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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210027, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286051

ABSTRACT

Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner: 1818) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is one of the main pests that affect soybean crops, causing defoliation. In the vegetative stages, defoliation occurs together with weeds, and in the reproductive stages with pathogens. In this sense, to maintain plant health, it is necessary to carry out the combined use of pesticides. Thus, this research determined the compatibility of the entomopathogenic virus AgMNPV with the main herbicides and fungicides used in soy at different times of the mixture. The artificial diet was immersed in the solutions of the pesticides and their mixtures and supplied to A. gemmatalis caterpillars, immediately and after one and two hours of mixing. The evaluation was performed by quantifying the number of dead caterpillars by mixing the AgMNPV virus with herbicides and fungicides, even after two hours of mixing if compatible. The observed scenarios showed a compatibility of the virus with the herbicides and fungicides, with mortality rates between 70 to 99% for A. gemmatalis.


Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner: 1818) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) é uma das principais pragas que acometem a cultura da soja, causando desfolha. Nos estágios vegetativos a desfolha ocorre juntamente com ervas daninhas, e no reprodutivo com patógenos. Nesse sentido, para manter a fitossanidade, é necessário realizar a utilização combinada de pesticidas. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a compatibilidade do vírus entomopatogênico AgMNPV com os principais herbicidas e fungicidas utilizados na soja em diferentes tempos de mistura. A dieta artificial foi imersa nas soluções dos pesticidas e suas misturas e fornecida às lagartas de A. gemmatalis, imediatamente e após uma e duas horas de mistura. A avaliação foi realizada quantificando o número de lagartas mortas. A mistura do vírus AgMNPV com herbicidas e fungicidas, mesmo após duas horas de mistura se mostrou compatível. Os cenários observados mostram a compatibilidade do vírus com os herbicidas e fungicidas, com percentuais de mortalidade entre 70 a 99% para A. gemmatalis.


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological/methods , Nucleopolyhedroviruses , Fungicides, Industrial/administration & dosage , Herbicides/administration & dosage , Lepidoptera
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 387-391, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153349

ABSTRACT

Poor storage conditions provide favorable environment to stored grain pests for their growth. The bio-pesticides are the best alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Present study was conducted to compare toxicity of Rubus fruticosus and Valeriana jatamansi against granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius and subsequent changes in enzyme activity responsible for grain damage. In current research 5 g of R. fruticosus fruit and V. jatamansi rhizome powders were tested separately against S. granarius, in 50 g wheat whole grains for seven days in comparison with the control. The enzymatic activity of malate dehydrogenase and α-amylase was observed in the cellular extracts of S. granarius. The insects were crushed and homogenized in phosphate-buffer solution and centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 5 minutes. For the enzymatic measurement supernatant was tested; the spectrophotometer was adjusted at 340 nm. The reagents were mixed and incubated at 25 °C for five minutes. The cuvettes were placed in the experimental and reference sites of spectrophotometer and recorded the change in absorbance for 3-4 minutes. There was 5.60% and 14.92% reduction in the activity of malate dehydrogenase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. The alpha amylase enzyme activity was 6.82% reduced and 63.63% increase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. Present study addresses that both plant powders are effective against granary weevil by altering enzyme activities so both the plant powders can be used as bio-pesticides against the stored grains pests.


As más condições de armazenamento proporcionam um ambiente favorável às pragas armazenadas para o crescimento. Os biopesticidas são as melhores alternativas aos pesticidas sintéticos. O presente estudo foi conduzido para comparar a toxicidade de Rubus fruticosus e Valeriana jatamansi contra gorgulhos, Sitophilus granarius e subsequentes alterações na atividade enzimática responsáveis ​​por danos aos grãos. Na pesquisa atual, 5 g de frutos de R. fruticosus e pós de rizoma de V. jatamansi foram testados separadamente contra S. granarius, em 50 g de grãos integrais de trigo por sete dias, em comparação com o controle. A atividade enzimática da malato desidrogenase e α-amilase foi observada nos extratos celulares de S. granarius. Os insetos foram esmagados e homogeneizados em solução tampão fosfato e centrifugados a 10000 rpm por 5 minutos. Para a medição enzimática, o sobrenadante foi testado; o espectrofotômetro foi ajustado a 340 nm. Os reagentes foram misturados e incubados a 25 °C por cinco minutos. As cubetas foram colocadas nos locais experimentais e de referência do espectrofotômetro e registradas as alterações na absorbância por 3-4 minutos. Houve redução de 5,60% e 14,92% na atividade da malato desidrogenase em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. A atividade da enzima alfa amilase foi reduzida em 6,82% e aumento de 63,63% em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. O presente estudo aborda que ambos os pós de plantas são eficazes contra o gorgulho do celeiro, alterando as atividades enzimáticas, de modo que ambos os pós de plantas possam ser usados ​​como biopesticidas contra pragas de grãos armazenados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Valerian/toxicity , Weevils , Biological Control Agents/administration & dosage , Rubus/toxicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , alpha-Amylases , Food Storage/standards , Malate Dehydrogenase
3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(1): e440, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126697

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El Programa Nacional de Control de Aedes aegypti realiza actividades de rutina para controlar la trasmisión de arbovirosis en el país, pero siempre quedan poblaciones residuales del vector, que demandan de una vigilancia entomológica sostenible. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de estadios inmaduros de Ae. aegypti en la provincia La Habana en el periodo 2013-2017. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis del número de criaderos larvales, detectados por los trabajadores del Programa Nacional de Control de Ae. aegypti, en La provincia La Habana entre 2013-2017. La frecuencia de los muestreos fue mensual y se siguió la metodología de encuestas del programa. Resultados: Al analizar el número de criaderos larvales por meses de los 15 municipios de provincia La Habana, se observó un incremento de estos en el periodo de junio a octubre en todos los años y un pico entre los meses de enero a marzo en los años 2014, 2016 y 2017. La incidencia de Ae. aegypti resultó homogénea al comparar las medias por año, excepto para el año 2015 en el cual se observó una disminución significativa en el número de criaderos en comparación solo con el año 2017. Conclusiones: A pesar del esfuerzo que realizan los trabajadores del programa, no se ha logrado una disminución significativa de criaderos de Ae. aegypti, lo que evidencia la necesidad de fortalecer los sistemas de vigilancia y mantener la sostenibilidad de las acciones para controlar de forma efectiva la trasmisión de arbovirosis en la provincia La Habana(AU)


Introduction: The National Aedes aegypti Control Program carries out routine activities to control the transmission of arbovirus infections in the country. However, there still exist residual populations of the vector which require sustainable entomological surveillance. Objective: Determine the presence of immature stage Ae. aegypti in the province of Havana in the period 2013-2017. Methods: An analysis was conducted of the number of larval breeding sites detected by workers from the National Ae. aegypti Control Program in the province of Havana in the period 2013-2017. Sampling was performed on a monthly basis following the surveying methodology of the Program. Results: Analysis of the data on larval breeding sites per month in the 15 municipalities of the province of Havana revealed an increase in their number in the June-October period of every year, and a peak between the months of January and March in the years 2014, 2016 and 2017. Comparison of mean values per year found that incidence of Ae. aegypti was homogeneous, except for the year 2015, when a significant decrease was observed in the number of breeding sites only with respect to the year 2017. Conclusions: Despite the effort made by workers from the Program, a significant reduction has not been achieved in the number of Ae. aegypti breeding sites, which is evidence of the need to strengthen the surveillance systems and maintain the sustainability of the actions performed to effectively control the transmission of arbovirus infections in the Havana province(AU)


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological/methods , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors
4.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: 0702018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1096038

ABSTRACT

Currently, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity has been reduced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop), the causative agent of Fusarium wilt. Considering the integrated management of diseases, the objectives of the present work were to verify the compatibility between chemical and biological fungicides for Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. phaseoli Kendrick & Snyder (Fop) control in common bean seeds. In laboratory, the effects of the treatments were evaluated by sanity, germination, seedling total length and seedling dry matter tests. In greenhouse conditions, the emergence speed rate, the percentage of emergence and the rate of pathogen transmission through the pathogen infestation in a substrate to plants were evaluated. Common bean seeds BRS Estilo were artificially inoculated with Fop isolate (IAC 11.299-1). In the seeds' treatment, the chemical fungicides fludyoxonyl, flutriafol, methyl tiofanate, and biological products of Trichoderma sp. (isolates SF04, GF 422 and strain 1306), separately and mixed, were used. Treatments that promoted the best pathogen control in seeds were the combination of methyl tiophanate with biological products. Both flutriafol and GF 422 isolated and in mixed treatments affected the seeds' physiological quality. The protective effect of the products was noted in the transmission test, whose Fop incidence was from 5 to 40% in the hypocotyl and from 5 to 30% in common bean roots.(AU)


Atualmente, a produtividade do feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) foi reduzida pelo fungo Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ­phaseoli (Fop), o agente causador da murcha de Fusarium. Considerando o manejo integrado de doenças, os objetivos do presente trabalho foram verificar a compatibilidade entre fungicidas químicos e biológicos para Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. phaseoli Kendrick & Snyder (Fop) em sementes de feijão. Em laboratório, foram avaliados os efeitos dos tratamentos pelos testes de sanidade, germinação, comprimento total de plântulas e matéria seca de plântulas. Em uma estufa, foram avaliadas a velocidade de emergência, a porcentagem de emergência e a taxa de transmissão de patógenos através da infestação de patógenos no substrato às plantas. As sementes de feijão comum BRS Estilo foram inoculadas artificialmente com isolado Fop (IAC 11.299-1). No tratamento das sementes, foram utilizados os fungicidas químicos fludioxoxil, flutriafol, tiofanato metílico e produtos biológicos de Trichoderma sp. (isolados SF04, GF 422 e cepa 1306), separadamente e misturados. Os tratamentos que promoveram o melhor controle de patógenos nas sementes foram a combinação de tiofanato de metila com produtos biológicos. Tanto o flutriafol quanto o GF 422 isolados e em tratamentos com misturas afetaram a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. O efeito protetor dos produtos foi observado no teste de transmissão, cuja incidência de Fop foi de 5 a 40% no hipocótilo e de 5 a 30% nas raízes do feijão comum.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Fungicides, Industrial , Fusarium/pathogenicity , Fabaceae , Trichoderma , Pest Control
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e2019032, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118083

ABSTRACT

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are potential candidate for integrated pest management programs. As little is known about the presence of these organisms in the state of Santa Catarina, it was aimed to perform soil sampling in the cities of Chapecó, Palmitos, Seara and Concordia for the isolation of EPNs. In total, 200 samples (100 g soil) were collected. In Chapecó, 40 samples from soil containing green manure (Raphanus sativus), five samples from native forest area and five samples from riparian forest were collected. In the city of Palmitos, 40 soil samples were obtained in the areas of soybean (Glycine max), corn (Zea mays), oats (Avena strigosa), and pasture (Pennisetum purpureum), and in each location 10 samples were taken. Sixty soil samples were collected in the city of Concordia, in a pasture area (A. strigosa). In Seara, the 50 soil samples were collected at a pasture consortium site between ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and black oats (A. strigosa). For the isolation, the collected soil samples were conditioned in 350 mL plastic containers and sent to the laboratory of the university. Later, four larvae of Tenebrio molitor of last instar were inserted, and the sets were maintained at the temperature of 25°C for seven days. After this period, the presence of dead larvae was verified, and the confirmation of the mortality by EPNs was evaluated using of White's trap. The positive samples for EPNs were obtained from the cities of Chapecó and Concordia, which corresponded to 2% of the total soil samples.(AU)


Os nematoides entomopatogênicos (NEPs) apresentam potencial para utilização em programas de manejo integrado de pragas. Como pouco se conhece sobre a presença desses organismos no estado de Santa Catarina, objetivou-se realizar amostragens de solo nas cidades de Chapecó, Palmitos, Seara e Concórdia para o isolamento de NEPs. No total foram coletadas 200 amostras (100 g solo). Em Chapecó, foram coletadas 40 amostras em solo contendo adubo verde (Raphanus sativus), cinco amostras de área de floresta nativa e cinco amostras de mata ciliar. Em Palmitos, foram obtidas dez amostras em cada área, totalizando 40. Foram elas: soja (Glycine max), milho (Zea mays), aveia (Avena strigosa) e pastagem (Pennisetum purpureum). Realizaram-se 60 amostras de solo na cidade de Concórdia, em área de pastagem (A. strigosa). Em Seara, as 50 amostras de solo foram retiradas em um local de consórcio de pastagem entre azevém (Lolium multiflorum) e aveia preta (A. strigosa). Para o isolamento, as amostras de solo coletadas foram acondicionadas em recipientes plásticos de 350 mL e alocadas no laboratório da universidade. Foram posteriormente inseridas quatro larvas de Tenebrio molitor de último instar, e mantiveram-se os conjuntos em temperatura de 25°C por sete dias. Após esse período, verificou-se a presença de larvas mortas, e a confirmação da mortalidade por NEP foi feita por meio de armadilha de White. As amostras positivas para NEPs foram obtidas da cidade de Chapecó (População 7, 18, 26) e Concórdia (População Concórdia), o que correspondeu a 2% do total de amostras de solo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pest Control , Nematoda , Soybeans , Pest Control , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Zea mays
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Moths , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Toxic , Biological Assay , Plants, Genetically Modified
7.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 381-385, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057404

ABSTRACT

Abstract The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important maize pest. Due to the environmental impact and emergence of resistance caused by chemical pesticides and transgenic events, the use of baculoviruses becomes a safe and useful alternative for its control in integrated pest management strategies. Here we report the identification of a novel isolate of a granulovirus of S. frugiperda native to the central region of Argentina, named SfGV ARG. We observed that larvae infected with SfGV ARG showed a yellowish coloration, swollen body and, in some cases, severe lesions in the last abdominal segments. We confirmed the identity of the isolate by sequencing fragments of the lef-8, lef-9 and granulin genes and by calculating evolutionary distances using the Kimura-2-Parameter model. SfGV ARG DNA restriction pattern allowed to estimate a genome of at least 135 kb.


Resumen La oruga militar tardía, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), es una plaga importante del maíz. Debido al impacto ambiental y a la aparición de resistencia causados por los pesticidas químicos y los eventos transgénicos, el uso de baculovirus resulta una alternativa útil y saludable para su control en estrategias de manejo integrado de plagas. En este trabajo reportamos la identificación de un nuevo aislamiento del granulovirus de la S. frugiperda nativo de la región central de Argentina, SfGV ARG. Se observó que larvas infectadas con SfGV ARG mostraron coloración amarillenta, hinchazón y, en algunos casos, lesiones graves en los últimos segmentos abdominales. Se confirmó la identidad del aislamiento por secuenciación de fragmentos de los genes lef-8, lef-9y granulina, y por cálculo de distancias evolutivas usando el parámetro de Kimura-2. El patrón de restricción generado con el ADN genómico de SfGV ARG permitió estimar un tamaño de genoma de al menos 135 kb.


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological/methods , Spodoptera/parasitology , Granulovirus/isolation & purification , Pesticides , Argentina , Baculoviridae/isolation & purification , Agricultural Pests
8.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 98-106, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095831

ABSTRACT

El complejo de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) incluye algunas de las principales plagas del ejote francés (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Dentro de las cuales, Bemisia tabaci es vector del virus del mosaico dorado que afecta la calidad y rendimiento del cultivo, con pérdidas hasta del 100% y un control difícil debido a la resistencia adquirida por las plagas hacia algunos agroquímicos. El ejote francés ocupa el segundo lugar entre de los productos no tradicionales de exportación de Guatemala. Su manejo agronómico ha sido principalmente a través del control químico, el cual afecta insectos y otros organismos que no son el objetivo del control, tales como: polinizadores, insectos benéficos, humanos y fauna silvestre. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: determinar la presencia de enemigos naturales nativos de la mosca blanca e identificar las especies de mosca blanca presentes en el cultivo del ejote francés en Chimaltenango. Para el estudio se establecieron cuatro parcelas de 300 m², se realizaron muestreos semanales durante dos ciclos del cultivo. En cada parcela se muestrearon cinco sitios y en cada sitio cinco plantas. Las especies de parasitoides nativos encontrados fueron: Encarsia Formosa Gahan, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose y Zolnerowuch y Amitus fuscipennis MacGown y Nebeker, la especie más abundante fue A. fuscipennis. Los depredadores identificados fueron Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) e Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville. La especie más abundante fue H. convergens. Estas especies podrían ser herramientas valiosas para ser empleadas en programas de control biológico, producciones orgánicas o en programas de manejo integrado de plagas.


The whitefly complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) includes some of the main pests of the French green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Among which, Bemisia tabaci is a vector of the golden mosaic virus that affects the quality and yield of the crop, with losses up to 100% and difficult control due to the resistance acquired by pests towards some agrochemicals. The French green bean ranks second among the non-traditional export products of Guatemala. Its agronomic management has been mainly through chemical control, which affects insects and other organisms that are not the objective of the control, such as: pollinators, beneficial insects, humans and wildlife. The objectives of the study were: to determine the presence of natural enemies native to the whitefly and identify the species of whitefly present in the cultivation of the French bean in Chimaltenango. For the study, four 300 m² plots were established, weekly sampling was carried out during two crop cycles. Five sites were sampled on each plot and five plants on each site. The native parasitoid species found were: Encarsia Formosa Gahan, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowuch and Amitus fuscipennis MacGown and Nebeker, the most abundant species was A. fuscipennis. The predators identified were Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville. The most abundant species was H. convergens. These species could be valuable tools to be used in biological control programs, organic productions or in integrated pest management programs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phaseolus/parasitology , Hemiptera/growth & development , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Phaseolus/growth & development , Diptera , Hemiptera/parasitology , Mosaic Viruses
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 273-277, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989453

ABSTRACT

Abstract The biological control used for the control of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) is the predator mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot). It is important to the know the effects of acaricides on the biological behavior the Abamectin on the functional response of P. persimilis. The functional response of the predator was of type II exposed to concentration of Abamectin, the functional response parameters: successful attack rate (a'), handling time (Th), search efficiency and the maximum predation theory (T/Th) were affected by the acaricide. The predator spends more time in persecute, dominate, consume and prepair it self to the next searching comparing with the proof subject an the predation ability was affected.


Resumo O controle biológico utilizado para o controle de Tetranychus urticae (Koch) é o acaro predador Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot). É importante conhecer os efeitos dos acaricidas sobre o comportamento biológico do predador. Foi avaliado o efeito tóxico de a Abamectina na resposta funcional de P. persimilis. A resposta funcional do predador foi tipo II exposta a concentrações subletais de Abacmetina, os parâmetros da resposta funcional: taxa de ataque (a'), tempo de manipulação (Th), a eficiência na procura e predação teórica máxima (T/Th) foram afetados pelo acaricida. O predador passa mais tempo na procura, dominar, consumir e se preparar para a próxima procura em comparação com a testemunha e sua capacidade de predação foi afetada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ivermectin/analogs & derivatives , Acaricides/pharmacology , Mites/drug effects , Mites/physiology , Mites/parasitology , Mites/pathogenicity , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Tetranychidae/parasitology
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 333-337, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042506

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objectives of this study were to describe occurrences of Rhabditis spp. causing parasitic otitis in dairy cattle of Gir breed in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, and to evaluate the biological control of this nematode using the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34). After nematode detection and collection, three groups were formed: two groups that were treated, respectively, with the fungal isolates; and a control group, without fungus. The treatments were as follows: (a) Petri dishes containing the culture medium 2% water agar (WA) + 250 nematodes + AC001; (b) Petri dishes containing 2% WA + 250 nematodes + NF34; and (c) Petri dishes containing only 2% WA + 250 nematodes. After seven days at 27 °C the treatments with fungi were able to capture and destroy the nematodes, with percentages of 82.0% (AC001) and 39.0% (NF34) in relation to the control group. The results demonstrate the occurrence of Rhabditis spp. after animals physical examination and that there was efficacy of the in vitro predatory activity of both fungal isolates. Thus, these results are important because they can assist in future in vivo control of this nematode in cattle.


Resumo Os objetivos neste estudo foram descrever ocorrências do nematódeo Rhabditis spp., causando otite parasitária em bovinos leiteiros da raça Gir no estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil, e avaliar o controle biológico desse nematódeo utilizando os fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) e Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34). Após a detecção e coleta dos nematódeos, três grupos foram formados: dois grupos que foram tratados com os isolados fúngicos, respectivamente; e um grupo controle, sem fungos. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: (a) placas de Petri contendo o meio de cultura 2% ágar de água (WA) + 250 nematoides + AC001; (b) placas de Petri contendo 2% de WA + 250 nematoides + NF34; e (c) placas de contendo apenas 2% de nematódeos WA + 250. Após sete dias a 27 °C os tratamentos com fungos foram capazes de capturar e destruir os nematódeos, com porcentagens de 82,0% (AC001) e 39,0% (NF34) em relação ao grupo controle. Os resultados demonstram a ocorrência de Rhabditis spp., no Estado do Espírito Santo e a eficácia da atividade predatória in vitro dos isolados fúngicos utilizados. Assim, esses resultados são importantes, pois podem auxiliar no controle alternativo in vivo de Rhabditis spp. em bovinos com otite parasitária.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Otitis/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Rhabditoidea/microbiology , Rhabditida Infections/veterinary , Otitis/parasitology , Otitis/therapy , Ascomycota/physiology , Rhabditida Infections/therapy , Duddingtonia/physiology
11.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(1): e355, ene.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093548

ABSTRACT

Los mosquitos son vectores trasmisores de enfermedades como: dengue, zika y chikunguya. El control biológico es una alternativa viable a tener en cuenta por los programas de control. Bacillus thuringiensis es el microorganismo más usado en salud pública. Su efectividad como larvicida contra culícidos depende, en gran medida, de la eficiencia del proceso productivo. El objetivo es evaluar y comparar la eficacia larvicida contra Aedes aegypti de la formulación en polvo Rapidall NP3 con la del producto Bactivec®, formulación líquida utilizada en Cuba. Se realizaron bioensayos de laboratorio según los procedimientos descritos y sugeridos por la OMS para determinar la eficacia, exponiendo las larvas a las concentraciones recomendadas por los fabricantes de los productos Rapidall NP3 y Bactivec®. A los recipientes utilizados se les realizó recambio de agua medio, total y sin recambio, con una frecuencia semanal. A las 24 h se calculó la mortalidad obtenida y se analizó estadísticamente mediante un ANOVA de una vía; cuando existieron diferencias significativas se aplicó un análisis Post-hoc mediante la prueba de Tukey. El producto evaluado Rapidall NP3, provocó 100 por ciento de mortalidad larvaria durante 11 semanas, independientemente de la proporción de recambio de agua, mientras que el Bactivec® solo provocó 100 por ciento de mortalidad hasta las 6 semanas de iniciado el experimento. El biolarvicida Rapidall NP3 mostró buena eficacia y actividad residual prolongada al compararlo con Bactivec®, por lo que recomendamos su evaluación en el terreno en el control larvario de depósitos que constituyen sitios de cría habituales y que no pueden ser eliminados físicamente(AU)


Mosquitoes are vectors of human diseases such as dengue, zika and chikungunya. Biological control is a viable alternative to be taken into account in control programs. Bacillus thuringiensis is the microorganism most commonly used in public health. Its effectiveness as a larvicide against culicides depends to a great extent to the production process. The objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare the larvicidal efficacy against Aedes aegypti of the Rapidall NP3 powder formulation with Bactivec®, a liquid formulation used in Cuba. Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine efficacy following WHO protocols. Larvae were exposed to the concentrations recommended by Rapidall NP3 and Bactivec® manufacturers. The water in the containers used in the study was replaced once a week: half, whole and no replacement. At 24 hours mortality was estimated and statistically analysis were done by one-way ANOVA. When significant differences were found, post-hoc analysis was performed with Tukey's test. Rapidall NP3 caused 100 percent larval mortality for 11 weeks, regardless of the water replacement proportion, whereas Bactivec® caused 100 percent mortality for only 6 weeks after the start of the experiment. When compared with Bactivec®, biolarvicide Rapidall NP3 displayed better efficacy and more prolonged residual activity. We therefore recommend its field evaluation for larval control of containers constituting habitual breeding sites which cannot be physically eliminated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Aedes , Larvicides/methods , Efficacy/methods
12.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0772017, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-998423

ABSTRACT

The incidence of lepidopteran defoliants is one of the environmental factors that regulate the productivity of cultivated forests. The parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has significant importance for its efficiency in the parasitism of pupae of these Lepidoptera. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and reproduction of P. elaeisis in different densities of pupae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at different ages. Pupae of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were exposed at densities of 1:1, 4:1, 10:1, 19:1, 31:1 and 46:1 parasitoids/host, respectively. The parasitoids remained in contact with the pupae for 72 hours in 500 mL plastic pots, conditioned in an air-conditioned room, with temperature of 25 ± 2°C, relative humidity of 70 ± 10% and photoperiod of 12 hours. It was concluded that the density of 10:1 presented great results of parasitism, and further increase of density was not needed. Pupae of 24 and 48 hours had a higher percentage of emergence. Biological variables were affected neither by parasitoid densities nor by host age.(AU)


A incidência de lepidópteros desfolhadores é um dos fatores ambientais que regulam a produtividade das florestas plantadas. O endoparasitoide Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) destaca-se pela eficiência no parasitismo e pode ser promissor no controle de Lepidoptera pragas em diversas culturas com importância econômica. Assim, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento e a reprodução de P. elaeisis em pupas de Spodoptera ­frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) com idades distintas submetidas a diferentes densidades do parasitoide. Pupas de 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas foram expostas às densidades de 1:1, 4:1, 10:1, 19:1, 31:1 e 46:1 parasitoides/hospedeiro. Os parasitoides permaneceram em contato com as pupas por 72 horas em potes plásticos de 500 mL, acondicionados em sala climatizada com temperatura 25 ± 2°C, umidade relativa de 70 ± 10°C e fotoperíodo de 12 horas. A densidade 10:1 apresentou resultados adequados de parasitismo. Pupas de 24 e 48 horas de idade apresentaram maior porcentagem de emergência. O ciclo de vida, o número de indivíduos emergidos, a razão sexual, a longevidade das fêmeas e o comprimento da cápsula cefálica e da tíbia de P. elaeisis não foram afetados pelas densidades do parasitoide nem pela idade do hospedeiro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Forests , Hymenoptera/parasitology , Lepidoptera , Parasitic Diseases , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Spodoptera
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190135, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041502

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Musca domestica is resistant to many insecticides; hence, biological control is a suitable alternative. METHODS: We evaluated the lethality of strain Btk176 towards the larval and adult M. domestica and the histopathological effects in the larvae midgut. RESULTS: We observed 99% larval and 78.9% adult mortality within 48 hours of spore ingestion (dosage, 2.4×108 CFU/ml). The histopathological effects were consistent with cytotoxicity. PCR analysis showed the presence of the cry1Ba gene. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a bipyramidal parasporal body. Thurigiensin activity was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: The serovar, Btk176 might be a potential biocontrol agent for houseflies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Toxins/pharmacology , Houseflies/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Exotoxins
14.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180259, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011523

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study is based on the importance of biological control methods and the lack of information on the effect of biochar (BCH) from sewage sludge associated or not with Trichoderma harzianum on the control of Macrophomina phaseolina in the bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris, cv. BRS Estilo). Biochar from sewage sludge, pyrolyzed at 500 ºC and used in low concentration (0.5%), has a direct effect on the in vitro control of M. phaseolina. However, higher BCH concentrations stimulated the growth of the pathogen. In culture medium with or without BCH, T. harzianum (strain 1306) inhibited the mycelial growth of M. phaseolina. The addition of BCH + T. harzianum reduced the deleterious effects caused by M. phaseolina on bean plants. This study demonstrated that joint application of BCH from sewage sludge + T. harzianum considerably increased the fresh and dry mass of bean plants, inoculated or not with M. phaseolina.


Subject(s)
Sewage/microbiology , Trichoderma , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Phaseolus/microbiology
15.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 70(3): 108-113, set.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1042917

ABSTRACT

Actualmente se conocen más de 3 500 especies de mosquitos y cada día se registran otras de importancia en la transmisión de enfermedades al hombre y los animales. El objetivo de este trabajo es registrar por primera vez la presencia larval de Cx interrogator en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba y en Cuba. Para ello se realizaron los muestreos larvarios en sitios de cría naturales y artificiales con frecuencia semanal durante el 2013-2017, según lo establecido por el Programa de Vigilancia y Control de otros culícidos para la provincia de Santiago de Cuba y adjunto al Programa de Control de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus en Cuba. Las larvas se enviaron al Laboratorio Provincial de Entomología de Santiago de Cuba para su clasificación utilizando claves morfológicas. Posteriormente el material biológico fue enviado al Laboratorio de Referencia Nacional del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí donde se verificó la identificación taxonómica. Culex interrogator fue colectado en los municipios Palma Soriano y San Luis en el 2013 en Santiago de Cuba, y Songo la Maya y II Frente en 2015 y 2017, respectivamente, todos pertenecientes a la provincia Santiago de Cuba. Los sitios de cría correspondieron a fosas sépticas, sótanos inundados debajo de edificios, lagunas de oxidación, pomos plásticos, zanjas, charcos y cañadas. Se encontró asociado en sitios de cría naturales con Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles albimanus. En conclusión, Cx interrogator constituye un nuevo registro para la entomofauna cubana, de ahí la importancia de ampliar los conocimientos sobre su distribución, asociación con otras especies de culícidos y posible rol en la transmisión de enfermedades al hombre(AU)


Nowadays there are more than 3 500 known species of mosquitoes and everyday are registered some more of importance in disease transmission to men and animals every day. The aim of this study is to register for the first time larval presence of Cx. interrogator in Santiago de Cuba province and in Cuba. In this regard, larval sampling was carried out by the established Surveillance and Control Program of other mosquitoes in Santiago de Cuba province and attached to the Control Program of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Cuba; its was carried out in natural and artificial breeding sites with weekly frequency during 2013-2017. The larvae were sent to the Provincial Laboratory of Enthomology of Santiago de Cuba for classification using morphological keys. Subsequently, the biological material was sent to the National Reference Laboratory of Pedro Kourí Institute where the taxonomic identification was verified. Culex interrogator was collected in Palma Soriano and San Luis municipalities in 2013, in Santiago de Cuba, and Songo la Maya and II Frente in 2015 and 2017, respectively, all belonging to Santiago de Cuba province. The breeding sites were septic tanks, flooded basements under buildings, oxidation ponds, plastic bottles, ditches, puddles and streams. This mosquito was found in natural breeding sites associated to Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles albimanus. As a conclusion, it can be said that Cx. interrogator constitutes a new registry for Cuban entomofauna, hence the importance of expanding knowledge about its distribution, association with other culicid´s species and its possible role in the transmission of diseases to man(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Aedes/microbiology , Culex/immunology , Culicidae/pathogenicity , Cuba
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 429-435, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951570

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study reports the first assessment of endophytic fungi isolated from strawberry leaves and selection of isolates for the control of Duponchelia fovealis, a new pest of strawberries. A total of 400 strawberry leaves of the cultivar 'Albion' were collected in four commercial farms. Leaves were disinfected, cut in fragments, and placed on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar media with tetracycline and incubated for 30 days. Following this time, 517 fungal colonies were isolated, and thirteen genera were identified: Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Nigrospora, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Chaetomium, Alternaria, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Bipolaris, Diaporthe, and Phoma. Eight isolates belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Diaporthe, Paecilomyces, and Cladosporium were selected for pathogenicity bioassays against third instar larvae of D. fovealis. Isolates of Paecilomyces induced the highest mortality rates.


Resumo Este trabalho apresenta a primeira contribuição no isolamento de fungos endofíticos de folhas de morangueiro e na seleção de isolados para controle de Duponchelia fovealis, uma nova praga do morangueiro. Foram coletadas 400 folhas da cultivar 'Albion' em quatro lavouras comerciais de morangueiro. As folhas foram desinfetadas, cortadas em fragmentos e depositadas em placas de Petri contendo Ágar Batata Dextrose como meio, em conjunto com tetraciclina e incubados durante 30 dias. Um total de 517 colônias fúngicas e treze gêneros foram isolados: Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Nigrospora, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Chaetomium, Alternaria, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Bipolaris, Diaporthe e Phoma. Oito isolados pertencentes aos gêneros Aspergillus, Diaporthe, Paecilomyces e Cladosporium foram selecionados para os bioensaios de virulência contra larvas de 3º instar de D. fovealis. Isolados de Paecilomyces causaram as maiores taxas de mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Paecilomyces/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Lepidoptera/microbiology , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Paecilomyces/isolation & purification , Paecilomyces/physiology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Fragaria/parasitology , Larva/growth & development , Larva/microbiology , Lepidoptera/growth & development
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(4): 372-380, jul. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915631

ABSTRACT

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a perennial plant widely used as a forage resource for several animals. This plant is the exclusive host of Hylastinus obscurus (Marsham) which causes irreparable damages to the root system affecting their persistence. It has been reported that the presence of the isoflavonoid formononetin in roots of red clover could act as an antifeedant on H. obscurus. There are not studies related to the formononetin content in red clover roots to the antifeedant effect elicited by experimental lines and cultivar of red clover. Six red clover genotypes were investigated in both formononetin content and their respective antifeedant action. The results showed to Sabtoron High and Superqueli-INIA with both the highest formononetin content in red clover roots and antifeedant effect, allowing to suggest that this secondary metabolites could be used as a chemical factor for red clover plants. Moreover, a rapid methodology for searching red clover genotypes with high formononetin content is reported.


El trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense L.) es una planta perenne ampliamente utilizada como fuente de forraje de variados animales. Esta planta es el exclusivo hospedero de Hylastinus obscurus (Marsham) el cual causa irreparables daños al sistema radical afectando seriamente su persistencia. Se ha reportado que la presencia del isoflavonoide formononetina en raíces del trébol rosado podría actuar como antialimentario sobre H. obscurus. Actualmente no existen estudios que relacionen el contenido de formononetina en raíces de trébol rosado con el efecto antialimentario elicitado por líneas experimentales y cultivares de trébol rosado. Seis genotipos de esta leguminosa fueron evaluados en cuanto a su contenido de formononetina y actividad antialimentaria. Los resultados mostraron que los cultivares Sabtoron High y Superqueli-INIA presentaron altos niveles de formononetina en sus raíces y efecto antialimentario sobre H. obscurus, lo que permite sugerir que este metabolito secundario podría ser usado como factor químico para incrementar la persistencia de plantas de trébol rosado. Además, se informa una metodología rápida para la búsqueda de genotipos con altos contenidos de formononetina.


Subject(s)
Coleoptera/drug effects , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Trifolium , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Coleoptera/physiology , Crops, Agricultural
18.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0442017, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-996741

ABSTRACT

Entomopathogenic nematodes are effective in controlling soil insects and they are used in agricultural systems. The virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes on crickets (Gryllus L.) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) was evaluated under different conditions in order to select populations for application in the field. Virulence tests with Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC05, H. amazonensis MC01, Steinernema carpocapsae All (Weiser) and H. amazonensis GL were performed. Evaluations were then made of the concentrations of infective juveniles (100, 200, 400 and 600 infective juveniles per insect); feeding preference with or without choice; and field tests using traps to evaluate insect sampling. All isolates were found to cause mortality in Gryllus sp., and H. amazonensis MC01 and S. carpocapsae All were selected; an increase in concentration resulted in increased insect mortality. Regarding the feeding preference tests, after 16 h there was no feeding in any of the treatments. In treatments with a chance of choice, it was verified that the crickets fed, independently of the presence of the nematodes. In the field tests, 19 live crickets were found in the traps, and, after application of entomopathogenic nematodes in aqueous suspension, 2 live crickets were found. Results suggested that H. amazonensis MC01 was promising in the control of Gryllus sp. under the tested conditions.(AU)


Os nematoides entomopatogênicos (NEPs) são eficazes contra insetos de solo e têm sido usados em sistemas agrícolas. A ação de NEPs sobre grilos (Gryllus L.) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) foi avaliada em condições de laboratório e campo, a fim de selecionar populações para aplicação em área de cultivo. Foram realizados testes de virulência com Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC05, H. amazonensis MC01, Steinernema carpocapsae All (Weiser) e H. amazonensis GL, assim como verificadas a adequação da concentração de juvenis infectantes (100, 200, 400 e 600 juvenis infectantes por inseto) e a preferência alimentar sem chance de escolha e com chance de escolha, além do teste de campo utilizando armadilhas para amostragem dos insetos. Verificou-se que todos os isolados causaram mortalidade em Gryllus sp. selecionando-se H. amazonensis MC01 e S. carpocapsae All e que o aumento na concentração de juvenis infectantes resultou em mortalidade crescente dos insetos. Com relação aos testes de preferência alimentar, observou-se que, após 16 horas, não houve alimentação em nenhum dos tratamentos. Nos tratamentos com chance de escolha, constatou-se que houve alimentação dos grilos, independentemente da presença ou não de nematoides. Nos testes de campo, antes da aplicação de juvenis infectantes, foram encontrados 19 grilos vivos nas armadilhas, e após a aplicação dos NEPs em suspensão aquosa foram encontrados 2 grilos vivos. Dessa forma, concluiu-se que H. amazonensis MC01 foi promissor no controle de Gryllus sp. nas condições testadas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Virulence , Gryllidae , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Nematoda , Gardening , Insecta
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 451-456, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899298

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study verified the pathogenic potential of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genus Heterorhabditis (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, isolate HP88 and Heterorhabditis baujardi isolate LPP7) to immature stages of Stomoxys calcitrans in the laboratory. All EPN concentrations of the H. bacteriophora HP88 strain caused mean larval mortality greater than 90% after four days. Higher concentrations of the H. baujardi LPP7 isolate (≥50 EPNs/larva) eliminated more than 70% of larvae after six days with the concentration 200 EPNs/larva reaching mortality levels of 93.3%. The larval mortality at all concentrations of EPNs (25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 EPNs/larva) for both strains was significant (p<0.05) when compared to the respective control groups. Concentrations of H. bacteriophora HP88 yielded an LC50 of 0.36 EPN/larva and LC90 of 29.1; while H. baujardi LPP7 yielded an LC50 of 39.85 and LC90 of 239.18. H. bacteriophora HP88 provided greater inhibition of the emergence of adults when compared to the response obtained with H. baujardi LPP7. EPNs did not cause considerable mortality when applied directly to pupae. The set of observed results suggests that the EPNs of the genus Heterorhabditis, isolates HP88 and LPP7, are a promising alternative in the control of the stable fly.


Resumo O presente estudo verificou o potencial patogênico de nematoides (NEP) do gênero Heterorhabditis (H. bacteriophora - isolado HP88 e H. baujardi - isolado LPP7) para estágios imaturos de Stomoxys calcitrans em laboratório. Todas as concentrações de NEPs da cepa HP88 causaram mortalidade larval média maior que 90% após quatro dias. Concentrações mais elevadas da cepa LPP7 (≥50 NEPs/larva) eliminaram mais de 70% após seis dias, com a concentração 200 NEPs/larva atingindo níveis de 93,3%. A mortalidade larval em todas as concentrações de NEPs (25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 NEPs/larva) para ambas as cepas foi significativa (p<0,05), quando comparadas aos respectivos grupos controle. Concentrações de H. bacteriophora HP88 obtiveram LC50 de 0,36 NEP/larva e LC90 de 29,1; enquanto H. baujardi LPP7 obteve LC50 de 39,85 e LC90 de 239,18. O isolado H. bacteriophora HP88 propiciou maior inibição da emergência de adultos, quando comparado à resposta obtida com H. baujardi LPP7. NEPs não provocaram mortalidade considerável quando aplicados diretamente sobre pupas. O conjunto de resultados observados indica os nematoides entomopatogênicos do gênero Heterorhabditis (estirpes HP88 e LPP7) como uma alternativa promissora no controle da mosca dos estábulos.


Subject(s)
Muscidae/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Rhabditida/pathogenicity , Rhabditida Infections , Larva
20.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(3): 299-306, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899283

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to identify the main chemical components of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. (cumin) and of the fixed oils of Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut) and of Helianthus annuus (sunflower seed). As well as testing the three oils and three different commercial synthetic acaricides against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in order to explore their acaricidal efficacy. Six different concentrations of the oils (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/mL) and the active principles were evaluated with the Adult Immersion Test (AIT). The two main chemicals components of C. cyminum L. were the cuminaldehyde and the γ-terpinene. In both B. excelsa and H. annuus were the linoleic and oleic acid. C. cyminum L. showed high acaricidal activity (100%) over the engorged females and on their reproductive characteristat from the concentration of 100 mg/mL. B. excelsa and H. annuus had low acaricidal activity (39.39% and 58.75% in the concentration of 200 mg/mL respectively). The amidine and the pyrethroid (35.12% and 1.50% respectively). It can be concluded that the oil of C. cyminum L. may be a phytoterapic alternative for the cattle's tick control.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar os componentes químicos majoritários do óleo essencial de Cuminum cyminum L. (comino) e dos óleos fixos de Bertholletia excelsa (castanha do Brasil) e de Helianthus annuus (semente de girassol). Assim como testar os três óleos e três diferentes acaricidas comerciais sintéticos contra fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, para explorar sua eficácia acaricida. Seis concentrações dos óleos (200, 100, 50, 25, 12,5 and 6,25 mg/mL) e os princípios ativos foram avaliados por meio do Teste de Imersão de Adultas (AIT). Os dois componentes químicos majoritários de C. cyminum L. foram o cuminaldeído e o y-terpineno. Nos óleos de B. excelsa e H. annuus os componentes majoritários foram o ácido n linoleico e oleico, respectivamente. C. cyminum L. mostrou alta atividade acaricida (100%) sobre as fêmeas ingurgitadas e suas caraterísticas reprodutivas, a partir da concentração 100 mg/mL., tornando-se uma fonte alternativa para controlar o carrapato do gado. No entanto sao necessários estudos adicionais, a serem conduzidos in vivo. B. excelsa e H. annuus tiveram baixa atividade acaricida (39,39% e 58,75% na concentração de 200 mg/mL respectivamente), não obstante apresentaram maior efeito que a amidina e o piretroide (35,12% e 1,50% respetivamente). Pode-se concluir que o óleo de C. cyminum pode ser uma alternativa fitoterápica para o controle do carrapato do gado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Cuminum
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