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J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170573, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954500


Abstract Objectives A single-blinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial evaluated the use of 37% carbamide peroxide (CP) on bleaching effectiveness and tooth sensitivity reported by patients undergoing in-office tooth bleaching, in comparison with the results of using 35% hydrogen peroxide. Material and Methods Forty patients were allocated to receive two sessions of in-office tooth bleaching using either 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) or 37% CP. Each patient's sensitivity level was evaluated during and up to 24 h after bleaching. The effectiveness of the bleaching procedures was evaluated with a spectrophotometer one week after each session and 30 days after the last session. The impact of tooth bleaching on the patients' perceptions regarding smile changes, in addition to the bleaching procedures and their results, were also recorded. Absolute and relative sensitivity risks were calculated. Data on sensitivity level were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney or T-test, and data from the color evaluation were subjected to 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. Results The use of CP reduced the risk and level of tooth sensitivity to values close to zero, whereas the difference between the bleaching agents disappeared after 24 h. An increased bleaching effect was observed for HP, mainly due to an improved reduction of redness and yellowness. Participants perceived improved tooth bleaching for HP and reduced sensitivity for CP, but no differences regarding the comfort of the techniques were noted. Conclusions In our study, 37% CP resulted in reduced tooth sensitivity but decreased the tooth bleaching effectiveness. However, both bleaching agents resulted in high levels of patient satisfaction.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin Sensitivity/prevention & control , Tooth Bleaching Agents/administration & dosage , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Peroxides/adverse effects , Time Factors , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/adverse effects , Single-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Dentin Sensitivity/chemically induced , Tooth Bleaching Agents/adverse effects , Visual Analog Scale , Carbamide Peroxide , Hydrogen Peroxide/adverse effects
Braz. dent. j ; 27(6): 700-704, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828054


Abstract This study evaluated the efficacy of cleanser solutions on denture biofilm removal by a crossover randomized clinical trial. Thirty two edentulous patients were instructed to brush their dentures (specific brush and liquid soap) three times a day (after breakfast, lunch and dinner) and to soak them (≥ 8 h) in: (C) control -water; (AP): alkaline peroxide; or (SH) 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. Each solution was used for 21 days (three cycles of 7 days). At the end of each cycle, the inner surfaces of maxillary dentures were disclosed (1% neutral red) and photographed (HX1 - Sony). Areas (total and stained biofilm) were measured (Image Tool software) and the percentage of biofilm calculated as the ratio between the area of the biofilm multiplied by 100 and total surface area of the internal base of the denture. Data were compared by means of generalized estimating equation (α=5%) and multiple comparisons (Bonferroni; α=1.67%). Immersion in SH reduced biofilm (%) (8.3 ± 13.3B) compared to C (18.2 ± 14.9A) and AP (18.2 ± 16.6A). The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most efficacious for biofilm removal. Alkaline peroxides may not lead to further biofilm removal in patients with adequate denture maintenance habits.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou a eficácia de soluções higienizadoras na remoção do biofilme de dentadura por meio de ensaio clínico randomizado cruzado. Trinta e dois pacientes desdentados foram instruídos a escovar suas dentaduras (escova específica e sabão líquido) três vezes ao dia (após café da manhã, almoço e jantar) e imergi-las (≥ 8 horas) em: (C) controle - água; (PA): peróxido alcalino; ou (HS) hipoclorito de sódio a 0,5%. Cada solução foi usada por 21 dias (três ciclos alternados de 7 dias). Ao final de cada ciclo, a superfície interna da dentadura maxilar foi evidenciada (vermelho neutro 1%) e fotografada (HX1- Sony). As áreas (total e corada com biofilme) foram medidas (software Image Tool), e a porcentagem de biofilme calculada como a relação entre a área do biofilme multiplicado por 100 e área da superfície total da base interna da dentadura. Os dados foram comparados por meio de equações de estimação generalizadas (α=5%) e comparações múltiplas (Bonferroni - α=1,67%). A imersão em HS reduziu o biofilme (%) (8,3 ± 13,3B) em comparação com C (18,2 ± 14,9A) e PA (18,2 ± 16,6A). A solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 0,5% foi a mais eficaz na remoção do biofilme. Peróxidos alcalinos podem não levar a maior remoção do biofilme em pacientes com hábitos adequados de manutenção de dentadura.

Humans , Male , Female , Biofilms , Dentures/microbiology , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Cross-Over Studies
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-7, 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777227


Dental bleaching has become one of the most frequently requested esthetic treatments in dental offices. Despite the high clinical success observed with this procedure, some adverse effects have been reported, including a potential for developing premalignant lesions, root resorption and tooth sensitivity, especially when misused. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic response using a micronucleus (MN) assay, after the application of two concentrations of carbamide peroxide. Thirty-seven patients were divided into two groups and randomly received either a 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) (19) or a 16% carbamide peroxide (18) concentration for 21 days in individual dental trays. Gingival margin cells were collected immediately before the first use (baseline), and then 15 and 45 days after baseline. The cells were placed on a histological slide, stained by the Feulgen technique, and evaluated by an experienced blinded examiner. One thousand cells per slide were counted, and the MN rate was determined. The two groups were analyzed by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test. A slight increase in MN was observed for both groups, in comparison with the baseline, at 15 days. However, no difference was observed between the two groups (10% and 16%), at either 15 or 45 days (p = 0.90). When bleaching is not prolonged or not performed very frequently, bleaching agents containing carbamide peroxide alone will not cause mutagenic stress on gingival epithelial cells.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Gingiva/drug effects , Peroxides/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Micronucleus Tests , Mouth Mucosa/drug effects , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/adverse effects
Braz. dent. j ; 24(5): 517-521, Sep-Oct/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697629


The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel and a 10% CP gel on mineralized enamel content and morphology. Enamel blocks from bovine incisors were subjected to a 14-day treatment (8 h/day) with 10% or 16% CP gels. Knoop microhardness was evaluated before bleaching and at 1, 7 or 14 days after this treatment (50 g/15 s). Mineral content (energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy), surface roughness and topography (atomic force microscopy) were evaluated at the 14-day period. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Significant microhardness reduction was observed at the 7 th and 14 th days for 10% CP gel, and for all bleaching times for 16% CP gel (p<0.05). At the 14-day period, a significant decrease in Ca and P content, increase on surface roughness (p<0.05) as well as on picks and valleys distance were observed when both bleaching gels were used. These enamel alterations were more intense for 16% CP gel. It was concluded that both CP-based gels promoted loss of mineral structure from enamel, resulting in a rough and porous surface. However, 16% CP gel caused the most intense adverse effects on enamel.

O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o efeito de um gel com 16% de peróxido de carbamida (PC) sobre a estrutura mineral e morfologia do esmalte dental com os efeitos de um gel com 10% de PC. Blocos de esmalte provenientes de incisivos bovinos foram submetidos a 14 dias de tratamento (8 h/dia) com géis com 10 ou 16% de PC. A microdureza Knoop foi avaliada antes do clareamento e 1, 7 e 14 dias pós-tratamento (50 g/15 s). O conteúdo mineral (EDX), rugosidade de superfície e topografia (MFA) foram avaliados no período de 14 dias (ANOVA a dois critérios e teste de Tukey; α=0,05). Redução significante na microdureza foi observada nos períodos de 7 e 14 dias para o gel com 10% de PC, e em todos os períodos para o gel com 16% de PC (p<0,05). No período de 14 dias, uma diminuição significante no conteúdo de Ca e P, aumento na rugosidade de superfície (p<0,05), bem como na distância entre picos e vales foram observados para ambos os agentes clareadores usados. Estas alterações foram mais intensas para o gel com 16% de PC. Pôde-se concluir que ambos os géis à base de PC promoveram perda de estrutura mineral do esmalte, resultando em superfície mais rugosa e porosa. Porém, o gel com 16% de PC causou efeitos adversos mais intensos no esmalte dental.

Humans , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Peroxides/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Tooth Demineralization/chemically induced , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Gels , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/adverse effects
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2012. 95 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-715979


Embora eficientes quanto ao aspecto estético, as técnicas de clareamento endógeno ainda apresentam graus variáveis de toxidade e muitas vezes podem levar ao desenvolvimento de reabsorção cervical inflamatória. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a resposta imune aos efeitos da aplicação de agentes clareadores tradicionalmente utilizados na clínica, assim como os de agentes reparadores utilizados no tratamento destas alterações. Inoculou-se, os agentes clareadores, perborato de sódio misturado ao peróxido de hidrogênio...

Animals , Mice , Tooth Bleaching Agents/administration & dosage , Osteoclasts , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Root Resorption/chemically induced , Immunity, Mucosal , Bone Resorption/therapy
Int. j. morphol ; 29(1): 118-122, Mar. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591961


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of external bleaching agents on morphology of human enamel after excessive homemade dental bleaching. 20 intact human third molars were submitted to mesio-distal crosscut and embedded in polystyrene resin. The specimens were submitted to finish and a half of enamel surface of each specimen was covered with cosmetic varnish, meaning control group (G0). The specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n=10): G1 ­ 1 bleaching session by 16 percent carbamide peroxide; G2 ­ 3 bleaching sessions by 16 percent carbamide peroxide; G3 1 bleaching session by 22 percent carbamide peroxide; G4 3 bleaching sessions by 22 percent carbamide peroxide. Each session lasted 8 hours a day, during two weeks, with 45 days of interval between sessions. In this period, the specimens were kept in artificial saliva at 37°C. The specimens were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the results showed depression areas, irregularities, erosion, and enamel prisms exposition, which was more evident in G4. It can be concluded that the excess of bleaching produced many alterations on enamel surface, mainly when was used carbamide peroxide in higher concentration.

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos en la morfología externa del esmalte humano al utilizar excesivamente agentes blanqueadores dentales de uso casero. Se cortaron 20 intactos terceros molares humanos en sentido mesiodistal, luego fueron sumergidas las porciones radiculares en resina de poliestireno. Las muestras fueron pulidas, cubriendo la mitad de la superficie del esmalte con barniz cosmético, representando así al grupo control (G0). Las muestras fueron distribuidas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos (n=10): G1-Una sesión de blanqueamiento con peróxido de carbamida al 16 por ciento, G2. Tres sesiones de blanqueamiento con peróxido de carbamida al 16 por ciento, G3-Una sesión de blanqueamiento con peróxido de carbamida al 22 por ciento, G4- Tres sesiones de blanqueamiento con peróxido de carbamida al 22 por ciento. Cada sesión tuvo una duración de 8 horas diarias durante dos semanas con 45 días de intervalo entre sesiones. Durante ese periodo las muestras fueron mantenidas en saliva artificial a 37°C. Las muestras fueron observadas al microscopio electrónico de barrido, mostrando aéreas de depresión, irregularidades, erosiones y exposición de prismas del esmalte. Esto fue más evidente en G4. Se puede concluir que el exceso de blanqueamiento producido muchas alteraciones en la superficie del esmalte, sobre todo cuando se utilizó peróxido de carbamida en alta concentración.

Humans , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Dental Enamel , Dental Enamel/injuries , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Peroxides/adverse effects , Bleaching Agents
Braz. dent. j ; 22(1): 32-36, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-582398


This study evaluated the influence of bleaching protocols on intrapulpal temperature and fracture strength of the bleached teeth. Ninety maxillary incisors were assigned to 9 groups (n=10): G1: 35 percent carbamide peroxide (35 percent CP), G2: 38 percent hydrogen peroxide (38 percent HP), G3: halogen light, G4: LED-laser, G5: 35 percent CP + halogen light, G6: 38 percent HP + halogen light, G7: 35 percent CP + LED-laser, G8: 38 percent HP + LED-laser, and G9: no treatment (control). Pulp space was widened, a thermocouple was introduced through the apex up to the pulp chamber and the temperature was recorded (°C). The fracture strength (kN) was determined using an Instron machine. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). The halogen light alone (1.10 ± 0.24) (G3) and associated with 38 percent HP (1.15 ± 0.30) (G6) produced the highest temperature increase, statistically different (p<0.05) from the other groups. G1 (0.15 ± 0.06) and G6 (0.19 ± 0.07) produced the lowest values, statistically different (p<0.05) from G5 (0.65 ± 0.49). The bleaching protocols increased the temperature, but no increment exceeded the critical value of 5.6°C. Neither 35 percent CP nor 38 percent HP or the light sources alone altered the fracture strength of the teeth.

Este estudo avaliou a influência de protocolos de clareamento na temperatura intrapulpar e resistência à fratura de dentes clareados. Noventa incisivos superiores foram divididos em 9 grupos (n=10): G1: peróxido de carbamida a 35 por cento (PC 35 por cento), G2: peróxido de hidrogênio a 38 por cento (PH 38 por cento), G3: luz halógena, G4: LED-laser, G5: PC 35 por cento + luz halógena, G6: PH 38 por cento + luz halógena, G7: PC 35 por cento + LED-laser, G8: PH 38 por cento + LED-laser e G9: sem tratamento (controle). O canal radicular foi alargado, um termopar foi introduzido no ápice até a câmara pulpar e a temperatura foi calculada (°C). A resistência à fratura (kN) foi determinada em máquina Instron. Os dados foram analisados por análise de variância e teste de Tukey (p>0,05). A luz halógena utilizada isoladamente (1,10 ± 0,24) (G3) e associada ao PH 38 por cento (1,15 ± 0,30) (G6) proporcionaram os maiores valores de temperatura, sendo estatisticamente diferentes dos demais grupos (p<0,05). O G1 (0,15 ± 0,06) e o G6 (0,19 ± 0,07) produziram os menores valores de resistência à fratura, sendo estatisticamente diferentes (p<0,05) do G5 (0,65 ± 0,49). Os protocolos de clareamento aumentaram a temperatura, mas nenhum incremento excedeu o valor crítico de 5,6oC. O PC 35 por cento, PH 38 por cento e as fontes de luz utilizadas isoladamente não alteraram a resistência à fratura dos dentes.

Humans , Body Temperature/drug effects , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Tooth Bleaching Agents/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Tooth Fractures/prevention & control , Curing Lights, Dental , Dental Stress Analysis , Dental Pulp/physiology , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Incisor/drug effects , Lasers, Semiconductor , Maxilla , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching Agents/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Tooth Fractures/etiology , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/analogs & derivatives
Rev. odonto ciênc ; 25(4): 382-385, oct.-dec. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-874237


Purpose: In addition to the chemical damage due to bleaching gels penetration into the pulp during pulp vitality dental bleaching, another possible aggressive factor could be the heat generated by the exothermal oxidation reaction of the bleaching gel, which may also be aggravated by the use of light activation. This study assessed the temperature variation in the pulp chamber in human teeth, using three different bleaching gels with or without LED light activation. Methods: Thirty human pre-molars were cut longitudinally to obtain buccal and lingual halves. The 60 specimens were divided into 3 groups, and the bleaching gel used varied as follows: 35% hydrogen peroxide (WHP); 37% carbamide peroxide (W) and 38% hydrogen peroxide (OX). Half of the specimens were submitted to bleaching with light activation and, the other half, without light activation. The light source used was the light emitting diode appliance (LED, 3-Light, Clean Line), and the intrapulpal temperatures were measured by using a digital thermometer. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey´s tests (alpha=5%). Results: The intrapulpal temperatures (in oC) were as follows: without light activation (WHP= 0.68b; W= 0.40b; OX= 0.48b); with light activation (WHP= 2.35a; W= 1.60a; OX= 1.80a ). Conclusion: LED light activation of bleaching gels increased the temperature in the pulp chamber, but did not achieve the critical temperature value of 5.5 oC.

Objetivo: Além da agressão química devido à penetração dos géis clareadores na polpa durante o clareamento de dentes com vitalidade pulpar, outro possível fator agressor pode ser o calor gerado pela reação de oxidação exotérmica do gel clareador, que pode também ser agravada pela fotoativação. Este estudo avaliou a variação da temperatura na câmara pulpar de dentes humanos, utilizando-se três diferentes géis clareadores, com ou sem fotoativação.Metodologia: Trinta pré-molares humanos foram cortados longitudinalmente para obtenção de duas metades: vestibular e lingual. Os 60 espécimes foram divididos em 3 grupos e os agentes clareadores utilizados variaram como segue: peróxido de hidrogênio 35% (WHP), peróxido de carbamida 37% (W) e peróxido de hidrogênio 38% (OX). Metade dos espécimes foi submetida ao clareamento com fotoativação e, a outra metade, sem fotoativação. A fonte de luz utilizada foi o aparelho à base de diodo emissor de luz (LED, 3-Light, Clean Line) e as temperaturas foram medidas por um termômetro digital. Os dados foram analisados por análise de variância e teste de Tukey (alfa=5%).Resultados: Os resultados de temperatura foram: sem fotoativação (WHP= 0.68b; W= 0.40b; OX= 0.48b); com fotoativação (WHP= 2.35a; W= 1.60a; OX= 1.80a).Conclusão: A fotoativação dos géis clareadores com LED contribuiu para um maior aumento de temperatura na câmara pulpar, mas não se atingiu a temperatura crítica de 5,5oC.

Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity , Light/adverse effects , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching , Hot Temperature/adverse effects
J. appl. oral sci ; 17(3): 254-261, May-June 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-514044


Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of 16% carbamide peroxide gel (CP16%), tetrahydrate sodium perborate (SP) and mixture (CP16% + SP), in walking bleaching of non-vital discolored teeth. Materials and methods: Sixty single-rooted human premolars with intact crowns were used and initial color was assessed using Vita shade guide and standardized photos. The teeth were stained using rabbit fresh blood for 18 days and photos of discolored teeth and color evaluation were performed. The teeth were divided into 4 groups (n= 15), according to bleaching agent used: G1) CP16% gel; G2) CP16% gel + SP; G3) SP + distilled water; G4: control.The bleaching agents were replaced twice at 7-day intervals for 21 days. All teeth were evaluated by two endodontists at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and the color changes were assessed using Vita shade guide and standardized photos. The results were analyzed byKruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests (p=0.05). Results: The experimental groups presented statistically similar bleaching results (p>0.05) at the end of 7, 14 and 21 days. These groups presented significantly higher bleaching efficacy than control group (G4) (p<0.05). The mixture CP16% + SP promoted return of original color in 100% of teeth at the end of 21 days. Conclusion: It was concluded that three bleaching agents were effective in bleaching of stained teeth with blood products, especially at the end of 21 days.

Animals , Humans , Rabbits , Borates/administration & dosage , Oxidants/administration & dosage , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Tooth, Nonvital , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Tooth Discoloration/therapy , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Bicuspid , Blood Stains , Drug Combinations , Urea/administration & dosage
Braz. oral res ; 23(supl.1): 64-70, 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-528431


Tooth discoloration is commonly found in the dental clinic and tooth bleaching has been considered the preferred esthetic alternative, being more conservative, safe and with predictable results. Supervised home-use of 10 percent Carbamide Peroxide (CP) bleaching with custom-trays is the most common bleaching procedure dispensed by dentists to their patients. The good results obtained with this technique stimulated the flourishing of new products and techniques. Over-the-counter (OTC) bleaching products appeared as a low-cost alternative to bleach discolored teeth without dentist supervision. Different OTC products are available in supermarkets, drug stores or on the Internet, including rinses, paint-on brushes, toothpastes, chewing guns, dental floss, and whitening strips. There is lack of clinical evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of these products, being most of the studies supported by the manufacturers'. Basically, toothpastes, chewing gums, and dental floss are removal agents of superficial stains. Rinses and paint-on brushes with low levels of hydrogen peroxide have some whitening effect, but without clinical relevance. Strips present similar esthetic results and side-effects, compared to bleaching with 10 percent CP using trays; however, the studies have financial support from the manufacturers and were based on short term evaluations. Legislation varies widely in different countries regarding OTC dental bleaching. Concerns have appeared due to the potential abusive use of these self-medication agents, especially in young patients, with potential harmful results. Dentists should be acquainted with this kind of products to be able to inform their patients. In conclusion, there is a need for independent clinical trials to provide sufficient evidence regarding the use of OTC bleaching products.

Humans , Dental Devices, Home Care/standards , Nonprescription Drugs/administration & dosage , Oxidants/administration & dosage , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching/standards , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Chewing Gum , Clinical Trials as Topic , Dental Devices, Home Care/economics , Dentifrices/administration & dosage , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Nonprescription Drugs/adverse effects , Nonprescription Drugs/economics , Oxidants/adverse effects , Peroxides/adverse effects , Self Medication , Treatment Outcome , Toothpastes/administration & dosage , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/adverse effects
Rev. clín. ortodon. Dental Press ; 7(4): 56-61, ago.-set. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-519024


O conhecimento da evolução da Odontologia Cosmética tem, rapidamente trazido popularidade ao tratamento de clareamento dentário. O presente estudo objetiva verificar, por meio de uma revisão sistemática da literatura, a influência do clareamento dentário em peróxido de carbamida a 10% na resistência de união da colagem dos braquetes ortodônticos. Foi realizada uma estratégia de busca de artigos e teses pela utilização de palavras chaves nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e BBO, e de buscas manuais em periódicos nos idiomas Português, Espanhol e Inglês, publicados no período compreendido entre 1966 e 2007. Foram encontrados onze estudos, dos quais nove foram localizados por meio de bases de dados e dois na busca manual de periódicos. Dos onze, apenas sete estudos foram selecionados de acordo com critérios de inclusão, sendo cinco no idioma Inglês e dois em Português. Na maioria dos trabalhos, verificou-se resistências de união suficientes para se realizar um tratamento ortodôntico. Os poucos estudos encontrados não proporcionam evidência científica, pois os resultados apresnetaram-se conflitantes em relação à influência do clareamento na colagem ortodôntica. Entretanto, as resistências de união encontradas, geralmente, foram maiores que a força (5MPa) clinicamente aceitável de boa adesão. Propõe-se, ainda estudos in vivo com metodologia adequada.

Tooth Bleaching/methods , Dental Bonding , Orthodontic Brackets , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Peroxides/therapeutic use
P. R. health sci. j ; 26(4): 367-372, Dec. 2007.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-491641


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this 14-day parallel, double blind clinical trial was to evaluate the tooth whitening efficacy of a 9% hydrogen peroxide gel (Colgate Visible White) relative to a 20% carbamide peroxide gel (Opalescence) positive control. METHODS: Forty-six consenting adults were randomly assigned to use one of the two products. All participants had 6 unrestored maxillary anterior teeth averaging a shade ranking score of 9 (A3) in the Vitapan Classical Shade Guide scale of 1 through 16 (lightest to darkest). Tooth whitening consisted of at-home 30-minute daily self-applications of the assigned product after brushing with a non-bleaching dentifrice. One of two calibrated examiners performed the baseline, 5-day, 7-day, and 14-day tooth shade evaluations for a given participant, utilizing the same Vita guide under unmodified color-corrected lighting conditions. Thirty-seven participants made all visits. Bleaching efficacy was measured with respect to mean shift (reduction from baseline) in rank scores of the maxillary anterior teeth, in which baseline rank scores functioned as covariables. RESULTS: Both treatment groups exhibited statistically significant mean shade rank score improvements from baseline after 5, 7, and 14 days at 3.14, 3.70 and 4.68 for Colgate Visible White and 1.60, 2.52 and 3.85 for Opalescence. CONCLUSIONS: Between-group comparison shows that while Colgate Visible White (9% hydrogen peroxide) provides a statistically significant tooth whitening improvement over Opalescence (20% carbamide peroxide) after 5 days of self-application, both products have a similar whitening effect after 7 and 14 days.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Time Factors , Urea/administration & dosage
Braz. oral res ; 21(2): 170-175, 2007. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-453198


Dental bleaching occurs due to an oxidation reaction between the bleaching agents and the macromolecules of pigments in the teeth. This reaction is unspecific and the peroxides can also affect the dental matrix causing mineral loss. On the other hand, recent studies have suggested that the thickener agent carbopol can also cause mineral loss. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of at-home dental bleaching on dental enamel microhardness after the use of bleaching agents with and without carbopol as a thickener agent. Bovine dental slabs with 3 x 3 x 3 mm were obtained, sequentially polished, and randomly divided into 4 groups according to the experimental treatment: G1: 2 percent carbopol; G2: 10 percent carbamide peroxide with carbopol; G3: carbowax; G4: 10 percent carbamide peroxide with poloxamer. Bleaching was performed daily for 4 weeks, immersed in artificial saliva. Enamel microhardness values were obtained before the treatment (T0) and 7 (T1), 14 (T2), 21 (T3), 28 (T4), and 42 (T5) days after the beginning of the treatment. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed statistically significant differences only for the factor Time (F = 5.48; p < 0.01). All bleaching and thickener agents caused no alterations on the enamel microhardness.

O clareamento dental ocorre devido a uma reação de oxidação entre o agente clareador e as macromoléculas de pigmentos presentes nos dentes. Esta reação é inespecífica e o peróxido pode agir na matriz dental causando perdas de mineral. Por outro lado, estudos recentes sugerem que o agente espessante carbopol também pode causar perda mineral. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar in vitro o efeito do clareamento caseiro sobre a microdureza do esmalte após o uso de agentes clareadores com e sem carbopol como espessante. Fragmentos de esmalte bovino de 3 x 3 x 3 mm foram obtidos, polidos seqüencialmente e aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos de acordo com o tratamento experimental: G1: carbopol a 2 por cento; G2: peróxido de carbamida a 10 por cento com carbopol; G3: carbowax; G4: peróxido de carbamida a 10 por cento com poloxamer. O clareamento foi realizado diariamente por 4 semanas em saliva artificial. A microdureza do esmalte foi avaliada antes (T0) e após 7 (T1), 14 (T2), 21 (T3), 28 (T4), e 42 (T5) dias do início do tratamento. A ANOVA e o teste de Tukey revelaram diferenças estatísticas significantes somente para o fator Tempo (F = 5,48; p < 0,01). Os agentes clareadores e espessantes não causaram alterações na microdureza do esmalte.

Animals , Cattle , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Oxidants/administration & dosage , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Polyvinyls/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Dental Devices, Home Care , Drug Combinations , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hardness Tests , Hardness/drug effects , Random Allocation , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Urea/administration & dosage
Arq. odontol ; 42(1): 33-39, 2006. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-457321


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o pH de agentes clareadores a base de carbamida a 10 por cento e 16 por cento disponíveis comercialmente Whiteness Standard (FGM), Review (SSWhiate) e Whteness Perfect (FGM) e manipulados em farmácia de manipulação. A análise do pH foi conduzida utilizando um pHmetro Micronal B474, calibrado em 4,00 e 7,00 com solução tampão ácido cítrico/hidrogênio fosfato de sódio, empregando-se solução KCl 3 mol L. Três gramas de cada amostra foram depositadas em tubo de ensaio recobrindo todo bulbo do eletrodo. O processo foi repetido 8 vezes para cada agente clareador. O eletrodo era lavado entre cada amostra usando água corrente e ácido acético a 4 por cento para remoção completa do agente clareador. O eltrodo foi lavado com água destilada, seco com papel absorvente e a calibração conferida. Aguardava-se 3 minutos para cada leitura, em temperatura ambiente de 24±1ºC. O pH dos produtos clareadores variou de 4,060 (agente manipulado 10 por cento) a 6,212 (Whiteness Standard 10 por cento)...

Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Rev. ABO nac ; 8(5): 273-7, out.-nov. 2000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-284265


O clareamento dental caseiro vem sendo amplamente usado na Odontologia, entretanto algumas dúvidas permanecem quanto à sua utilizaçäo. Por motivos estéticos, as restauraçöes pré-existentes precisam ser trocadas após o término do clareamento, uma vez que contrastam com a arcada dental já clareada. Quando trocar essas restauraçöes sem influenciar em sua adesäo à estrutura dental? O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir, através de uma revisäo de literatura, quando substituir com segurança as restauraçöes de compósito após o clareamento caseiro com peróxido de carbamida a 10 por cento, fornecendo orientaçöes clínicas para a realizaçäo deste procedimento

Composite Resins , Esthetics, Dental , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching , Color
JBC j. bras. odontol. clín ; 2(12): 19-25, nov.-dez. 1998. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-296585


Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a açäo dos clareadores dentais na lisura de superfície das resinas compostas. Foram confeccionados 13 corpos de prova de resina composta convencional de macropartículas (Adaptic©) e 13 corpos de prova preenchidos com resina microhíbrida (Z100©). Estas resinas sofreram aplicaçöes de Peróxido de Carbamida a 10 por cento (Review 10) durante 3 semanas, 4 horas diárias, simulando o clareamento doméstico. Foram obtidas as medidas da rugosidade superficial em RA, nos corpos de prova, inicialmente sem a aplicaçäo do agente clareador e as demais leituras após 7, 14 e 21 dias da aplicaçäo do clareador. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o modelo de análise de variância com medidas repetidas, sobre a média dos dados originais. Os resultados demonstraram que a rugosidade superficial da resina composta convencional é superior à resina microhíbrida, e que existe uma maior variabilidade numérica na leitura da superfície da resina Adaptic© com relaçäo a Z100©. O aumento da rugosidade superficial das resinas compostas pesquisadas demonstraram significância já na primeira semana de aplicaçäo do agente clareador à base Peróxido de Carbamida a 10 por cento (Review 10), sendo que as demais semanas näo mostraram aumento significativo. Concluiu-se que o tempo foi fator determinante no aumento inicial da rugosidade superficial das resinas pesquisadas, sendo que o tipo de resina näo apresentou diferenças significantes e näo houve interaçäo entre as mesmas durante o experimento

Composite Resins , In Vitro Techniques , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Time Factors
JBC j. bras. odontol. clín ; 2(10): 20-2, jul.-ago. 1998. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-298280


Os autores relatam um caso clínico onde a paciente apresentava o incisivo central com alteraçäo de cor. A paciente temia realizar o clareamento interno devido à possibilidade de ocorrer reabsorçäo cervical externa. Assim, optou-se pela associaçäo de técnicas de clareamento externo imediato com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35 por cento, clareamento interno com peróxido de carbamida a 35 por cento e clareamento caseiro supervisionado com peróxido de carbamida a 10 por cento. Com este procedimento obteve-se sucesso clínico e a paciente atualmente encontra-se na fase de proservaçäo

Humans , Female , Adult , Peroxides/therapeutic use , Tooth Bleaching , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Peroxides/administration & dosage