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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250373, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339376


Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.

Resumo O mel é uma matriz adequada para a avaliação de contaminantes ambientais, incluindo inseticidas organoclorados. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar resíduos de 15 inseticidas organoclorados em amostras de mel de origem unifloral e multifloral de Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de mel (5 g cada) foram extraídas com solventes orgânicos de grau GC e, em seguida, submetidas ao evaporador rotativo até a secura. Os extratos foram então misturados com n-hexano (5 ml) e purificados por cromatografia em coluna. Os extratos purificados (1μl cada) foram processados através de cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) para identificação e quantificação dos inseticidas. Dos 15 inseticidas testados, 46,7% foram detectados enquanto 53,3% não foram detectados nas amostras de mel. O heptacloro foi o inseticida mais prevalente com um nível médio de 0,0018 mg / kg detectado em 80% das amostras, seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,0016 mg / kg detectado em 71,4% das amostras de mel. Amostras de mel da parede de Acacia modesta foram 100% positivos para heptacloro com um nível médio de 0,0048 mg / kg seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,003 mg / kg e frequência de 83,3%. Níveis mínimos dos inseticidas testados foram detectados no mel unifloral de Ziziphus jujuba da usina. Metoxicloro, Endosulfan, Endrin e metabólitos do DDT não foram detectados nas amostras de mel estudadas. Alguns dos inseticidas testados são proibidos no Paquistão, mas ainda são detectados em amostras de mel, indicando seu uso na área de estudo. Os níveis detectados de todos os inseticidas estavam abaixo dos Níveis Máximos de Resíduos (MRLs) e seguros para os consumidores. No entanto, os níveis detectados podem causar mortalidade na fauna de insetos. O uso de inseticidas proibidos é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo declínio das populações de importantes insetos polinizadores, incluindo as abelhas.

Animals , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticide Residues/toxicity , Honey/analysis , Insecticides/toxicity , Bees , Environmental Biomarkers , Endosulfan/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237839, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249225


Abstract Agroecological production represents a new reality in vegetable farming. Thus, the study aimed to search for the presence of pesticides in agroecological samples and microbiological and parasitological contamination in Lactuca sativa L. of agroecological and conventional fairs in Alagoas. Thirty-two samples were collected, a hygienic-sanitary checklist was performed, along with coliform, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus research and Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) for pesticide research; using two methodologies for parasitological studies. Thirty-two samples were analyzed, with a sanitary adequacy level at 45% and 38% for fairs (agroecological and conventional) respectively, with three samples (9.4%) in total, being adequate to the microbiological pattern according to RDC no. 12/2001. Among the 23 samples which were tested positive for parasites, 69.5% originated from samples extracted at conventional fairs, and 53% of every positive samples presented Entamoeba coli as the main contaminant. All together, no traces of deltamethrin were detected, but in two of the samples a peak retention for diphenoconazole was detected. In conclusion, the fairs represent an adequate environment for human pathogens and indicators. Therefore greater hygiene training of vegetable traders and consumers in the state of Alagoas is required, especially in conventional fairs, which presented more critical microbiological and parasitological indexes comparing to fairs with agroecological products; however, the presence of difenoconazole in two samples of agricultural fairs suggests accidental contamination or indiscriminate use of this chemical in the production of Lactuca sativa, however, products with agroecological origin represents a better choice for the consumers.

Resumo A produção agroecológica representa uma nova realidade no cultivo das hortaliças. Assim, o estudo teve como objetivo verificar a presença de agrotóxicos em amostras agroecológicas e analisar a contaminação microbiológico e parasitológico em Lactuca sativa L. de feiras agroecológicas e convencionais de Alagoas. Foram coletadas 32 amostras, realizando checklist higiênico-sanitário, análises de coliformes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus e Cromatografia Gasosa com Espectrômetro de Massas (GC-MS) para pesquisa de agrotóxicos; utilizando-se duas metodologias para estudos parasitológicos. Foram analisadas 32 amostras, com nível de adequação sanitária de 45% e 38% para feiras (agroecológicas e convencionais) respectivamente, sendo três amostras no total (9,4%) adequadas a padrão microbiológico segundo RDC n° 12//2001; Dentre as 23 amostras positivas para parasitos, 69,5% teve origem em amostras de feiras convencionais, e 53% de todas as amostras positivas apresentaram Entamoeba coli como principal contaminante, juntamente, não foi detectado traços de deltametrina, porem foi visualizado em duas amostras, pico de retenção para padrão de difenoconazol. Concluindo-se que as feiras representam um ambiente adequado para patógenos humanos e indicadores, necessitando de uma maior higienização e treinamento dos comerciantes e consumidores de hortaliças do estado de Alagoas, principalmente em feiras convencionais, que apresentaram índices microbiológicos e parasitológicos mais críticos em relação a feiras com produtos agroecológicos; mas, a presença de difenoconazole em duas amostras de feiras agroecológicas sugerem contaminação acidental ou uso indiscriminado deste químico em produção da Lactuca sativa L., todavia os produtos de origem agroecológica representam uma melhor escolha para o consumidor.

Humans , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Entamoeba , Vegetables , Food Contamination/analysis , Lettuce , Agriculture
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879037


Chrysanthemum is widely used as a type of edible flower and also considered as the important materials of many beverages in China. Due to the occurrence of diseases and pests, and the lack of regulations for species, frequency, dose of pesticides in Chrysanthemum, pesticides have become one of the main pollutants in Chrysanthemum. The pesticide residues in Chrysanthemum were detected frequently and worth noting. This paper focused on the types of pesticides, pesticide residue detection techniques, and risk assessment methods for Chrysanthemums on the basis of relevant literatures. The pesticide residues of traditional Chinese medicine are mainly organochlorines, organophosphorus and pyrethroids, and the detection techniques include gas chromatography(GC), liquid chromatography(LC) or both combined with mass spectrometry(MS). With the increasing use of traditional Chinese medicine, Chrysanthemum is widely circulated in the market. Therefore, it is important to understand the current situation of pesticide residues in different varieties of Chrysanthemum, so as to provide theoretical reference for the control of quality and safety of Chrysanthemum and the formulation of the maximum residue limit.

China , Chromatography, Liquid , Chrysanthemum/genetics , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Pesticide Residues/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878912


Chinese medicinal material is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) industry. Its quality is not only closely related to the health of residents but also the key to the development of the TCM industry. Pesticide residues, heavy metals and mycotoxins are the major pollutants of Chinese medicinal materials. In recent years, quite a number of rapid detection methods for pollutants have been constructed. Among them, surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS), which has been widely used in food chemistry, environmental analysis, and other fields because of its speediness and non-destructiveness, shows its great potential in the pollutant detection in Chinese medicinal material. This paper firstly reviews the application of SERS for the detection of common pollutants in Chinese medicinal material. We then discussed the characteristics and advantages of SERS technique for pesticide detection, including the principle, SERS substrate design, specific recognition, etc. Finally, simultaneous detection of multiple pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal material was explored.

China , Environmental Pollutants , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Spectrum Analysis, Raman
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921742


In recent years, the quality and safety problems have been limiting the internationalization of Chinese medicine. The pollutants in Chinese medicine, particularly the exogenous harmful pollutants mainly including mycotoxins, pesticide residues, heavy metals, harmful elements, and sulfur dioxide, are of high risks for people. Therefore, the World Health Organization(WHO) and relevant national organizations have clearly defined the maximum residue limits(MRLs) of such pollutants. Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition, volume Ⅳ) also demonstrates the detection methods, MRLs and preliminary risk assessment methods for four typical exogenous harmful pollutants in Chinese medicine. Therefore, continuous optimization of the health risk assessment system can further help further raise the quality and safety of Chinese medicine. This paper reviews the research on the health risk assessment of four typical exogenous harmful pollutants in Chinese medicine and discusses the problems of and challenges for the assessment system, which is expected to lay a scientific basis for the establishment of the risk warning mode and response measures suitable for specific types of Chinese medicine.

Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Risk Assessment
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921692


The medicinal plants with roots and rhizomes as the medicinal parts account for about 1/3 of Chinese medicinal herbs. Root and rhizome medicinal materials are widely used in clinical practice, whereas their wild resource reserves are insufficient to meet the market demand. With the expansion of planting areas, the formation of large-scale production areas, and the increase in planting years, diseases and insect pests of these medicinal plants, which are diverse and have broad transmission routes, strong concealment, and heavy damage, have become more and more serious. The prevention and control of these diseases and insect pests is characterized by multiple ways of pesticide application, large consumption of pesticides, susceptibility to soil barrier, difficulty in the control, and unstable control efficiency. Organophosphorus pesticides(OPPs) are widely used in the cultivation of Chinese medicinal plants because of their diverse varieties, broad-spectrum, good efficacy, and low residues, and have a positive effect on the yield and quality of Chinese medicinal materials. However, the abuse of OPPs not only increases the planting cost, but also affects the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal plants, the safety of clinical use of Chinese medicine, and the ecological safety of production areas. This paper reviewed the research and development progress of OPPs, the registration status of OPPs used in root and rhizome medicinal materials, residue limit standards, residue status, and rapid detection technology progress of OPPs. This review aims to provide research ideas and references for standardizing the use of OPPs in root and rhizome medicinal materials, reducing OPP residues, and establishing a fast, efficient, accurate, and reliable method for the detection of OPP residues in Chinese herbal medicine.

Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Plants, Medicinal , Rhizome/chemistry
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(2): e00116219, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153704


Resumo: No Brasil, desde 2001, o monitoramento da presença de agrotóxicos nos alimentos ocorre por meio do Programa de Análise de Resíduos de Agrotóxicos em Alimentos (PARA). O objetivo foi analisar os desafios e avanços no controle de resíduos de agrotóxicos nos alimentos, no Brasil, com base nos resultados do PARA, entre os anos 2001 e 2015. Foi realizada pesquisa descritivo-analítica documental, que utilizou dados provenientes dos relatórios do PARA, disponíveis no sítio eletrônico da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Entre os principais desafios apresentados pelo PARA estão a grande variabilidade no número de amostras e ingredientes ativos analisados, bem como no formato dos relatórios apresentados. Existe a necessidade do aprofundamento das discussões a respeito dos critérios usados para a classificação e autorização dos ingredientes ativos no Brasil, bem como da transparência destas informações para a sociedade. No total, foram analisados 25 tipos de alimentos e mais de 30 mil amostras ao longo da vigência do PARA, porém, o máximo de ingredientes ativos analisados foi 228. A presença de ingredientes ativos não autorizados para a cultura e não autorizados no país foi a principal causa de irregularidades diagnosticadas nos alimentos. Embora ainda existam diversos desafios apresentados no PARA, ele contribui para disparar a reflexão sobre o tema junto à sociedade. Haja vista a atual conjuntura do governo, de maior flexibilização na liberação de ingredientes ativos no país, é necessário que o PARA seja fortalecido.

Abstract: In Brazil, since 2001, pesticides in food products have been monitored by the Program for Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Food Products (PARA, in Portuguese). The study aimed to analyze the challenges and strides in the control of pesticide residues in food products in Brazil based on the program's results from 2001 to 2015. A descriptive-analytical document review was conducted that used data from reports by the PARA, available at the website of the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency. The program's main challenges feature the wide variation in the number of samples and active ingredients analyzed, as well as the reports' format. There is a need for more in-depth discussions of the criteria used for classification and authorization of active ingredients in Brazil, as well as the information's transparency to society. A total of 25 types of foods were analyzed, with more than 30,000 samples, since the PARA has been in force, but the maximum number of active ingredients analyzed was 228. The presence of active ingredients unauthorized for crops and unauthorized in the country was the principal cause of irregularities diagnosed in the foods. Although the program still faces various challenges, it helps spawn debate on the issue in society. Given the current government context of greater flexibility in the authorization of active ingredients in Brazil, it is necessary to strengthen the PARA.

Resumen: En Brasil, desde 2001, la supervisión de la presencia de pesticidas en los alimentos se produce mediante el Programa de Análisis de Residuos de Pesticidas en Alimentos (PARA). El objetivo fue analizar los desafíos y avances en el control de residuos de pesticidas en los alimentos, en Brasil, a partir de los resultados del PARA, entre los años 2001 y 2015. Investigación descriptivo-analítica documental, que utilizó datos provenientes de los informes del PARA, disponibles en la página web de la Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria. Entre los principales desafíos presentados por el PARA, están la gran variabilidad en el número de muestras e ingredientes activos analizados, así como en el formato de los informes presentados. Existe la necesidad de profundizar en las discusiones, respecto a los criterios utilizados para la clasificación y autorización de los ingredientes activos en Brasil, así como la transparencia de esta información para la sociedad. En total, se analizaron 25 tipos de alimentos y más de 30 mil muestras, a lo largo de la vigencia del PARA, no obstante, el máximo de ingredientes activos analizados fue 228. La presencia de ingredientes activos no autorizados para el cultivo y no autorizados en el país fue la principal causa de irregularidades diagnosticadas en los alimentos. A pesar de que todavía existan diversos desafíos presentados en el PARA, contribuye a activar la reflexión sobre este tema junto a la sociedad. Ante la actual coyuntura de gobierno, con una mayor flexibilización en la autorización de ingredientes activos en el país, es necesario que el PARA sea fortalecido.

Humans , Pesticides , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Brazil , Food Contamination/analysis , Food
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1280608


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the maximum theoretical daily intake of pesticides potentially consumed, chronically, by the Brazilian population. METHOD By using data from the food consumption section of the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey to characterize the population diet, a database was built to group the foods based on the NOVA classification. Considering the maximum residue limit values of each pesticide authorized in the country until 2016, the limits of all consumed foods were added and multiplied by the amount consumed, resulting in the maximum theoretical intake index, which was compared with the acceptable daily intake. RESULTS The results show that, of the 283 pesticides considered in the database, 71 (25%) compounds had estimates of zero intake, 144 compounds (50.8%) reached acceptable daily intake values and 68 compounds (24%) showed median intake that exceeded the acceptable daily value. The pesticide intake estimation according to the different regions of the country showed a variation in the amount of compounds that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (48 to 69 substances) due to the different consumption patterns. The categories of products that most exceeded the limits were the insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. CONCLUSION The application of this methodology is valid for the first step in risk assessment, but the resulting values may be different from the actual exposure since they do not include other factors, such as the combined use of pesticides or unauthorized products. The importance of developing research on specific national food consumption data in a systematic way is emphasized, which generates data and analyses that allow a detailed risk assessment.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a ingestão diária máxima teórica dos agrotóxicos potencialmente consumidos, de forma crônica, pela população brasileira. MÉTODO Utilizando os dados do bloco de consumo alimentar da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares de 2008-2009 para caracterização da dieta da população, foi construído um banco de dados agrupando os alimentos com base na classificação NOVA. Considerando os valores de limite máximo de resíduos de cada agrotóxico autorizado no país até o ano de 2016, foram somados os limites de todos os alimentos consumidos, multiplicados pela quantidade consumida, gerando o índice de ingestão teórica máxima, que foi comparado com a ingestão diária aceitável. RESULTADOS Os resultados mostram que dos 283 agrotóxicos considerados no banco de dados, 71 compostos tiveram estimativas de ingestão zero (25%), 144 compostos (50,8%) atingiram aos valores de ingestão diária aceitável e 68 compostos (24%) apresentaram mediana de ingestão que excedeu o valor diário aceitável. Quando realizada a estimativa de ingestão de agrotóxicos discriminando as distintas regiões do país, houve variação (entre 48 e 69 substâncias) na quantidade de compostos que excederam a ingestão diária aceitável devido aos diferentes padrões de consumo da população. As categorias dos produtos que mais excederam as estimativas são inseticidas, herbicidas e fungicidas. CONCLUSÃO A aplicação dessa metodologia é válida para o primeiro passo na avaliação de risco, porém os valores resultantes podem ser diferentes da exposição real por não englobar outros fatores, como o uso combinado de agrotóxicos ou de produtos de uso não autorizado. É ressaltada a importância do desenvolvimento de pesquisas de dados específicos de consumo de alimentos nacionais de forma sistemática, gerando dados e análises que viabilizem uma avaliação pormenorizada sobre riscos.

Humans , Pesticides , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Brazil , Food Contamination/analysis , Risk Assessment , Eating
Hig. aliment ; 31(274/275): 110-14, 30/12/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-880360


O consumo, de alimentos seguros, vem aumentando e a prática do uso de agrotóxicos é comum no Brasil. A cesta básica deve ter os alimentos monitorados, para tanto, esforços do governo deveriam garantir a produção de alimentos seguros. O monitoramento de resíduos de agrotóxicos auxilia na garantia da qualidade. Neste estudo, no Laboratório de Resíduos de Pesticidas, analisaram-se amostras de frutas, grãos e hortaliças, no período de 10 anos (2001 a 2010). Método multirresíduos foi utilizado para identificar e quantificar os agrotóxicos. As amostras sem resíduos corresponderam de 60 a 95% do total. As amostras positivas apresentaram principalmente fungicidas e inseticidas. As violações (não permitido para a cultura e acima do limite máximo de resíduos-LMR) corresponderam a 20% do total e, apesar dos valores acima do LMR, a ingestão diária aceitável dos agrotóxicos encontrados nos alimentos não foi ultrapassada. Os resultados, embora não sejam críticos, são importantes para avaliar a qualidade do alimento consumido.(AU)

Nowadays, the safe food products concerning the human and animal health is increasing. Pesticide usage is a common practice in Brazil, therefore, the food basket must be controlled. Pesticide residues analysis conducted by laboratories as Pesticide Residues Laboratory (LRP) and national programs are important to guarantee the food quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the data from LRP to these from monitoring programs. Samples of fruits, grains and vegetables (10-year period, 2001 to 2010) were analyzed. Multi-residues method was used to identify and quantify the pesticide residues. The total of 60 to 95% were negative samples. About 20% of the samples could be declared as inappropriate for the consumption, considering compounds not permitted for the crops and above the MRL. The ADI parameter was not exceeded. Perhaps such levels could represent a public health concern, the results are not critical, but are useful to evaluate the exposure to the food contaminants.

Humans , Crop Production , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticide Residues/toxicity , Pesticide Utilization , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Quality Control
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 17(6): 1557-1568, jun. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-626679


O presente trabalho objetivou analisar a contaminação de águas superficiais e de chuvas por agrotóxicos em dois municípios do estado do Mato Grosso, Lucas do Rio Verde e Campo Verde, situados entre os maiores produtores de soja, milho e algodão do estado e do país. A metodologia analítica combinou o uso de técnicas cromatográficas em amostras de água superficial e de chuva com análises ecotoxicológicas do impacto da contaminação por agrotóxicos sobre espécies bioindicadoras. Resultados das análises mostraram a presença de resíduos de diferentes agrotóxicos nas amostras de águas superficiais e de chuva coletadas nos dois municípios. Associados a estes dados, resultados das análises ecotoxicológicas mostraram a presença de anomalias em uma espécie de anfíbio anuro coletado em uma das duas localidades, compatíveis com exposição a agrotóxicos. Os resultados aqui apresentados e discutidos apontam para a degradação da qualidade de recursos hídricos da região, causada pelo uso intensivo de agrotóxicos na agricultura, incluindo fontes de água de consumo humano e de chuvas, amplificando o risco de contaminação para além das áreas de plantio.

This study sought to analyze groundwater and rainwater contamination by pesticides in two municipalities (Lucas do Rio Verde and Campo Verde) of Mato Grosso state. The area is Brazil's mid-west situated among the major soybean, corn and cotton producers in the state and the country. The analytical methodology combined chromatographic techniques on groundwater and rainwater samples with eco-toxicological analyses of the impacts of contamination by pesticide on bio-indicator species. The results revealed the presence of different pesticide residues in the groundwater and rainwater samples collected in the two municipalities. In conjunction with this data, results of the eco-toxicological tests revealed the presence of anomalies in a bio-indicator species collected in one of the two study sites compatible with exposure to pesticides. The results presented and discussed here highlight the degradation of water resources in the region, caused by the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture, including the contamination of drinking water sources and rain, broadening the risk of contamination beyond the cultivated areas.

Agriculture , Groundwater/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Rain/chemistry , Water Pollution, Chemical , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Brazil
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139004


Background & objectives: Development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has been a major problem for achieving effective vector control. Due to limited availability of insecticides, the only option is management of resistance by judiciously using the insecticides and rotating them to maintain their effectiveness. This study was carried out in a malaria endemic area of Sundergarh district in Orissa where synthetic pyrethroids (SP) were in use for the last couple of years. The change-over from SP to DDT was done in one arm of study, and the other two arms remained on SP and insecticide-treated nets (ITN). Entomological and parasitological monitoring was done to assess the impact. Methods: The study design comprised of three arms (i) two rounds of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with DDT 1g/m2 as a change-over insecticide in areas previously under synthetic pyrethroids; (ii) two rounds of IRS with synthetic pyrethroid (alphacypermethrin, ACM) @ 25 mg/m2; and (iii) an unsprayed area under ITN/long lasting insecticide nets (LNs). Indoor residual spraying was undertaken under strict supervision to maintain quality and coverage. Contact bioassays were conducted to know the persistence of insecticide on sprayed surfaces and adult vector density was monitored in fixed and randomly selected houses. Malaria incidence was measured through fortnightly domiciliary surveillance under primary health care system in all the study villages. Results: The insecticide susceptibility tests showed that An.culicifacies was resistant to DDT but susceptible to malathion and ACM. However, An. fluviatilis was susceptible to all the three insecticides. ACM was effective in killing An. culicifacies on mud and wooden sprayed surfaces and maintained effective bioefficacy ranging from 92 to 100 per cent up to five months, whereas DDT failed to achieve effective mortality in An.culicifacies. However, there was significant decline in the density of An.culicifacies in ACM and DDT areas in comparison to ITNs/LNs. There was 61 per cent reduction in the slide positivity rate in ACM area in comparison to 48 and 51 per cent in DDT and ITN/LNs areas, respectively. The adjusted incidence rate of malaria cases per 1000 population in three study areas also showed significant declines within each group. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings show that the change-over of insecticide from synthetic pyrethroids to DDT brings about the same epidemiological impact as envisaged from continuing SP spray or distributing insecticide treated nets/long-lasting insecticidal nets provided there is a good quality spray and house coverage.

Animals , Anopheles , DDT , Endemic Diseases , Humans , India/epidemiology , Insect Vectors , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Mosquito Control/methods , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pyrethrins
Invest. clín ; 52(4): 295-311, dic. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659220


El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la presencia de plaguicidas en agua potable, provenientes de seis acueductos en una región de intensa actividad agrícola del Estado Mérida, Venezuela. El estudio fue realizado durante cuatro semanas continuas, entre mayo y junio de 2008. Los residuos de plaguicidas fueron analizados mediante extracción en fase sólida y HPLC con detector de arreglo de diodos. El método SPE-HPLC-DAD cumplió con los criterios de validación analítica: linealidad (R²: 0,9840-0,9999), precisión (coeficiente de variabilidad inter-día 1,47-6,25%), exactitud (desviación estándar relativa 0,9-9,20%) y sensibilidad (límite de detección ≤ 0,012 µg/L; límite de cuantificación ≤ 0,030 µg/L, excepto mancozeb con 0,400 µg/L). Siete de los trece plaguicidas seleccionados tienen un porcentaje de recuperación entre 100% y 70%, el resto, entre 61% y 37%. En 72 muestras analizadas, se detectaron diez plaguicidas de los grupos químicos: organofosforados, carbamatos, triazinas y derivados de urea. Los plaguicidas con mayor frecuencia de detección fueron: carbofuran y atrazina (39%), malation (25%), dimetoato y metribuzin (19%). Los plaguicidas que se encontraron en niveles más altos fueron: diazinon (26,31 µg/L), metamidofos (10,99 µg/L), malation (2,03 µg/L) y mancozeb (1,27 µg/L). Los niveles de plaguicidas no superaron los valores máximos permitidos por la Legislación Venezolana, sin embargo, fueron superiores al nivel máximo permitido por la Unión Europea y EPA-USA. Este estudio demuestra la urgente necesidad de hacer un monitoreo sistemático de la calidad del agua para consumo humano en las regiones de alta productividad agrícola.

The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pesticides in drinking water from six aqueducts in a region of intense agricultural activity in the state of Merida, Venezuela. The study was conducted for four continuous weeks, between May and June 2008. Pesticide residues were analyzed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD). The method SPE-HPLC-DAD met the criteria of analytical validation, with good linearity (R²: 0.9840 to 0.9999), precision (coefficient of inter-day variability from 1.47 to 6.25%), accuracy (relative standard deviation 0.9 to 9.20%) and sensitivity (LOD ≤ 0.012 µg/L; LOQ ≤ 0.030 µg/L, except mancozeb with 0.400 µg/L). Seven of the thirteen selected pesticides have a recovery rate between 100% and 70%, the rest between 61% and 37%. Ten pesticides of the following chemical groups, were detected in 72 samples analyzed: organophosphates, carbamates, triazines and urea derivatives. The pesticides with the highest frequency of detection were: carbofuran and atrazine (39%), malathion (25%), dimethoate and metribuzin (19%). The pesticides found at high levels were diazinon (26.31 µg/L), methamidophos (10.99 µg/L), malathion (2.03 µg/L) and mancozeb (1.27 µg/L). Pesticide levels did not exceed the maximum allowed by Venezuelan law, however, according to international standards (EU and EPA-USA) values were above the maximum permissible levels. This study demonstrates the urgent need for systematic monitoring of the quality of water for human consumption in regions of high agricultural productivity.

Humans , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Supply/analysis , Agriculture/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Carbamates/analysis , Maximum Allowable Concentration , Organophosphates/analysis , Rural Health , Sensitivity and Specificity , Triazines/analysis , Urea/analysis , Venezuela
Pesticidas ; 20(1): 57-66, jan.-dez. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-587607


O objetivo deste trabalho foi efetuar revisão de literatura sobre a importância do tomate e seus derivados na dieta alimentar, mostrar a influência da cadeia agroindustrial do tomate no âmbito do agronegócio brasileiro e apontar método eficiente para detecção de resíduos de agrotóxicos nessa matriz. Para seu consumo seguro são necessários,além da aplicação das boas práticas agrícolas no seu cultivo, informações sobre o monitoramento de resíduos de agrotóxicos que garantam a qualidade do alimento submetido a tratamentos com agrotóxicos. A disponibilização de métodos multirresíduos que promovam a detecção de várias classes de agrotóxicos em matrizes complexas, como o QuEChERS, oferecem várias vantagens na determinação de resíduos de agrotóxicos em alimentos, podendo ser usado como método de rotina em diversos laboratórios.

Agribusiness , Diet , Eating , Lycopersicon esculentum , Pesticide Residues/analysis
Rev. salud pública ; 12(6): 982-989, dic. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-602846


Objetivo Evaluar la presencia de pesticidas organoclorados (OCPs) en leche cruda bovina procedente de fincas de tradición algodonera del municipio de San Pedro, Sucre. Materiales y métodos Se tomaron 48 muestras de leche procedente de tres fincas ganaderas, dos de ellas con tradición en la suplementación alimenticia con semillas y soca de algodón, y se les determinó la concentración de OCPs por cromatografía gaseosa empleando un detector de microcaptura de electrones (µECD). Resultados El 100 por ciento de las muestras presentaron algún tipo de OCPs, y las concentraciones más altas correspondieron a los pesticidas Endrin, DDT y Aldrin, con 0,62, 0,59 y 0,52 µg/mL, respectivamente. Las fincas que suplementaron con soca de algodón tuvieron una mayor presencia y concentración de OCPs en leche que las muestras provenientes de la finca que no realizaba esta práctica. Conclusión A pesar que la mayoría de los plaguicidas organoclorados están prohibidos en el país desde 1986, aún se presentan residuos en las muestras de leche cruda analizadas provenientes de fincas con tradición en el cultivo de algodón, generando un riesgo de salud pública a los consumidores.

Objective Ascertaining the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in raw milk from cows grazing on traditional cotton farms in San Pedro, Sucre, Colombia. Materials and methods 48 samples were taken from three cattle farms; two of them used cotton seed and soca dietary supplement.OCP concentration was determined by gas chromatography (GC) using an electron capturedetector (µ-ECD). Results 100 percent of the samples had some type of OCPs and Endrin, DDT and Aldrin pesticides hadthe highest concentrations (0.62, 0.59 and 0.52 µg/mL, respectively). Farms supplementing feed with soca cotton had the greatest OCP presence and concentration in milk samples compared to samples from farms which did not engage in this practice. Conclusion Although most OCPs have been banned in Colombia since 1986, residues are still being presented in raw milk samples tested from cottongrowing farms, thereby creating a public health risk for consumers.

Animals , Cattle , Animal Feed , Gossypium , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/analysis , Insecticides/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Chromatography, Gas , Colombia
Rev. salud pública ; 12(2): 300-307, abr. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-560858


Objetivo Determinar la frecuencia de uso de plaguicidas en la producción agropecuaria, porcícola y avícola, para comprender su influencia en el recurso hídrico en la vereda Monterredondo del municipio San Pedro de los Milagros (Antioquia) y establecer un diagnostico de su calidad. Métodos Se aplicó una encuesta domiciliaria al 100 por ciento de las familias de la vereda, sobre el uso de productos químicos y se realizaron dos análisis, el fisicoquímico y el microbiológico a tres muestras de agua en el laboratorio de Ingeniería Ambiental de la Universidad de Antioquia bajo métodos estandarizados. Resultados La quebrada El Hato presenta una contaminación por Coliformes de 1 600x103 NMP/100ml y por E.coli de 220x10 NMP/100ml. La quebrada Fray Juana presenta un grado de contaminación de 1 600x103 NMP/100ml de Coliformes. Se encontró igualmente una contaminación de las fuentes hídricas por el uso de diversos plaguicidas como: Lorsban® (Clorpirifos), Ráfaga® (Clorpirifos), Látigo® (Clorpirifos), Neguvón® (Metrifonato), Furadán® (Carbofurán). Con insecticidas como, Ganabaño® (Cibermetrina) y desinfectantes como, Límpido® (Hipoclorito de sodio 6 por ciento). Conclusión La producción agropecuaria, porcícola y avícola en la vereda, está generando impactos negativos en el recurso hídrico, por la disminución y la contaminación de éste. Las aguas de las muestras analizadas, no son aptas para el consumo de seres vivos.

Objective Determining the frequency of pesticide use in agricultural, pig and poultry production to understand its influence on water resources in the village of Monterredondo in the municipality of San Pedro de Los Milagros (Antioquia) and diagnosing its quality. Methods 100 percent of the households in the village were surveyed regarding chemical use. Physicochemical and microbiological analysis of three water samples was carried out in the Universidad de Antioquia's Environmental Engineering laboratory using standardised methods. Results The Hato stream was contaminated by 1,600x103 NMP/100ml coliforms and 220x10 NMP/100ml E. coli. The Fray Juana stream had 1,600x103 NMP/100ml coliform contamination. Water sources were also contaminated by the use of pesticides such as Lorsban (chlorpyriphs), Burst (chlorpyriphs), Whip (chlorpyriphs), Neguvon (metriphonate) and Furadan (carbophuran) and insecticides like Ganabaño (cypermethryn) and disinfectants and Limpido (6 percent sodium hypochlorite). Conclusion Agricultural, pig and poultry production in the village has been producing a negative impact on water resources due to its reduced availability and pollution. The water from the samples analysed here was not suitable for human consumption.

Agrochemicals/analysis , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Water Microbiology , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollution/analysis , Agriculture/statistics & numerical data , Animal Husbandry/statistics & numerical data , Colombia , Data Collection , Disinfectants/analysis , Fresh Water/chemistry , Fresh Water/microbiology , Water Pollution, Chemical/analysis , Water Supply/standards
Rev. salud pública ; 12(1): 14-26, feb. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-552317


Objetivo Estimar la exposición de pobladores adultos a compuestos órganoclorados a partir de la ingesta de leche pasteurizada comercializada en la ciudad de Cartagena. Métodos Estudio observacional descriptivo de 47 muestras de lotes de producción de distintas marcas de leche pasteurizada y comercializada en la ciudad de Cartagena. El contenido de materia grasa en las muestras de leche fue determinado por Cromatografía de gases. Asimismo, fueron encuestadas 596 personas mayores de edad de las cuales se indagó la frecuencia de consumo de productos lácteos con el fin de estimar la ingesta diaria potencial y admisible y evaluar el riesgo a ingesta de organoclorados. Resultados Las personas encuestadas se encuentran expuestas a compuestos órganoclorados mediante la ingesta de 12,1 mg/g/día a través del consumo de leche pasteurizada comercializada en la ciudad de Cartagena. El 100 por ciento de las muestras analizadas se encontró contaminada con alguno de los plaguicidas objeto de estudio. La población objeto de estudio presenta una ingesta diaria (IDP) de compuestos órganoclorados superior a lo permitido, a la luz de la FAO/OMS. Conclusiones No es posible recomendar a la población cartagenera no consumir leche, pero si recomendar a las autoridades competentes encargadas de exigir a las productoras que inicien campañas de mejoramiento de la calidad de la leche desde el punto de vista toxicológico.

Objective Estimating adult residents' exposure to organochlorine compounds from drinking milk being marketed in the city of Cartagena. Methods This was a descriptive observational study; 47 samples were taken from different production lots of brands of pasteurised milk being sold in the city of Cartagena. The milk samples' fat content was determined by gas chromatography. 596 adults were also surveyed whose dairy product consumption frequency had been investigated to estimate potential and acceptable daily intake and assess the risk of consuming organochlorines. Results The people surveyed here were exposed to organochlorine compounds through consuming 12.1 mg/g/day in pasteurised milk being sold in the city of Cartagena. 100 percent of the samples tested were contaminated with one of the pesticides being studied. The study population had a daily intake (IDP) of organochlorine compounds greater than that permitted by FAO/WHO guidelines. Conclusion It cannot be recommended that people in Cartagena do not drink milk; however, the competent authorities can be requested to require dairy-product producers to launch campaigns to improve the quality of milk from a toxicological point of view.

Adult , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Food Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Chromatography, Gas , Colombia , Dairy Products/analysis , Feeding Behavior , Food Handling , Maximum Allowable Concentration , Urban Health
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2009; 6 (2): 233-242
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91350


Pesticide transport and transformation were modeled in soil column from the soil surface to groundwater zone. A one dimensional dynamic mathematical and computer model is formulated to simulate two types of pesticides namely 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 1,2-dibromo 3-chloro propane in soil column. This model predicts the behavior and persistence of these pesticides in soil column and groundwater. The model is based on mass balance equation, including convective transport, dispersive transport and chemical adsorption in the phases such as solid, liquid and gas. The mathematical solution is obtained by finite difference implicit method. The model was verified with experimental measurements and also with analytical solution. The simulation results are in good agreement with measured values. The major findings of this research are the development of the model which can calculate and predict the concentration of pesticides in soil profiles, as well as groundwater after 4, 12, 31 days of pesticide application under steady state and unsteady water flow condition. With the results of this study, the distribution of various types of pesticides in soil column to groundwater table can be predicted

Pesticide Residues/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Nov; 29(6): 813-26
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113419


Tea is a perennial plantation crop grown under monoculture providing favorable conditions for a variety of pests. The concept of pest control has undergone a considerable change over the past few decades. In recent years there has been a greater dependence on the use of pesticides (7.35-16.75 kgha(-1)) with little importance laid on other safe control methods for the management of tea pests. Due to this practice, the tea pests showed a higher tolerance/ resistance status due to formation of greater amount of esterases, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase. Thus, over reliance on pesticides end up with pesticide residue in made tea (DDT - 10.4-47.1%; endosulfan - 41.1-98.0%; dicofol- 0.0-82.4%; ethion - 0.0-36.2%; cypermethrin - 6.0- 45.1%). The growing concern about the pesticide residue in made tea, its toxicity hazards to consumers, the spiraling cost of pesticides and their application have necessitated a suitable planning which will ensure a safe, economic as well as effective pest management in tea. At present it is a global concern to minimize chemical residue in tea and European union and German law imposed stringent measures for the application of chemicals in tea and fixed MRL values at < or = 0. 1 mgkg(-1) for the most commonly used pesticides which will not be met out in the real practice and has been a major constraint to tea exporting countries like India. In order to regulate the situation of the Indian market at global level, central insecticide board and prevention of food adulteration regulation committee have reviewed the MRL position for tea and has recommended 10 insecticides, 5 acaricides, 9 herbicides and 5 fungicides for use in tea and issued the tea distribution and export control order 2005 which will help the country to limit the presence of undesirable substances in tea. This review attempts to provide the readers with a comprehensive account of pesticide use in North East in tea, surveillance report of the European community regarding the residue level in Assam and Darjeeling tea, recent amendments by international and national regulatory bodies, revised MRL values of pesticides in tea, an update about the current strategies for the management of tea pests with more focus on the use of biological control agents and a possible beneficial role or judicious use of chemical pesticides in complement with other alternative measures to achieve optimum effects in terms of limiting agricultural input, lowering production costs, reducing environmental contamination and the effect on non-target organisms, delaying the development of resistant pest biotypes and above all minimizing the pesticide residues in tea to increase the exports.

Food Contamination/legislation & jurisprudence , India , Pest Control , Pest Control, Biological , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides , Tea/chemistry