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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468808

ABSTRACT

Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) is an omnivorous predator that finds different food resources in the corn plant: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredospores of Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897), and pollen. Knowing the survival and food preferences of this predator is essential to define its relevance as a biological control agent. We hypothesize that the foraging behavior and predatory capacity of D. luteipes may be affected when several food resources, especially eggs of S. frugiperda, uredospores of P. polysora, and pollen are concurrently in the same plant. The survival of D. luteipes in the nymph stage and their preference among food resources, often available in corn plants, were determined. To verify the survival of D. luteipes, newly hatched nymphs were fed exclusively with 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- a combination of uredospores + eggs, and 5- artificial diet (control). In another experiment, nymphs and adults of D. luteipes with 24 and 48 hours of fasting were individually released in the center of a container with four diets: 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- artificial diet, and maintained for 10 minutes, to evaluate the food choice and feeding time. The exclusive feeding with S. frugiperda eggs caused low nymph survival (8%), but the combination of P. polysora uredospores + S. frugiperda eggs allowed 58.3% survival. D. luteipes preferred feeding during the nighttime and the most significant proportions of choices by nymphs and adults were for pollen and diet, with adults spending more time eating pollen. These findings indicate that the trophic choices of D. luteipes are relevant to understand its contribution as an agent to control pest insects and fungal diseases in corn.


Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) é um predador onívoro, que encontra na planta do milho diferentes recursos alimentares: ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredósporos de Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897) e pólen. Para definição da relevância desse predador como agente de controle biológico, conhecer a sobrevivência e preferência alimentar é essencial. Nós hipotetizamos que o comportamento de forrageamento e a capacidade de predação de D. luteipes podem ser afetados quando uma mesma planta oferece ovos, uredósporos e pólen, concomitantemente. A sobrevivência de D. luteipes na fase de ninfa e sua preferência entre os recursos alimentares, frequentemente disponíveis nas plantas de milho, foram determinados. Para verificar a sobrevivência de D. luteipes, ninfas recém eclodidas foram alimentadas exclusivamente com 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- combinação de uredósporos + ovos e 5- dieta artificial (controle). Em outro experimento, ninfas e adultos de D. luteipes com 24 e 48 horas de jejum foram liberadas individualmente, em recipientes contendo quatro dietas: 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- dieta artificial e mantidas durante 10 min, sendo avaliados a escolha pelo alimento e o tempo de alimentação. A alimentação exclusiva com ovos de S. frugiperda ocasionou baixa sobrevivência das ninfas (8%), porém a combinação de uredósporos de P. polysora + ovos de S. frugiperda possibilitou sobrevivência de 58,3%. D. luteipes preferiu se alimentar durante o período noturno e as maiores proporções de escolhas das ninfas e dos adultos ocorreram no pólen e na dieta, sendo que os adultos gastaram mais tempo se alimentando de pólen. Estas descobertas indicam que as escolhas tróficas de D. luteipes são relevantes para compreender sua contribuição como agente de controle de insetos-praga e doença fúngicas em milho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Diet , Insecta/growth & development , Spodoptera , Zea mays
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468917

ABSTRACT

Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


A dengue transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti é uma das doenças transmitidas por insetos de propagação mais rápida. A dependência atual do controle do vetor da dengue é principalmente de inseticidas químicos. O aumento da resistência a inseticidas no principal vetor do mosquito, Aedes aegypti, limita a eficácia do controle do vetor por meio de inseticidas químicos. Esses inseticidas químicos também têm impactos ambientais negativos sobre os animais, plantas e saúde humana. Os agentes de micobiocontrole são organismos que ocorrem naturalmente e são menos prejudiciais ao meio ambiente em comparação com os inseticidas químicos. No presente estudo, avaliou se o potencial entomopatogênico de cepas locais de fungos isolados do solo para o controle do vetor da dengue. Isolados de fungos locais apresentam melhor alternativa para a introdução de uma cepa de biocontrole estrangeira, pois podem ser mais bem adaptados às condições ambientais da área para sobreviver e podem ter maior eficácia entomopatogênica contra o organismo-alvo. A eficácia larvicida de Fusarium equiseti e Fusarium proliferatum foi avaliada contra Aedes aegypti. Cepas locais de F. equiseti (MK371718) e F. proliferatum (MK371715) foram isoladas do solo de Changa Manga Forest, Paquistão, usando o método de isca para insetos. Atividade larvicida de dois Fusarium spp. foi testado contra larvas de quarto ínstar de A. aegypti em laboratório, nas concentrações 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios / ml. Os valores de LC50 para F. equiseti após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição foram registrados como 3,8x 108, 2,9x107, 2,0x107 e 7,1x106 conídios / ml, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de LC50 para F. proliferatum foram registrados como 1,21x108, 9,6 x107, 4,2x107, 2,6x107 conídios / ml, respectivamente, após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição. Os resultados indicam que entre duas cepas de fungos F. equiseti se mostrou mais eficaz em termos de atividade [...].


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Fusarium/pathogenicity
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-12, 2023. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468940

ABSTRACT

Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important fungal genera, which affects a wide range of hosts, specifically tropical and subtropical crops. Thus far, there have been several records of mycovirus infection in Colletotrichum spp., primarily by viruses of the Partitiviridae family. There have also been records of infections by mycoviruses of the Chrysoviridae family. Mycoviruses are (+)ssRNA and dsRNA genome viruses, which may or may not be enveloped. To date, no mycovirus with a DNA genome has been isolated from Colletotrichum spp. Typically, mycoviruses cause latent infections, although hypo- and hypervirulence have also been reported in Colletotrichum spp. In addition to its effects on pathogenic behavior, mycovirus infection can lead to important physiological changes, such as altered morphological characteristics, reduced vegetative growth, and suppressed conidia production. Therefore, research on mycoviruses infecting phytopathogenic fungi can help develop alternative methods to chemical control, which can cause irreversible damage to humans and the environment. From an agricultural perspective, mycoviruses can contribute to sustainable agriculture as biological control agents via changes in fungal physiology, ultimately resulting in the total loss of or reduction in the virulence of these pathogens.


Colletotrichum é um dos gêneros fúngicos mais importantes economicamente, afetando uma ampla gama de hospedeiros, especialmente em cultivos tropicais e subtropicais. Atualmente já existem diversos registros de infecção por micovírus em Colletotrichum spp., sendo a maioria dos já identificados classificados na família Partitiviridae. Ocorrem registros também de micovírus pertencentes à família Chrysoviridae. Compreendem vírus de genoma de (+)ssRNA e dsRNA que podem ser ou não envelopados. Ainda não foram identificados micovírus com genoma de DNA isolados de Colletotrichum. A infecção por micovírus pode ocorrer de forma latente, mas já foi observado em Colletotrichum spp. o fenômeno de hipo e hipervirulência. Além de influenciar no comportamento patogênico, a infecção pode causar mudanças fisiológicas importantes como alterações das características morfológicas, redução do crescimento vegetativo e redução na produção de conídios. O estudo com micovírus em fungos fitopatogênicos traz uma alternativa ao controle químico que é um método capaz de causar danos irreversíveis ao homem e o meio ambiente. Sob a perspectiva agrícola, os micovírus podem contribuir para agricultura sustentável como agentes de controle biológico. Isso porque obsevam-se mudanças importantes na fisiologia fúngica resultando na perda total ou redução da virulência desses patógenos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colletotrichum/virology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Fungal Viruses
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468958

ABSTRACT

The life cycle of stink bug, Glyphepomis dubia and the development of two egg parasitoids (Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus basalis) were studied at the Federal University of Maranhão, at 26 ± 2oC, relative humidity (RH) of 60 ± 10% and 12h photophase. Individuals used in the study were collected from seven rice fields located around the municipality of Arari, Maranhão, Brazil, and maintained in greenhouse and laboratory for the life cycle studies. From egg to adult, G. dubia took 35.2 days to complete the life cycle. The oviposition period was 37 days, with egg masses of about 12 eggs each and viability of 93.1%. Longevity was 53 and 65 days for females and males, respectively. The egg parasitoids Te. podisi and Tr. basalis parasitized and developed in G. dubia eggs; however, the biological characteristics of Tr. basalis were affected. Emergence of the parasitoids was higher for Te. podisi (83.5%) compared to the records for Tr. basalis (50.4%). Therefore, G. dubia may potentially achieve a pest status and Te. podisi is a promising biological control agent for G. dubia management in Brazil due to its higher longevity and better reproductive parameters.


O ciclo de vida do percevejo, Glyphepomis dubia e a biologia de dois parasitoides de ovos (Telenomus podisi e Trissolcus basalis) foram estudados na Universidade Federal do Maranhão, a 26 ± 2oC, umidade relativa (UR) de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12h. Sete indivíduos de G. dubia foram coletados em lavoura de arroz localizada no município de Arari, Maranhão, Brasil e mantidos em casa de vegetação e laboratório para estudos de ciclo de vida. Do ovo ao adulto, G. dubia levou 35.2 dias para completar o ciclo de vida. O período de oviposição foi de 37 dias com massas de ovos com cerca de 12 ovos/massa e viabilidade de 93.1%. A longevidade foi de 53 e 65 dias, respectivamente, para fêmeas e machos. Os parasitoides de ovos, Te. podisi e Tr. basalis parasitaram e se desenvolveram em ovos de G. dubia, no entanto as características biológicas de Tr. basalis foi afetada. A emergência dos parasitoides foi maior para Te. podisi (83.5%) em comparação com o registrado para Tr. basalis (50.4%). Portanto, G. dubia poderá apresentar potencial para atingir o status de praga e Te. podisi é um promissor agente de controle biológico para ser utilizado no manejo de G. dubia no Brasil, pois apresentou maior longevidade e os melhores parâmetros reprodutivos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cimicidae/growth & development , Cimicidae/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Hymenoptera/growth & development , Oryza/parasitology
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1423026

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Mantener poblaciones de insectos depredadores en el agroecosistema ofreciéndoles presas y recursos alimenticios provenientes de las plantas es importante para mejorar el control biológico y contribuir con la conservación. Objetivo: Determinar si el consumo de presas y recursos alimenticios florales potencia los atributos biológicos del depredado Hippodamia convergens. Métodos: Las larvas de Hippodamia convergens fueron alimentadas con dos especies de áfidos, mientras que los adultos fueron alimentados con áfidos, espigas de maíz y dos especies de plantas no cultivadas. La presencia de azúcar en el intestino del depredador se comprobó mediante la prueba de antronas frías, y la presencia de polen mediante el método de acetólisis. Los experimentos demográficos se realizaron durante los primeros 40 días después de la emergencia de la hembra bajo condiciones controladas (25 °C ± 0.5; 75 % ± 1.75 HR; L12:D12). Resultados: H. convergens no consumió fructosa de Sorghum halepense, Parthenium hysterophorus o Zea mays, sino únicamente polen. En condiciones controladas (25 °C ± 0.5, 75 % ± 1.75 HR), el tiempo de desarrollo (huevo-adulto) del depredador fue más corto (21.36 días) cuando consumió Rhopalosiphum maidis en lugar de Uroleucon nigrotibium (24.6 días), mientras que la supervivencia (L1- adulto) y la proporción sexual no cambió. La fecundidad promedio fue mayor (55.5 huevos / 40 días) al consumir U. nigrotibium con polen de P. hysterophorus, que solo U. nigrotibium (22.5 huevos / 40 días), o R. maidis con polen de Zea mays (11 huevos / 40 días). La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural fue mayor al consumir U. nigrotibium con polen de P. hysterophorus (0.055), que U. nigrotibium (0.034) o R. maidis con polen de Z. mays (0.019). La tasa de depredación (L1-L5) fue mayor al consumir R. maidis (0.65) que U. nigrotibium (0.51). Conclusiones: Las especies de áfidos y su combinación con polen de plantas no cultivadas afectan de manera diferente el tiempo de desarrollo, reproducción y tasa de depredación de H. convergens.


Introduction: Keeping populations of predatory insects in the agroecosystem by offering them prey, as well as food resources from plants, is important for enhancing conservation biological control. Objective: To determine if the consumption of prey and floral food resources enhances the biological attributes of the predator Hippodamia convergens. Methods: We fed the beetle larvae two species of aphids; and the adults were fed aphids, maize tassels, and two non-cultivated plant species. We checked gut sugar in the predator by the cold anthrone test and pollen presence by the acetolysis method. Demographic experiments were done in the first 40 days after female emergence, under controlled conditions (25 °C ± 0.5; 75 % ± 1.75 Relative Humidity; Light 12 h: Darkness 12 h). Results: H. convergens did not consume fructose, but only pollen from Sorghum halepense, Parthenium hysterophorus or Zea mays. Developmental time (egg-adult) of the predator was shorter (21.4 days) when it consumed Rhopalosiphum maidis than Uroleucon nigrotibium (24.6 days); survival (L1-adult) and sex ratio did not change. Average fecundity was higher (55.5 eggs / 40 days) when consuming U. nigrotibium with pollen from P. hysterophorus, than U. nigrotibium (22.5 eggs / 40 days) or R. maidis with pollen from Zea mays (11 eggs / 40 days). The intrinsic rate of natural growth was higher when consuming U. nigrotibium with pollen from P. hysterophorus (0.055), than U. nigrotibium (0.034) or R. maidis with pollen from Z. mays (0.019). Predation rate (L1-L5) was higher when consuming R. maidis (0.65) than U. nigrotibium (0.51). Conclusions: Aphid prey species and its combination with pollen from maize and non-cultivated plants affected development time, reproduction, and predation rate of H. convergens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coleoptera/growth & development , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Colombia
6.
Hig. aliment ; 36(294): e1055, jan.-jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1396534

ABSTRACT

Existe uma preocupação na produção de alimentos com a segurança sanitária desde o processo de cultivo até a sua expedição aos centros comerciais. Uma das maiores contaminações em sementes por suas características físicas e químicas, é a contaminação fúngica devida à acidez e umidade dos frutos. As doenças fúngicas entre elas, antracnose, vassoura de bruxa e podridão parda são consideradas importante doenças em pós colheita, ocorrendo, principalmente, sob condições de alta umidade relativa do ar e temperaturas elevadas (26ºC a 28ºC). Dentre as sementes da região Amazônica, destacam-se sementes de (cacau- Theobroma cacao L., pupunha- Bactris gasipaes, tucumã da Amazonas-Astrocaryum aculeatum), que apresentam problemas de contaminação fúngica durante o sistema de cultivo. Métodos de biocontroles com ação antimicrobiana: bactérias endofíticas, rizobactérias e fungo Trichoderma ssp, entre outros estão sendo estudados para a redução destas contaminações fúngicas em estudos in vitro e no campo. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a utilização de métodos de biocontrole como uma alternativa promissora no manejo de doenças de plantas na fase de pós-colheita, com excelentes resultados em culturas de grande importância econômica. Assim novas alternativas ecologicamente sustentáveis demonstram a possibilidade de os produtos estudados serem utilizados no manejo da antracnose na pós-colheita.(AU)


There is a concern in food production with health security from cultivation process to its dispatch to redistribution centers. One of the biggest contaminations in seeds due to their physical and chemical characteristics, is the fungal contamination due to the acidity and humidity of the fruits. Fungal diseases including anthracnose, bruca's broom and brownrot are considered important diseases in post-harvest, occurring mainly under conditions of high relative humidity and high temperatures (26ºC to 28ºC). Among the seeds of the Amazon region, seeds of de (cacau- Theobroma cacao L., pupunha- Bactris gasipaes, tucumã da Amazonas- Astrocaryum aculeatum ), that present problems fungals contamination during in their growing cultures sistems. Biocontrol methods with antimicrobial action: endophytic bacteria, rhizobacteria and the fungus Trichoderma ssp, among others, are being studied to reduce these fungal contaminations in in vitro and field studies. The objective of this work is to present a bibliographic review on the use of biocontrol methods as an alternative that is promising in the management of plant diseases in the post-harvest phase, with excellent results in crops of great economic importance. Thus, new ecologically sustainable alternatives demonstrate the possibility of the studied products to be used in the management of anthracnose in the post-harvest period.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Mycoses/prevention & control , Brazil , Cacao/microbiology , Review , Arecaceae/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-4, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468435

ABSTRACT

The oyster culture has the incrusting organism as problem for production, in this context, it evaluated as biological control against incrusting organism and sediments the introduction of gastropod Tegula atra (Lesson, 1830) in Chilean oysters (Triostrea chilensis Phillippi, 1844) cultures in conditions of starvation presence and absence located in floating cages and bottom cultures. The predation and mechanic effect on T. atra grazing generated a decreasing in seven days of 19.8% and 13.7% of incrusting organisms in cage culture and bottom sediments by effects of gastropods without starvation respectively. Whereas it had a decrease of 12.6% and 11.4% of incrusting organisms in cage culture and bottom sediments by effects of gastropods with starvation respectively. The incrusting organism removed were mainly algae, colonial ascidia, polychaeta, bryozoan and small crustaceans.


A cultura da ostra tem como problema de produção o organismo incrustante, neste contexto, avaliou como controle biológico contra organismos incrustantes e sedimentos a introdução do gastrópode Tegula atra (Lesson, 1830) em culturas de ostras chilenas (Triostrea chilensis Phillippi, 1844) em condições de presença e ausência de fome, localizadas em gaiolas flutuantes e culturas de fundo. A predação e o efeito mecânico no pastejo de T. atra geraram uma diminuição em sete dias de 19,8% e 13,7% dos organismos incrustantes na cultura em gaiola e nos sedimentos de fundo, por efeito de gastrópodes sem fome, respectivamente. Considerando que houve decréscimo de 12,6% e 11,4% dos organismos incrustantes na cultura em gaiola e nos sedimentos de fundo pelos efeitos dos gastrópodes com fome respectivamente. Os organismos incrustantes removidos eram principalmente algas, ascídias coloniais, poliquetas, briozoários e pequenos crustáceos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Gastropoda/parasitology , Ostreidae/parasitology
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468441

ABSTRACT

We report the discovery that the earwig predator Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) feed on Puccinia polysora Underw uredospore, the causal agent of Southern Rust of Corn (SRC), which is a primary disease affecting the maize crop in Brazil. We performed experiments in laboratory and greenhouse to test the effect of D. luteipes (1st/2nd and 3rd/4th instars, and adults) fungivory on the P. polysora uredospore concentration. All trials showed a significant reduction of the initial concentration of uredospore. There was a reduction in uredospore concentration with increase in number of D. luteipes feeding on them. We also tested the uredospore consumption by quantifying its percentage in the feces of D. luteipes. Nymphs of the 2nd, 4th instar and adults fed 88%, 85%, and 83.8% of the uredospore, respectively. For nymphs of the 3rd instar, the percentage of uredospore consumption (75.6%) was statistically significant compared with the other groups. In greenhouse experiment, at twenty-eight days after plant inoculation with 9.9 x 104 uredospores, the percentage of uredospore consumption was 81.7%. Our results confirmed the fungivory of D. luteipes on P. polysora uredospore. This is the first report of D. luteipes fungivory, which may play an important role in the biological control of P. polysora in corn.


Relatamos a descoberta de que o predador Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) se alimenta de uredosporos de Puccinia polysora Underw, o agente causal da ferrugem polisora que é uma doença primária que afeta a cultura do milho no Brasil. Realizamos experimentos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação para testar o efeito da fungivoria de D. luteipes (1º/2º e 3º/4º iìstares e adultos) sobre a concentração de uredosporos de P. polysora. Todos os ensaios mostraram uma redução significativa da concentração inicial de uredosporos. Houve uma redução na concentração de uredosporos com o aumento do número de D. luteipes alimentando-se deles. Também testamos o consumo de uredosporos quantificando sua porcentagem nas fezes de D. luteipes. Ninfas do 2º e 4º ínstar, assim como adultos, alimentaram-se de 88%, 85% e 83,8% dos uredosporos, respectivamente. Para ninfas do 3º ínstar, a porcentagem de consumo de uredosporos (75,6%) foi estatisticamente significativo em comparação com os outros grupos. No experimento em casa de vegetação, aos 28 dias após a inoculação das plantas com 9,9 x 104 uredosporos, a porcentagem de consumo de uredosporos foi de 81,7%. Nossos resultados confirmaram a fungivoria de D. luteipes em uredosporos de P. polysora. Este é o primeiro relato de fungivoria de D. luteipes, que pode ter papel importante no controle biológico de P. polysora em milho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Fungi/pathogenicity , Host Microbial Interactions , Neoptera , Pterygota/parasitology , Zea mays/microbiology
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-6, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468499

ABSTRACT

Among the plants defense mechanisms, the induction and emission of volatile organic compounds, which can be used to attract natural enemies, such predators insects. Although well studied, the induction of plant volatiles that attract natural enemies can vary according to intensity of infestation of herbivores and the species of host plant. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the volatiles of infested maize (Zea mays) plants by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in early and advanced infestations. The Bt (Viptera) maize cultivar Impact® was used for tests the behavior of N. californicus. After initial and advanced infestations, the phytophagous mites T. urticae were removed, and the plants were tested using a "Y" olfactometer. The following treatments were evaluated: air vs. air, uninfested plants vs. air, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 10 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 100 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae and plants infested with 10 vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae. The predatory mite N. californicus did not show preference to the treatments tested, suggesting that maize plants infested by T. urticae do not induce volatiles capable of attracting the predatory mite N. californicus. We concluded that N. californicus is not attracted by maize plants infested by T. urticae.


Dentre os mecanismos de defesa de plantas, a indução e emissão de compostos orgânicos voláteis, podem ser utilizados para atrair inimigos naturais, como insetos predadores. Embora bem estudada, a indução dos voláteis de plantas que atraem inimigos naturais pode variar de acordo com a intensidade de infestação de herbívoros e a espécie de planta hospedeira. Investigamos as respostas comportamentais olfativas do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) aos voláteis de plantas infestadas pelo ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae). A cultivar de milho Bt (Viptera) Impact® foi utilizada para testar o comportamento de N. californicus. Após infestações iniciais e avançadas, os ácaros fitófagos T. urticae foram removidos e as plantas testadas em olfatômetro “Y”. Os seguintes tratamentos foram avaliados: ar vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 10 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 100 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae e plantas infestadas com 10 vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae. O ácaro predador N. californicus não mostrou preferência aos tratamentos testados, sugerindo que plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae não induzem voláteis capazes de atrair o ácaro predador N. californicus. Concluímos que N. californicus não é atraído por plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Volatilization , Acari/parasitology , Zea mays
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-9, 2022. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468573

ABSTRACT

Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) now a possible safer microbial control measure that could be considered as a substitute for chemical control of insect pests. Three EPF viz., Metarihizium anisopliae, Isaria furnosoroseus and Beauveria bassiana were evaluated for their virulence against the grubs of Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium (Everts) under laboratory conditions. The isolates were applied by two methods viz., diet incorporation and an immersion method with 3rd instar 20 grubs of T. granarium for each. The virulence of EPF was determined using percent mortality. Significantly higher mortality was observed in M. anisopliae applied through immersion (98.33%) and diet incorporation (93.33%) methods followed by B. bassiana (90.83 and 85.83%, respectively). The mortality caused by I. furnosoroseus was statistically lower in immersion and diet incorporation methods i.e. 81.67 and 73.33%, respectively. Based on the immersion method, all EPF were studied for multiple conidial concentration i.e., 1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107 and 1×108 under the same in-vitro conditions. All the isolates were pathogenic to grub of T. granarium at the highest conidial concentration. M. anisopliae was proved the most effective virulent resulting in 98.33% mortality of the pest with LT50 4.61 days at 1 × 108 conidial concentration followed by 90.83 and 81.67 percent mortality with 5.07 and 8.01 days LT50, in the application of B. bassiana and I. furnosoroseus, respectively. M. anisopliae showed higher efficacy and could be considered as promising EPF for the development of myco-insecticides against effective biocontrol of T. granarium.


Os fungos entomopatogênicos (FPE) são agora a possível medida de controle microbiano mais segura, que pode ser considerada um substituto para o controle químico de pragas de insetos. Três EPF viz., Metarihizium anisopliae, Isaria furnosoroseus e Beauveria bassiana foram avaliados quanto à sua virulência contra as larvas do besouro Khapra, Trogoderma granarium (Everts) em condições de laboratório. Os isolados foram aplicados por dois métodos, a saber: incorporação de dieta e um método de imersão com 20 larvas de T. granarium de 3º ínstar para cada um. A virulência do EPF foi determinada usando a mortalidade percentual. Mortalidade significativamente maior foi observada em M. anisopliae aplicado pelos métodos de imersão (98,33%) e incorporação de dieta (93,33%), seguido por B. bassiana (90,83% e 85,83%, respectivamente). A mortalidade causada por I. furnosoroseus foi estatisticamente menor nos métodos de imersão e incorporação de dieta, ou seja, 81,67% e 73,33%, respectivamente. Com base no método de imersão, todos os EPFs foram estudados para múltiplas concentrações de conídios, ou seja, 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107 e 1 × 108 nas mesmas condições in vitro. Todos os isolados foram patogênicos à larva de T. granarium na maior concentração de conídios. M. anisopliae provou ser o virulento mais eficaz, resultando em 98,33% de mortalidade da praga com LT50 4,61 dias na concentração de 1 × 108 conídios seguido por 90,83% e 81,67% de mortalidade com 5,07 e 8,01 dias LT50, na aplicação de B. bassiana e I. furnosoroseus, respectivamente. M. anisopliae apresentou maior eficácia e pode ser considerada como um PFE promissor para o desenvolvimento de micoinseticidas contra o biocontrole efetivo de T. granarium.


Subject(s)
Beauveria/virology , Coleoptera , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Fungi/pathogenicity , Oryza
11.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210027, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286051

ABSTRACT

Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner: 1818) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is one of the main pests that affect soybean crops, causing defoliation. In the vegetative stages, defoliation occurs together with weeds, and in the reproductive stages with pathogens. In this sense, to maintain plant health, it is necessary to carry out the combined use of pesticides. Thus, this research determined the compatibility of the entomopathogenic virus AgMNPV with the main herbicides and fungicides used in soy at different times of the mixture. The artificial diet was immersed in the solutions of the pesticides and their mixtures and supplied to A. gemmatalis caterpillars, immediately and after one and two hours of mixing. The evaluation was performed by quantifying the number of dead caterpillars by mixing the AgMNPV virus with herbicides and fungicides, even after two hours of mixing if compatible. The observed scenarios showed a compatibility of the virus with the herbicides and fungicides, with mortality rates between 70 to 99% for A. gemmatalis.


Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner: 1818) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) é uma das principais pragas que acometem a cultura da soja, causando desfolha. Nos estágios vegetativos a desfolha ocorre juntamente com ervas daninhas, e no reprodutivo com patógenos. Nesse sentido, para manter a fitossanidade, é necessário realizar a utilização combinada de pesticidas. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a compatibilidade do vírus entomopatogênico AgMNPV com os principais herbicidas e fungicidas utilizados na soja em diferentes tempos de mistura. A dieta artificial foi imersa nas soluções dos pesticidas e suas misturas e fornecida às lagartas de A. gemmatalis, imediatamente e após uma e duas horas de mistura. A avaliação foi realizada quantificando o número de lagartas mortas. A mistura do vírus AgMNPV com herbicidas e fungicidas, mesmo após duas horas de mistura se mostrou compatível. Os cenários observados mostram a compatibilidade do vírus com os herbicidas e fungicidas, com percentuais de mortalidade entre 70 a 99% para A. gemmatalis.


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological/methods , Nucleopolyhedroviruses , Fungicides, Industrial/administration & dosage , Herbicides/administration & dosage , Lepidoptera
12.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00232021, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416777

ABSTRACT

Lime sulfur is one of the few products indicated to control Brevipalpus yothersi in Brazilian organic citrus orchards. Other strategies, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi should be evaluated, and Lecanicillium muscarium is one of the basic choices for pest management. Knowledge of the interactions between lime sulfur and this entomopathogen is critical for developing control strategies. With this goal, it was conducted the toxicological characterization of lime sulfur to B. yothersi and the compatibility evaluation with L. muscarium. Finally, the effects of L. muscarium and lime sulfur mixtures on B. yothersi control were evaluated. Product evaluation for B. yothersi was done through direct and residual contact bioassay, and different concentrations of lime sulfur mixed in potato dextrose agar culture medium were used to evaluate compatibility with L. muscarium. Lime sulfur was effective against adults of B. yothersi and caused eggs unviability of up to 71.0%, at a dose of 80 L per 2,000 L of H2O. The lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) of lime sulfur estimated for mite adults were 246.62 and 858.5 µg of sulfur per mL of H2O (ppm a.i.). Lime sulfur concentrations of 180 to 560 ppm a.i. showed promise for use in combination with L. muscarium. However, concentrations of 1,000 and 5,600 ppm significantly reduced colony size and the number of spores/colony. The mixture of 100 and 180 ppm a.i. of lime sulfur with L. muscarium (108 conidia·mL­1) was not able to reduce the lethal time of entomopathogen on B. yothersi.


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological/methods , Citrus/parasitology , Cordyceps , Mites , Host Microbial Interactions
13.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00122022, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416829

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify mite fauna associated with soybean crops and to report new species of the Monsoy 8349 IPRO variety in the municipality of Luís Eduardo Magalhães, western region of Bahia. Samplings were performed in an area with transgenic soybeans, subdivided into three treatments: T01, with no use of agricultural pesticides; T02, complete package of pesticides, except for acaricides; and T03, complete package of pesticides including acaricides. Twenty plants were selected per treatment at each sampling; one apical, one median, and one basal leaf were collected from each plant, totaling 60 leaves per treatment. A total of 1,292 mites were found, belonging to three families, five genera, and six species. The major phytophagous mite species found were Mononychellus planki McGregor and Tetranychus urticae Koch, while the major predatory mites found were Neoseiulus transversus Denmark & Muma and Euseius concordis Chant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Glycine max/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Tetranychidae/classification , Mites/classification , Brazil
14.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00182022, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416863

ABSTRACT

Coffee is the most appreciated beverage in worldwide; Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of this commodity. Organochlorine endosulfan was banned from the country in 2013 due to its teratogenic agent-related features. Since then, coffee plantations have experienced increased Hypothenemus hampei infestation rates. The aim of the current study is to assess variations in the rates of Coffea arabica fruits brocaded by H. hampei after the application of entomopathogenic fungal species Beauveria bassiana IBCB66. Experiments were carried out with 'Catuaí' and 'Mundo Novo' cultivars between 2018 and 2020, during the borer transit period. Three experiments were carried out based on the application of the aforementioned fungal species on the investigated coffee plant species, both by spraying and sprinkling, at 30-day intervals; 10 fruits were collected per face of each useful plant in each repetition. The experiment has followed a randomized blocks design with five treatments, including the control, and five repetitions, each. Beauveria bassiana Ecobass (IBCB66) wettable powder spray, at the concentration of 2 × 1013·ha­1, was used in experiments I and II. On the other hand, the mix used in experiment III was prepared with blastospores at concentration of 5 × 1012·ha­1 blastospores + 0.1% Silwet. The sprinkling process in all three experiments has used dry aerial conidia at concentration of 2 × 1013·ha­1. Collected data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), which was followed by Fisher's test at 5% probability level, in the SISVAR software. More than 35,000 fruits were assessed. In addition to variations between experiments, results have evidenced that the rate of brocaded fruits remained high.


Subject(s)
Spores, Fungal , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Coffea/parasitology , Weevils , Beauveria , Sprinkle Irrigation
15.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 29(1): 11-29, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360067

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las picaduras por alacranes pueden producir cuadros de intoxicación aguda y conducir a la muerte por falla cardíaca y distrés respiratorio, siendo la población pediátrica la de mayor riesgo, tanto en Argentina como en el resto del mundo. Muchasde las especies de escorpiones en el mundo son sinantrópicas, y en Argentina, las que se han relacionado con muertes, comoTityus trivittatus y Tityus confluens, poseen esas características. La sinantropía, aumenta la posibilidad de contacto humano -escorpión y por lo tanto la ocurrencia de accidentes, por lo que las medidas de prevención en este caso, deben tomarse no soloconductualmente sino ambientalmente para evitar ese contacto. Las características biológicas de los escorpiones del géneroTityus dificultan las labores de prevención. Muchas son las herramientas para disminuir el contacto con los escorpiones y de esamanera prevenir los accidentes como los controles químicos, biológicos y ambientales, así como la búsqueda y eliminación deescorpiones. Sin embargo, no todas son efectivas si no son aplicadas racionalmente y si no son combinadas. En ocasiones lamala planificación o uso de las diferentes medidas para el combate de escorpiones pueden ser contraproducentes y no solo serinefectivas sino aumentar la probabilidad de ocurrencia de accidentes. En esta revisión se exponen los diferentes métodos deprevención del escorpionismo, con especial referencia a las especies de Tityus de Argentina.


Abstract Scorpion stings may produce acute envenoming and lead to death from heart failure and respiratory distress, being the pediatric population that with the highest risk of severe envenomation and death, in Argentina as in the rest of the world. Manyof the scorpion species in the world are synanthropic, including Tityus trivittatus and Tityus confluens, which are responsible forhuman deaths in Argentina. Synanthropy increases the possibility of human-scorpion contact and therefore the occurrence ofaccidents, so preventive measures to avoid the contact must be taken not only behaviorally but environmentally. The biologi-cal characteristics of scorpions of the genus Tityus make prevention of the contact with humans rather difficult. There are manychemical, biological and environmental tools to reduce the possibility of contact between humans and scorpions. However, notall these measures are effective if they are not rationally applied and if these are not combined. Sometimes the poor planningor use of different measures to control scorpions' population can be counterproductive and not only ineffective, increasing theprobability of accidents. In this review, we discuss the different methods of prevention and combat of scorpionism, with specialreference to the prevention of accidents with Tityus species from Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Scorpions , Scorpion Stings/prevention & control , /methods , Argentina , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Fumigation , Housing Sanitation , Insecticides
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37047, Jan.-Dec. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358948

ABSTRACT

Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is one of the main pests of fruit farming, and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) represent an important control tool of this species. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of different isolate against A. fraterculus larvae and adults. Bioassays were performed using a suspension of three isolates of Heterorhabditis amazonensis IBCB 24, Steinernema carpocapsae IBCB 02 and Steinernema feltiae IBCB 47 at six concentrations (control - without nematodes), 50, 150, 300, 500, 1000 and 1500 infective juveniles (IJs)/mL of water per 3º instar larvae. It was verified the susceptibility of larvae of A. fraterculus to isolates of EPNs and a significant increase of the pupal mortality in the function of the concentration of IJs inoculated by larva (above 75%). After the dissection of pupae and adults of A. fraterculus from infected larvae, the concentration of 1500 IJs/mL of EPNs provided the highest rate of multiplication of IJs by insect, equating to maximum concentration tested 1500 IJs/mL. Adults of A. fraterculus from larvae infected with EPNs longevity of five days, being less than adults from uninfected larvae by IJs (135 days). H. amazonensis IBCB 24, S. carpocapsae IBCB 02, and S. feltiae IBCB 47 proved to be promising as agents of biological control of A. fraterculus.


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological/methods , Tephritidae , Nematoda
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 387-391, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153349

ABSTRACT

Poor storage conditions provide favorable environment to stored grain pests for their growth. The bio-pesticides are the best alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Present study was conducted to compare toxicity of Rubus fruticosus and Valeriana jatamansi against granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius and subsequent changes in enzyme activity responsible for grain damage. In current research 5 g of R. fruticosus fruit and V. jatamansi rhizome powders were tested separately against S. granarius, in 50 g wheat whole grains for seven days in comparison with the control. The enzymatic activity of malate dehydrogenase and α-amylase was observed in the cellular extracts of S. granarius. The insects were crushed and homogenized in phosphate-buffer solution and centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 5 minutes. For the enzymatic measurement supernatant was tested; the spectrophotometer was adjusted at 340 nm. The reagents were mixed and incubated at 25 °C for five minutes. The cuvettes were placed in the experimental and reference sites of spectrophotometer and recorded the change in absorbance for 3-4 minutes. There was 5.60% and 14.92% reduction in the activity of malate dehydrogenase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. The alpha amylase enzyme activity was 6.82% reduced and 63.63% increase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. Present study addresses that both plant powders are effective against granary weevil by altering enzyme activities so both the plant powders can be used as bio-pesticides against the stored grains pests.


As más condições de armazenamento proporcionam um ambiente favorável às pragas armazenadas para o crescimento. Os biopesticidas são as melhores alternativas aos pesticidas sintéticos. O presente estudo foi conduzido para comparar a toxicidade de Rubus fruticosus e Valeriana jatamansi contra gorgulhos, Sitophilus granarius e subsequentes alterações na atividade enzimática responsáveis ​​por danos aos grãos. Na pesquisa atual, 5 g de frutos de R. fruticosus e pós de rizoma de V. jatamansi foram testados separadamente contra S. granarius, em 50 g de grãos integrais de trigo por sete dias, em comparação com o controle. A atividade enzimática da malato desidrogenase e α-amilase foi observada nos extratos celulares de S. granarius. Os insetos foram esmagados e homogeneizados em solução tampão fosfato e centrifugados a 10000 rpm por 5 minutos. Para a medição enzimática, o sobrenadante foi testado; o espectrofotômetro foi ajustado a 340 nm. Os reagentes foram misturados e incubados a 25 °C por cinco minutos. As cubetas foram colocadas nos locais experimentais e de referência do espectrofotômetro e registradas as alterações na absorbância por 3-4 minutos. Houve redução de 5,60% e 14,92% na atividade da malato desidrogenase em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. A atividade da enzima alfa amilase foi reduzida em 6,82% e aumento de 63,63% em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. O presente estudo aborda que ambos os pós de plantas são eficazes contra o gorgulho do celeiro, alterando as atividades enzimáticas, de modo que ambos os pós de plantas possam ser usados ​​como biopesticidas contra pragas de grãos armazenados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Valerian/toxicity , Weevils , Biological Control Agents/administration & dosage , Rubus/toxicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , alpha-Amylases , Food Storage/standards , Malate Dehydrogenase
18.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(1): e440, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126697

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El Programa Nacional de Control de Aedes aegypti realiza actividades de rutina para controlar la trasmisión de arbovirosis en el país, pero siempre quedan poblaciones residuales del vector, que demandan de una vigilancia entomológica sostenible. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de estadios inmaduros de Ae. aegypti en la provincia La Habana en el periodo 2013-2017. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis del número de criaderos larvales, detectados por los trabajadores del Programa Nacional de Control de Ae. aegypti, en La provincia La Habana entre 2013-2017. La frecuencia de los muestreos fue mensual y se siguió la metodología de encuestas del programa. Resultados: Al analizar el número de criaderos larvales por meses de los 15 municipios de provincia La Habana, se observó un incremento de estos en el periodo de junio a octubre en todos los años y un pico entre los meses de enero a marzo en los años 2014, 2016 y 2017. La incidencia de Ae. aegypti resultó homogénea al comparar las medias por año, excepto para el año 2015 en el cual se observó una disminución significativa en el número de criaderos en comparación solo con el año 2017. Conclusiones: A pesar del esfuerzo que realizan los trabajadores del programa, no se ha logrado una disminución significativa de criaderos de Ae. aegypti, lo que evidencia la necesidad de fortalecer los sistemas de vigilancia y mantener la sostenibilidad de las acciones para controlar de forma efectiva la trasmisión de arbovirosis en la provincia La Habana(AU)


Introduction: The National Aedes aegypti Control Program carries out routine activities to control the transmission of arbovirus infections in the country. However, there still exist residual populations of the vector which require sustainable entomological surveillance. Objective: Determine the presence of immature stage Ae. aegypti in the province of Havana in the period 2013-2017. Methods: An analysis was conducted of the number of larval breeding sites detected by workers from the National Ae. aegypti Control Program in the province of Havana in the period 2013-2017. Sampling was performed on a monthly basis following the surveying methodology of the Program. Results: Analysis of the data on larval breeding sites per month in the 15 municipalities of the province of Havana revealed an increase in their number in the June-October period of every year, and a peak between the months of January and March in the years 2014, 2016 and 2017. Comparison of mean values per year found that incidence of Ae. aegypti was homogeneous, except for the year 2015, when a significant decrease was observed in the number of breeding sites only with respect to the year 2017. Conclusions: Despite the effort made by workers from the Program, a significant reduction has not been achieved in the number of Ae. aegypti breeding sites, which is evidence of the need to strengthen the surveillance systems and maintain the sustainability of the actions performed to effectively control the transmission of arbovirus infections in the Havana province(AU)


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological/methods , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Moths , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Toxic , Biological Assay , Plants, Genetically Modified
20.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e2019032, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118083

ABSTRACT

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are potential candidate for integrated pest management programs. As little is known about the presence of these organisms in the state of Santa Catarina, it was aimed to perform soil sampling in the cities of Chapecó, Palmitos, Seara and Concordia for the isolation of EPNs. In total, 200 samples (100 g soil) were collected. In Chapecó, 40 samples from soil containing green manure (Raphanus sativus), five samples from native forest area and five samples from riparian forest were collected. In the city of Palmitos, 40 soil samples were obtained in the areas of soybean (Glycine max), corn (Zea mays), oats (Avena strigosa), and pasture (Pennisetum purpureum), and in each location 10 samples were taken. Sixty soil samples were collected in the city of Concordia, in a pasture area (A. strigosa). In Seara, the 50 soil samples were collected at a pasture consortium site between ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and black oats (A. strigosa). For the isolation, the collected soil samples were conditioned in 350 mL plastic containers and sent to the laboratory of the university. Later, four larvae of Tenebrio molitor of last instar were inserted, and the sets were maintained at the temperature of 25°C for seven days. After this period, the presence of dead larvae was verified, and the confirmation of the mortality by EPNs was evaluated using of White's trap. The positive samples for EPNs were obtained from the cities of Chapecó and Concordia, which corresponded to 2% of the total soil samples.(AU)


Os nematoides entomopatogênicos (NEPs) apresentam potencial para utilização em programas de manejo integrado de pragas. Como pouco se conhece sobre a presença desses organismos no estado de Santa Catarina, objetivou-se realizar amostragens de solo nas cidades de Chapecó, Palmitos, Seara e Concórdia para o isolamento de NEPs. No total foram coletadas 200 amostras (100 g solo). Em Chapecó, foram coletadas 40 amostras em solo contendo adubo verde (Raphanus sativus), cinco amostras de área de floresta nativa e cinco amostras de mata ciliar. Em Palmitos, foram obtidas dez amostras em cada área, totalizando 40. Foram elas: soja (Glycine max), milho (Zea mays), aveia (Avena strigosa) e pastagem (Pennisetum purpureum). Realizaram-se 60 amostras de solo na cidade de Concórdia, em área de pastagem (A. strigosa). Em Seara, as 50 amostras de solo foram retiradas em um local de consórcio de pastagem entre azevém (Lolium multiflorum) e aveia preta (A. strigosa). Para o isolamento, as amostras de solo coletadas foram acondicionadas em recipientes plásticos de 350 mL e alocadas no laboratório da universidade. Foram posteriormente inseridas quatro larvas de Tenebrio molitor de último instar, e mantiveram-se os conjuntos em temperatura de 25°C por sete dias. Após esse período, verificou-se a presença de larvas mortas, e a confirmação da mortalidade por NEP foi feita por meio de armadilha de White. As amostras positivas para NEPs foram obtidas da cidade de Chapecó (População 7, 18, 26) e Concórdia (População Concórdia), o que correspondeu a 2% do total de amostras de solo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pest Control , Nematoda , Glycine max , Pest Control , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Zea mays
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