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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816614

ABSTRACT

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) occurs due to mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes the peroxisomal membrane protein peroxisomal transporter ATP-binding cassette sub-family D member 1 (ABCD1). Degradation of very long-chain fatty acids in peroxisomes is impaired owing to ABCD dysfunction, subsequently leading to adrenomyeloneuropathy, cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy, and adrenal insufficiency. X-ALD frequently induces idiopathic Addison's disease in young male patients. Here, we confirmed the diagnosis of X-ALD in a young male patient with primary adrenal insufficiency, and identified a novel ABCD1 gene mutation (p.Trp664*, c.1991 G>A).


Subject(s)
Addison Disease , Adrenal Insufficiency , Adrenoleukodystrophy , Diagnosis , Fatty Acids , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins , Peroxisomes
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a type of vitamin B3 found in cow's milk and yeast-containing food products such as beer. Recent studies suggested that NR prevents hearing loss, high-fat diet-induced obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and mitochondrial myopathy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NR on inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis in AML12 mouse hepatocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS: A subset of hepatocytes was treated with palmitic acid (PA; 250 µM) for 48 h to induce hepatocyte steatosis. The hepatocytes were treated with NR (10 µM and 10 mM) for 24 h with and without PA. The cell viability and the levels of sirtuins, inflammatory markers, and mitochondrial markers were analyzed. RESULTS: Cytotoxicity of NR was examined by PrestoBlue assay. Exposure to NR had no effect on cell viability or morphology. Gene expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and Sirt3 was significantly upregulated by NR in PA-treated hepatocytes. However, Sirt1 activities were increased in hepatocytes treated with low-dose NR. Hepatic pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were decreased in NR-treated cells. NR upregulated anti-inflammatory molecule adiponectin, and, tended to down-regulate hepatokine fetuin-A in PA-treated hepatocytes, suggesting its inverse regulation on these cytokines. NR increased levels of mitochondrial markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, uncoupling protein 2, transcription factor A, mitochondrial and mitochondrial DNA in PA-treated hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that NR attenuated hepatic inflammation and increased levels of mitochondrial markers in hepatocytes.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Beer , Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase , Cell Survival , Cytokines , DNA, Mitochondrial , Fatty Liver , Gene Expression , Hearing Loss , Hepatocytes , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Mice , Milk , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Myopathies , Niacin , Niacinamide , Obesity , Organelle Biogenesis , Palmitic Acid , Peroxisomes , Sirtuin 1 , Sirtuins , Transcription Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
3.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 341-347, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786425

ABSTRACT

Luffa cylindrica (LC) is a very fast-growing climber and its fruit have been considered as agricultural wastes. We conducted to check the comparative qualities of ethanol solvent extraction (LCE) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (LCS) of L. cylindrica fruit and seed. LCS had higher antioxidant and polyphenol contents than LCE. LCS were significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-a and involucrin expression as epidermal differentiation marker in 3D skin equivalent model. LCS also showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, a causative bacteria in atopic dermatitis. In addition, LCS inhibited the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. When treated with the extract at a concentration of 100 µg/mL, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway reporter luciferase activity of HEK 293-TOP cells was increased approximately by 2-folds compared to that of the untreated control group. These results indicate that L. cylindrica supercritical carbon dioxide extract may serve as a cosmeceutical for improving skin barrier function and the treatment of obesity.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes , Bacteria , Carbon Dioxide , Carbon , Dermatitis, Atopic , Ethanol , Fruit , Luciferases , Luffa , Obesity , Peroxisomes , Skin , Staphylococcus aureus
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786192

ABSTRACT

Differentiation of preadipocyte, also named adipogenesis, leads to the phenotype of mature adipocyte that is filled with many lipid droplets. Excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes leads to the development of obesity. In this study, we investigated the effect of 11 different natural compounds on lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Strikingly, among the natural compounds, cryptotanshinone at 10 µM most strongly reduced triglyceride (TG) contents in 3T3-L1 cells after 8 days of the differentiation. Furthermore, cryptotanshinone at 10 µM significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells after 8 days of the differentiation. Cryptotanshinone at 1 to 10 µM tested did not affect the survival of 3T3-L1 cells after 8 days of the differentiation. On mechanistic levels, cryptotanshinone time-differentially decreased the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and perilipin A but also the phosphorylation levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) during the 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that cryptotanshinone inhibits lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, which appears to be mediated through the reduced expression and/or phosphorylation levels of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, Perilipin A, and STAT-3.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes , Adipogenesis , Lipid Droplets , Obesity , Peroxisomes , Phenotype , Phosphorylation , Transducers , Triglycerides
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of hepatic glucose production (HGP) contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), has various ancillary effects in addition to common blood pressure-lowering effects. The effects and mechanism of telmisartan on HGP have not been fully elucidated and, therefore, we investigated these phenomena in hyperglycemic HepG2 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice.METHODS: Glucose production and glucose uptake were measured in HepG2 cells. Expression levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase α (G6Pase-α), and phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) were assessed by western blot analysis. Animal studies were performed using HFD-fed mice.RESULTS: Telmisartan dose-dependently increased HGP, and PEPCK expression was minimally increased at a 40 μM concentration without a change in G6Pase-α expression. In contrast, telmisartan increased phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser302 (p-IRS-1-Ser302) and decreased p-IRS-1-Tyr632 dose-dependently. Telmisartan dose-dependently increased p-PKCζ-Thr410 which is known to reduce insulin action by inducing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of dominant-negative PKCζ significantly attenuated telmisartan-induced HGP and p-IRS-1-Ser302 and -inhibited p-IRS-1-Tyr632. Among ARBs, including losartan and fimasartan, only telmisartan changed IRS-1 phosphorylation and pretreatment with GW9662, a specific and irreversible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, did not alter this effect. Finally, in the livers from HFD-fed mice, telmisartan increased p-IRS-1-Ser302 and decreased p-IRS-1-Tyr632, which was accompanied by an increase in p-PKCζ-Thr410.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that telmisartan increases HGP by inducing p-PKCζ-Thr410 that increases p-IRS-1-Ser302 and decreases p-IRS-1-Tyr632 in a PPARγ-independent manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet, High-Fat , Ectopic Gene Expression , Glucose , Glucose-6-Phosphatase , Hep G2 Cells , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins , Insulin , Liver , Losartan , Mice , Peroxisomes , Phosphoenolpyruvate , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Receptor, Insulin , Serine
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal upregulation of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) is considered to be a key oncogenic event in the development and progression of inflammation-associated human colon cancer. It has been reported that 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), an enzyme catabolizing PGE₂, is ubiquitously downregulated in human colon cancer. 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J₂ (15d-PGJ₂), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligand, has been shown to have anticarcinogenic activities. In this study, we investigate the effect of 15d-PGJ₂ on expression of 15-PGDH in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. METHODS: HCT116 cells were treated with 15d-PGJ₂ analysis. The expression of 15-PGDH in the treated cells was measured by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. In addition, the cells were subjected to a 15-PGDH activity assay. To determine which transcription factor(s) and signaling pathway(s) are involved in 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression, we performed a cDNA microarray analysis of 15d-PGJ₂-treated cells. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To determine whether the AP-1 plays an important role in the 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression, the cells were transfected with siRNA of c-Jun, a major subunit of AP-1. To elucidate the upstream signaling pathways involved in AP-1 activation by 15d-PGJ₂, we examined its effect on phosphorylation of Akt by Western blot analysis in the presence or absence of kinase inhibitor. RESULTS: 15d-PGJ₂ (10 μM) significantly upregulated 15-PGDH expression at the mRNA and protein levels in HCT-116 cells. 15-PGDH activity was also elevated by 15d-PGJ₂. We observed that genes encoding C/EBP delta, FOS-like antigen 1, c-Jun, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were most highly induced in the HCT116 cells following 15d-PGJ₂ treatment. 15d-PGJ₂ increased the DNA binding activity of AP-1. Moreover, transfection with specific siRNA against c-Jun significantly reduced 15-PGDH expression induced by 15d-PGJ₂. 15d-PGJ₂ activates Akt and a pharmacological inhibitor of Akt, LY294002, abrogated 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression. We also observed that an inhibitor of HO-1, zinc protoporphyrin IX, also abrogated upregulation of 15-PGDH and down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by 15d-PGJ₂. CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that 15d-PGJ₂ upregulates the expression of 15-PGDH through AP-1 activation in colon cancer HCT116 cells.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Cyclooxygenase 2 , DNA , Down-Regulation , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , HCT116 Cells , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Humans , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oxidoreductases , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transfection , Up-Regulation , Zinc
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apart from its blood pressure-lowering effect by blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), exhibits various ancillary effects including cardiovascular protective effects in vitro. Nonetheless, the protective effects of telmisartan in cerebrocardiovascular diseases are somewhat variable in large-scale clinical trials. Dysregulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS)-derived NO contributes to the developments of various vascular diseases. Nevertheless, the direct effects of telmisartan on endothelial functions including NO production and vessel relaxation, and its action mechanism have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which telmisartan regulates NO production and vessel relaxation in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: We measured nitrite levels in culture medium and mouse serum, and performed inhibitor studies and western blot analyses using bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and a hyperglycemic mouse model. To assess vessel reactivity, we performed acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vessel relaxation assay on isolated rat aortas. RESULTS: Telmisartan decreased NO production in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic BAECs, which was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser¹¹⁷⁹ (p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹). Telmisartan increased the expression of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) and co-treatment with okadaic acid completely restored telmisartan-inhibited NO production and p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ levels. Of the ARBs tested (including losartan and fimasartan), only telmisartan decreased NO production and p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ levels, and enhanced PP2Ac expression. Co-treatment with GW9662 had no effect on telmisartan-induced changes. In line with in vitro observations, telmisartan reduced serum nitrite and p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ levels, and increased PP2Ac expression in high fat diet-fed mice. Furthermore, telmisartan attenuated ACh-induced rat aorta relaxation. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that telmisartan inhibited NO production and vessel relaxation at least in part by PP2A-mediated eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ dephosphorylation in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-independent manner. These results may provide a mechanism that explains the inconsistent cerebrocardiovascular protective effects of telmisartan.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Aorta , Blotting, Western , Catalytic Domain , Endothelial Cells , In Vitro Techniques , Losartan , Mice , Mice, Obese , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Nitric Oxide , Okadaic Acid , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , Protein Phosphatase 2 , Rats , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Relaxation , Renin-Angiotensin System , Vascular Diseases
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA), is acquired by dietary intake or the in vivo conversion of α-linolenic acid. Many enzymes participating in LCPUFA synthesis are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Therefore, it was hypothesized that the tissue accretion of endogenously synthesized DHA could be modified by PPARα. MATERIALS/METHODS: The tissue DHA concentrations and mRNA levels of genes participating in DHA biosynthesis were compared among PPARα homozygous (KO), heterozygous (HZ), and wild type (WT) mice (Exp I), and between WT mice treated with clofibrate (PPARα agonist) or those not treated (Exp II). In ExpII, the expression levels of the proteins associated with DHA function in the brain cortex and retina were also measured. An n3-PUFA depleted/replenished regimen was applied to mitigate the confounding effects of maternal DHA. RESULTS: PPARα ablation reduced the hepatic Acox, Fads1, and Fads2 mRNA levels, as well as the DHA concentration in the liver, but not in the brain cortex. In contrast, PPARα activation increased hepatic Acox, Fads1, Fads2 and Elovl5 mRNA levels, but reduced the DHA concentrations in the liver, retina, and phospholipid of brain cortex, and decreased mRNA and protein levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain cortex. CONCLUSIONS: LCPUFA enzyme expression was altered by PPARα. Either PPARα deficiency or activation-decreased tissue DHA concentration is a stimulus for further studies to determine the functional significance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Clofibrate , Docosahexaenoic Acids , Fatty Acid Desaturases , Liver , Mice , Peroxisomes , PPAR alpha , Retina , RNA, Messenger
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761787

ABSTRACT

Fumigaclavine C (FC), an active indole alkaloid, is obtained from endophytic Aspergillus terreus (strain No. FC118) by the root of Rhizophora stylosa (Rhizophoraceae). This study is designed to evaluate whether FC has anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and whether it ameliorates lipid accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. FC notably increased the levels of glycerol in the culture supernatants and markedly reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. FC differentially inhibited the expressions of adipogenesis-related genes, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor proteins, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins, and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. FC markedly reduced the expressions of lipid synthesis-related genes, such as the fatty acid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and fatty acid synthase. Furthermore, FC significantly increased the expressions of lipolysis-related genes, such as the hormone-sensitive lipase, Aquaporin-7, and adipose triglyceride lipase. In HFD-induced obese mice, intraperitoneal injections of FC decreased both the body weight and visceral adipose tissue weight. FC administration significantly reduced lipid accumulation. Moreover, FC could dose-dependently and differentially regulate the expressions of lipid metabolism-related transcription factors. All these data indicated that FC exhibited anti-obesity effects through modulating adipogenesis and lipolysis.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipogenesis , Animals , Aspergillus , Body Weight , Carrier Proteins , Diet, High-Fat , Glycerol , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Lipase , Lipolysis , Lipoprotein Lipase , Mice , Mice, Obese , Peroxisomes , Rhizophoraceae , Sterol Esterase , Transcription Factors
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740553

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obesity is a major health problem of global significance because it is clearly associated with an increased risk of health problems, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Lonicera caerulea (LC) originates from high mountains or wet areas and has been used as a traditional medicine in northern Russia, China, and Japan. LC contains a range of bioactive constituents, such as vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols. This study examined the anti-obesity effects of LC during differentiation in preadipocytes. METHODS: The cell viability assay was performed after the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells for 7 days. Oil Red O staining was used to visualize the changes in lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells and mouse adipose-derived stem cells (MADSCs). The mRNA expression of obesity-related genes was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: According to the results of Oil Red O staining, the lipid levels and size of lipid droplets in the adipocytes were reduced and the LC extract (LCE, 0.25–1 mg/mL) markedly inhibited adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment of LCE also decreased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in 3T3-L1 cells. Western blot analysis showed that the PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1 protein levels in both 3T3-L1 and MADSC were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that LCE can inhibit adipogenic differentiation through the regulation of adipogenesis-related markers.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes , Adipogenesis , Animals , Blotting, Western , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cell Survival , China , Japan , Lipid Droplets , Lonicera , Medicine, Traditional , Mice , Minerals , Miners , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Peroxisomes , Polyphenols , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Russia , Stem Cells , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Vitamins
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718000

ABSTRACT

4-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (PD1) is a synthetic phthalimide derivative of a marine compound. PD1 has peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ agonistic and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of PD1 on allergic asthma using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 mast cells and an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma mouse model. In vitro, PD1 suppressed β-hexosaminidase activity in RBL-2H3 cells. In the OVA-induced allergic asthma mouse model, increased inflammatory cells and elevated Th2 and Th1 cytokine levels were observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue. PD1 administration decreased the numbers of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, and reduced the mRNA and protein levels of the Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, in BALF and lung tissue. The severity of inflammation and mucin secretion in the lungs of PD1-treated mice was also less. These findings indicate that PD1 could be a potential compound for anti-allergic therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Basophils , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Cytokines , Eosinophils , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukins , Leukemia , Lung , Mast Cells , Mice , Mucins , Ovalbumin , Peroxisomes , Rats , RNA, Messenger
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a global health problem of significant importance which increases mortality. In place of anti-obesity drugs, natural products are being developed as alternative therapeutic materials. In this study, we investigated the effect of Brassica juncea L. leaf extract (BLE) on fat deposition and lipid profiles in high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFC)-induced obese rats. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) according to diet: normal diet group (ND), high-fat/high-cholesterol diet group (HFC), HFC with 3% BLE diet group (HFC-A1), and HFC with 5% BLE diet group (HFC-A2). Each group was fed for 6 weeks. Rat body and adipose tissue weights, serum biochemical parameters, and tissue lipid contents were determined. The expression levels of mRNA and proteins involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. RESULTS: The HFC-A2 group showed significantly lower body weight gain and food efficiency ratio than the HFC group. BLE supplementation caused mesenteric, epididymal, and total adipose tissue weights to decrease. The serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased in rats fed BLE. These results were related to lower glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, acetyl-coA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase mRNA expression, and to higher expression of the cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and low density lipoprotein-receptor, as well as increased protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Histological analysis of the liver revealed decreased lipid droplets in HFC rats treated with BLE. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of HFC with 3% or 5% BLE inhibited body fat accumulation, improved lipid profiles, and modulated lipogenesis- and cholesterol metabolism-related gene and protein expression.


Subject(s)
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase , Adipose Tissue , Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents , Biological Products , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Brassica , Cholesterol , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Global Health , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , Humans , Lipid Droplets , Lipoproteins , Liver , Male , Metabolism , Mortality , Mustard Plant , Obesity , Peroxisomes , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Triglycerides , Weights and Measures
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740097

ABSTRACT

Obesity is currently one of the most serious public health problems and it can lead to numerous metabolic diseases. Leucrose, d-glucopyranosyl-α-(1-5)-d-fructopyranose, is an isoform of sucrose and it is naturally found in pollen and honey. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leucrose on metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) that lead to obesity. C57BL/6 mice were fed a 60% HFD or a HFD with 25% (L25) or 50% (L50) of its total sucrose content replaced with leucrose for 12 weeks. Leucrose supplementation improved fasting blood glucose levels and hepatic triglyceride content. In addition, leucrose supplementation reduced mRNA levels of lipogenesis-related genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1C, and fatty acid synthase in HFD mice. Conversely, mRNA levels of β oxidation-related genes, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A and acyl CoA oxidase, returned to control levels with leucrose supplementation. Taken together, these results demonstrated the therapeutic potential of leucrose to prevent metabolic abnormalities by mediating regulation of plasma glucose level and hepatic triglyceride accumulation.


Subject(s)
Acyl-CoA Oxidase , Animals , Blood Glucose , Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase , Diet, High-Fat , Fasting , Honey , Lipogenesis , Liver , Metabolic Diseases , Mice , Mice, Obese , Negotiating , Obesity , Peroxisomes , Pollen , Public Health , RNA, Messenger , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Sucrose , Triglycerides
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713700

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is involved in the pathology of numerous diseases including atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a significant role in tissue remodeling related to various processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, tissue repair, invasion, and metastasis. We investigated the effects of PPARγ on MMP expression and invasion in breast cancer cells. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were cultured and then cell viability was monitored in an MTT assay. Western blotting, gelatin zymography, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and luciferase assays were performed to investigate the effect of the synthetic PPARγ ligand troglitazone on MMP expression. Transcription factor DNA binding was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. A Matrigel invasion assay was used to assess the effects of troglitazone on MCF-7 cells. RESULTS: Troglitazone did not affect MCF-7 cell viability. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced MMP-9 expression and invasion in MCF-7 cell. However, these effects were decreased by troglitazone. TPA increased nuclear factor κB and activator protein-1 DNA binding, while troglitazone inhibited these effects. The selective PPARγ antagonist GW9662 reversed MMP-9 inhibition by troglitazone in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSION: Troglitazone inhibited nuclear factor κB and activator protein-1-mediated MMP-9 expression and invasion of MCF-7 cells through a PPARγ-dependent mechanism.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Survival , DNA , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Gelatin , Luciferases , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Matrix Metalloproteinases , MCF-7 Cells , Morphogenesis , Neoplasm Metastasis , NF-kappa B , Obesity , Pathology , Peroxisomes , PPAR gamma , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transcription Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance. Compound K (CK) is the final metabolite of panaxadiol ginsenosides that have been shown to exert antidiabetic effects. However, the molecular mechanism of the antidiabetic effects in the liver have not been elucidated; further, whether CK has beneficial effects in hepatosteatosis remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of CK on hepatosteatosis as well as its mechanism in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. METHODS: Twenty-four-week-old male OLETF rats were assigned to four groups: control (saline), CK 10 mg/kg, CK 25 mg/kg, or metformin 300 mg/kg (positive control); all treatments were administered orally for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Fasting glucose levels of the CK25 group were significantly lower than those of the control group during the 12 weeks. The results of the oral glucose tolerance test showed that both the glucose concentration after glucose loading and the fasting insulin levels of the CK25 group were significantly lower than those of the control. Hepatosteatosis was significantly improved by CK25. CK25 and metformin significantly increased the phosphorylation of hepatic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). CK25 significantly inhibited the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase, while upregulating that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. CONCLUSIONS: CK improved glucose intolerance and hepatosteatosis in HFD-fed OLETF rats through AMPK activation, which has dual mode of action that involves decreasing the synthesis of fatty acids and increasing fatty acid oxidation.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Carnitine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet, High-Fat , Fasting , Fatty Acids , Ginsenosides , Glucose Intolerance , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Male , Metformin , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Rats , Rats, Inbred OLETF
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activator gamma (PPARγ) is a useful therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes, but its role in protecting β-cell function and viability is unclear. METHODS: To identify the potential functions of PPARγ in β-cells, we treated mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone in conditions of lipotoxicity, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and inflammation. RESULTS: Palmitate-treated cells incubated with pioglitazone exhibited significant improvements in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the repression of apoptosis, as shown by decreased caspase-3 cleavage and poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase activity. Pioglitazone also reversed the palmitate-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 [IL-6], and IL-1β) and ER stress markers (phosphor-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, glucose-regulated protein 78 [GRP78], cleaved-activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], and C/EBP homologous protein [CHOP]), and pioglitazone significantly attenuated inflammation and ER stress in lipopolysaccharide- or tunicamycin-treated MIN6 cells. The protective effect of pioglitazone was also tested in pancreatic islets from high-fat-fed KK-Ay mice administered 0.02% (wt/wt) pioglitazone or vehicle for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone remarkably reduced the expression of ATF6α, GRP78, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, prevented α-cell infiltration into the pancreatic islets, and upregulated glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) expression in β-cells. Moreover, the preservation of β-cells by pioglitazone was accompanied by a significant reduction of blood glucose levels. CONCLUSION: Altogether, these results support the proposal that PPARγ agonists not only suppress insulin resistance, but also prevent β-cell impairment via protection against ER stress and inflammation. The activation of PPARγ might be a new therapeutic approach for improving β-cell survival and insulin secretion in patients with diabetes mellitus


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blood Glucose , Caspase 3 , Chemokine CCL2 , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Humans , Inflammation , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Insulinoma , Interleukin-6 , Islets of Langerhans , Mice , Necrosis , Obesity , Peptide Initiation Factors , Peroxisomes , Repression, Psychology , Transcription Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226316

ABSTRACT

Cerulein-induced pancreatitis is similar to human edematous pancreatitis, characterized by the dysregulation of digestive enzyme production, edema formation, and an infiltration of inflammatory cells into the pancreas. We previously showed that the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 pathway mediates inflammatory signaling in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. PPAR-γ has been implicated in the regulation of inflammatory responses in several cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of PPAR-γ in cerulein-induced activation of JAK2/STAT3 in pancreatic acinar cells. Treatment with cerulein induced the activation of JAK2/STAT3 and PPAR-γ expression in AR42J cells. Cerulein-induced PPAR-γ expression was inhibited by AG490, a JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor, in AR42J cells. An immunoprecipitation analysis showed that PPAR-γ binds to STAT3 in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Down-regulation of PPAR-γ by siRNA increased STAT3 phosphorylation in AR42J cells stimulated with cerulein. These results show that PPAR-γ inactivates STAT3 by directly interacting with STAT3 in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Overexpression of PPAR-γ may be beneficial for preventing pancreatitis by suppressing the activation of STAT3 in pancreatic acinar cells.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Ceruletide , Down-Regulation , Edema , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Janus Kinase 2 , Pancreas , Pancreatitis , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , RNA, Small Interfering
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bone strength is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus despite an increase in bone mineral density (BMD). Thiazolidinedione (TZD), a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ agonist, promotes adipogenesis, and suppresses osteoblastogenesis. Therefore, its use is associated with an increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo effects of lobeglitazone, a new TZD, on bone. METHODS: MC3T3E1 and C3H10T1/2 cells were cultured in osteogenic medium and exposed to lobeglitazone (0.1 or 1 µM), rosiglitazone (0.4 µM), or pioglitazone (1 µM) for 10 to 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Alizarin red staining, and osteoblast marker gene expression were analyzed. For in vivo experiments, 6-month-old C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle, one of two doses of lobeglitazone, rosiglitazone, or pioglitazone. BMD was assessed using a PIXImus2 instrument at the baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: As expected, in vitro experiments showed that ALP activity was suppressed and the mRNA expression of osteoblast marker genes RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2) and osteocalcin was significantly attenuated after rosiglitazone treatment. By contrast, lobeglitazone at either dose did not inhibit these variables. Rosiglitazone-treated mice showed significantly accelerated bone loss for the whole bone and femur, but BMD did not differ significantly between the lobeglitazone-treated and vehicle-treated mice. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that lobeglitazone has no detrimental effects on osteoblast biology and might not induce side effects in the skeletal system.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Biology , Bone and Bones , Bone Density , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Femur , Gene Expression , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Infant , Mice , Osteoblasts , Osteocalcin , Peroxisomes , RNA, Messenger , Thiazolidinediones , Transcription Factors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38707

ABSTRACT

Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase beta (IKKβ) plays a critical role in cell proliferation and inflammation in various cells by activating NF-κB signaling. However, the interrelationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and IKKβ in cell proliferation is not clear. In this study, we investigated the possible role of PPARα in the hepatic cell death in the absence of IKKβ gene using liver-specific Ikkb-null (Ikkb(F/F-AlbCre)) mice. To examine the function of PPARα activation in hepatic cell death, wild-type (Ikkb (F/F)) and Ikkb F/F-AlbCre mice were treated with PPARα agonist Wy-14,643 (0.1% w/w chow diet) for two weeks. As a result of Wy-14,643 treatment, apoptotic markers including caspase-3 cleavage, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and TUNEL-positive staining were significantly decreased in the Ikkb(F/F-AlbCre) mice. Surprisingly, Wy-14,643 increased the phosphorylation of p65 and STAT3 in both Ikkb and Ikkb(F/F-AlbCre) mice. Furthermore, BrdU-positive cells were significantly increased in both groups after treatment with Wy-14,643. Our results suggested that IKKβ-derived hepatic apoptosis could be altered by PPARα activation in conjunction with activation of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Cell Proliferation , Hepatocytes , Inflammation , Mice , NF-kappa B , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41409

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in the expression of the genes for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in granulosa cells (GCs) from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and controls undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. METHODS: Nine patients with PCOS and six controls were enrolled in this study. On the day of oocyte retrieval, GCs were collected from pooled follicular fluid. Total mRNA was extracted from GCs. Reverse transcription was performed and gene expression levels were quantified by realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, body mass index, and total gonadotropin dose, except for the ratio of luteinizing hormone to follicle-stimulating hormone between the PCOS and control groups. PPAR-γ and COX-2 mRNA was significantly downregulated in the GCs of PCOS women compared with controls (p=0.034 and p=0.018, respectively), but the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA did not show significant differences. No significant correlation was detected between the expression of these mRNA sequences and clinical characteristics, including the number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturity, cleavage, or the good embryo rate. Positive correlations were found among the PPAR-γ, COX-2, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA levels. CONCLUSION: Our data may provide novel clues regarding ovarian GC dysfunction in PCOS, and indirectly provide evidence that the effect of PPAR-γ agonists in PCOS might result from alterations in the ovarian follicular environment. Further studies with a larger sample size are required to confirm these proposals.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Embryonic Structures , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Follicular Fluid , Gene Expression , Gonadotropins , Granulosa Cells , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Luteinizing Hormone , Oocyte Retrieval , Oocytes , Ovulation Induction , Peroxisomes , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Polymerase Chain Reaction , PPAR gamma , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Sample Size , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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