interferences were found in the results, it is essential that the experimental procedures be standardized, so that the results show less variability and can be compared between different authors


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Permeability , Solubility , Biopharmaceutics/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Methods , Reference Standards , Analysis of Variance , Fasting/adverse effects , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/adverse effects , Absorption , Jejunum/abnormalities
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19473, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384023

ABSTRACT

Abstract RGX-365 is the main fraction of black ginseng conmprising protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type rare ginsenosides (ginsenosides Rg4, Rg6, Rh4, Rh1, and Rg2). No studies on the antiseptic activity of RGX-365 have been reported. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is recognized as a late mediator of sepsis, and the inhibition of HMGB1 release and recovery of vascular barrier integrity have emerged as attractive therapeutic strategies for the management of sepsis. In this study, we examined the effects of RGX-365 on HMGB1-mediated septic responses and survival rate in a mouse sepsis model. RGX-365 was administered to the mice after HMGB1 challenge. The antiseptic activity of RGX-365 was assessed based on the production of HMGB1, measurement of permeability, and septic mouse mortality using a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis mouse model and HMGB1-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that RGX-365 significantly reduced HMGB1 release from LPS- activated HUVECs and CLP-induced release of HMGB1 in mice. RGX-365 also restored HMGB1-mediated vascular disruption and inhibited hyperpermeability in the mice. In addition, treatment with RGX-365 reduced sepsis-related mortality in vivo. Our results suggest that RGX- 365 reduces HMGB1 release and septic mortality in vivo, indicating that it is useful in the treatment of sepsis.


Subject(s)
HMGB1 Protein/analysis , Panax/adverse effects , Permeability , Sepsis/pathology , Ginsenosides , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/classification , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/adverse effects
10.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 9(1): 82-97, 2022. il^c27
Article in English | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1390741

ABSTRACT

White cement-based mortars in urban areas are usually discolored and altered their esthetic properties due to air pollutants. The addition of nanoparticles in these mortars can provide photocatalytic properties that can decompose pollution agents. Likewise, other hydrophobic agents have been individually studied to improve outdoor building constructions. Therefore, this study presented the photocatalytic and hydrophobic effect of adding nano-TiO2and silicone hydrophobic powder (DOWSILTM) in a white cement matrix. The nano-TiO2 were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD); afterwards, the mortar was mixed with additions of nano-TiO2 (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0%) and DOWSILTM (0.0, 0.5%). The mortar's photocatalytic performance was evaluated using a modification of the standard Italian test Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione 11259:2016 based on Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation on the sample exposed to UV irradiation. Therefore, mortar samples were subjected to UV irradiation to degrade the organic dye rhodamine B, monitoring their color variation using a C I E L* a* b* spectrophotometer. Moreover, the water permeability and the contact angle were evaluated. This research demonstrates that the white cement-based mortar samples added with nano-TiO2/DOWSILTM possess photocatalytic activity. The samples with the addition of 1.0%/0.5% and 3.0%/0.5% nano-TiO2/DOWSILTM showed a higher RhB degradation for R4 and R26. Therefore, these two materials can be employed in these proportions to improve the quality of the white cement-based mortars in urban constructions.


Los morteros a base de cemento blanco generalmente se decoloran y alteran sus propiedades estéticas debido a los contaminantes del aire en las áreas urbanas. Nanopartículas añadidas a estos morteros pueden proporcionar propiedades fotocatalíticas que descomponen estos contaminantes. Asimismo, otros agentes hidrofóbicos se han estu-diado individualmente para mejorar las construcciones a la intemperie. Por lo tanto, se presenta el efecto fotocatalítico e hidrofóbico al incorporar nano-TiO2 y silicona hidrofóbica de polisiloxano (DOWSILTM) en una matriz de cemento blanco. El nano-TiO2 se caracterizó por medio de Difracción de Rayos X (DRX); luego, el mortero se mezcló con adiciones de nano-TiO2 (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0%) y DOWSILTM (0.0, 0.5%). Los morteros se sometieron a irradiación UV, para degradar el colorante orgánico rodamina B, monitoreando su variación de color usando un espectrofotómetro C I E L* a* b*. La eficiencia fotocatalítica del mortero se evaluó utilizando una modificación de la norma italiana Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione 11259:2016 basada en la degradación de la rodamina B (RhB) en el mortero expuesto a la radiación UV. Además, se evaluó la permeabilidad al agua y el ángulo de contacto. Esta investigación demostró que el mortero de cemento con nano-TiO2/ DOWSILTM posee actividad fotocatalítica. Las muestras con 1.0%/0.5% y 3.0%/0.5% nano-TiO2/DOWSILTM mostraron una mayor eficiencia de degradación de RhB para R4 y R26. Por lo tanto, estos materiales tienen potencial para mejorar la calidad de los morteros en construcciones urbanas.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Absorption , Nanoparticles , Permeability , Silicones/analysis , Titanium/analysis , Construction Materials/analysis
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928020

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of active components of Descurainia sophia on allergic asthma and explored the underlying mechanism. SD male rats were randomly divided into a normal group(NC), a model group(M), a D. sophia decoction group(DS), a D. sophia fatty oil group(FO), a D. sophia flavonoid glycoside group(FG), a D. sophia oligosaccharide group(Oli), and a positive drug dexamethasone group(Y). The allergic asthma model was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin(OVA) and aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvant(sensitization) and atomization of OVA solution(excitation). After modeling, asthma-related indicators, tracheal phenol red excretion, inflammatory cell levels in the peripheral blood, lung permeability index(LPI), and oxygenation index(OI) of rats were detected. The pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by HE staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the content of inflammatory factors immunoglobulin E(IgE), interleukin-4(IL-4), and interferon-γ(IFN-γ) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) and the content of endothelin-1(ET-1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE) in lung tissue homogenate. The serum content of nitric oxide(NO) was detected by colorimetry. Western blot was employed to determine the protein expression of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4), nuclear factor κB-p65(NF-κB-p65), phosphorylated NF-κB-p65(p-NF-κB-p65), myosin light chain kinase(MLCK), vascular endothelial cadherin(VE cadherin), connexin 43, and claudin 5, and the mechanism of active components of D. sophia on allergic asthma was explored. As revealed by the results, the M group showed extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells around the bronchus of the lung tissues of the allergic asthma rats, thickened bronchial wall, severely deformed alveolar structure, increased number of wheezes, the content of IgE, IL-4, ET-1, and ACE, inflammatory cells, and LPI, and reduced latency of asthma, tracheal phenol red excretion, IFN-γ, NO content, and OI. After the intervention of the active components of D. sophia, the DS, FO, FG, Oli, and Y groups showed improved asthma-related indicators, tracheal phenol red excretion, and lung tissue lesions in allergic asthma rats, and the effects in the FO and Oli groups were superior. The content of inflammatory factors in BALF was recovered in the DS, FO, and Y groups and the FG and Oli groups. The number of inflammatory cells in rats was reduced in the DS and FO groups, and the FG, Oli, and Y groups to varying degrees, and the effect in the FO group was superior. DS, FO, Oli, and Y reduced ET-1, ACE, and LPI and increased NO and OI. FG recovered NO, ET-1, ACE, LPI, and OI to improve lung epithelial damage and permeability. Further investigation of inflammation-related TLR4/NF-κB pathways, MLCK, and related skeleton protein levels showed that TLR4, NF-κB-p65, p-NF-κB-p65, and MLCK levels were increased, and VE cadherin, connexin 43, and claudin 5 were reduced in the M group. DS, FO, FG, Oli, and Y could reduce the protein expression related to the TLR4 pathway to varying degrees, and regulate the protein expression of MLCK, VE cadherin, connexin 43, and claudin 5. It is inferred that the active components of D. sophia improve lung permeability in rats with allergic asthma presumedly by regulating the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway to improve airway inflammation, mediating MLCK and connexin, and regulating epithelial damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Asthma/drug therapy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung , Permeability
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928181

ABSTRACT

This study aims to establish a method for determination of paeonol(Pae), eugenol(Eug), and piperine(Pip) content in receptor liquid and research on the permeability and pharmacokinetics of Huoxue Zhitong gel patch and microemulsion gel. The Franz diffusion experiment was conducted to assess the percutaneous permeability, and the microdialysis method was employed to assess pharmacokinetics of Huoxue Zhitong gel patch and microemulsion gel. The content of Pae, Eug, and Pip in receptor liquid in vitro and in vivo was determined by HPLC and UPLC-MS. The Q_n and J_(ss) of Pae, Eug, and Pip in the gel patch were significantly higher than those in the microemulsion gel, indicating that the drug release was faster in the gel patch. The C_(max), AUC_(0-760), and MRT of Pae, Eug, and Pip in the gel patch were higher than those in the microemulsion gel, indicating that the gel patch can promote the penetration and prolong the skin residence of the drug. The results of this study provide reference for improving the dosage form of Huoxue Zhitong patch.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Chromatography, Liquid , Emulsions , Permeability , Skin/metabolism , Skin Absorption , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
13.
Rev. odontopediatr. latinoam ; 11(2): 220203, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1417073

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a integridade e permeabilidade das luvas dos procedimentos utilizados no atendimento odontológico. Material e Métodos: Foram avaliadas 100 luvas de duas marcas Unigloves e Descarpack, divididas da seguinte forma: Grupo 1: luvas brancas; Grupo 2: rosa; Grupo 3: preto; Grupo 4: azul; Grupo 5: Transparente. Todos analisados visualmente um por um sobre imperfeições, os buracos foram inflados com 700 ml de água manchada com violeta de genciana a 1% e pendurados com uma altura média de 1 metro de solo em temperatura ambiente. Eles foram avaliados por 2 horas, porém a cada 30 minutos foram inspecionados para observar possível permeabilidade. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados por teste Qui² com p<0,05. Resultados: durante o período de 30 e 60 minutos, as luvas não apresentaram alteração em relação à umidade e ao gotejamento. Quanto ao grau de permeabilidade, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos avaliados. Conclusão: Assim, podemos concluir que as diferentes cores ou materiais de fabricação das luvas de procedimento não interferem em sua qualidade


Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la integridad y la permeabilidad de los guantes de los procedimientos utilizados en el cuidado dental. Material y métodos: se evaluaron 100 guantes de dos marcas Unigloves e Descarpack, divididos de la siguiente manera: Grupo 1: guantes blancos; Grupo 2: rosa; Grupo 3: negro; Grupo 4: azul; Grupo 5: Transparente. Todos analizados visualmente uno por uno en las imperfecciones, los agujeros se inflaron con 700 ml de agua teñida con violeta de genciana al 1% y se colgaron con una altura promedio de 1 metro de suelo a temperatura ambiente. Fueron evaluados por 2 horas, pero cada 30 minutos fueron inspeccionados por posible permeabilidad. Los datos se tabularon y analizaron utilizando la prueba Qui² con p <0.05. Resultados: durante el período de 30 y 60 minutos, los guantes no cambiaron en relación con la humedad y el goteo. En cuanto al grado de permeabilidad, no hubo diferencia estadística entre los grupos evaluados. Conclusión: Por lo tanto, podemos concluir que los diferentes colores o materiales de fabricación de los guantes de procedimiento no interfieren con su calidad.


This study aimed to assess the integrity and permeability of gloves from procedures used in dental care. Material and Methods: 100 gloves of two brands were evaluated, divided as follows: Group 1: white gloves; Group 2: pink; Group 3: black; Group 4: blue; Group 5: Transparent. All analyzed visually one by one on imperfections, the holes were inflated with 700ml of water stained with 1% gentian violet and hung with an average height of 1 meter of soil at room temperature. They were evaluated for 2 hours, but every 30 minutes they were inspected for possible permeability. The data were tabulated and analyzed using the Qui² test with p <0.05. Results: during the period of 30 and 60 minutes, the gloves did not change in relation to humidity and dripping. As for the degree of permeability, there was no statistical difference between the groups evaluated. Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that the different colors or materials of manufacture of the procedure gloves do not interfere with their quality


Subject(s)
Humans , Permeability , Gloves, Surgical , Dental Care , Dental Clinics
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19073, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345463

ABSTRACT

A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of antiretroviral drugs lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T), and zidovudine (AZT) in perfusate samples obtained from the Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion studies. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Gemini C18 column and didanosine as internal standard (IS). The following parameters were considered for the validation procedure: system suitability, accuracy, precision, linearity and selectivity. The limits of detection were 0.32 µg/mL for 3TC, 0.11 µg/mL for d4T and 0.45 µg/mL for AZT and the limits of quantification were 1.06 µg/mL for 3TC, 0.38 µg/mL for d4T and 1.51 µg/mL for AZT. Repeatability and intermediate precision ranged from 1.05 to 1.31 and 1.50 to 1.87, respectively, and are expressed as percent of relative standard deviation (RSD). Based on these results, the developed and validated RP-HPLC method can be used for simultaneous determination of 3TC, d4T, and AZT in perfusate samples. Furthermore, this method is simple and adequate for measurements of the antiretroviral drugs in the same sample, since those compounds are mostly co-administered. Besides, this work can be used as an initial base for the development of similar methods in the same conditions presented in our study.


Subject(s)
Zidovudine/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Lamivudine/pharmacology , Validation Study , Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology , Perfusion/instrumentation , Permeability , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Limit of Detection
15.
Clinics ; 76: e2683, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249591

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in the intestine could lead to severe endothelial injury, compromising intestinal motility. Reportedly, estradiol can control local and systemic inflammation induced by I/R injury. Thus, we investigated the effects of estradiol treatment on local repercussions in an intestinal I/R model. METHODS: Rats were subjected to ischemia via the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (45 min) followed by reperfusion (2h). Thirty minutes after ischemia induction (E30), 17β-estradiol (E2) was administered as a single dose (280 μg/kg, intravenous). Sham-operated animals were used as controls. RESULTS: I/R injury decreased intestinal motility and increased intestinal permeability, accompanied by reduced mesenteric endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin (ET) protein expression. Additionally, the levels of serum injury markers and inflammatory mediators were elevated. Estradiol treatment improved intestinal motility, reduced intestinal permeability, and increased eNOS and ET expression. Levels of injury markers and inflammatory mediators were also reduced following estradiol treatment. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings indicate that estradiol treatment can modulate the deleterious intestinal effects of I/R injury. Thus, estradiol mediates the improvement in gut barrier functions and prevents intestinal dysfunction, which may reduce the systemic inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Estradiol/pharmacology , Permeability , Reperfusion , Estrogens , Intestines , Ischemia
16.
Clinics ; 76: e2096, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES To determine the role of the RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 signaling pathway in the opening of the mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) in offspring rats with hypothyroidism during pregnancy. METHODS Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were employed in this study. Pregnancy was deemed successful when a sperm was found in the uterus. After one week of pregnancy, offspring rats were divided into the following groups: overall hypothyroidism group (OH group), subclinical hypothyroidism group (SCH group), and normal control group (CON group). The establishment of the hypothyroidism model was confirmed when the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were higher than normal value and TT4 level was within the normal range. The renal mitochondria of offspring rats were extracted on the 14th postnatal day (P14) and 35th postnatal day (P35). RESULTS At P14, no significant differences in the degree of mPTP opening and expression of phosphoric acid carrier vector (PiC) were detected between the rats in the OH group and the SCH group. However, the expression level of silent mating-type information regulation 3 homolog (SIRT3) was markedly reduced. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) expression increased in the rats from the OH group, relative to that in those from the SCH group. At P35, the degree of mPTP opening and the expression levels of PiC and RBP4 in the OH group were higher than those in the SCH group. However, SIRT3 expression in the OH group was lower than that observed in the SCH group. CONCLUSION RBP4 plays an important role in early renal mitochondrial damage and renal impairment in rats suffering from hypothyroidism during pregnancy. The RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 pathway is thus involved in the opening of the renal mPTP in offspring rats with hyperthyroidism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Pregnancy Complications , Hypothyroidism/complications , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Mitochondria , Permeability , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921674

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the enhancing effect of muscone on the transdermal penetration of traditional Chinese medicine ingredients and explore its possible mechanism of action. The Franz diffusion cells were employed to investigate the effect of muscone on the transdermal permeation of a series of model drugs with a wide range of log P values. The solubilities at saturation and the stratum corneum(SC)/vehicle partition coefficients of model drugs were measured to evaluate the effect of muscone on drug thermodynamic activities and partition of drugs into SC. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(ATR-FTIR) was employed to explore the effect of muscone on the molecular structure of SC. The results showed that muscone significantly promoted the transdermal penetration of hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs, and the enhancement ratio(ER) increased with the decrease in the log P. Muscone could interact with the SC lipids to increase the disorder and fluidity of lipid bilayer packing, which improved skin permeability and promoted transdermal absorption of drugs. This study provides a scientific basis for the application of muscone in traditional Chinese medicine topical preparations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Administration, Cutaneous , Cycloparaffins , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Permeability , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Skin/metabolism , Skin Absorption
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 867-877, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921290

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel on the permeability of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in rats with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (CHPH), so as to clarify the mechanism of vascular endothelial dysfunction during the occurrence of pulmonary hypertension (PH). CHPH rat model was established by exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) for 21 days. Primary PMVECs were cultured by adherent tissue blocks at the edge of the lung. The permeability coefficient of primary cultured PMVECs was detected by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran. The structure of tight junction (TJ) was observed by transmission electron microscope. The expression of TRPV4 and TJ-related proteins, such as, Occludin, Claudin-5, ZO-1 were examined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blotting. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Endothelial Cells , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Hypoxia/complications , Lung , Permeability , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972807

ABSTRACT

Aims@#Skin burns remain a noteworthy general medical issue throughout the world, as it boosts a condition of immuno-suppression. The present research aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum extracts, silver sulphadiazine ointment, and different commercially available topical antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria, isolated from the skin of burn patients.@*Methodology and results@#A total of 124 clinical pus samples were collected from the skin of burn patients, admitted to two different tertiary care burn units at Peshawar, Pakistan. From these pus samples, 6 bacterial isolates from burned skin (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp.) were isolated, while 4 different bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus and Streptococcus spp.) were isolated from unburned skin via conventional culturing techniques. Further, antibacterial assays were performed to compare the efficacy of S. aromaticum extracts (methanolic and aqueous extract), silver sulphadiazine ointment, and different commercially available antibiotics against tested bacteria. It was observed that both methanolic and aqueous extracts of S. aromaticum were effective at all concentrations against all the tested bacteria. In addition, all the tested antibiotics expressed substantial activity against most of the bacterial isolates. While silver sulphadiazine ointment was observed to be less potent against isolated bacteria as compared to S. aromaticum extracts. @*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#It was concluded that both aqueous and methanolic extracts of S. aromaticum were effective antimicrobial agents and could be used as an alternative to control bacterial infections of burn patients. This study would help to distinguish the risk factors of bacterial pathogenicity in burn patients and would also provide a guideline to utilize medicinal plants and their extracts to minimize the chances of antibiotic resistance phenomenon in burn patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cell Membrane , Oxidative Stress , Permeability , Plant Extracts , Syzygium
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942597

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the changes in the permeability of the blood labyrinth barrier of the aging cochlea in mice, and to establish a non-contact co-culture model of endothelial cells (EC) and pericytes (PC) to furtherly investigate the cochlear stria vascularis microvascular pericytes impact on the permeability of endothelial cells. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups, three months old as young group, 12 months old as senile group. Cell experiment was divided into four groups, EC group, EC+PC co-culture group, D-gal+EC group and D-gal+EC+PC co-culture group. Auditory brainstem response (auditory brain response, ABR) was used to detect the auditory function of the two groups of mice. Evans blue staining was applied to detect the permeability of the cochlear blood labyrinth barrier of the two groups of mice. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of blood labyrinth barrier endothelial cells, pericytes and tight junctions in the two groups of mice. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression levels of tight junction proteins in the stria vascularis of the cochlea of the two groups of mice. Transwell chamber was used to detect the permeability of endothelial cells. Western blot and immunofluorescence technology were used to detect the expression level of tight junction protein on endothelial cells. SPSS 20.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: Compared with the young group, the ABR threshold of the aging group was significantly increased, the latency of wave I was prolonged (t=10.25, P<0.01;t=5.61, P<0.05), the permeability of the cochlear blood labyrinth barrier was increased and the expression of tight junction protein on the vascular stria was decreased (P<0.05). The cochlear ultrastructure showed that the cochlear vascular stria microvascular lumen was deformed, the basement membrane thickened and the tight junction gap between endothelium enlarged. The positive rate of ECs and PCs in primary culture was more than 95%. The cells induced by 15 g/L D-gal were determined to be senescent cells. Compared with EC group, the expression of tight junction protein in endothelial cells of D-gal+EC group decreased(t=7.42,P<0.01;t=13.19,P<0.05)and the permeability increased (t=11.17, P<0.01). In the co-culture group, the expression of tight junction protein between endothelial cells in EC+PC co-culture group and D-gal+EC+PC co-culture group increased and the permeability decreased. Conclusions: In aging mice, the permeability of cochlear blood labyrinth barrier will increase and the level of tight junction protein will decrease; in aging state, cochlear vascular stria microvascular pericytes may affect endothelial cell permeability by regulating the expression of tight junction protein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cochlea , Endothelial Cells , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pericytes , Permeability , Stria Vascularis , Tight Junctions
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