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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928074

ABSTRACT

Lonicera Japonica Flos is the dried bud or nascent flower of Lonicera japonica(Caprifoliaceae). The plant suffers from various diseases and pests in the growth period and thus pesticides are often used. As a result, the resultant pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos have aroused great concern. This review summarized the investigation, detection methods, content analysis, and risk assessment of pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos since 1996, and compared the maximum residue limits among different countries and regions. The results showed that the pesticide residues were detected in Lonicera Japonica Flos from different production areas, and only some exceeded the limits. The residual pesticides have changed from organochlorines to new types such as tebuconazole and nitenpyram. The detection method has upgraded from chromatography to chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most pesticide residues will not cause health risks, except carbofuran. Pesticide residues limit the development of Lonicera Japonica Flos industry in China. In practice, we should improve the drug registration of Lonicera Japonica Flos, promote ecological prevention and control technology, and formulate and promote pesticide residue limit standard of Lonicera Japonica Flos.


Subject(s)
Flowers/chemistry , Lonicera/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928072

ABSTRACT

Panax notoginseng is a perennial Chinese medicinal plant, which has serious continuous cropping obstacles and is prone to a variety of diseases and insect pests during the growth process. At present, the prevention and control of pests and diseases is mainly carried out through chemical pesticides, and the consequent pesticide residues of P. notoginseng have attracted much attention. This study reviewed the types and detection methods of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng from 1981 to 2021, and compared the limits of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng in China and abroad to provide a reference for rational application of pesticides in P. notoginseng and quality control of medicinal materials, thereby promoting the sustainable development of the P. notoginseng industry in China. Currently, there are only 40 published papers on pesticide residues of P. notoginseng, which is indicative of a serious problem of insufficient research. At present, hundreds of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng can be detected simultaneously by using chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pesticides detected have gradually changed from early prohibited ones, such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane(DDT), benzene hexachloride(BHC), and parathion, to low toxic ones(e.g., dimethomorph, procymidone, propicona-zole, and difenoconazole). The dietary risk from pesticide residues in P. notoginseng is low, which would not cause harm to consu-mers. This study concluded that in the future, the development of the quality standard for pesticide residues of P. notoginseng should be actively carried out. To increase the pesticides used in actual production in the quality standard based on the existing ones and to guide farmers to use pesticides scientifically will be the focus of future work.


Subject(s)
China , Panax notoginseng , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Plants, Medicinal
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928070

ABSTRACT

Panax ginseng, a perennial herb, is prone to diseases and insect pests in the growth process, which are primarily prevented and treated by pesticides. However, due to the lack of standardization in the types, frequencies, and doses of pesticides, pesticide residues have become the main exogenous pollutants of P. ginseng. To explore the risk of pesticide residues in P. ginseng, this paper summarized and analyzed the common pesticide residues in P. ginseng, detection techniques, and pesticide residue limit stan-dards based on the published literature in recent years. The results revealed that the main pesticide residues in P. ginseng were organochlorine pesticides, such as tetrachloronitrobenzene, pentachloronitrobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene, and the detection techniques were dominated by gas chromatography(GC), liquid chromatography(LC), or those combined with mass spectrometry(MS). Because of the long half-life and difficulty in degradation, organochlorine pesticides have become the main factor affecting the export of P. ginseng. It is worth mentioning that P. ginseng has been classified as food in Japan, South Korea, the European Union, and other countries, and the standards of pesticide residues and limits are stricter than those in China. The quality and safety of P. ginseng are prerequisites for the efficacy of Chinese medicine and the development of traditional Chinese medicine. The formulation of scientific and effective standards for pesticide application and limits would promote the high-quality development of the P. ginseng industry.


Subject(s)
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/analysis , Panax/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928069

ABSTRACT

The present study counted the frequency of detection technologies and monitoring frequency of pesticide species by frequency analysis based on the 28 258 pieces of data on pesticide content of Chinese medicinal materials in CNKI, calculated the detection rate and exceeding rate of different types of pesticides, and systematically analyzed the pesticide residue pollution of Chinese medicinal materials. The results showed that there were 40 types of pesticides with detection rates higher than 10%, where new pesticides such as organochlorines and nicotine accounted for 55%, and organic phosphorus, pyrethroids, and carbamates accounted for 17.5%, 15.0%, and 12.5%, respectively. Seventeen types of pesticides exceeded the standard to varying degrees, including 12 types(70.59%) with exceeding rates not higher than 5%, four types(23.53%) with exceeding rates in the range of 5%-10%, and one type(5.88%) with an exceeding rate higher than 10%. As revealed by the analysis results of the past five years, the pesticide residue pollution of Chinese medicinal materials showed a downward trend. Compared with the conditions at worst, organochlorines decreased by about 2/3 in detection rate and 47.23% in exceeding rate, carbamates by about 1/2 in detection rate and 10.78% in exceeding rate, organic phosphorus by 3/4 in detection rate and 7.22% in exceeding rate, pyrethroids by 1/2 in detection rate and 11.05% in exceeding rate, and other types by about 1/2 in detection rate but not exceeded the standard. In general, pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal materials and safety have been significantly improved. However, pesticide residues are still important factors affecting the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials. It is suggested to further improve the control standards of pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal materials, strengthen the monitoring of pesticides used in practical production, and promote the ecological planting mode to facilitate the high-quality development of the Chinese medicinal material industry.


Subject(s)
China , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/analysis , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Pyrethrins/analysis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927943

ABSTRACT

A total of 33 pesticides have been banned from Chinese medicinal materials and decoction pieces(plants) according to Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). According to the chemical structures, they are mainly divided into seven categories: organophosphorus compounds, organochlorines, carbamates, amidines, sulfonylureas, phenylpyrazoles, and ethers. These banned pesticides exhibit neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, immune system toxicity, teratogenicity, carcinogenesis, and mutagenesis, seriously damaging human and animal health. They affect not only the quality and safety of traditional Chinese medicines and resulting products, but also their competitiveness in the international market. Due to the numerous varieties of traditional Chinese medicines and their complex substrates, it is necessary to establish a universal and highly sensitive method for pesticide residue detection. This review systematically summarized the residual status, toxicity, and analytical methods of banned pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines, and forecasted the prospects of different analytical techniques, so as to provide reference for further safety and risk assessment of banned pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicines, thus ensuring the safe production of traditional Chinese medicines.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(4): 1575-1584, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285907

ABSTRACT

Resumen El propósito de este artículo es analizar la exposición a plaguicidas y cuidados de la salud, en el contexto de las prácticas productivas y reproductivas de la vida cotidiana de horticultores del Cinturón Verde de Córdoba (CVCC), Argentina, desde los dominios individual, particular y general como marco comprensivo de los procesos de determinación de salud. Se implementó un estudio analítico explicativo que incluyó el uso de metodologías mixtas entre 2013 y 2017. Se efectuó un análisis de triangulación de resultados provenientes de las vertientes cuantitativas y cualitativas. Se observó que el Modelo Productivo Agrícola Dominante determina el deterioro de las condiciones productivas y la exposición a plaguicidas de la población hortícola del CVCC. Los deficientes sistemas de regulación del uso de la tierra, débil legislación y control acorde al contexto, por parte del Estado, inciden en la vida cotidiana y obturan las prácticas individuales protectoras de la salud de los horticultores.


Abstract This article aims to analyze health care and exposure to pesticides within the context of productive and reproductive practices or the everyday life of horticulturists in the Green Belt of the City of Cordoba (GBCC), Argentina, from the individual, particular and general domains as the comprehensive framework of health determining processes. An explanatory analytical study was implemented which included the use of mixed methodologies between 2013 and 2017. A triangulation analysis was carried out of the results of the quantitative and qualitative aspects. It was observed that the dominant agricultural productive model has determined the deterioration of the productive conditions and exposure to pesticides of the horticultural population of the GBCC. Deficient systems for regulating land use, weak legislation and control from the State in accordance with the context impact on everyday life and block the horticulturists' individual health protection practices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides/analysis , Pesticides/toxicity , Argentina , Cities , Delivery of Health Care , Horticulture
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921692

ABSTRACT

The medicinal plants with roots and rhizomes as the medicinal parts account for about 1/3 of Chinese medicinal herbs. Root and rhizome medicinal materials are widely used in clinical practice, whereas their wild resource reserves are insufficient to meet the market demand. With the expansion of planting areas, the formation of large-scale production areas, and the increase in planting years, diseases and insect pests of these medicinal plants, which are diverse and have broad transmission routes, strong concealment, and heavy damage, have become more and more serious. The prevention and control of these diseases and insect pests is characterized by multiple ways of pesticide application, large consumption of pesticides, susceptibility to soil barrier, difficulty in the control, and unstable control efficiency. Organophosphorus pesticides(OPPs) are widely used in the cultivation of Chinese medicinal plants because of their diverse varieties, broad-spectrum, good efficacy, and low residues, and have a positive effect on the yield and quality of Chinese medicinal materials. However, the abuse of OPPs not only increases the planting cost, but also affects the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal plants, the safety of clinical use of Chinese medicine, and the ecological safety of production areas. This paper reviewed the research and development progress of OPPs, the registration status of OPPs used in root and rhizome medicinal materials, residue limit standards, residue status, and rapid detection technology progress of OPPs. This review aims to provide research ideas and references for standardizing the use of OPPs in root and rhizome medicinal materials, reducing OPP residues, and establishing a fast, efficient, accurate, and reliable method for the detection of OPP residues in Chinese herbal medicine.


Subject(s)
Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Plants, Medicinal , Rhizome/chemistry
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 23(11): 3903-3911, Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974754

ABSTRACT

Abstract Farming is a risky occupation, especially family farming in developing country. The occupational hazards commonly used in such activity could affect all family members, including children and adolescents. This study describes the pattern of pesticide exposure among students and their families from a farming region located in Nova Friburgo, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sociodemographic characteristics, habits, working practices and the degree of exposure to pesticides were assessed by a questionnaire. Our study population consisted of students and family members of both sexes, aged between 6 and 85 years old (N = 352) being 167 women and 185 men. There was a predominance of participants between 10-19 years (71.3%), singles (77.5%), and most had not completed primary education (54.5%). In terms of occupation, 45.5% reported to be farmers and 39.6% were students. The variables mostly associated with pesticide exposure were sex (p < 0.001), educational level (p < 0.001), and being a farmer (p < 0.001). Our results showed that children and teenagers seemed to have the same degree of exposure to pesticides as the adults. Our findings also suggest that sex, occupation and educational level, despite teachers were included, are directly associated with degree of exposure.


Resumo Agricultura é uma ocupação de risco, principalmente a familiar em países em desenvolvimento. Os perigos ocupacionais comuns a essa atividade podem atingir a toda família, incluindo crianças e adolescentes. Este estudo descreve o padrão do uso de agrotóxicos entre estudantes e seus familiares em uma região agrícola localizada em Nova Friburgo, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Características sociodemográficas, hábitos, práticas de trabalho e grau de exposição a agrotóxicos foram adquiridas através do uso de questionário. Nossa população de estudo consistiu em estudantes e seus familiares de ambos os sexos, entre 6 e 85 anos de idade (N = 352) sendo 167 mulheres e 185 homens. Houve a predominância de participantes entre 10 - 19 anos (71,3%), solteiros (77,5%), e a maioria com o ensino fundamental incompleto (54,5%). Quanto à ocupação, 45,5% reportaram-se como agricultores e 39,6% como estudantes. As variáveis mais associadas à exposição a agrotóxicos foram sexo (p < 0,001), nível educacional (p < 0,001) e ser agricultor (p < 0,001). Nossos resultados mostraram que crianças e adolescentes parecem ter o mesmo grau de exposição a agrotóxicos que adultos. Nossos achados também sugerem que sexo, ocupação e nível educacional, incluindo professores, estão diretamente associados ao grau de exposição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pesticides/analysis , Family Health , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Health , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Factors , Agriculture , Educational Status , Middle Aged
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 22(10): 3281-3293, Out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890161

ABSTRACT

Resumo O uso de agrotóxicos na agricultura brasileira é um problema de saúde pública, dadas as contaminações no ambiente, em alimentos e as intoxicações na saúde humana. Objetivou-se apresentar a distribuição espacial da área plantada de lavouras, consumo de agrotóxicos e agravos à saúde relacionados, como estratégia de Vigilância em Saúde. Obteve-se dados de área plantada de 21 culturas predominantes, indicadores de consumo de agrotóxicos por hectare para cada cultura e agravos à saúde. Espacializou-se o consumo de agrotóxicos nos municípios brasileiros e correlacionou-se às incidências de intoxicações por agrotóxicos: aguda, subaguda e crônica. Constatou-se predomínio dos cultivos de soja, milho e cana, que juntos corresponderam a 76% da área plantada no Brasil em 2015. Pulverizou-se 899 milhões de litros de agrotóxicos nessas lavouras, com Mato Grosso, Paraná e Rio Grande Sul tendo utilizado as maiores quantidades. Os agravos à saúde apresentaram correlações positivas e significativas com o uso de agrotóxicos. A estratégia metodológica possibilitou identificar municípios prioritários para a Vigilância em Saúde e o desenvolvimento de ações intersetoriais de prevenção e mitigação dos impactos dos agrotóxicos na saúde e ambiente.


Abstract The intensive use of pesticides in Brazilian agriculture is a public health issue due to contamination of the environment, food and human health poisoning. The study aimed to show the spatial distribution of the planted area of agricultural crops, the use of pesticides and related health problems, as a Health Surveillance strategy. We obtained data from the planted area of 21 predominant crops, indicators of the consumption of pesticides per hectare for each crop and health problems. The amount of pesticides used in the Brazilian municipalities was spatially distributed and correlated with the incidence of pesticides poisoning: acute, sub-acute and chronic. There was a predominance of soybean, corn and sugar cane crops, which together accounted for 76% of the area planted in Brazil in 2015. Some 899 million liters of pesticides were sprayed in these crops, and Mato Grosso, Paraná and Rio Grande Sul used the largest quantities, respectively. The health problems showed positive and significant correlations with pesticide use. The methodological strategy facilitated the identification of priority municipalities for Health Surveillance and the development of intersectoral actions to prevent and mitigate the impacts of pesticides on health and the environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Environmental Health , Public Health , Pesticides/poisoning , Brazil/epidemiology , Agriculture/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 22(10): 3269-3280, Out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890166

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Brasil é o principal consumidor de agrotóxicos do mundo. O uso em larga escala destes produtos é capaz de contaminar os principais compartimentos ambientais e expor um maior número de pessoas a seus efeitos tóxicos. Portanto, realizou-se esta revisão de literatura com o objetivo de buscar subsídios para uma discussão qualificada sobre a atuação da Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental (VSA) no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde relacionada com a contaminação atmosférica por agrotóxicos e riscos à saúde. Doze artigos foram selecionados e analisados nesta revisão de literatura. Destes, apenas um foi publicado em periódico especializado na área da saúde pública. Apesar disso, dois estudos epidemiológicos publicados na área das ciências ambientais investigaram a associação entre o ar contaminado por agrotóxicos e desfechos específicos como, linfoma não Hodgkin (LNH) e esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA). Nossos achados refletem a carência de estudos abordando o tema pela saúde pública. A discussão sobre a contaminação atmosférica por agrotóxicos e riscos potenciais à saúde humana deve ser ampliada pela ciência brasileira, a fim de aprofundar o conhecimento sobre o assunto e respaldar a capacidade de atuação da VSA.


Abstract Brazil is the main consumer of pesticides in the world. Large-scale use of these products is likely to contaminate major environmental compartments and expose more people to their toxic effects. Therefore, this literature review was carried out to seek supporting elements for a qualified discussion about the performance of Environmental Surveillance (HS) within the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) related to air contamination by pesticides and health risks. Twelve papers were selected and analyzed in this literature review. Of these, only one was published in a specialized public health journal. Notwithstanding this, two epidemiological studies published in the field of environmental sciences investigated the association between air contaminated by pesticides and specific outcomes such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our findings reflect the lack of studies addressing such issue by public health. The discussion on air contamination by pesticides and potential risks to human health should be expanded by Brazilian science in order to further increase knowledge on the subject and support the HS performance capacity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides/toxicity , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis , Brazil , Environmental Health , Public Health , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , National Health Programs/organization & administration
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(3): 257-260, Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842063

ABSTRACT

Fipronil is a pesticide widely used for controlling fleas and ticks in domestic animals, and its short-term exposure can lead to serious effects on animals. However, the possible genotoxic effect of this compound has not been investigated in target animals. Based on the hypothesis that fipronil can induce genotoxicity, this study evaluated the effect of fipronil on DNA damage in peripheral blood cells. For that purpose, ten dogs of both sexes were used in the study. The product (6.7mg/kg) was applied on the dorsal neck region of each animal. Peripheral blood samples were collected immediately prior to application of the product, and at 3, 8 and 24 hours after the application. Samples were processed for comet assay. No statistically significant differences were found among the four time points. The current study suggests for the first time that a single exposure to this pesticide does not induce systemic genotoxic effect in dogs.(AU)


O fipronil é um inseticida/herbicida amplamente utilizado para controle de pulgas e carrapatos em animais domésticos. Sua exposição a curto prazo tem acarretado efeitos deletérios em animais. Entretanto, o possível efeito genotóxico deste composto ainda não foi investigado em animais alvo. Baseando-se na hipótese de que o fipronil pode induzir genotoxicidade, o presente estudo avaliou o efeito deletério do fipronil no material genético de células de sangue periférico. Para isso, dez cães sadios, de ambos os sexos, foram utilizados neste estudo. O produto (6,7mg/kg) foi aplicado na região dorsal do pescoço de cada animal. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas imediatamente antes da aplicação do produto (controle) e após três, oito e 24 horas da aplicação. As amostras foram imediatamente processadas para condução do teste do cometa, a fim de se avaliar os danos basais no DNA. Não houve diferença significativa entre os quatro momentos de coleta em relação aos danos no material genético. O estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, que uma exposição única a este pesticida não induz efeito genotóxico sistêmico em cães.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Genotoxicity/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Comet Assay/veterinary , DNA Damage
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(6): 1721-1726, nov.-dez. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827955

ABSTRACT

The present study attempted to identify climate conditions that are associated with the occurrence of pyrethroid residues using a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Minas Gerais State - Brazil and analyzed for seven analytes using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Of the 132 milk samples, pyrethroid residues were identified in 14 (10.6%) milk samples, of which 12 (9.1%) and two (1.5%) milk samples had the identification of cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. From those samples, nine (6.8%) milk samples were regarded as non-compliant for cypermethrin with this analyte concentration above the maximum residue limits set by Brazilian legislation. A PCA assessing pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk demonstrated that the average temperature and the Temperature-Humidity Index were associated with pyrethroids residues in bulk milk tank, although the relative humidity was inversely correlated. Thus, the data analysis indicated that the pyrethrid residues associated with some climate conditions can predict the moments with higher risk of occurrence of pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk.(AU)


O presente trabalho objetivou identificar fatores climáticos associados à ocorrência de resíduos de piretroides em amostras de leite de tanque por análise multivariada de componentes principais (ACP). Para o presente trabalho, 132 amostras de leite cru foram coletadas em fazendas leiteiras localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil) e analisadas por sete analitos por cromatografia gasosa com detector por captura de eletróns para detecção de resíduos de piretroides. Das 132 amostras de leite analisadas, a presença de resíduos de piretroides foi detectada em 14 amostras (10,6%), e em 12 (9,1%) e duas (1,5%) foram detectados cipermetrina e deltametrina, respectivamente. Destas amostras, em nove (6,8%) a concentração de cipermetrina encontrada foi maior que a permitida pela legislação brasileira. A ACP demonstrou que a presença de resíduos de piretroides no leite de tanque ocorreu menos frequentemente nos dias com maior umidade relativa, embora a presença desses resíduos estivesse associada a maior temperatura média e a maior índice de temperatura e umidade. Dessa forma, conclui-se que alguns índices climáticos podem predizer períodos com maior risco de ocorrência de resíduos de piretroides no leite de tanque.(AU)


Subject(s)
Drug Residues/analysis , Hot Temperature , Humidity , Milk/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis , Pyrethrins/analysis , Cattle
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(7): 490-497, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787266

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the contamination index of metals and pesticides in pregnant women, and to relate this to perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Descriptive, retrospective, exploratory study, developed from existing secondary data analyses at Level III maternity center. A total of 40 mothers with their newborns (NB), living in a rural area in Botucatu- Brazil and surrounding region. Blood samples from mothers and newborn were collected to determine the total contamination index for metals and pesticides. The concentrations of each metal and each pesticide were determined in blood samples of mothers and their newborns by Rudge's results. After obtaining these concentrations, the total contamination index in mother and NB was calculated, along with its correlation with clinical parameters of NB. RESULTS: There was no correlation (p> 0.05) between maternal contamination index with NB clinical parameters, and NB contamination index versus NB clinical parameters. CONCLUSION: The maternal contamination index of metals and pesticides was not related to perinatal outcomes, but it could be used as baseline parameter in future toxicological studies, regarding to long-term toxic characteristics as persistent organic pollutants, its long half-lives, bioacumulative, and expected to impose serious health effects on humans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Pesticides/blood , Birth Weight , Metals, Heavy/blood , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Pesticides/analysis , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Pregnancy , Hazardous Substances/analysis , Hazardous Substances/blood , Retrospective Studies , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Metals, Heavy/analysis
14.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 24(1): 48-57, jul. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-837853

ABSTRACT

Plottier y Senillosa son dos localidades contiguas que forman parte del área de producción agrícola del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén, Patagonia Norte. Entre los plaguicidas más utilizados predominan las familias de neonicotinoides, carbamatos y organofosforados. El conocimiento de los niveles de estos compuestos en aguas superficiales y subterráneas se ha convertido en un tema de interés social debido a su posible impacto en el ambiente y la salud. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar niveles de residuos de plaguicidas en agua subterránea utilizada para bebida en zonas rurales de Plottier y Senillosa. Se analizaron carbamatos: propoxur, carbofuran, pirimicarb, carbaril y organofosforados: clorpirifos, dimetoato, metidation, fenaminfos, triazofos, fosmet y metil azinfos, por cromatografía gaseosa (GC), en seis sitios de muestreo, durante la época de aplicación y no aplicación de insecticidas. No se detectaron residuos de los plaguicidas estudiados por el método analítico utilizado. El límite de detección fue 0,010 µg/L para organofosforados y 0,030 µg/L para carbamatos. Estos resultados indican que las buenas prácticas agrícolas aplicadas en la zona así como las características fsicoquímicas del suelo, su espesor y el contenido de materia orgánica y las propiedades fsicoquímicas de los plaguicidas estudiados son factores que contribuyen favorablemente a la calidad del agua de bebida de la población rural.


Plottier and Senillosa are two adjoining towns that belong to the agricultural production area of Upper Valley, Río Negro and Neuquén, North Patagonia. Among the most widely used pesticides, neonicotinoids, carbamates and organophosphates are predominant. The levels of these compounds in surface and groundwater have become a topic of public concern, since the possible impact on health and environment. The aim of this study was the determination of pesticide residue levels in drinking ground-water in the rural areas of Plottier and Senillosa. Carbamates: propoxur, carbofuran, pirimicarb, carbaryl and organophosphate: chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, methidathion, fenaminfos, triazophos, phosmet, azinphos methyl, were analyzed by GC in six sampling sites during insecticide application and non-application season. No pesticide residues were detected by the analytical method used. The detection limit for organophosphates was 0.010 µg/L and 0.030 µg/L for carbamates. These results indicate that good agricultural practices, the physicochemical characteristics of the soil, its thickness, the content of organic matter and the physicochemical properties of pesticides studied are factors that positively contribute to the drinking water quality in the rural population.


Subject(s)
Organophosphorus Compounds/isolation & purification , Pesticides/toxicity , Groundwater/analysis , Carbamates/isolation & purification , Carbamates/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis , Drinking Water , Chromatography, Gas/methods
15.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(2): 287-298, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794997

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Contact with the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT) can be the cause of various harmful effects in humans, wildlife, and the environment. This pesticide is known to be persistent, lipophilic, resistant to degradation, and bioaccumulive in the environment and to be slowly released into bloodstream. Growing evidence shows that exposure to DDT is linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. To evaluate these possible relationships, experiments were performed on eight-week-old female mice, divided into three groups (n = 10 per group): Group 1 received a vehicle-control intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sesame oil; Groups 2 and 3 received an i.p. dose of 50 and 100 µg/g p,p′-DDT respectively, dissolved in sesame oil. All groups were treated once daily for four days. Real-time PCR analysis of several genes was undertaken. Additionally, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were measured. NQO1, HMOX1, NR1I3 and NR3C1 were up-regulated in DDT-exposed animals compared to the vehicle control group, while only SREBP1 was down-regulated in the 100 µg/g group. MTTP and FABP5, not previously reported for DDT exposure, but involved in regulation of fatty acid fluxes, could also function as biomarkers cross-talking between these signaling pathways. These results suggest that beyond epidemiological data, there is increasing molecular evidence that DDT may mimic different processes involved in diabetes and insulin resistance pathways.


RESUMO O contato com o praguicida diclorodifeniltricloroetano (p, p'-DDT) pode ser a causa de vários efeitos nocivos sobre os seres humanos, animais silvestres e o meio ambiente. Sabe-se de sua característica de bioacumulação, ser altamente persistente no meio ambiente, lipofílico, resistente à degradação e lentamente liberado na corrente sanguínea. Existe uma evidência crescente de que a exposição ao DDT pode ser ligada a Diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Os indivíduos expostos a níveis elevados de DDT e seu metabólito apresentam maior prevalência de diabetes e resistência à insulina. A fim de obter informações sobre essas possíveis relações, camundongos fêmeas de oito semanas de idade foram divididos em três grupos (n = 10 por grupo): Grupo 1 recebeu um veículo de óleo de gergelim via i.p.; os Grupos 2 e 3 receberam, via i.p., 50 e 100 µg/g de p, p'-DDT, respectivamente, dissolvidos em óleo de gergelim. Todos os grupos foram tratados uma vez ao dia durante quatro dias. Além da análise de PCR em Tempo Real de vários genes, os parâmetros bioquímicos e alterações histopatológicas também foram medidos. A expressão gênica do mRNA dos genes NQO1, HMOX1, NR1I3 e NR3C1 foi maior nos animais expostos ao DDT, em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto a expressão gênica do SREBP1 diminuiu na concentração de 100 µg/g. Os genes MTTP e FABP5 envolvidos na regulação do fluxo de ácidos graxos, embora não estudados quanto à exposição ao DDT, também podem funcionar como biomarcadores de resposta cruzada entre essas vias de sinalização. Esses resultados sugerem que, além de dados epidemiológicos, há cada vez mais evidências moleculares de que o DDT poderia, de fato, imitar diferentes processos que envolvem as rotas de diabetes e de resistência à insulina.


Subject(s)
Mice , DDT/adverse effects , Liver , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin , Organic Pollutants , Pesticides/analysis
16.
Cad. saúde pública ; 30(5): 952-960, 05/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-711839

ABSTRACT

A quantificação da exposição dérmica a agrotóxicos, utilizada no processo de avaliação do risco à saúde de trabalhadores rurais, pode ser realizada usando-se diferentes metodologias, como patches ou corpo total. A existência de diversos métodos pode ser considerada uma limitação relacionada ao processo, já que podem não produzir resultados similares devido às diferenciações nos princípios envolvidos na coleta das amostras. Dessa maneira, realizou-se uma revisão crítica das principais metodologias utilizadas para a quantificação da exposição dérmica, com o objetivo de ressaltar a importância da discussão sobre o assunto e de evidenciar a necessidade de ações que contribuam para o estabelecimento de uma metodologia única para a quantificação da exposição dérmica de trabalhadores rurais. Entende-se que a harmonização das metodologias contribuirá para o alcance de condições mais seguras e saudáveis de trabalho, principalmente por possibilitar a obtenção de resultados mais confiáveis e, portanto, estabelecer, garantir e aprimorar o processo de prevenção de agravos à saúde do trabalhador.


Quantification of dermal exposure to pesticides in rural workers, used in risk assessment, can be performed with different techniques such as patches or whole body evaluation. However, the wide variety of methods can jeopardize the process by producing disparate results, depending on the principles in sample collection. A critical review was thus performed on the main techniques for quantifying dermal exposure, calling attention to this issue and the need to establish a single methodology for quantification of dermal exposure in rural workers. Such harmonization of different techniques should help achieve safer and healthier working conditions. Techniques that can provide reliable exposure data are an essential first step towards avoiding harm to workers’ health.


La cuantificación de la exposición cutánea a los pesticidas, utilizada en el proceso de evaluación del riesgo para la salud de los trabajadores rurales, se puede realizar a través de distintos métodos como parches o totalidad del cuerpo. La existencia de varios métodos puede ser considerada como una limitación relacionada con el proceso, ya que puede producir resultados distintos, debido a las diferencias en los principios implicados en la recogida de las muestras. Por lo tanto, se realizó una revisión crítica de las principales metodologías utilizadas para la cuantificación de la exposición cutánea, con la finalidad de destacar la importancia de la discusión sobre el tema y poner en evidencia la necesidad de acciones que contribuyan a la creación de una metodología única para la cuantificación de la exposición cutánea de los trabajadores rurales. Se entiende que la armonización de las metodologías contribuirá a la consecución de condiciones de trabajo más seguras y saludables, porque permite obtener resultados más fiables y, por lo tanto, asegurar y mejorar el proceso de prevención de daños a la salud de los trabajadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/prevention & control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Risk Assessment/methods , Brazil , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Occupational Health , Rural Population , Skin Absorption
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(1): 7-15, 01/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697552

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the possible potentiation of the carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet radiation associated with an organophosphate pesticide. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were assigned into four groups (n=10 each) randomized according to the procedures: group A received only UVR-B radiation; group B, UVR-B for eight weeks followed by a seven week period of pesticide exposure; group C, UVR-B + pesticide concomitantly: group D, only pesticide application. At the end of the fifth, tenth and fifteenth weeks the animals were photographed. Skin biopsy and histopathological study with Hematoxylin-Eosin were done on the fifteenth week. Statistical analysis with Fisher's and Sign (unilateral) tests, 5% value for significance. RESULTS: Macroscopic lesions in the group A evolved from the erythema to erythema + desquamation. The groups B and C, with the association of two carcinogens, and group D presented evolution to keratosis, with higher incidence in group D. The histology showed a significant increase in the severity of injuries when the UVR-B and the pesticide were applied simultaneously, leading to cellular atypia. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent association of UVR-B to organophosphate pesticide produced more severe lesions microscopically, although this has not been so apparent macroscopically. In daily practice the clinical evaluation should be complemented with laboratory evaluation. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Organophosphates/analysis , Skin/anatomy & histology , Pesticides/analysis , Solar Radiation/adverse effects , Wounds and Injuries , Neoplasms/pathology , Rats/classification
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110672

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and exposure to rural environments. Studies were identified through OVID MEDLINE and EMBASE search up to September 2013 using as keywords rural residence, farmers, and pesticide exposure. Twenty-two studies were included for this meta-analysis. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using random effect model by type of exposure index, and subgroup analyses were conducted according to study design, gender, region, case ascertainment, and exposure assessment. The risk of ALS was significantly increased with pesticide exposure (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.22-1.70) and with farmers (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73), but was not significant with rural residence (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.84-1.87). The risk estimates for subgroup analysis between pesticide exposure and ALS indicated a significant positive association with men (OR, 1.96), and in studies using El Escorial criteria for ALS definition (OR, 1.63) and expert judgment for pesticide exposure (OR, 2.04) as well. No significant publication bias was observed. Our findings support the association of pesticide exposure and an increased risk for ALS, stressing that the use of more specific exposure information resulted in more significant associations.


Subject(s)
Age Distribution , Agriculture/statistics & numerical data , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pesticides/analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 17(6): 1557-1568, jun. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-626679

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho objetivou analisar a contaminação de águas superficiais e de chuvas por agrotóxicos em dois municípios do estado do Mato Grosso, Lucas do Rio Verde e Campo Verde, situados entre os maiores produtores de soja, milho e algodão do estado e do país. A metodologia analítica combinou o uso de técnicas cromatográficas em amostras de água superficial e de chuva com análises ecotoxicológicas do impacto da contaminação por agrotóxicos sobre espécies bioindicadoras. Resultados das análises mostraram a presença de resíduos de diferentes agrotóxicos nas amostras de águas superficiais e de chuva coletadas nos dois municípios. Associados a estes dados, resultados das análises ecotoxicológicas mostraram a presença de anomalias em uma espécie de anfíbio anuro coletado em uma das duas localidades, compatíveis com exposição a agrotóxicos. Os resultados aqui apresentados e discutidos apontam para a degradação da qualidade de recursos hídricos da região, causada pelo uso intensivo de agrotóxicos na agricultura, incluindo fontes de água de consumo humano e de chuvas, amplificando o risco de contaminação para além das áreas de plantio.


This study sought to analyze groundwater and rainwater contamination by pesticides in two municipalities (Lucas do Rio Verde and Campo Verde) of Mato Grosso state. The area is Brazil's mid-west situated among the major soybean, corn and cotton producers in the state and the country. The analytical methodology combined chromatographic techniques on groundwater and rainwater samples with eco-toxicological analyses of the impacts of contamination by pesticide on bio-indicator species. The results revealed the presence of different pesticide residues in the groundwater and rainwater samples collected in the two municipalities. In conjunction with this data, results of the eco-toxicological tests revealed the presence of anomalies in a bio-indicator species collected in one of the two study sites compatible with exposure to pesticides. The results presented and discussed here highlight the degradation of water resources in the region, caused by the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture, including the contamination of drinking water sources and rain, broadening the risk of contamination beyond the cultivated areas.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Groundwater/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Rain/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollution, Chemical , Brazil
20.
Rev. bras. saúde ocup ; 37(125): 17-31, jan.-jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-643125

ABSTRACT

O modelo agrário hegemônico no Brasil está baseado em monocultivos para exportação que são intensivos em tecnologias mecanizadas e no uso de agrotóxicos. O país tornou-se o principal consumidor mundial de agrotóxicos e é avaliado como o mercado que mais crescerá num futuro próximo. Este trabalho teve como propósito fazer uma avaliação geral da relação entre o modelo agrário brasileiro e os impactos à saúde e ao ambiente decorrentes do uso de agrotóxicos e propor uma agenda de pesquisa para subsidiar o enfrentamento dos problemas apontados que integre os setores comprometidos com a defesa da saúde, do meio ambiente e da segurança e soberania alimentar. Constatou-se e discutiu-se a necessidade de: dar maior visibilidade aos efeitos e aos custos socioambientais e de saúde do modelo predominante; utilizar instrumentos econômicos para incentivar o uso de tecnologias mais limpas e modelos de produção mais saudáveis, compatíveis com a agricultura familiar, e para desestimular os modelos que oferecem mais riscos à saúde e ao ambiente; desenvolver e implementar políticas públicas baseadas em referenciais da economia ecológica e da agroecologia, com a participação de movimentos sociais, das instituições reguladoras e de grupos de pesquisa.


The hegemonic agrarian model in Brazil is based on crops for export that are intensive in mechanized technologies and in the use of pesticides. The country became the world largest pesticide consumer and is ranked as the market that will grow the most in the near future. The purpose of this article was to make a general assessment of the relationship between the Brazilian agrarian model and the impacts of pesticide use on health and environment. To confront these problems, we propose a research agenda that integrates the different sectors engaged in protecting health, environment, and also food safety and sovereignty. We evidenced and discussed the need to: give greater visibility to the impacts as well as socio-environmental and health costs of the predominant model, adopt economic instruments that will encourage the use of cleaner technologies and healthier production models compatible with family farming, discourage productive systems that offer more environmental and health risks, along with developing and implementing public policies based on advances in ecological economics and agroecology, with the participation of social movements, regulatory institutions, and research groups.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Ecology , Environmental Health , Public Policy , Pesticides/analysis , Pesticides/adverse effects
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