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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e255753, 2022. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355850

ABSTRACT

Abstract The leaf miner, Tuta absoluta is continue to be a serious threat to solanaceous plants, especially tomato plant worldwide. Tomato crop in Saudi Arabia has been recently affected by T. absoluta, which is difficult to control due to its unique biological features, such as high fecundity and its potential to develop resistance to chemical pesticides. In this article, the suitability and effectiveness of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), an indigenous species usually found in tomato greenhouses of northcentral Saudi Arabia, has been evaluated on eggs and 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta in the laboratory. All experiments were conducted in an incubator at three constant temperatures of 22, 27 and 32°C ± 1°C, 50 ± 4% R.H. and L12:D12 h photoperiod. Adult females and males of N. cucumeris were able to feed and sustain oviposition on eggs and 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta, and could be an effective biocontrol agent against T. absoluta. The N. cucumeris had a clear preference for eggs compared to 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta. The results showed the obvious effect of the temperature on the consumption rate of the predatory mite. The maximum daily consumption rate occurred during the oviposition period, when the females of the predatory mite consumed an average of 4.26 eggs and 2.44 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta. In general, total fecundity was high with T. absoluta eggs as a food source when temperature increased from 22 to 32°C. The highest fecundity rate (42.92 and 20.97 eggs /female) was recorded at 32°C, while the lowest one (26.77 and 10.12 eggs / female) was recorded at 22°C, when N. cucumeris female fed on eggs and 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta, respectively. The results of this study indicated that the predatory mite, N. cucumeris can be considered a promising potential candidate for controlling the leaf miner T. absoluta, and further research is required to assess its effectiveness under greenhouse conditions.


Resumo A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta, continua sendo uma séria ameaça às plantas solanáceas, especialmente ao tomateiro em todo o mundo. A safra de tomate na Arábia Saudita foi recentemente afetada por T. absoluta, o qual é de difícil controle por causa de suas características biológicas únicas, como alta fecundidade e potencial para desenvolver resistência a pesticidas químicos. Neste artigo, a adequação e a eficácia do ácaro predador Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), uma espécie indígena geralmente encontrada em estufas de tomate no centro-norte da Arábia Saudita, foram avaliadas em ovos e larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta em condições de laboratório. Todos os experimentos foram conduzidos em uma incubadora em três temperaturas constantes de 22, 27 e 32°C ± 1°C, 50 ± 4% UR e fotoperíodo L12: D12 h. Fêmeas e machos adultos de N. cucumeris foram capazes de se alimentar e sustentar a oviposição em ovos e larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta, podendo ser um agente de biocontrole eficaz contra T. absoluta. Neoseiulus cucumeris teve uma clara preferência por ovos em comparação com larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta. Os resultados mostram que mais presas foram consumidas conforme a temperatura aumentou de 22°C para 32°C. A taxa máxima de consumo diário ocorreu durante o período de oviposição, quando as fêmeas consumiram em média 4,26 ovos e 2,44 larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta. Em geral, a fecundidade total foi maior com ovos de T. absoluta como fonte alimentar e com o aumento da temperatura. A maior taxa de fecundidade (42,92 e 20,97 ovos por fêmea) foi registrada a 32°C, enquanto a mais baixa (26,77 e 10,12 ovos por fêmea) foi a 22°C, quando N. cucumeris se alimentou de ovos e larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta, respectivamente. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que o ácaro predador N. cucumeris pode ser considerado um potencial candidato para o controle da traça-do-tomateiro T. absoluta, e mais pesquisas são necessárias para avaliar sua eficácia em condições de estufa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Lycopersicon esculentum , Lepidoptera , Mites , Oviposition , Predatory Behavior , Pest Control, Biological , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e250778, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285589

ABSTRACT

Abstract Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) now a possible safer microbial control measure that could be considered as a substitute for chemical control of insect pests. Three EPF viz., Metarihizium anisopliae, Isaria furnosoroseus and Beauveria bassiana were evaluated for their virulence against the grubs of Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium (Everts) under laboratory conditions. The isolates were applied by two methods viz., diet incorporation and an immersion method with 3rd instar 20 grubs of T. granarium for each. The virulence of EPF was determined using percent mortality. Significantly higher mortality was observed in M. anisopliae applied through immersion (98.33%) and diet incorporation (93.33%) methods followed by B. bassiana (90.83 and 85.83%, respectively). The mortality caused by I. furnosoroseus was statistically lower in immersion and diet incorporation methods i.e. 81.67 and 73.33%, respectively. Based on the immersion method, all EPF were studied for multiple conidial concentration i.e., 1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107 and 1×108 under the same in-vitro conditions. All the isolates were pathogenic to grub of T. granarium at the highest conidial concentration. M. anisopliae was proved the most effective virulent resulting in 98.33% mortality of the pest with LT50 4.61 days at 1 × 108 conidial concentration followed by 90.83 and 81.67 percent mortality with 5.07 and 8.01 days LT50, in the application of B. bassiana and I. furnosoroseus, respectively. M. anisopliae showed higher efficacy and could be considered as promising EPF for the development of myco-insecticides against effective biocontrol of T. granarium.


Resumo Os fungos entomopatogênicos (FPE) são agora a possível medida de controle microbiano mais segura, que pode ser considerada um substituto para o controle químico de pragas de insetos. Três EPF viz., Metarihizium anisopliae, Isaria furnosoroseus e Beauveria bassiana foram avaliados quanto à sua virulência contra as larvas do besouro Khapra, Trogoderma granarium (Everts) em condições de laboratório. Os isolados foram aplicados por dois métodos, a saber: incorporação de dieta e um método de imersão com 20 larvas de T. granarium de 3º ínstar para cada um. A virulência do EPF foi determinada usando a mortalidade percentual. Mortalidade significativamente maior foi observada em M. anisopliae aplicado pelos métodos de imersão (98,33%) e incorporação de dieta (93,33%), seguido por B. bassiana (90,83% e 85,83%, respectivamente). A mortalidade causada por I. furnosoroseus foi estatisticamente menor nos métodos de imersão e incorporação de dieta, ou seja, 81,67% e 73,33%, respectivamente. Com base no método de imersão, todos os EPFs foram estudados para múltiplas concentrações de conídios, ou seja, 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107 e 1 × 108 nas mesmas condições in vitro. Todos os isolados foram patogênicos à larva de T. granarium na maior concentração de conídios. M. anisopliae provou ser o virulento mais eficaz, resultando em 98,33% de mortalidade da praga com LT50 4,61 dias na concentração de 1 × 108 conídios seguido por 90,83% e 81,67% de mortalidade com 5,07 e 8,01 dias LT50, na aplicação de B. bassiana e I. furnosoroseus, respectivamente. M. anisopliae apresentou maior eficácia e pode ser considerada como um PFE promissor para o desenvolvimento de micoinseticidas contra o biocontrole efetivo de T. granarium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oryza , Coleoptera , Beauveria , Virulence , Pest Control, Biological , Larva
3.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210027, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286051

ABSTRACT

Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner: 1818) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is one of the main pests that affect soybean crops, causing defoliation. In the vegetative stages, defoliation occurs together with weeds, and in the reproductive stages with pathogens. In this sense, to maintain plant health, it is necessary to carry out the combined use of pesticides. Thus, this research determined the compatibility of the entomopathogenic virus AgMNPV with the main herbicides and fungicides used in soy at different times of the mixture. The artificial diet was immersed in the solutions of the pesticides and their mixtures and supplied to A. gemmatalis caterpillars, immediately and after one and two hours of mixing. The evaluation was performed by quantifying the number of dead caterpillars by mixing the AgMNPV virus with herbicides and fungicides, even after two hours of mixing if compatible. The observed scenarios showed a compatibility of the virus with the herbicides and fungicides, with mortality rates between 70 to 99% for A. gemmatalis.


Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner: 1818) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) é uma das principais pragas que acometem a cultura da soja, causando desfolha. Nos estágios vegetativos a desfolha ocorre juntamente com ervas daninhas, e no reprodutivo com patógenos. Nesse sentido, para manter a fitossanidade, é necessário realizar a utilização combinada de pesticidas. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a compatibilidade do vírus entomopatogênico AgMNPV com os principais herbicidas e fungicidas utilizados na soja em diferentes tempos de mistura. A dieta artificial foi imersa nas soluções dos pesticidas e suas misturas e fornecida às lagartas de A. gemmatalis, imediatamente e após uma e duas horas de mistura. A avaliação foi realizada quantificando o número de lagartas mortas. A mistura do vírus AgMNPV com herbicidas e fungicidas, mesmo após duas horas de mistura se mostrou compatível. Os cenários observados mostram a compatibilidade do vírus com os herbicidas e fungicidas, com percentuais de mortalidade entre 70 a 99% para A. gemmatalis.


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological/methods , Nucleopolyhedroviruses , Fungicides, Industrial/administration & dosage , Herbicides/administration & dosage , Lepidoptera
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 872-880, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153450

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacillus thuringiensis is the most commonly used entomopathogen in the control of Aedes aegypti, which is a vector for different etiological agents that cause serious infections in humans. Several studies aim to isolate strains of this bacterium from different environments, with the perspective of selecting isolates with larvicidal activity for mosquitoes. Aiming at the insecticidal action of B. thuringiensis, the present study aimed to prospect B. thuringiensis of restinga and mangrove soils from the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with toxic potential for use in the biological control of Ae. aegypti. Bioassays were performed to determine the entomopathogenic activity of the bacilli against Ae. aegypti and lethal concentrations (LC50 and CL90) were estimated after the tests. Polymerase Chain Reaction and SDS-PAGE techniques were performed to verify the gene and protein content of the isolates, respectively. The soil of the mangrove and restinga ecosystems showed potential for obtaining B. thuringiensis. This isolate, in addition to having proteins with molecular mass similar to the toxins Cry and Cyt, also presented several diptera-specific genes cry and cyt, demonstrating that it has high potential to be used in the biological control of Ae. aegypti.


Resumo Bacillus thuringiensis é o entomopatógeno mais utilizado no controle do Aedes aegypti, vetor de diferentes agentes etiológicos que causam infecções graves em humanos. Diversos estudos têm como objetivo isolar cepas dessa bactéria de diferentes ambientes, com a perspectiva de selecionar isolados com atividade larvicida para mosquitos. Visando a ação inseticida de B. thuringiensis, o presente estudo teve como objetivo prospectar B. thuringiensis de solos de restinga e mangue do estado do Maranhão, Brasil, com potencial tóxico para uso no controle biológico de Ae. aegypti. Bioensaios foram realizados para determinar a atividade entomopatogênica do bacilo contra Ae. aegypti e as concentrações letais (CL50 e CL90) foram estimadas após os testes. As técnicas de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase e SDS-PAGE foram realizadas para verificar o conteúdo de genes e proteínas dos isolados, respectivamente. Os solos dos ecossistemas de mangue e restinga apresentaram potencial para obtenção de B. thuringiensis. O isolado BtMA-750, obtido a partir da amostra de solo da restinga, foi interessantemente distinguido por sua alta toxicidade para Ae. aegypti. Este isolado, além de apresentar proteínas com massa molecular semelhante às toxinas Cry e Cyt, apresentou também diversos genes díptero-específicos cry e cyt, demonstrando que tem alto potencial para ser usado no controle biológico de Ae. aegypti.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/genetics , Aedes , Brazil , Pest Control, Biological , Ecosystem , Mosquito Vectors , Larva
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1023-1029, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153420

ABSTRACT

Abstract The mortality of the Alabama argillacea and Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae caused by the kaolin inert powder and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana were determined under laboratory conditions. Using the caterpillar submersion method, the CG 138 B. bassiana isolate was more pathogenic to A. argillacea than the CG 70, GC 82, ESALQ 634, and ESALQ 645. All five tested isolates caused similar mortality of C. includens. The mortality of first-instar larvae of A. argillacea and C. includens by feeding on leaf-disc impregnated with B. bassiana (CG 138) and kaolin was also determined. Higher A. argillacea mortalities were observed in the B. bassiana (CG 138) treatments, regardless of the presence of kaolin. However, the activity of kaolin + B. bassiana (CG 138) against C. includens was higher than each ingredient alone, indicating an additive action against C. includes larvae. The mortality of A. argillacea and C. includens larvae treated with kaolin + B. bassiana (CG 138) was similar, and the A. argillacea mortality was higher than that of C. includens with kaolin and B. bassiana (GC 138) separated. The treatment kaolin + B. bassiana (CG 138) is promising for the simultaneous management of these two defoliator pests, mainly A. includes. In addition, the monophagous A. argillacea is more susceptible to both kaolin and B. bassiana (GC 138) than the polyphagous C. includens, suggesting that the nutritional ecology plays an important role in the susceptibility of these defoliator species to alternative insecticides.


Resumo A mortalidade de larvas de Alabama argillacea e Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), causada pelo pó inerte do caulim e pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana, foi determinada em condições de laboratório. Usando o método de submersão da lagarta, o isolado CG 138 de B. bassiana foi mais patogênico para A. argillacea que os CG 70, GC 82, ESALQ 634 e ESALQ 645 desse fungo. Os cinco isolados testados causaram mortalidade semelhante de C. includens. A mortalidade de larvas de primeiro ínstar de A. argillacea e C. includens pelo método de alimentação em discos foliares impregnados com B. bassiana (CG 138) e caulim foi, também, determinada. A mortalidade de A. argillacea foi maior nos tratamentos com B. bassiana (CG 138), independentemente da presença do caulim. A atividade do caulim + B. bassiana (CG 138) contra C. includens foi maior que cada ingrediente isolado, indicando ação aditiva contra larvas desse Lepidoptera. A mortalidade de larvas de A. argillacea e C. includens, com caulim + B. bassiana (CG 138), foi semelhante e as de A. argillacea maiores que as de C. includens com caulim e B. bassiana (GC 138) isoladamente. O tratamento caulin + B. bassiana (CG 138) é promissor para o manejo simultâneo dessas duas pragas desfolhadoras, principalmente A. includens. Além disso, a monófaga, A. argilacea, é mais suscetível ao caulim e à B. bassiana (GC 138) que a polífaga, C. includens, sugerindo que a ecologia nutricional desempenha papel importante na suscetibilidade dessas espécies desfolhadoras a inseticidas alternativos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beauveria , Lepidoptera , Pest Control, Biological , Alabama , Kaolin , Larva
7.
Rio de Janeiro; rBLH; 2 rev; set. 2021. [7] p. ilus.(Normas técnicas BLH-IFF/NT, 1, 4). (BLH-IFF/NT 04.21).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369275

ABSTRACT

Esta Norma Técnica tem por objetivo estabelecer as medidas preventivas e responsabilidades no controle de pragas e vetores de doenças em Bancos de Leite Humano e Postos de Coleta de Leite Humano, visando a garantia da qualidade nestes serviços e sua certificação.


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological/standards , Milk Banks/standards , Disease Vectors , Breast Milk Expression , Brazil , Technical Standards
8.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(2): 221-234, jun./dez. 2021. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293138

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of Anagrapha falcifera multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AfMNPV) passages in the Spodoptera cosmioides caterpillar's biology at different times of infection and histological changes that the virus could cause in the caterpillar midgut, seeking correlate histopathologic effects to the effectiveness of this virus as a potential biological control of this pest. Larvae were infected with seven days of development, by using three different passages of AfMNPV on S. cosmioides (F1, F4 and F7, which is the first, fourth and seventh passages, respectively) and the control treatment. Compared biology assays with the same treatments for analyzing behavior and mortality of caterpillars were performed concomitantly. The midgut morphology was compared between infected and uninfected larvae. The digestive tubes were collected at 24, 72 and 144 hours of infection (20 tubes/treatment/time of infection). After collection, the digestive tubes were fixed in Karnovsky, processed, stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, and examined under a light microscope. The biology results of F4 and F7treatments, showed a drastic reduction in locomotion and feeding from the fourth day after infection and higher cumulative mortality rate compared to the control and F1. All treatments caused morphological changes in the midgut of S. cosmioides, in the three times of infection, with the greatest changes occurring at the epithelium. The AfMNPV, in the three passages tested in S. cosmioides, caused behavioral and morphological changes in the midgut, indicating that it can be a promising agent for biological control of this pest.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de passagens do múltiplo nucleopoliedrovírus de Anagrapha falcifera (AfMNPV) na biologia de lagartas de Spodoptera cosmioides, em diferentes momentos de infecção, e as alterações histológicas que o vírus poderia causar no intestino médio da lagarta, buscando correlacionar os efeitos histopatológicos e a eficácia deste vírus, como um potencial controle biológico desta praga. As lagartas foram infectadas com sete dias de desenvolvimento, utilizando três passagens diferentes do AfMNPV em S. cosmioides (F1, F4 e F7, sendo a primeira, quarta e sétima passagens, respectivamente) e o tratamento controle. Foram realizados, concomitantemente, ensaios de biologia, comparados com os mesmos tratamentos, para analisar o comportamento e mortalidade das lagartas. A morfologia do intestino médio foi comparada entre as lagartas infectadas e as não infectadas. Os tubos digestivos foram coletados com 24, 72 e 144 horas de infecção (20 tubos/tratamento/ tempo de infecção). Após a coleta, os tubos foram fixados em Karnovsky, processados, corados com Hematoxilina-Eosina e analisados ao microscópio de luz. Os resultados da biologia dos tratamentos F4 e F7 mostraram uma redução drástica na locomoção e alimentação das lagartas, a partir do quarto dia pós-infecção e maior taxa de mortalidade cumulativa, em relação ao controle e F1. Morfologicamente, todos os tratamentos causaram alterações no intestino médio das lagartas de S. cosmioides, nos três tempos de infecção, sendo que as maiores alterações ocorreram no epitélio. O AfMNPV, nas três passagens testadas em S. cosmioides, provocou alterações comportamentais e morfológicas no intestino médio, indicando que pode ser um promissor agente de controle biológico desta praga


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control, Biological , Insecta , Lepidoptera
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 114-124, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153325

ABSTRACT

Abstract Entomopathogenic agents are viable and effective options due to their selective action against insects but benign effects on humans and the environment. The most promising entomopathogens include subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which are widely used for the biological control of insects, including mosquito vectors of human pathogens. The efficacy of B. thuringiensis toxicity has led to the search for new potentially toxic isolates in different regions of the world. Therefore, soil samples from the Amazon, Cerrado and Caatinga biomes of the state of Maranhão were evaluated for their potential larvicidal action against Aedes aegypti. The isolates with high toxicity to mosquito larvae, as detected by bioassays, were subjected to histological evaluation under a light microscope to identify the genes potentially responsible for the toxicity. Additionally, the toxic effects of these isolates on the intestinal epithelium were assessed. In the new B. thuringiensis isolates toxic to A. aegypti larvae, cry and cyt genes were amplified at different frequencies, with cry4, cyt1, cry32, cry10 and cry11 being the most frequent (33-55%) among those investigated. These genes encode specific proteins toxic to dipterans and may explain the severe morphological changes in the intestine of A. aegypti larvae caused by the toxins of the isolates.


Resumo Os agentes entomopatógenos são alternativas viáveis e eficazes, devido à sua ação seletiva para insetos sendo inofensivos ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Dentre os entomopatógenos mais promissores, destacam-se as subespécies de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) amplamente utilizadas no controle biológico de insetos incluindo espécies de mosquitos vetores de agentes patogênicos ao homem. A eficiência da toxicidade de Bt incentiva a prospecção de novos isolados em diversas regiões do mundo. Desta forma, em busca de novos isolados de B. thuringiensis potencialmente tóxicos, amostras de solo provenientes dos biomas Amazônia, Cerrado e Caatinga do estado do Maranhão foram avaliadas em relação ao seu potencial larvicida para Aedes aegypti. Os isolados que provocaram elevada toxicidade para larvas do mosquito, detectada por bioensaios, foram avaliados em relação aos potenciais genes responsáveis pela atividade tóxica, além da avaliação de efeitos tóxicos no epitélio intestinal através de análises histológicas em microscopia de luz. Os novos isolados de Bt tóxicos para larva de A. aegypti amplificaram frequências diferentes de genes cry e cyt sendo os mais frequentes (55-33%) os cry4, cyt1, cry32, cry10 e cry11 dentre os investigados. Esses genes codificam para proteínas tóxicas específicas para ordem Diptera, e podem explicar as severas alterações morfológicas provocadas pelas toxinas dos isolados observadas no intestino das larvas de A. aegypti.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/genetics , Aedes , Insecticides , Culicidae , Pest Control, Biological , Ecosystem , Mosquito Vectors , Larva
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 387-391, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153349

ABSTRACT

Poor storage conditions provide favorable environment to stored grain pests for their growth. The bio-pesticides are the best alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Present study was conducted to compare toxicity of Rubus fruticosus and Valeriana jatamansi against granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius and subsequent changes in enzyme activity responsible for grain damage. In current research 5 g of R. fruticosus fruit and V. jatamansi rhizome powders were tested separately against S. granarius, in 50 g wheat whole grains for seven days in comparison with the control. The enzymatic activity of malate dehydrogenase and α-amylase was observed in the cellular extracts of S. granarius. The insects were crushed and homogenized in phosphate-buffer solution and centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 5 minutes. For the enzymatic measurement supernatant was tested; the spectrophotometer was adjusted at 340 nm. The reagents were mixed and incubated at 25 °C for five minutes. The cuvettes were placed in the experimental and reference sites of spectrophotometer and recorded the change in absorbance for 3-4 minutes. There was 5.60% and 14.92% reduction in the activity of malate dehydrogenase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. The alpha amylase enzyme activity was 6.82% reduced and 63.63% increase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. Present study addresses that both plant powders are effective against granary weevil by altering enzyme activities so both the plant powders can be used as bio-pesticides against the stored grains pests.


As más condições de armazenamento proporcionam um ambiente favorável às pragas armazenadas para o crescimento. Os biopesticidas são as melhores alternativas aos pesticidas sintéticos. O presente estudo foi conduzido para comparar a toxicidade de Rubus fruticosus e Valeriana jatamansi contra gorgulhos, Sitophilus granarius e subsequentes alterações na atividade enzimática responsáveis ​​por danos aos grãos. Na pesquisa atual, 5 g de frutos de R. fruticosus e pós de rizoma de V. jatamansi foram testados separadamente contra S. granarius, em 50 g de grãos integrais de trigo por sete dias, em comparação com o controle. A atividade enzimática da malato desidrogenase e α-amilase foi observada nos extratos celulares de S. granarius. Os insetos foram esmagados e homogeneizados em solução tampão fosfato e centrifugados a 10000 rpm por 5 minutos. Para a medição enzimática, o sobrenadante foi testado; o espectrofotômetro foi ajustado a 340 nm. Os reagentes foram misturados e incubados a 25 °C por cinco minutos. As cubetas foram colocadas nos locais experimentais e de referência do espectrofotômetro e registradas as alterações na absorbância por 3-4 minutos. Houve redução de 5,60% e 14,92% na atividade da malato desidrogenase em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. A atividade da enzima alfa amilase foi reduzida em 6,82% e aumento de 63,63% em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. O presente estudo aborda que ambos os pós de plantas são eficazes contra o gorgulho do celeiro, alterando as atividades enzimáticas, de modo que ambos os pós de plantas possam ser usados ​​como biopesticidas contra pragas de grãos armazenados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Valerian/toxicity , Weevils , Biological Control Agents/administration & dosage , Rubus/toxicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , alpha-Amylases , Food Storage/standards , Malate Dehydrogenase
12.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00742019, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1146672

ABSTRACT

Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is a polyphagous insect of difficult control and maize is an important host crop of this insect. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are control agents of soil pests. This study aimed to verify the action of EPNs for the control of H. armigera pupae. Laboratory and greenhouse bioassays were conducted to select the concentration of nematode application and subsequently field test were conducted. It was obtained that Heterorhabditis amazonensis MC01 at the concentration of 400 infective juveniles (IJs) ·pupa-1 caused the highest mortality in a lower concentration, whereas for H. amazonensis JPM4, concentrations of both 200 and 400 IJs ·pupa-1 were similar causing pupae mortality. In the greenhouse, H. amazonensis MC01 caused mortality reached values of 80% after 10 days, at concentrations of 600 and 800 IJs ·pupa-1. The highest mortality caused by Steinernema carpocapsae was observed at eight days after the juvenile application, at a concentration of 600 IJs ·pupa-1, also reaching 80% mortality. In the field test, both forms of application were considered appropriate for H. amazonensis MC01, causing mortality rates of up to 80%.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological , Insecta , Lepidoptera , Nematoda , Pupa , Soil , Pest Control , Zea mays
13.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00502019, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1146668

ABSTRACT

The present study assessed the efficacy of formulated biocontrol agents and nitrogen fertilization on southern blight control. Antagonism test in vitro was performed to assess the inhibitory activity of Bacillus methylotrophicus and Trichoderma asperellum against the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii. Tomato seedlings were transplanted into the substrate added with ammonium nitrate doses and inoculated with the formulated biocontrol agents Ônix (B. methylotrophicus) or Quality (T. asperellum). Subsequently, seedlings were inoculated with S. rolfsii. Plant mortality, shoot and root weight were assessed 11 days after the last inoculation. Agents had effective inhibitory activity against S. rolfsii; thus, they could reduce southern blight severity when combined with ammonium nitrate. However, plant mortality was not reduced by them.(AU)


Subject(s)
Bacillus , Trichoderma , Lycopersicon esculentum , In Vitro Techniques , Pest Control, Biological , Ammonium Compounds
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06821, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250485

ABSTRACT

Fipronil was registered in Uruguay in 1997, and, since then, it has been used for the control of Haematobia irritans irritans and Rhipicephalus microplus. The susceptibility of H. irritants to this drug has not been evaluated. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of H. irritans to fipronil. Additionally, a survey was carried out with the farmers to evaluate the use of fipronil for H. irritans control in the ranches where the flies came from. For the bioassays, 31 field populations of H. irritans were exposed to 10 concentrations of fipronil (3.2-16.0μg.cm2), and their LC50 values were calculated using probit analysis. A bioassay was performed with horn flies from the susceptible colony maintained at the USDA-ARS Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory for comparison and calculation of resistance ratios (RRs). All 31 field populations surveyed in the study were susceptible to fipronil, with resistance ratios ranging from <0.5 to 2.2. Four populations with RRs >1 did not differ significantly from the susceptible strain. A single population showed an RR >2.2. Overall, the survey shows that fipronil was mostly used for R. microplus control, and in only three ranches, which were free of R. microplus, was fipronil used for horn fly control. Seventeen farmers did not use fipronil at all in the last three years. It is concluded that, in Uruguay, field populations of horn flies remain susceptible to fipronil.(AU)


O fipronil foi registrado no Uruguai em 1997 e, desde então, tem sido utilizado no controle de Haematobia irritans irritans e Rhipicephalus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a susceptibilidade de populações de campo de H. irritans ao fipronil. Além disso, foi realizada uma pesquisa para avaliar a utilização de fipronil e as práticas de controle de H. irritans nas fazendas de onde provinham as moscas. Para os bioensaios, 31 populações de campo de H. irritans foram expostas a 10 concentrações de fipronil (3,2-16,0μg.cm2), e seus valores de CL50 foram calculados usando análise probit. Um bioensaio foi realizado com H. irritans da colônia suscetível mantida no USDA-ARS Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory para comparação e cálculo das razões de resistência (RRs). Todas as 31 populações de campo pesquisadas no estudo eram suscetíveis ao fipronil, com taxas de resistência variando de <0,5 à 2,2. Quatro populações com Rrs >1 não diferiram significativamente da cepa suscetível. Uma única população apresentou RR >2,2. No geral, o fipronil tinha sido usado principalmente para o controle de R. microplus, e em apenas três fazendas, que estavam livres de R. microplus, o fipronil era utilizado para o controle da H. irritans. Em 17 fazendas não tinha sido utilizado fipronil nos últimos três anos. Conclui-se que no Uruguai as populações de H. irritans no campo permanecem suscetíveis ao fipronil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Biological Assay , Pest Control, Biological , Rhipicephalus/pathogenicity , Diptera , Livestock , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disease Susceptibility , Laboratories
15.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e0752019, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348960

ABSTRACT

The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, has caused significant damage to vineyards in the valley of the São Francisco River in Brazil. Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma is one of the most abundant species of predatory mites on vines in this region. This study evaluated the population growth rates of T. urticae on leaves of two grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars ('Italia' and 'Superior Seedless') and jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.] and, also, to estimate the predation rates of the pest mite by N. idaeus on leaves of both grape cultivars and jack bean. A higher oviposition rate of T. urticae was observed on 'Superior Seedless' than on 'Italia' grape leaves; however, there was no significant difference in the instantaneous growth rates of T. urticae for these grape cultivars. For 'Superior Seedless', the spider mite egg viability was significantly lower than on 'Italia' grape, indicating a resistance factor in this grape cultivar. The phytoseiid N. idaeus preyed higher number of T. urticae females on 'Superior Seedless' leaves than on 'Italia' grape and jack bean leaves for the densities of 10 and 20 pest mites per leaf arena (9 cm2). Evaluations of leaf trichomes in both grape cultivars indicated the occurrence of longer trichomes on the basal portion of the main veins of 'Superior Seedless' leaves. The presence of these longer trichomes may be associated with the better performance of N. idaeus on 'Superior Seedless' leaves.


Subject(s)
Tick Control , Vitis , Oviposition , Predatory Behavior , Pest Control, Biological , Mite Infestations
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200480, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285546

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coccidiosis, a disease caused by the parasitic Eimeria spp., affects birds of all ages, particularly young birds more intensely. Infected poultry presents significant economic losses. Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that produces proteins with high specific parasiticidal activity against various orders of parasites. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the parasiticidal potential of Bti in quails that were naturally infected with Eimeria bateri. Twenty 12-week-old male quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix), naturally infected with Eimeria bateri, were randomly divided into two groups of 10 birds: Bti treated and control. The treated group was supplemented with Bti (1×108 spores∙g-1) in the feed, while; the control group received the same feed without Bti. To evaluate the occurrence of oocysts, samples of feces were collected every week for four weeks. Significant (P < 0.05) oocysts reductions of 56.64% and 94.51% were noted in the Bti treated group at 2nd and 4th week of study, respectively. The Bti supplementation may contribute to the reduction of oocysts in quails and environmental contamination. Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis appeared to be a promising complementary alternative in E. bateri control.


Subject(s)
Bacillus thuringiensis , Pest Control, Biological , Coccidiosis , Eimeria
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200816, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285566

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the fungitoxic effect of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis trimera on the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum 89 race, as well as its effect on the accumulation of phaseolin in hypocotyls of different cultivars and common bean varieties. It was obtained 20% aqueous extract from plants collected in municipalities of the Western Region of Paraná. Blocks containing C. lindemuthianum mycelium were transferred to Petri dishes containing medium with the different extracts and incubated at 25 °C. The colonies diameter was measured until the 12th day. Effects of aqueous extracts on phaseolin production was evaluated in hypocotyls of Carioca, Cnpf 8104, Soberana, Tibatã, Uirapurú cultivars, as well as Rosinha and Vermelho varieties. Each one cultivar and variety hypocotyl was transferred separately to test tubes containing 500 μL of 20% aqueous extracts. Sterile water, Bion®, and UV was used as controls. The phaseolin production was measured in spectrophotometer [280 nm]. Results of the evaluation of the antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of Baccharis sp. specimens collected indicate that approximately 50% of the samples presented capacity to reduce between 74 and 92% of C. lindemuthianum growth. Cultivar Tibatã and Vermelho variety showed greater sensitivity over the applied treatments. Results of fungal filtrates and vegetal aqueous extracts presented a low capacity to induce the production of phaseolin in hypocotyls.


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological , Colletotrichum/growth & development , Phaseolus , Baccharis/microbiology , Brazil
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 43-50, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rice sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) and tobacco mosaic virus are very important plant diseases, causing a huge loss in global crop production. Paenibacillus kribbensis PS04 is a broad-spectrum biocontrol agent, used for controlling these diseases. Previously, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) from P. kribbensis PS04 had been purified and their structure was inferred to be fructosan. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous EPS treatment on plant­pathogen interactions. RESULTS: Plant defense genes such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, catalase, chitinase, allene oxide synthase, and PR1a proteins were significantly induced by exogenous EPS treatment. Moreover, subsequent challenge of EPSpretreated plants with the pathogens (R. solani or tobacco mosaic virus) resulted in higher expression of defenseassociated genes. Increased activities of defense-associated enzymes, total phenols, and flavonoids were also observed in EPS pretreated plants. The contents of malondialdehyde in plants, which act as indicator of lipid peroxidation, were reduced by EPS treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study comprehensively showed that EPS produced from P. kribbensis PS04 enhances disease resistance in plants by the activation of defense-associated genes as well as through the enhancement of activities of defense-related enzymes.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/immunology , Rhizoctonia/pathogenicity , Tobacco Mosaic Virus/pathogenicity , Paenibacillus/immunology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial , Pest Control, Biological , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Paenibacillus/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fructose/analogs & derivatives
19.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 72-82, sept. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Piercing/sucking insect pests in the order Hemiptera causes substantial crop losses by removing photoassimilates and transmitting viruses to their host plants. Cloning and heterologous expression of plantderived insect resistance genes is a promising approach to control aphids and other sap-sucking insect pests. While expression from the constitutive 35S promoter provides broad protection, the phloem-specific rolC promoter provides better defense against sap sucking insects. The selection of plant-derived insect resistance genes for expression in crop species will minimize bio-safety concerns. RESULTS: Pinellia ternata leaf agglutinin gene (pta), encodes an insecticidal lectin, was isolated and cloned under the 35S and rolC promoters in the pGA482 plant transformation vector for Agrobacterium-mediated tobacco transformation. Integration and expression of the transgene was validated by Southern blotting and qRT-PCR, respectively. Insect bioassays data of transgenic tobacco plants showed that expression of pta under rolC promoter caused 100% aphid mortality and reduced aphid fecundity up to 70% in transgenic tobacco line LRP9. These results highlight the better effectivity of pta under rolC promoter to control phloem feeders, aphids. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested the potential of PTA against aphids and other sap sucking insect pests. Evaluation of gene in tobacco under two different promoters; 35S constitutive promoter and rolC phloemspecific promoter could be successfully use for other crop plants particularly in cotton. Development of transgenic cotton plants using plant-derived insecticidal, PTA, would be key step towards commercialization of environmentally safe insect-resistant crops.


Subject(s)
Aphids/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological , Pinellia/chemistry , Plant Viruses , Tobacco , Blotting, Southern , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Plants, Genetically Modified , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Transgenes , Disease Resistance , Crop Protection
20.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(2): 106-112, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223268

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivos: a utilização de microrganismos como controle biológico de vetores sanitários pode ser considerada uma prática menos agressiva ao ambiente, em comparação com os produtos químicos utilizados. O presente estudo avaliou a eficiência de suspensões celulares de fungos e bactérias isolados de efluentes industriais têxteis no controle sanitário dos vetores naturais Aedes aegypti e Dermacentor nitens como alternativa sustentável de controle biológico. Métodos: foram avaliadas sete linhagens de fungos e seis de bactérias. Os isolados foram cultivados em caldo nutriente e caldo de batata, para bactérias e fungos, respectivamente. Alíquotas de 2 mL de cada suspensão microbiana foram adicionadas diretamente nas larvas dos mosquitos e nos carrapatos adultos. Foram analisadas alterações de movimentação e paralisação dos vetores em diferentes tempos de exposição entre zero e 20 minutos e três e 24 horas. Resultados: duas bactérias e um fungo promoveram uma desaceleração dos movimentos e/ou um aumento da movimentação dos ectoparasitas logo após a administração. Dois isolados bacterianos promoveram a paralisação dos movimentos de uma larva do mosquito Aedes aegypti em seu primeiro estágio de desenvolvimento, enquanto que um fungo provocou aumento da movimentação das larvas em seu estágio de desenvolvimento mais avançado. Conclusão: os microrganismos mostraram potencial uso no controle de vetores sanitários. Testes subsequentes de atividade dos possíveis metabólitos secundários produzidos e das formas de administração das culturas microbianas serão executados. Os resultados encontrados encorajam futuros estudos de otimização e caracterização dos extratos celulares, os quais poderão ser utilizados como ferramenta sustentável no controle biológico.(AU)


Background and Objectives: the use of microorganisms as biological control of health vectors can be considered a less aggressive practice to the environment, in comparison with the chemicals used. The present study evaluated the efficiency of cell suspensions of fungi and bacteria isolated from industrial textile effluents in the sanitary control of the natural vectors Aedes aegypti and Dermacentor nitens as a sustainable alternative for biological control. Methods: seven fungi and six bacteria strains were evaluated. The isolates were grown in nutrient broth and potato broth, for bacteria and fungi, respectively. 2 mL aliquots of each microbial suspension were added directly to mosquito larvae and adult ticks. Changes in movement and paralysis of vectors at different exposure times between zero and 20 minutes and three and 24 hours were analyzed. Results: two bacteria and a fungus promoted a slowdown in movement and / or an increase in the movement of ectoparasites shortly after administration. Two bacterial isolates caused the movement of a larva of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to stop in its first stage of development, while a fungus caused increased movement of the larvae in their most advanced stage of development. Conclusion: the microorganisms showed potential use in the control of health vectors. Subsequent activity tests of the possible secondary metabolites produced and the ways of administering the microbial cultures will be performed. The results found encourage future studies of optimization and characterization of cell extracts, which can be used as a sustainable tool in biological control.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: el uso de microorganismos como control biológico de vectores sanitarios puede considerarse una práctica menos agresiva para el medio ambiente en comparación con los productos químicos utilizados. El presente estudio evaluó la eficiencia de las suspensiones de células fúngicas y bacterianas de efluentes industriales textiles en el control sanitario de los vectores Aedes aegypti y Dermacentor nitens como una alternativa sostenible para el control biológico. Métodos: evaluaron siete hongos y seis de bacterias. Los aislamientos se cultivaron en medio de cultivo, caldo nutrientes y de papa para bacterias y hongos, respectivamente. Se agregaron alícuotas de 2 mL de cada suspensión microbiana directamente a las larvas de mosquito y las garrapatas adultas. Analizaron los cambios en el movimiento y la parálisis de los vectores a diferentes tiempos de exposición entre cero y 20 minutos y tres y 24 horas. Resultados: dos bacterias y un hongo causaron una reducido el movimiento y/o aumentó el movimiento del ectoparásito poco después de la administración. Dos bacterias paralizaron los movimientos de las larvas de un mosquito en su primera etapa de desarrollo y un hongo causó un mayor movimiento de las larvas en su etapa posterior de desarrollo. Conclusión: los microorganismos mostraron uso potencial como control de vectores sanitarios. Se realizarán pruebas de actividad de los posibles metabolitos secundarios producidos y las formas de administración de los cultivos microbianos. Los resultados fomentan más estudios de optimización y caracterización de extractos celulares, que pueden utilizarse como herramienta sostenible en el control biológico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Aquatic Microorganisms , Industrial Effluents , Pest Control, Biological , Ticks , Aedes
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