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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250373, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339376


Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.

Resumo O mel é uma matriz adequada para a avaliação de contaminantes ambientais, incluindo inseticidas organoclorados. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar resíduos de 15 inseticidas organoclorados em amostras de mel de origem unifloral e multifloral de Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de mel (5 g cada) foram extraídas com solventes orgânicos de grau GC e, em seguida, submetidas ao evaporador rotativo até a secura. Os extratos foram então misturados com n-hexano (5 ml) e purificados por cromatografia em coluna. Os extratos purificados (1μl cada) foram processados através de cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) para identificação e quantificação dos inseticidas. Dos 15 inseticidas testados, 46,7% foram detectados enquanto 53,3% não foram detectados nas amostras de mel. O heptacloro foi o inseticida mais prevalente com um nível médio de 0,0018 mg / kg detectado em 80% das amostras, seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,0016 mg / kg detectado em 71,4% das amostras de mel. Amostras de mel da parede de Acacia modesta foram 100% positivos para heptacloro com um nível médio de 0,0048 mg / kg seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,003 mg / kg e frequência de 83,3%. Níveis mínimos dos inseticidas testados foram detectados no mel unifloral de Ziziphus jujuba da usina. Metoxicloro, Endosulfan, Endrin e metabólitos do DDT não foram detectados nas amostras de mel estudadas. Alguns dos inseticidas testados são proibidos no Paquistão, mas ainda são detectados em amostras de mel, indicando seu uso na área de estudo. Os níveis detectados de todos os inseticidas estavam abaixo dos Níveis Máximos de Resíduos (MRLs) e seguros para os consumidores. No entanto, os níveis detectados podem causar mortalidade na fauna de insetos. O uso de inseticidas proibidos é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo declínio das populações de importantes insetos polinizadores, incluindo as abelhas.

Animals , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticide Residues/toxicity , Honey/analysis , Insecticides/toxicity , Bees , Environmental Biomarkers , Endosulfan/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981465


Pseudostellaria heterophylla in large-scale cultivation needs to apply pesticides to control diseases, and non-standard use of pesticide may cause excessive pesticide residues in medicinal materials, increasing the risk of clinical medication. To accurately monitor the residual pesticides, this paper investigated the drug use during the process of P. heterophylla disease prevention in 25 P. he-terophylla planting enterprises or individual households in Guizhou province. It was found that there were 8 common diseases in P. he-terophylla planting, including leaf spot, downy mildew, virus disease, root rot, dropping disease, purple feather disease, white silk disease, and damping-off disease. Twenty-three kinds of pesticides were used in disease control, mainly chemical synthetic pesticides, accounting for 78.3%, followed by biological pesticides and mineral pesticides, accounting for 13.0% and 8.7%, respectively. The disease prevention and control drugs were all low-toxic pesticides, and there were no varieties banned in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). However, the pesticides used have not been registered on P. heterophylla, and the excessive use of drugs was serious. The present monitoring of pesticide residues in P. heterophylla is mainly based on traditional pesticides such as organochlorine, organophosphorus, and carbamate, which does not effectively cover the production of drugs and had certain safety risks. It is suggested to speed up the research and registration of drug use in the production of P. heterophylla, increase the use of biological pesticides, and further improve the monitoring indicators of pesticide residues in combination with the actual production of drugs, so as to promote the high-quality development of P. heterophylla industry.

Biological Control Agents , Caryophyllaceae , Pesticide Residues , Pesticides , Plants, Medicinal
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981424


Based on the data of 56 kinds of diseases and drug use in 100 kinds of cultivated Chinese herbal medicines, this paper used frequency analysis method to count the types of diseases and their drug use characteristics, and systematically analyzed the status of drug registration and monitoring standards for disease prevention and control of Chinese herbal medicines. The results showed that 14 diseases such as root rot, powdery mildew, and drooping disease were common in the production of Chinese herbal medicines. Among the 99 pesticides reported, 67.68% were chemically synthesized, 23.23% were biological pesticides, and 9.09% were mineral pesticides. Among the reported pesticides, 92.93% of them were low toxic, with relative safety. However, 70% of the production drugs were not registered in Chinese herbal medicines, and the phenomenon of overdose was serious. The current pesticide residue monitoring standards does not match well with production drugs in China. Although the matching degree between Maximum Residue Limit of Pesticide in Food Safety National Standard(GB 2763-2021) and production drugs is more than 50%, there are few varieties of Chinese herbal medicines covered. The matching degree between Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition), Green Industry Standard of Medicinal Plants and Preparations(WM/T2-2004), and production drugs is only 1.28%. It is suggested to speed up the research and registration of Chinese herbal medicine production and further improve the pesticide residue limit standard combined with the actual production, so as to promote the high-quality development of Chinese herbal medicine industry.

Humans , Biological Control Agents , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pesticide Residues , Pesticides
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237839, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249225


Agroecological production represents a new reality in vegetable farming. Thus, the study aimed to search for the presence of pesticides in agroecological samples and microbiological and parasitological contamination in Lactuca sativa L. of agroecological and conventional fairs in Alagoas. Thirty-two samples were collected, a hygienicsanitary checklist was performed, along with coliform, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus research and Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) for pesticide research; using two methodologies for parasitological studies. Thirty-two samples were analyzed, with a sanitary adequacy level at 45% and 38% for fairs (agroecological and conventional) respectively, with three samples (9.4%) in total, being adequate to the microbiological pattern according to RDC no. 12/2001. Among the 23 samples which were tested positive for parasites, 69.5% originated from samples extracted at conventional fairs, and 53% of every positive samples presented Entamoeba coli as the main contaminant. All together, no traces of deltamethrin were detected, but in two of the samples a peak retention for diphenoconazole was detected. In conclusion, the fairs represent an adequate environment for human pathogens and indicators. Therefore greater hygiene training of vegetable traders and consumers in the state of Alagoas is required, especially in conventional fairs, which presented more critical microbiological and parasitological indexes comparing to fairs with agroecological products; however, the presence of difenoconazole in two samples of agricultural fairs suggests accidental contamination or indiscriminate use of this chemical in the production of Lactuca sativa, however, products with agroecological origin represents a better choice for the consumers.

A produção agroecológica representa uma nova realidade no cultivo das hortaliças. Assim, o estudo teve como objetivo verificar a presença de agrotóxicos em amostras agroecológicas e analisar a contaminação microbiológico e parasitológico em Lactuca sativa L. de feiras agroecológicas e convencionais de Alagoas. Foram coletadas 32 amostras, realizando checklist higiênico-sanitário, análises de coliformes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus e Cromatografia Gasosa com Espectrômetro de Massas (GC-MS) para pesquisa de agrotóxicos; utilizando-se duas metodologias para estudos parasitológicos. Foram analisadas 32 amostras, com nível de adequação sanitária de 45% e 38% para feiras (agroecológicas e convencionais) respectivamente, sendo três amostras no total (9,4%) adequadas a padrão microbiológico segundo RDC n° 12//2001; Dentre as 23 amostras positivas para parasitos, 69,5% teve origem em amostras de feiras convencionais, e 53% de todas as amostras positivas apresentaram Entamoeba coli como principal contaminante, juntamente, não foi detectado traços de deltametrina, porem foi visualizado em duas amostras, pico de retenção para padrão de difenoconazol. Concluindo-se que as feiras representam um ambiente adequado para patógenos humanos e indicadores, necessitando de uma maior higienização e treinamento dos comerciantes e consumidores de hortaliças do estado de Alagoas, principalmente em feiras convencionais, que apresentaram índices microbiológicos e parasitológicos mais críticos em relação a feiras com produtos agroecológicos; mas, a presença de difenoconazole em duas amostras de feiras agroecológicas sugerem contaminação acidental ou uso indiscriminado deste químico em produção da Lactuca sativa L., todavia os produtos de origem agroecológica representam uma melhor escolha para o consumidor.

Humans , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Entamoeba , Vegetables , Food Contamination/analysis , Lettuce , Agriculture
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928074


Lonicera Japonica Flos is the dried bud or nascent flower of Lonicera japonica(Caprifoliaceae). The plant suffers from various diseases and pests in the growth period and thus pesticides are often used. As a result, the resultant pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos have aroused great concern. This review summarized the investigation, detection methods, content analysis, and risk assessment of pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos since 1996, and compared the maximum residue limits among different countries and regions. The results showed that the pesticide residues were detected in Lonicera Japonica Flos from different production areas, and only some exceeded the limits. The residual pesticides have changed from organochlorines to new types such as tebuconazole and nitenpyram. The detection method has upgraded from chromatography to chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most pesticide residues will not cause health risks, except carbofuran. Pesticide residues limit the development of Lonicera Japonica Flos industry in China. In practice, we should improve the drug registration of Lonicera Japonica Flos, promote ecological prevention and control technology, and formulate and promote pesticide residue limit standard of Lonicera Japonica Flos.

Flowers/chemistry , Lonicera/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928073


The demand for Angelicae Sinensis Radix, the dry root of Angelica sinensis, has been increasing year by year. However, the continuous cropping obstacles, frequent occurrence of pests and diseases, overuse of chemical pesticides, excessive pesticide residues and other problems in Angelicae Sinensis Radix production have attracted much attention. In this paper, we summarized the common diseases and pests attacking Angelica sinensis as well as the detection methods and characteristics of pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix from 2002 to 2021. Additionally, we compared the limit standards of pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix in and out of China and put forward suggestions for the high-quality and green development of Angelicae Sinensis Radix industry conside-ring the existing problems. The pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix have been changing from organochlorines to organophosphorus pesticides. In recent years, some organophosphorus pesticides such as phorate, phoxim, isofenphos-methyl, phorate-sulfoxide, fenamiphos, isocarbophos, omethoate, and triazophos in Angelicae Sinensis Radix have seriously exceeded the standards. The detection methods of pesticide residues has evolved from chromatography to high performance chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS), and some new detection techniques such as immunoassay have also been applied. Pesticide residues have become a primary factor that restricting the development of Angelicae Sinensis Radix industry. Therefore, moderate application of pesticides, establishment of ecological planting system, and strict limit standards of pesticide residues are necessary to solve the pesticide residue problem.

Angelica sinensis/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues , Pesticides
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928072


Panax notoginseng is a perennial Chinese medicinal plant, which has serious continuous cropping obstacles and is prone to a variety of diseases and insect pests during the growth process. At present, the prevention and control of pests and diseases is mainly carried out through chemical pesticides, and the consequent pesticide residues of P. notoginseng have attracted much attention. This study reviewed the types and detection methods of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng from 1981 to 2021, and compared the limits of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng in China and abroad to provide a reference for rational application of pesticides in P. notoginseng and quality control of medicinal materials, thereby promoting the sustainable development of the P. notoginseng industry in China. Currently, there are only 40 published papers on pesticide residues of P. notoginseng, which is indicative of a serious problem of insufficient research. At present, hundreds of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng can be detected simultaneously by using chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pesticides detected have gradually changed from early prohibited ones, such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane(DDT), benzene hexachloride(BHC), and parathion, to low toxic ones(e.g., dimethomorph, procymidone, propicona-zole, and difenoconazole). The dietary risk from pesticide residues in P. notoginseng is low, which would not cause harm to consu-mers. This study concluded that in the future, the development of the quality standard for pesticide residues of P. notoginseng should be actively carried out. To increase the pesticides used in actual production in the quality standard based on the existing ones and to guide farmers to use pesticides scientifically will be the focus of future work.

China , Panax notoginseng , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Plants, Medicinal
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928071


Panacis Quinquefolii Radix is the dry root of Panax quinquefolium, which is a perennial plant of Araliaceae. The plant has a long growth cycle and serious growth barrier problem, which leads to the use of pesticides. As a result, the pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix are arousing great concern. This paper reviews the research findings on the investigation, detection methods, content analysis and risk assessment of pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix since 1993, and compares the pesticide residue limit standards of different countries and regions. The pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix have been changing from organochlorines with high toxicity to triazines and triazoles with low toxicity. The pesticide residues are generally low, while the pollution of pentachloronitrobenzene and other pesticides still exist. The detection method has evolved from chromatography to chromatography-mass spectrometry. There are no reports of health risks caused by pesticide residues of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix. Pesticide residue is a major factor restricting the sound development of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix industry in China. Therefore, we suggest to improve the registration of pesticides applied to the plant, popularize mature ecological planting mode and supporting technology, and strengthen the research on the risk assessment and limit standard of pesticide residue in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Ginsenosides/analysis , Mass Spectrometry , Panax/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928070


Panax ginseng, a perennial herb, is prone to diseases and insect pests in the growth process, which are primarily prevented and treated by pesticides. However, due to the lack of standardization in the types, frequencies, and doses of pesticides, pesticide residues have become the main exogenous pollutants of P. ginseng. To explore the risk of pesticide residues in P. ginseng, this paper summarized and analyzed the common pesticide residues in P. ginseng, detection techniques, and pesticide residue limit stan-dards based on the published literature in recent years. The results revealed that the main pesticide residues in P. ginseng were organochlorine pesticides, such as tetrachloronitrobenzene, pentachloronitrobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene, and the detection techniques were dominated by gas chromatography(GC), liquid chromatography(LC), or those combined with mass spectrometry(MS). Because of the long half-life and difficulty in degradation, organochlorine pesticides have become the main factor affecting the export of P. ginseng. It is worth mentioning that P. ginseng has been classified as food in Japan, South Korea, the European Union, and other countries, and the standards of pesticide residues and limits are stricter than those in China. The quality and safety of P. ginseng are prerequisites for the efficacy of Chinese medicine and the development of traditional Chinese medicine. The formulation of scientific and effective standards for pesticide application and limits would promote the high-quality development of the P. ginseng industry.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/analysis , Panax/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928069


The present study counted the frequency of detection technologies and monitoring frequency of pesticide species by frequency analysis based on the 28 258 pieces of data on pesticide content of Chinese medicinal materials in CNKI, calculated the detection rate and exceeding rate of different types of pesticides, and systematically analyzed the pesticide residue pollution of Chinese medicinal materials. The results showed that there were 40 types of pesticides with detection rates higher than 10%, where new pesticides such as organochlorines and nicotine accounted for 55%, and organic phosphorus, pyrethroids, and carbamates accounted for 17.5%, 15.0%, and 12.5%, respectively. Seventeen types of pesticides exceeded the standard to varying degrees, including 12 types(70.59%) with exceeding rates not higher than 5%, four types(23.53%) with exceeding rates in the range of 5%-10%, and one type(5.88%) with an exceeding rate higher than 10%. As revealed by the analysis results of the past five years, the pesticide residue pollution of Chinese medicinal materials showed a downward trend. Compared with the conditions at worst, organochlorines decreased by about 2/3 in detection rate and 47.23% in exceeding rate, carbamates by about 1/2 in detection rate and 10.78% in exceeding rate, organic phosphorus by 3/4 in detection rate and 7.22% in exceeding rate, pyrethroids by 1/2 in detection rate and 11.05% in exceeding rate, and other types by about 1/2 in detection rate but not exceeded the standard. In general, pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal materials and safety have been significantly improved. However, pesticide residues are still important factors affecting the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials. It is suggested to further improve the control standards of pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal materials, strengthen the monitoring of pesticides used in practical production, and promote the ecological planting mode to facilitate the high-quality development of the Chinese medicinal material industry.

China , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/analysis , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Pyrethrins/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927943


A total of 33 pesticides have been banned from Chinese medicinal materials and decoction pieces(plants) according to Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). According to the chemical structures, they are mainly divided into seven categories: organophosphorus compounds, organochlorines, carbamates, amidines, sulfonylureas, phenylpyrazoles, and ethers. These banned pesticides exhibit neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, immune system toxicity, teratogenicity, carcinogenesis, and mutagenesis, seriously damaging human and animal health. They affect not only the quality and safety of traditional Chinese medicines and resulting products, but also their competitiveness in the international market. Due to the numerous varieties of traditional Chinese medicines and their complex substrates, it is necessary to establish a universal and highly sensitive method for pesticide residue detection. This review systematically summarized the residual status, toxicity, and analytical methods of banned pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines, and forecasted the prospects of different analytical techniques, so as to provide reference for further safety and risk assessment of banned pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicines, thus ensuring the safe production of traditional Chinese medicines.

Humans , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879037


Chrysanthemum is widely used as a type of edible flower and also considered as the important materials of many beverages in China. Due to the occurrence of diseases and pests, and the lack of regulations for species, frequency, dose of pesticides in Chrysanthemum, pesticides have become one of the main pollutants in Chrysanthemum. The pesticide residues in Chrysanthemum were detected frequently and worth noting. This paper focused on the types of pesticides, pesticide residue detection techniques, and risk assessment methods for Chrysanthemums on the basis of relevant literatures. The pesticide residues of traditional Chinese medicine are mainly organochlorines, organophosphorus and pyrethroids, and the detection techniques include gas chromatography(GC), liquid chromatography(LC) or both combined with mass spectrometry(MS). With the increasing use of traditional Chinese medicine, Chrysanthemum is widely circulated in the market. Therefore, it is important to understand the current situation of pesticide residues in different varieties of Chrysanthemum, so as to provide theoretical reference for the control of quality and safety of Chrysanthemum and the formulation of the maximum residue limit.

China , Chromatography, Liquid , Chrysanthemum/genetics , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Pesticide Residues/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878912


Chinese medicinal material is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) industry. Its quality is not only closely related to the health of residents but also the key to the development of the TCM industry. Pesticide residues, heavy metals and mycotoxins are the major pollutants of Chinese medicinal materials. In recent years, quite a number of rapid detection methods for pollutants have been constructed. Among them, surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS), which has been widely used in food chemistry, environmental analysis, and other fields because of its speediness and non-destructiveness, shows its great potential in the pollutant detection in Chinese medicinal material. This paper firstly reviews the application of SERS for the detection of common pollutants in Chinese medicinal material. We then discussed the characteristics and advantages of SERS technique for pesticide detection, including the principle, SERS substrate design, specific recognition, etc. Finally, simultaneous detection of multiple pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal material was explored.

China , Environmental Pollutants , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Spectrum Analysis, Raman
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921742


In recent years, the quality and safety problems have been limiting the internationalization of Chinese medicine. The pollutants in Chinese medicine, particularly the exogenous harmful pollutants mainly including mycotoxins, pesticide residues, heavy metals, harmful elements, and sulfur dioxide, are of high risks for people. Therefore, the World Health Organization(WHO) and relevant national organizations have clearly defined the maximum residue limits(MRLs) of such pollutants. Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition, volume Ⅳ) also demonstrates the detection methods, MRLs and preliminary risk assessment methods for four typical exogenous harmful pollutants in Chinese medicine. Therefore, continuous optimization of the health risk assessment system can further help further raise the quality and safety of Chinese medicine. This paper reviews the research on the health risk assessment of four typical exogenous harmful pollutants in Chinese medicine and discusses the problems of and challenges for the assessment system, which is expected to lay a scientific basis for the establishment of the risk warning mode and response measures suitable for specific types of Chinese medicine.

Humans , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Risk Assessment
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921692


The medicinal plants with roots and rhizomes as the medicinal parts account for about 1/3 of Chinese medicinal herbs. Root and rhizome medicinal materials are widely used in clinical practice, whereas their wild resource reserves are insufficient to meet the market demand. With the expansion of planting areas, the formation of large-scale production areas, and the increase in planting years, diseases and insect pests of these medicinal plants, which are diverse and have broad transmission routes, strong concealment, and heavy damage, have become more and more serious. The prevention and control of these diseases and insect pests is characterized by multiple ways of pesticide application, large consumption of pesticides, susceptibility to soil barrier, difficulty in the control, and unstable control efficiency. Organophosphorus pesticides(OPPs) are widely used in the cultivation of Chinese medicinal plants because of their diverse varieties, broad-spectrum, good efficacy, and low residues, and have a positive effect on the yield and quality of Chinese medicinal materials. However, the abuse of OPPs not only increases the planting cost, but also affects the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal plants, the safety of clinical use of Chinese medicine, and the ecological safety of production areas. This paper reviewed the research and development progress of OPPs, the registration status of OPPs used in root and rhizome medicinal materials, residue limit standards, residue status, and rapid detection technology progress of OPPs. This review aims to provide research ideas and references for standardizing the use of OPPs in root and rhizome medicinal materials, reducing OPP residues, and establishing a fast, efficient, accurate, and reliable method for the detection of OPP residues in Chinese herbal medicine.

Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Plants, Medicinal , Rhizome/chemistry
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(2): e00116219, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153704


Resumo: No Brasil, desde 2001, o monitoramento da presença de agrotóxicos nos alimentos ocorre por meio do Programa de Análise de Resíduos de Agrotóxicos em Alimentos (PARA). O objetivo foi analisar os desafios e avanços no controle de resíduos de agrotóxicos nos alimentos, no Brasil, com base nos resultados do PARA, entre os anos 2001 e 2015. Foi realizada pesquisa descritivo-analítica documental, que utilizou dados provenientes dos relatórios do PARA, disponíveis no sítio eletrônico da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Entre os principais desafios apresentados pelo PARA estão a grande variabilidade no número de amostras e ingredientes ativos analisados, bem como no formato dos relatórios apresentados. Existe a necessidade do aprofundamento das discussões a respeito dos critérios usados para a classificação e autorização dos ingredientes ativos no Brasil, bem como da transparência destas informações para a sociedade. No total, foram analisados 25 tipos de alimentos e mais de 30 mil amostras ao longo da vigência do PARA, porém, o máximo de ingredientes ativos analisados foi 228. A presença de ingredientes ativos não autorizados para a cultura e não autorizados no país foi a principal causa de irregularidades diagnosticadas nos alimentos. Embora ainda existam diversos desafios apresentados no PARA, ele contribui para disparar a reflexão sobre o tema junto à sociedade. Haja vista a atual conjuntura do governo, de maior flexibilização na liberação de ingredientes ativos no país, é necessário que o PARA seja fortalecido.

Abstract: In Brazil, since 2001, pesticides in food products have been monitored by the Program for Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Food Products (PARA, in Portuguese). The study aimed to analyze the challenges and strides in the control of pesticide residues in food products in Brazil based on the program's results from 2001 to 2015. A descriptive-analytical document review was conducted that used data from reports by the PARA, available at the website of the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency. The program's main challenges feature the wide variation in the number of samples and active ingredients analyzed, as well as the reports' format. There is a need for more in-depth discussions of the criteria used for classification and authorization of active ingredients in Brazil, as well as the information's transparency to society. A total of 25 types of foods were analyzed, with more than 30,000 samples, since the PARA has been in force, but the maximum number of active ingredients analyzed was 228. The presence of active ingredients unauthorized for crops and unauthorized in the country was the principal cause of irregularities diagnosed in the foods. Although the program still faces various challenges, it helps spawn debate on the issue in society. Given the current government context of greater flexibility in the authorization of active ingredients in Brazil, it is necessary to strengthen the PARA.

Resumen: En Brasil, desde 2001, la supervisión de la presencia de pesticidas en los alimentos se produce mediante el Programa de Análisis de Residuos de Pesticidas en Alimentos (PARA). El objetivo fue analizar los desafíos y avances en el control de residuos de pesticidas en los alimentos, en Brasil, a partir de los resultados del PARA, entre los años 2001 y 2015. Investigación descriptivo-analítica documental, que utilizó datos provenientes de los informes del PARA, disponibles en la página web de la Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria. Entre los principales desafíos presentados por el PARA, están la gran variabilidad en el número de muestras e ingredientes activos analizados, así como en el formato de los informes presentados. Existe la necesidad de profundizar en las discusiones, respecto a los criterios utilizados para la clasificación y autorización de los ingredientes activos en Brasil, así como la transparencia de esta información para la sociedad. En total, se analizaron 25 tipos de alimentos y más de 30 mil muestras, a lo largo de la vigencia del PARA, no obstante, el máximo de ingredientes activos analizados fue 228. La presencia de ingredientes activos no autorizados para el cultivo y no autorizados en el país fue la principal causa de irregularidades diagnosticadas en los alimentos. A pesar de que todavía existan diversos desafíos presentados en el PARA, contribuye a activar la reflexión sobre este tema junto a la sociedad. Ante la actual coyuntura de gobierno, con una mayor flexibilización en la autorización de ingredientes activos en el país, es necesario que el PARA sea fortalecido.

Humans , Pesticides , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Brazil , Food Contamination/analysis , Food
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1280608


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the maximum theoretical daily intake of pesticides potentially consumed, chronically, by the Brazilian population. METHOD By using data from the food consumption section of the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey to characterize the population diet, a database was built to group the foods based on the NOVA classification. Considering the maximum residue limit values of each pesticide authorized in the country until 2016, the limits of all consumed foods were added and multiplied by the amount consumed, resulting in the maximum theoretical intake index, which was compared with the acceptable daily intake. RESULTS The results show that, of the 283 pesticides considered in the database, 71 (25%) compounds had estimates of zero intake, 144 compounds (50.8%) reached acceptable daily intake values and 68 compounds (24%) showed median intake that exceeded the acceptable daily value. The pesticide intake estimation according to the different regions of the country showed a variation in the amount of compounds that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (48 to 69 substances) due to the different consumption patterns. The categories of products that most exceeded the limits were the insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. CONCLUSION The application of this methodology is valid for the first step in risk assessment, but the resulting values may be different from the actual exposure since they do not include other factors, such as the combined use of pesticides or unauthorized products. The importance of developing research on specific national food consumption data in a systematic way is emphasized, which generates data and analyses that allow a detailed risk assessment.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a ingestão diária máxima teórica dos agrotóxicos potencialmente consumidos, de forma crônica, pela população brasileira. MÉTODO Utilizando os dados do bloco de consumo alimentar da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares de 2008-2009 para caracterização da dieta da população, foi construído um banco de dados agrupando os alimentos com base na classificação NOVA. Considerando os valores de limite máximo de resíduos de cada agrotóxico autorizado no país até o ano de 2016, foram somados os limites de todos os alimentos consumidos, multiplicados pela quantidade consumida, gerando o índice de ingestão teórica máxima, que foi comparado com a ingestão diária aceitável. RESULTADOS Os resultados mostram que dos 283 agrotóxicos considerados no banco de dados, 71 compostos tiveram estimativas de ingestão zero (25%), 144 compostos (50,8%) atingiram aos valores de ingestão diária aceitável e 68 compostos (24%) apresentaram mediana de ingestão que excedeu o valor diário aceitável. Quando realizada a estimativa de ingestão de agrotóxicos discriminando as distintas regiões do país, houve variação (entre 48 e 69 substâncias) na quantidade de compostos que excederam a ingestão diária aceitável devido aos diferentes padrões de consumo da população. As categorias dos produtos que mais excederam as estimativas são inseticidas, herbicidas e fungicidas. CONCLUSÃO A aplicação dessa metodologia é válida para o primeiro passo na avaliação de risco, porém os valores resultantes podem ser diferentes da exposição real por não englobar outros fatores, como o uso combinado de agrotóxicos ou de produtos de uso não autorizado. É ressaltada a importância do desenvolvimento de pesquisas de dados específicos de consumo de alimentos nacionais de forma sistemática, gerando dados e análises que viabilizem uma avaliação pormenorizada sobre riscos.

Humans , Pesticides , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Brazil , Food Contamination/analysis , Risk Assessment , Eating
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 166 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390829


A avaliação do risco é um processo científico e sistemático que incorpora quantitativamente o perigo e a exposição a diversos agentes. O processo de avaliação do risco tem evoluído nos últimos anos, indo além da exposição a únicos agentes e vias de exposição para a caracterização do risco cumulativo a múltiplos agentes. As metodologias para avaliação do risco cumulativo não são harmonizadas o que pode tornar o processo complexo. Nesta linha, a abordagem do RISK21 promovida pelo Health Environmental Science Institute (HESI) pode contribuir para desmistificar o tema. A exposição combinada da ingestão de resíduos de praguicidas através da dieta e do uso residencial de produtos a base de piretróides pela população brasileira não são conhecidas. Os piretróides são praguicidas utilizados na lavoura, bem como em ambiente doméstico no controle de pragas. O mecanismo de toxicidade destes agentes é bem conhecido e de relevância para a saúde humana, pois atuam sobre a permeabilidade iônica dos canais de sódio sensíveis a voltagem (CSSV), produzindo efeitos na excitabilidade das terminações nervosas. Como os seres humanos são potencialmente expostos a estes agentes, portanto, torna-se importante compreender os riscos cumulativos da exposição a estes praguicidas pela população brasileira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi conduzir a avaliação do risco dos piretróides registrados no Brasil com base nos princípios do RISK21. A abordagem em etapas proposta pelo RISK21 demonstrou que o risco da ingestão crônica e aguda de resíduos de piretróides foi considerado aceitável. Além disso, não foi observada qualquer preocupação toxicológica decorrente da exposição residencial a estes agentes. Quando combinados os cenários da dieta aguda e residencial, também não foram observados níveis de preocupação, portanto, o risco foi considerado aceitável. A avaliação do risco dos piretróides registrados para o uso agrícola e residencial no Brasil com base nos principios do RISK21 foi uma importante etapa neste trabalho, uma vez que foi possível avaliar o risco e preocupações para cada um dos praguicidas de maneira rápida e visual. Além disso, mesmo considerando premissas altamente conservadoras, observou-se que a população exposta de maneira combinada a estes agentes não demonstrou um nível de preocupação para o cenário brasileiro

Risk assessment is a scientific and systematic approach that quantitatively incorporates hazard and exposure to agents' evaluation. The risk assessment process has evolved in recent years, going beyond exposure to single agents and pathways to characterize multiple agents' cumulative risk. Cumulative risk assessment methodologies are not harmonized, which can make the process complex. In this line, the RISK21 approach promoted by the Health Environmental Science Institute (HESI) can demystify the subject. The combined exposure of residue intake through diet and residential use of pyrethroid-based products by the Brazilian population is unknown. Pyrethroids are pesticides used in the crop as well as in a domestic environment in pest control. The mechanism of toxicity of these agents is well known and relevant to human health, as they act on the ionic permeability of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSC), producing effects on the excitability of nerve endings. As human beings are potentially exposed to these agents, it is essential to understand the cumulative risks derived from the exposure to these pesticides by the Brazilian population. The objective of this research was to conduct the risk assessment based on the principles of RISK21 of pyrethroids registered in Brazil. The stepwise approach proposed by RISK21 demonstrated that the risk of chronic and acute ingestion of pyrethroid residues was considered acceptable. Furthermore, no toxicological concern stemming from residential exposure to these agents was observed. When acute and residential diet scenarios were combined, no levels of concern were also observed, so the risk was considered acceptable. The risk assessment based on the principles of RISK21 of pyrethroids registered for agricultural and residential use in Brazil was an essential step in this research since it was possible to assess the risk and concerns for each of the pesticides in a fast and visual way. Moreover, from highly conservative premises, it was observed that the population exposed in combination with these agents did not demonstrate a level of concern for the Brazilian scena

Pyrethrins/classification , Pesticide Residues/adverse effects , Risk Assessment Methodologies , Insecticides/agonists , Pesticides/adverse effects , Pest Control/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Diet , Environment