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1.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 90: e00282021, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1552080

ABSTRACT

The black aphid Aphis craccivora (Koch, 1854) stands out between the bugs considered cowpea pests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon application on the resistance induction of cowpea plants to the black aphid A. craccivora. The experiment was conducted in the Entomology Laboratory of the Phytosanitary sector of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias at the Universidade Federal do Piauí. The effects of the application of silicon on biological aspects were evaluated using a completely randomized design, with four treatments and 40 repetitions, being: silicon in soil (T1), silicon in soil + leaf (T2), silicone leaf (T3), and control (T4). The following biological variables were evaluated: generation period, reproductive period, fecundity, and daily average of nymphs per female. The silicon and lignin contents were also evaluated in the plants. The silicic acid was applied in a 1% solution around the stem of the plants (soil), 15 days after emergence, by diluting 2 g of the product in 200 mL of water. However, the leaf application was carried out with sprayer five days after application in soil. The non-preference of A. craccivora on bean was also evaluated. The evaluations were performed after 24, 48 and 72 hours of infestation by counting nymphs at 24, 48 and 72 hours and adults at each leaf session. The application of silicon promotes the reduction of the production of nymphs, interfering in the biological aspects of A. craccivora, and has potential to be used in a cowpea pest management program in cowpea.


Subject(s)
Aphids , Pesticides/analysis , Silicon/administration & dosage , Pest Control/methods , Vigna/parasitology , Plant Defense Against Herbivory
2.
Rev. cienc. forenses Honduras (En línea) ; 9(1): 6-13, 2023. ilus., graf., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1551561

ABSTRACT

Justificación: Los plaguicidas han provocado un significativo problema de salud pública ya que han generado una importante carga a la mortalidad y a la morbilidad. Los suicidios con plaguicidas representan alrededor de un tercio de todos los suicidios en el mundo. Objetivo: Caracterizar las muertes relacionadas a plaguicidas, sometidas a autopsia médico legal en la Dirección de Medicina Forense de Tegucigalpa durante los años 2014- 2020. Metodología: Se consultó la base de datos digital la Dirección de Medicina Forense, encontrando 255 casos relacionados a muerte por plaguicidas de los que se seleccionaron 215 casos con expediente completo y disponible. Los cálculos estadísticos se realizaron con el programa PSPP. Resultados: Se encontraron 215 casos, el 58% eran hombres y el 42% mujeres, 54% eran solteros y 29% en unión libre. Sin escolaridad 11%, primaria incompleta 20%, primaria completa 15%, secundaria incompleta 12%, secundaria completa 10%. Respecto a la ocupación de los fallecidos, los oficios domésticos fue la más frecuente entre las mujeres y la agricultura entre los hombres. El 65% eran personas jóvenes menores de 40 años con una media de edad de 35 años (rango 8- 89a). La manera de muerte más frecuente fue suicida con el 71%. El plaguicida más utilizado como instrumento de muerte fue el fosfuro de aluminio (66%).Conclusión: La mayoría de las muertes por intoxicación con plaguicidas fueron suicidas; hombres jóvenes, menores de 40 años, solteros, con escolaridad que no sobrepasaba la secundaria; utilizaron las pastillas de fosfuro de aluminio como instrumento de autolesión. Se requiere estudiar más detalladamente el uso de tóxicos en general y de los plaguicidas en particular como instrumentos de autolesión y se evidencia la necesidad imperiosa de habilitar medidas de regulación para la comercialización y campañas de educación en la población para el uso y manejo adecuado...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pesticides/poisoning , Poisoning/mortality , Autopsy , Suicide
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3281-3286, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981465

ABSTRACT

Pseudostellaria heterophylla in large-scale cultivation needs to apply pesticides to control diseases, and non-standard use of pesticide may cause excessive pesticide residues in medicinal materials, increasing the risk of clinical medication. To accurately monitor the residual pesticides, this paper investigated the drug use during the process of P. heterophylla disease prevention in 25 P. he-terophylla planting enterprises or individual households in Guizhou province. It was found that there were 8 common diseases in P. he-terophylla planting, including leaf spot, downy mildew, virus disease, root rot, dropping disease, purple feather disease, white silk disease, and damping-off disease. Twenty-three kinds of pesticides were used in disease control, mainly chemical synthetic pesticides, accounting for 78.3%, followed by biological pesticides and mineral pesticides, accounting for 13.0% and 8.7%, respectively. The disease prevention and control drugs were all low-toxic pesticides, and there were no varieties banned in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). However, the pesticides used have not been registered on P. heterophylla, and the excessive use of drugs was serious. The present monitoring of pesticide residues in P. heterophylla is mainly based on traditional pesticides such as organochlorine, organophosphorus, and carbamate, which does not effectively cover the production of drugs and had certain safety risks. It is suggested to speed up the research and registration of drug use in the production of P. heterophylla, increase the use of biological pesticides, and further improve the monitoring indicators of pesticide residues in combination with the actual production of drugs, so as to promote the high-quality development of P. heterophylla industry.


Subject(s)
Biological Control Agents , Caryophyllaceae , Pesticide Residues , Pesticides , Plants, Medicinal
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2925-2930, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981424

ABSTRACT

Based on the data of 56 kinds of diseases and drug use in 100 kinds of cultivated Chinese herbal medicines, this paper used frequency analysis method to count the types of diseases and their drug use characteristics, and systematically analyzed the status of drug registration and monitoring standards for disease prevention and control of Chinese herbal medicines. The results showed that 14 diseases such as root rot, powdery mildew, and drooping disease were common in the production of Chinese herbal medicines. Among the 99 pesticides reported, 67.68% were chemically synthesized, 23.23% were biological pesticides, and 9.09% were mineral pesticides. Among the reported pesticides, 92.93% of them were low toxic, with relative safety. However, 70% of the production drugs were not registered in Chinese herbal medicines, and the phenomenon of overdose was serious. The current pesticide residue monitoring standards does not match well with production drugs in China. Although the matching degree between Maximum Residue Limit of Pesticide in Food Safety National Standard(GB 2763-2021) and production drugs is more than 50%, there are few varieties of Chinese herbal medicines covered. The matching degree between Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition), Green Industry Standard of Medicinal Plants and Preparations(WM/T2-2004), and production drugs is only 1.28%. It is suggested to speed up the research and registration of Chinese herbal medicine production and further improve the pesticide residue limit standard combined with the actual production, so as to promote the high-quality development of Chinese herbal medicine industry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Control Agents , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pesticide Residues , Pesticides
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2706-2718, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981227

ABSTRACT

The evaluation of the bioavailability of pollutants in soil is crucial to accurately assess the pollution risk, and whole-cell biosensor is one of the important tools for such evaluation. This study aimed to develop a novel whole-cell biosensor for the detection of methyl parathion in soil using. First, a whole-cell biosensor was constructed by the screened methyl parathion hydrolase mpd gene, the existing specific induction element pobR, and the pUC19 plasmid skeleton. Then, the detection method of methyl parathion in soil extracts was established using 96-well microtiter plate as carrier and five whole-cell biosensors as indicator. The method was applied in the detection of methyl parathion in tested and field soil extracts. Taking E. coli DH5α/pMP-AmilCP with the best detection performance as an example, this biosensor had a detection limit of 6.21-6.66 µg/L and a linear range of 10-10 000 µg/L for methyl parathion in four soil extracts. E. coli DH5α/pMP-RFP and E. coli DH5α/pMP-AmilCP methods have good detection performance for the analysis of methyl parathion in soil extract samples. This biosensor method can help to quickly assess the bioavailability of methyl parathion in soil, and thus help to understand the risk of soil pollution caused by organophosphorus pesticide methyl parathion.


Subject(s)
Methyl Parathion/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Organophosphorus Compounds , Escherichia coli/genetics , Soil , Farms , Biosensing Techniques
6.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 910-916, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013196

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the poisonous substances and geographical distribution of poisoning in children in China. Methods: A cross-sectional study. The clinical data of 8 385 hospitalized children from January 2016 to December 2020 were extracted from the FUTang Updating Medical Records database. These children aged 0 to 18 years and were admitted due to poisoning. They were grouped according to age (newborns and infants, toddlers, preschoolers, school-age children, adolescents), place of residence (Northeast China, North China, Central China, East China, South China, Southwest China, Northwest China), and mode of discharge (discharge under medical advice, transfer to another hospital under medical advice, discharge without medical advice, death, other). The poisonous substance and causes of poisoning in different groups were analyzed. Results: Among these 8 385 children, 4 734 (56.5%) were male and 3 651 (43.5%) female, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3∶1. The age was 3 (2, 7) years. The prevalence of poisoning was 51.8% (4 343/8 385) in toddlers, 16.5% (1 380/8 385) in adolescents, 14.8% (1 242/8 385) in preschoolers, 14.4% (1 206/8 385) in school-age children, and 2.5% (214/8 385) in newborns and infants. Drug poisoning accounted for 43.5% (3 649/8 385) and pesticide accounted for 26.8% (2 249/8 385). Drug poisoning was more common in adolescents (684/1 380, 49.6%) and toddlers (2 041/4 343, 47.0%); non-drug poisoning was more common in school-age children (891/1 206, 73.9%), of which carbon monoxide was mainly in newborns and infants (41/214, 19.2%) and food poisoning in children of school age (241/1 206, 20.0%). Regarding regional characteristics, drug poisoning was more frequent in South China (188/246, 64.2%) and non-drug poisoning was more frequent in Southwest China (815/1 123, 72.5%). For drugs, anti-epileptic drugs, sedative-hypnotic drugs and anti-Parkinson's disease drugs had a higher proportion of poisoning in North China (138/1 034, 13.0%) than that in other regions. For non-drug poisoning, pesticides (375/1 123, 33.3%), food poisoning (209/1 123, 18.6%) and contact with poisonous animals (86/1 123, 7.7%) were more common in Southwest China than in other regions; carbon monoxide poisoning was more common in North China (81/1 034, 7.6%) and Northwest China (65/1 064, 6.3%). In Central China, poisoning happened more in toddlers (792/1 295, 61.2%) and less in adolescents (115/1 295, 8.8%) than in other regions. Regarding different age groups, poisoning in adolescent happened more in Northeast China (121/457, 26.5%), North China (240/1 034, 23.2%), and Northwest China (245/1 064, 23.0%). The rate of discharge under medical advice, discharge without medical advice, and mortality rate within the 5 years were 77.0% (6 458/8 385), 20.8% (1 743/8 385), 0.5% (40/8 385), respectively. Conclusions: Poisoning is more common in male and toddlers. Poisonous substances show a regional characteristic and vary in different age groups, with drugs and insecticides as the most common substances.


Subject(s)
Infant , Adolescent , Animals , Child , Male , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Female , Child, Hospitalized , Cross-Sectional Studies , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/epidemiology , Pesticides , Foodborne Diseases , Hospitals , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , China/epidemiology
7.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 549-551, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986068

ABSTRACT

The data of a patient with carbamate pesticide poisoning were analyzed. Cardiac arrest, oliguria, acute renal injury and pulmonary infection occurred during treatment. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, tracheal intubation, CRRT, anti-infection and other symptomatic support treatment, the patient recovered and discharged. The myocardial damage caused by carbamate pesticide poisoning is easy to be ignored, and it often causes cardiac manifestations such as arrhythmia and cardiac insufficiency, and the related markers of cardiac injury, electrocardiogram and echocardiogram are also changed. Therefore, the awareness of cardiac damage caused by carbamate pesticide poisoning should be improved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides , Carbamates , Heart Arrest , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Poisoning/therapy , Organophosphate Poisoning
8.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 451-456, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986049

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the present situation and epidemiological characteristics of pesticide poisoning in Chengdu City from 2012 to 2021, and to provide scientific evidence for further prevention and control. Methods: In January 2022, the pesticide poisoning report cards of Chengdu City from 2012 to 2021 were collected from the China Disease Control and Prevention Information System. The data of the report card was reorganized and the distribution characteristics of pesticide poisoning such as time, region, gender, age and pesticide types were analyzed. Results: 14326 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Chengdu City from 2012 to 2021, 651 deaths, and the fatality rate was 4.54%. The cases of productive pesticide poisoning and unproductive pesticide poisoning were 504 and 13822, respectively. The fatality rates of productive and unproductive pesticide poisoning were 1.39% and 4.66%, which were significant different (χ(2)=11.99, P=0.001). The highest reported cases of pesticide poisoning was in 2013 (1779) and the lowest in 2021 (1047). The number of reported cases showed a downward trend year by year (t=-12.30, P<0.001), and the fatality rates also showed a downward trend year by year (χ(2)(trend)=25.48, P<0.001). The fluctuation range of unproductive pesticide poisoning cases in each month of the year was small, and the productive pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from May to August. The regions with the largest number of reported poisoning cases were Pengzhou (1620), Jianyang (1393), Jintang (1266) and Qionglai (1158). The high incidence of poisoning was among 25-54 years old (50.21%, 7193/14326). The fatality rate in the age group 75-96 years old was the highest (8.98%, 95/1058), and the fatality rates increased gradually with age (χ(2)(trend)=186.03, P<0.001). The pesticides causing poisoning were mainly insecticide (43.86%, 6284/14326) and herbicides (35.75%, 5121/14326). Herbicides paraquat had the highest fatality rate (9.54%, 286/2998) . Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning in Chengdu City is mainly unproductive poisoning. Health education should be carried out for key areas and people, and the control of highly toxic pesticides such as insecticide and herbicides should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adult , Middle Aged , Insecticides , Pesticides , Herbicides , Paraquat , Cities , Poisoning/epidemiology
9.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 741-746, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985451

ABSTRACT

In 2021, a total of 151 pregnant women were selected from the suburb of Shanghai. A questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain data about maternal age, gestational week, total annual household income, education level and passive smoking among pregnant women and one spot urine was collected. The concentrations of eight neonicotinoid pesticides and four metabolites in urine were measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The differences in detection frequencies and concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides and their metabolites among pregnant women with different characteristics were compared, and the influencing factors of the detection of neonicotinoid pesticides in urine were analyzed. The results showed that at least one neonicotinoid pesticide was detected in 93.4% (141 samples) of urine samples. The detection frequencies of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and N-desmethyl-clothianidin were high, about 78.1% (118 samples), 75.5% (114 samples), 68.9% (104 samples), and 44.4% (67 samples), respectively. The median concentration of the sum of all neonicotinoid pesticides was 2.66 μg/g. N-desmethyl-acetamiprid had the highest detection concentration with a median concentration of 1.04 μg/g. A lower urinary detection frequency of imidacloprid and its metabolites was seen in pregnant women aged 30-44 years [OR (95%CI): 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. A higher detection frequency of clothianidin and its metabolites was seen in pregnant women with per capita annual household income≥100 000 yuan [OR (95%CI): 6.15 (1.56-24.28)]. There was widespread exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides and their metabolites in pregnant women from the suburb of Shanghai, which might pose potential health risks to pregnant women, and maternal age and household income were potential influencing factors of the exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pesticides/analysis , Pregnant Women , China , Neonicotinoids/analysis , Insecticides
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248910, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339342

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study determines the associations among serum lipid profiles, risk of cardiovascular disease, and persistent organic pollutants. Using Gas chromatography technique, the intensity of toxic pollutant residues in serum samples of Hypertensive patients were measured. Based on statistical analysis, the effects of different covariates namely pesticides, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lipid profile duration was checked using the logistic regression model. Statistical computation was performed on SPSS 22.0. The P-values of F-Statistic for each lipid profile class are greater than 0.01 (1%), therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis for all cases. The estimated coefficients, their standard errors, Wald Statistic, and odds ratio of the binary logistic regression model for different lipid profile parameters indicate if pesticides increase then the logit value of different lipid profile parameters changes from -0.46 to -0.246 except LDL which increases by 0.135. The study reports a significantly increased threat of cardiovascular disease with increased concentrations of toxic pollutants.


Resumo Este estudo determina as associações entre o perfil lipídico sérico, o risco de doença cardiovascular e os poluentes orgânicos persistentes. Por meio da técnica de cromatografia gasosa, mediu-se a intensidade dos resíduos de poluentes tóxicos em amostras de soro de pacientes hipertensos. Com base na análise estatística, os efeitos de diferentes covariáveis ​​- ou seja, pesticidas, idade, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica e duração do perfil lipídico - foram verificados usando o modelo de regressão logística. O cálculo estatístico foi realizado no SPSS 22.0. Os valores P da estatística F para cada classe de perfil lipídico são maiores que 0,01 (1%), portanto não podemos rejeitar a hipótese nula para todos os casos. Os coeficientes estimados, seus erros padrão, estatística de Wald e odds ratio do modelo de regressão logística binária para diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico indicam se os pesticidas aumentam, então o valor logit de diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico muda de -0,46 para -0,246, exceto LDL, que aumenta em 0,135. O estudo relata um aumento significativo da ameaça de doença cardiovascular com aumento das concentrações de poluentes tóxicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides , Environmental Pollutants , Persistent Organic Pollutants , Lipids , Lipoproteins
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248842, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339343

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Resumo Os níveis de atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) podem ser usados ​​como um indicador para a inibição da AChE devido ao envenenamento por pesticidas em espécies de aves. Avaliamos o nível de atividade comparativa da colinesterase cerebral (AChE) de cinco espécies de aves que habitam áreas cultivadas expostas a pesticidas e Área Protegida, ou seja, Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber, usando um método espectrofotométrico. Os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 56,3 a 85,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando DVNP. No entanto, os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 27,6 a 79,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando áreas de cultivo. Os níveis de atividade de AChE observados no tagarela da selva, tagarela comum e bulbul vermelho exalado mostraram diferenças significativas (P < 0,05) em dois locais. No entanto, alvéola branca e drongo preto demonstraram diferenças não significativas (P > 0,05). A inibição máxima foi registrada no tagarela da selva (53%), seguido pelo tagarela comum (35%), bulbul vermelho (18%), alvéola branca (15%) e drongo preto (7%). Os níveis de inibição da colinesterase cerebral nos ecossistemas subprotegidos (DVNP, Bhimber) e na paisagem agrícola sugerem contaminação por inseticida e seu impacto na diversidade da avifauna. O estudo também enfatiza a importância das zonas livres de pesticidas para proteger a biodiversidade das aves.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pesticides/toxicity , Pakistan , Acetylcholinesterase , Birds , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/toxicity , Ecosystem , Crops, Agricultural
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. map, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468925

ABSTRACT

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Os níveis de atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) podem ser usados como um indicador para a inibição da AChE devido ao envenenamento por pesticidas em espécies de aves. Avaliamos o nível de atividade comparativa da colinesterase cerebral (AChE) de cinco espécies de aves que habitam áreas cultivadas expostas a pesticidas e Área Protegida, ou seja, Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber, usando um método espectrofotométrico. Os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 56,3 a 85,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando DVNP. No entanto, os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 27,6 a 79,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando áreas de cultivo. Os níveis de atividade de AChE observados no tagarela da selva, tagarela comum e bulbul vermelho exalado mostraram diferenças significativas (P 0,05). A inibição máxima foi registrada no tagarela da selva (53%), seguido pelo tagarela comum (35%), bulbul vermelho (18%), alvéola branca (15%) e drongo preto (7%). Os níveis de inibição da colinesterase cerebral nos ecossistemas subprotegidos (DVNP, Bhimber) e na paisagem agrícola sugerem contaminação por inseticida e seu impacto na diversidade da avifauna. O estudo também enfatiza a importância das zonas livres de pesticidas para proteger a biodiversidade das aves.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acetylcholinesterase/deficiency , Bird Diseases/diagnosis , Bird Diseases/chemically induced , Pesticides/poisoning
13.
J. Health NPEPS ; 7(2): 1-21, jul - dez, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1425080

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a prevalência e os efeitos da exposição aos agrotóxicos sobre a ocorrência de desfechos gestacionais adversos. Método: estudo transversal de base populacional, constituído de 275 mulheres selecionadas a partir das áreas de cobertura das Estratégia da Saúde da Família, com idade igual ou maior que 18 anos. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio da aplicação de um questionário estruturado, construído a partir da junção e adaptação de dois instrumentos validados, sendo um de condições de saúde autorreferida e um questionário de identificação do perfil de exposição familiar aos agrotóxicos. A análise de dados se deu por meio de análise bivariada, estratificada e regressão multivariada de Poisson. Resultados: houve uma incidência de aborto e natimortos de 20,73% na amostra, cujas variáveis associadas a estes desfechos de gravidez foram, contato atual com agrotóxicos, intoxicação prévia pelos agroquímicos e cor não branca, sendo observado a interação entre as mulheres que lavam roupas utilizadas na manipulação de agrotóxicos. Conclusão: há evidências de que a exposição materna a agrotóxicosse encontrapossivelmente associada a maior ocorrência de óbito fetal (aborto e natimorto).


Objective: to analyzethe prevalence and effects of exposure to pesticides on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Method: population-based cross-sectional study, consisting of 275 women selected from the areas covered by the Family Health Strategy, aged 18 years or older. Data collection took place through the application of a structured questionnaire, constructed from the combination and adaptation of two validated instruments, one of which is self-reported health conditions and a questionnaire to identify the profile of family exposure to pesticides. Data analysis was performed using bivariate and stratified analysis and multivariate Poisson regression. Results: there was an incidence of miscarriage and stillbirths of 20.73% in the sample, whose variables associated with these pregnancy outcomes were current contact with pesticides, previous intoxication by agrochemicals and non-white color, observing the interaction between women who wash clothes used in handling pesticides. Conclusion: there is evidence that maternal exposure to pesticides is possibly associated with a higher occurrence of fetal death (abortion and stillbirth).


Objetivo: analizar la prevalencia y los efectos de la exposición a plaguicidas en la ocurrencia de resultados adversos del embarazo. Método: estudio transversal de base poblacional, compuesto por 275 mujeres seleccionadas de las áreas de cobertura de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia, con edad igual o superior a 18 años. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario estructurado, construido a partir de la combinación y adaptación de dos instrumentos validados, uno de los cuales es el autoinforme de condiciones de salud y un cuestionario para identificar el perfil de exposición familiar a plaguicidas. El análisis de datos se realizó mediante análisis bivariado y estratificado y regresión de Poisson multivariada. Resultados: hubo una incidencia de abortos y mortinatos de 20,73% en la muestra, cuyas variables asociadas a estos desenlaces de embarazos fueron contacto actual con plaguicidas, intoxicaciones previas por agroquímicos y color no blanco, observándose la interacción entre mujeres que lavan ropa usada en manejo de pesticidas. Conclusión: existe evidencia de que la exposición materna a pesticidas posiblemente esté asociada con una mayor ocurrencia de muerte fetal (aborto y muerte fetal).


Subject(s)
Pesticides , Pregnancy , Maternal Exposure
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(3): 479-491, jul.-set. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403600

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El herbicida paraquat constituye la primera causa de decesos por intoxicaciones en distintos países. Objetivo. Relacionar las características sociodemográficas y clínicas con la condición final de pacientes intoxicados por paraquat atendidos en un hospital del suroccidente de Colombia. Materiales y métodos. En este estudio observacional, descriptivo, analítico, transversal y retrospectivo, se revisaron las historias clínicas de pacientes atendidos por intoxicación con paraquat en una institución de tercer nivel de complejidad en Pasto (Colombia) entre el 2013 y el 2018. Se recolectó la información sobre la condición final (vivo o fallecido) de cada paciente, así como los datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y de los exámenes paraclínicos. Se establecieron comparaciones por grupos y se diseñó un modelo de regresión logística binaria. Resultados. Se filtró la información de 299 registros y se analizaron finalmente 160 casos. Las características relacionadas con la condición final de los pacientes fueron el tiempo de estancia (OR=0,124; IC95% 0,03-0,6; p=0,009), la frecuencia cardiaca (OR=35,65; IC95% 1,44-884,78; p=0,029) y la creatinina inicial (OR=1,73; IC95% 1,23-2,44; p=0,002). Conclusiones. La proporción de la letalidad fue mayor entre los pacientes con estancia hospitalaria corta, taquicardia y elevación de la concentración sérica de creatinina al ingreso. Este reporte puede ser útil como fundamento de una escala de gravedad para detectar a los pacientes con resultados adversos en la fase temprana para que puedan recibir una intervención oportuna.


Introduction: Paraquat is an agrochemical that constitutes the first cause of death by poisoning in different countries. Objective: To relate sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with the final condition of patients intoxicated by paraquat in a hospital in southwestern Colombia. Materials and methods: This was an observational, descriptive, analytical, crosssectional, and retrospective study. We reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with paraquat poisoning at a level III hospital in Pasto, Colombia, from 2013 to 2018. We collected the data regarding their final condition (alive or deceased) and their sociodemographic, clinical, and paraclinical information. We established group comparisons and designed a binary logistic regression model. Results: We reviewed 299 records and, after the exclusion, we analyzed 160 cases. The characteristics related to the final condition of the patients were length of stay (OR = 0.124; 95% CI: 0.03-0.6; p = 0.009), heart rate (OR = 35.65; 95% CI: 1.44-884.78; p = 0.029), and initial creatinine (OR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.23-2.44; p = 0.002). Conclusion: The proportion of case fatality was higher in patients with short hospital stay times and elevated heart rates and admission creatinine levels. This report may be useful as a rationale for the creation of a severity scale for the early detection of patients with adverse outcomes and their timely treatment.


Subject(s)
Paraquat , Poisoning , Pesticides , Mortality , Creatinine , Herbicides
15.
Med. UIS ; 35(2): e200, mayo-ago. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422042

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las prácticas de uso por parte de pequeños agricultores en zonas rurales empobrecidas se relacionan con riesgo alto ocupacional y paraocupacional de exposición a plaguicidas. Objetivo: Describir las características de los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de uso de plaguicidas por agricultores en una zona rural de Copán Ruinas, Honduras. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, llevado a cabo en Copán Ruinas, Honduras, C.A, 2019, incluyó 81 agricultores (n=81) mayores de 18 años procedentes de tres comunidades rurales contiguas. Resultados: Los agricultores entrevistados refieren capacitación 3.7% (3/81), almacenan plaguicida en el hogar 39.5% (32/81), manipulan veneno sin guantes 30.9% (26/81), eliminan residuos en el ambiente 19.8% (16/81), lavan equipo en hogar 27.2% (22/81). Un agricultor (1.2%, 1/81) refirió conocer el significado de los colores en las etiquetas. Discusión: el bajo nivel de escolaridad podría ser la causa de bajo porcentaje de conocimiento con respecto al riesgo de exposición a plaguicidas. Coincide con otros autores, la actitud positiva del agricultor hacia la prevención de riesgo. Algunas prácticas referidas por los agricultores inducen riesgo de exposición paraocupacional, coincidiendo con lo reportado en la literatura. Conclusión: El bajo porcentaje de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en el uso de plaguicidas por los agricultores de la zona rural evaluada coincide con lo reportado por la literatura regional y latinoamericana, posiblemente asociada a un contexto de bajo nivel socioeconómico que conlleva baja capacidad de inversión en prevención y que podría ser una causa importante que contribuye al riesgo de exposición ocupacional y paraocupacional por uso de plaguicidas.


Abstract Introduction: Use practices by small farmers in impoverished rural areas are related to high occupational and para-occupational risk of exposure to pesticides. Objective: To describe the characteristics of the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pesticide use by farmers in a rural area of Copán Ruinas, Honduras. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study, carried out in Copán Ruinas, Honduras, C.A. 2019, it included 81 farmers (n = 81) older than 18 years from three contiguous rural communities. Results: Only 3.7% of the farmers referred training, 39.5% (32/81) store pesticide at home, 30.9% handle poison without gloves, 19.8% (16/81) eliminate waste in the environment, 27.2%, 22/81) wash equipment at home. One farmer (1.2%, 1/81) reported knowing the meaning of the colors on the labels. Discussion: The very low level of schooling could be the cause of low percentage of knowledge regarding the risk of exposure to pesticides. The positive attitude of the farmer towards risk prevention coincides with other authors. Some practices referred by farmers induce risk of para-occupational exposure, coinciding with what has been reported in the literature. Conclusion: The low percentage of knowledge, attitude and practices in the use of pesticides by farmers in rural areas evaluated coincide with that reported by regional and Latin American literature, possibly associated with a context of low socioeconomic level that entails low investment capacity in prevention and that could be an important cause that contributes to the risk of occupational and para-occupational exposure due to the use of pesticides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pesticides , Farmers , Occupational Exposure , Agricultural Workers' Diseases
16.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 7-11, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988132

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The objective of our study was to determine the genotype frequencies of CYP2C19*2 and *3 gene polymorphisms among Javanese farmers exposed to chlorpyrifos (CPF) in Central Java, Indonesia. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study was conducted from July to October 2020 in Central Java, Indonesia, involving 151 vegetable farmers aged 18-65 years who used CPF for at least one year. CYP2C19*2 and *3 gene polymorphisms were analyzed using PCR-RFLP. Direct calculations were applied to calculate allele and genotype frequencies. The difference in genotype frequencies among the sex and cumulative exposure level (CEL) group was performed using the Chi-square test. In contrast, the proportion difference of allele frequencies was analyzed using Z-test. @*Results@#The frequency of CYP2C19 genotypes *1/*1, *1/*3, *1/*2, and *2/*2 were 64 %, 7 %, 23 % and 6 %. We observed no significant difference in the genotype distribution according to sex group and CEL group. @*Conclusion@#In summary, the prevalence of toxicologically relevant CYP2C19 polymorphisms was determined in the Javanese agricultural population. The CYP2C19 genotype may be helpful as an essential biomarker of genetic susceptibility towards CPF exposure. Nevertheless, further studies to confirm the role of CYP2C19 in this context are still needed.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , Pesticides
17.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 208-212, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935777

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characterist ics and risk factors of hemorrhage complicated by hemoperfusion therapy in patients with acute poisoning. Methods: In January 2021, the clinical data of 196 patients with acute poisoning who received hemoperfusion therapy in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Military Medical University from January 2018 to December 2020 were analyzed, and the patients were divided into bleeding group and non-bleeding group according to whether the patients were complicated with bleeding. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the independent risk factors for hemorrhage in patients treated with hemoperfusion. Results: A total of 21 patients in the bleeding group and 175 patients in the non-bleeding group were included. There was no significant difference in general data such as gender, age, and body mass index between the two groups (P>0.05) . Organophosphorus pesticides (χ(2)= 4.56, P=0.030) , HA230 perfusion device (χ(2)=4.12, P=0.042) , platelet count (t=-2.33, P=0.009) and activated partial thromboplastin time (t=14.53, P<0.001) at 2 h of perfusion were the influencing factors of hemorrhage in patients with acute poisoning treated with hemoperfusion. Among them, organophosphorus pesticides, 2 h perfusion activated partial thromboplastin time ≥35 s and other factors were independent risk factors forcomplicated bleeding (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Patients with acute poisoning, especially organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, are at greater risk of bleeding during hemoperfusion therapy. Monitoring of changes in activated partial thromboplastin time should be strengthened and the dose of anticoagulants should be adjusted in time to reduce the risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemoperfusion , Hemorrhage/therapy , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticides , Poisoning/therapy , Risk Factors
18.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 24-27, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935736

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of pesticides and herbicides on lipid metabolism. Methods: In November 2020, Based on the data of the national health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) (2011-2014) , select the population aged 20~65 who have demographic information, pesticide use and data of four lipid metabolism indicators [total cholesterol (TC) , triglyceride (TG) , high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) ] (n=3039) . The subjects were divided into insecticide group (320 people) and non insecticide group (2719) according to the use of insecticides, and herbicide group (156 people) and non herbicide group according to the use of herbicides. Results: Among the 3039 subjects, the males and female were 1509 (49.7%) and 1530 (50.3%) respectively. The males age was (39.7±12.0) years and the females age was (40.2±12.0) years The concentration of HDLC in the NHANES (55.4±15.0) mg/dl was lower than that of (58.2±14.2) mg/dL in the non herbicide group (P<0.05) (b=-0.044, P<0.05) . The results showed that the use of herbicides was related to the decrease of HDLC and the increase of LDLC and LDLC/HDLC in female population (b=-0.050, 0.062, 0.067, all P<0.05) . Conclusion: Herbicide exposure can cause the change of lipid metabolism, and the effect on female population is more obvious.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Lipid Metabolism , Nutrition Surveys , Pesticides
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 513-531, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939859

ABSTRACT

The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a destructive pest native to America and has recently become an invasive insect pest in China. Because of its rapid spread and great risks in China, understanding of FAW genetic background and pesticide resistance is urgent and essential to develop effective management strategies. Here, we assembled a chromosome-level genome of a male FAW (SFynMstLFR) and compared re-sequencing results of the populations from America, Africa, and China. Strain identification of 163 individuals collected from America, Africa and China showed that both C and R strains were found in the American populations, while only C strain was found in the Chinese and African populations. Moreover, population genomics analysis showed that populations from Africa and China have close relationship with significantly genetic differentiation from American populations. Taken together, FAWs invaded into China were most likely originated from Africa. Comparative genomics analysis displayed that the cytochrome p450 gene family is extremely expanded to 425 members in FAW, of which 283 genes are specific to FAW. Treatments of Chinese populations with twenty-three pesticides showed the variant patterns of transcriptome profiles, and several detoxification genes such as AOX, UGT and GST specially responded to the pesticides. These findings will be useful in developing effective strategies for management of FAW in China and other invaded areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , China , Genomics , Pesticides , Spodoptera/genetics , Transcriptome
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1453-1458, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928074

ABSTRACT

Lonicera Japonica Flos is the dried bud or nascent flower of Lonicera japonica(Caprifoliaceae). The plant suffers from various diseases and pests in the growth period and thus pesticides are often used. As a result, the resultant pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos have aroused great concern. This review summarized the investigation, detection methods, content analysis, and risk assessment of pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos since 1996, and compared the maximum residue limits among different countries and regions. The results showed that the pesticide residues were detected in Lonicera Japonica Flos from different production areas, and only some exceeded the limits. The residual pesticides have changed from organochlorines to new types such as tebuconazole and nitenpyram. The detection method has upgraded from chromatography to chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most pesticide residues will not cause health risks, except carbofuran. Pesticide residues limit the development of Lonicera Japonica Flos industry in China. In practice, we should improve the drug registration of Lonicera Japonica Flos, promote ecological prevention and control technology, and formulate and promote pesticide residue limit standard of Lonicera Japonica Flos.


Subject(s)
Flowers/chemistry , Lonicera/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis
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