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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247604, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339370

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the current report, we studied the possible inhibitors of COVID-19 from bioactive constituents of Centaurea jacea using a threefold approach consisting of quantum chemical, molecular docking and molecular dynamic techniques. Centaurea jacea is a perennial herb often used in folk medicines of dermatological complaints and fever. Moreover, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties of its bioactive compounds are also reported. The Mpro (Main proteases) was docked with different compounds of Centaurea jacea through molecular docking. All the studied compounds including apigenin, axillarin, Centaureidin, Cirsiliol, Eupatorin and Isokaempferide, show suitable binding affinities to the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease with their binding energies -6.7 kcal/mol, -7.4 kcal/mol, -7.0 kcal/mol, -5.8 kcal/mol, -6.2 kcal/mol and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Among all studied compounds, axillarin was found to have maximum inhibitor efficiency followed by Centaureidin, Isokaempferide, Apigenin, Eupatorin and Cirsiliol. Our results suggested that axillarin binds with the most crucial catalytic residues CYS145 and HIS41 of the Mpro, moreover axillarin shows 5 hydrogen bond interactions and 5 hydrophobic interactions with various residues of Mpro. Furthermore, the molecular dynamic calculations over 60 ns (6×106 femtosecond) time scale also shown significant insights into the binding effects of axillarin with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by imitating protein like aqueous environment. From molecular dynamic calculations, the RMSD and RMSF computations indicate the stability and dynamics of the best docked complex in aqueous environment. The ADME properties and toxicity prediction analysis of axillarin also recommended it as safe drug candidate. Further, in vivo and in vitro investigations are essential to ensure the anti SARS-CoV-2 activity of all bioactive compounds particularly axillarin to encourage preventive use of Centaurea jacea against COVID-19 infections.


Resumo No presente relatório, estudamos os possíveis inibidores de Covid-19 de constituintes bioativos de Centaurea jacea usando uma abordagem tripla que consiste em técnicas de química quântica, docking molecular e dinâmica molecular. Centaurea jacea é uma erva perene frequentemente usada em remédios populares de doenças dermatológicas e febre. Além disso, as propriedades anticâncer, antioxidante, antibacteriana e antiviral de seus compostos bioativos também são relatadas. A Mpro (proteases principais) foi acoplada a diferentes compostos de Centaurea jacea por meio de docking molecular. Todos os compostos estudados, incluindo apigenina, axilarina, Centaureidina, Cirsiliol, Eupatorina e Isokaempferide, mostram afinidades de ligação adequadas ao sítio de ligação da protease principal SARS-CoV-2 com suas energias de ligação -6,7 kcal / mol, -7,4 kcal / mol, - 7,0 kcal / mol, -5,8 kcal / mol, -6,2 kcal / mol e -6,8 kcal / mol, respectivamente. Dentre todos os compostos estudados, a axilarina apresentou eficiência máxima de inibidor, seguida pela Centaureidina, Isokaempferida, Apigenina, Eupatorina e Cirsiliol. Nossos resultados sugeriram que a axilarina se liga aos resíduos catalíticos mais cruciais CYS145 e HIS41 do Mpro, além disso a axilarina mostra 5 interações de ligações de hidrogênio e 5 interações hidrofóbicas com vários resíduos de Mpro. Além disso, os cálculos de dinâmica molecular em uma escala de tempo de 60 ns (6 × 106 femtossegundos) também mostraram percepções significativas sobre os efeitos de ligação da axilarina com Mpro de SARS-CoV-2 por imitação de proteínas como o ambiente aquoso. A partir de cálculos de dinâmica molecular, os cálculos RMSD e RMSF indicam a estabilidade e dinâmica do melhor complexo ancorado em ambiente aquoso. As propriedades ADME e a análise de previsão de toxicidade da axilarina também a recomendaram como um candidato a medicamento seguro. Além disso, as investigações in vivo e in vitro são essenciais para garantir a atividade anti-SARS-CoV-2 de todos os compostos bioativos, particularmente a axilarina, para encorajar o uso preventivo de Centaurea jacea contra infecções por Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Centaurea , COVID-19 , Protease Inhibitors , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 23-32, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362667

ABSTRACT

O descarte inadequado de medicamentos pode levar a impactos ambientais negativos e deve ser considerado um problema de saúde pública. O presente estudo teve como objetivo levantar dados quantitativos e qualitativos relacionados ao perfil dos medicamentos descartados no município de Governador Valadares - MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido nas UAPS/ESF que possuíam farmácias, e também na Farmácia Central/Policlínica Municipal. Nesses locais, foi realizada uma análise dos medicamentos descartados no período de julho de 2017 a maio de 2018. Por meio dos dados obtidos nesse período foi possível perceber que as principais classes de medicamentos descartadas foram os inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina, antagonistas da angiotensina II, agentes betabloqueadores, diuréticos, hipoglicemiantes, contraceptivos hormonais e agentes modificadores de lipídeos. Além disso, foi realizada uma ação de educação em saúde e aplicado um questionário semiestruturado aos usuários participantes dos grupos operativos. Dos 34 usuários respondentes do questionário, 23 (69,70%) não tinham acesso a informação sobre o local correto de descarte e armazenamento de medicamentos. Após a ação de educação em saúde verificou-se um aumento no quantitativo de medicamentos descartados pelos usuários nas UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I e II, Altinópolis III e IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I e II e Esperança e Nossa Senhora das Graças. O trabalho desenvolvido permitiu apresentar dados relevantes para a gestão municipal demonstrando a importância do farmacêutico no cuidado em saúde e o caráter epidemiológico local da prevalência das doenças crônico não transmissíveis.


The inadequate disposal of drugs can lead to negative environmental impacts and should be treated as a public health problem. This study aimed at surveying quantitative and qualitative data related to the profile of drugs discarded in the city of Governador Valadares - MG. The work was developed in the UAPS / ESF that had pharmacies, and also in the Central Pharmacy/Municipal Polyclinic. In these locations, an analysis of the drugs discarded between July 2017 and May 2018 was carried out. Through the data obtained in this period, it was possible to notice that the main classes of drugs discarded were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, beta-blocking agents, diuretics, hypoglycemic agents, hormonal contraceptives, and lipid-modifying agents. In addition, a health education action was carried out and a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to users participating in the operating groups. From the 34 users who responded the questionnaire, 23 (69.70%) did not have access to information on the correct place to dispose and store medicines. After the health education action, there was an increase in the amount of drugs discarded by users in the UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I and II, Altinópolis III and IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I and II, and Esperança and Nossa Senhora das Graças. The work carried out made it possible to present relevant data for municipal management, demonstrating the importance of the pharmacist in health care and the local epidemiological character of the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmacies/supply & distribution , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Patients , Pharmacists/supply & distribution , Tablets/supply & distribution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/supply & distribution , Health Centers , Public Health/education , Health Education , Municipal Management/legislation & jurisprudence , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Drug Storage , Environment , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/supply & distribution , Lipids/supply & distribution
4.
Rev. ADM ; 79(1): 38-47, ene.-feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361906

ABSTRACT

Las urgencias odontológicas son, quizá, las razones principales de atención en el consultorio, muchas veces el significado de dolor se encuentra acompañado por inflamación; el uso de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES) es común en el ejercicio de la odontología por la excelente respuesta analgésica y antiinflamatoria que tiene, por lo que es importante conocer la fisiopatología de la inflamación y el dolor y cómo actúan los AINES, ya que algunos de estos fármacos tienen respuestas adversas y sitios de acción importantes. Los factores de riesgo por inflamación y dolor nos obligan a conocer la variedad de fármacos que no entran en la clasificación de AINES y que tenemos a disposición, hay más opciones para la elección ante la presencia de inflamación por un factor en particular, cada uno de éstos tienen indicaciones y contraindicaciones que conoceremos, lo cual nos ampliará el conocimiento para dar una prescripción ante la presencia de eventos inflamatorios. Se realizó un estudio detallado de artículos bibliográficos de cada tema, los fármacos más usados en odontología son los AINES, hay poco uso y conocimiento de antiinflamatorios que podemos usar en urgencias, el porcentaje de uso de los AINES derivados del ácido propiónico es alto por la excelente respuesta en pacientes y otras veces por el desconocimiento de más opciones (AU)


Dental emergencies are perhaps the main reasons for care in the office, many times the meaning of pain is accompanied by inflammation, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is common in the practice of dentistry due to the excellent analgesic and anti-inflammatory response it has, important is knowing the pathophysiology of inflammation and pain, how NSAIDs act, some of these drugs have adverse responses and important sites of action, risk factors for inflammation and pain require us to know the variety of drugs that do not enter the classification of NSAIDs and we have at our disposal, there are more options for choosing in the presence of inflammation due to a particular factor, each of these have indications and contraindications that we will know, it expands our knowledge to give a prescription in the presence of inflammatory events. A detailed study of bibliographic articles on each topic was carried out, the drugs most used in dentistry are NSAIDs, there is little use and knowledge of anti-inflammatories that we can use in the emergency room, the percentage of use of NSAIDs derived from propionic acid is high, due to the excellent response in patients and others due to lack of knowledge of more options (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Toothache , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Inflammation , Pain/pathology , Pain, Postoperative , Propionates , Prostaglandins/physiology , Statistical Analysis , Drug Interactions , Cyclooxygenase 1/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Narcotics
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 601-609, fev 11, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359371

ABSTRACT

Introdução: doenças crônicas como asma brônquica, alergias respiratórias ou doenças agudas recorrentes, como gripes, frequentemente acometem as crianças. Tais condições exigem o uso de medicamentos, normalmente sob a forma de xaropes, que podem se apresentar como genéricos ou de referência. A alta concentração em sacarose e o baixo pH dessas formulações, assim como o uso noturno e a falta de higienização após sua administração, são alguns fatores que podem contribuir para o potencial cariogênico e erosivo desses medicamentos. Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro o potencial cariogênico e erosivo de xaropes infantis, de referência e genéricos, a partir de suas propriedades físico-químicas e identificar seus principais componentes a partir da análise de bulas e rótulos. Metodologia: foram analisados oito medicamentos de referência e os oito genéricos equivalentes, os quais foram avaliados quanto ao pH, a acidez titulável, a presença de sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix) e a composição em sacarose e conservantes através da análise de bulas e rótulos. Resultados: constatou-se que 75% da amostra apresentou pH abaixo do crítico para desmineralização do esmalte dentário. A presença da sacarose e do ácido cítrico foi observada em 43,75% dos medicamentos, especialmente entre aqueles com altos valores de titulação. Conclusão: a maioria dos medicamentos apresentou pH abaixo do pH crítico para dissolução do esmalte dentário, havendo uma ampla variação da acidez titulável. As bulas dos medicamentos não informavam quanto ao risco de erosão dentária e de cárie, apesar da presença de sacarose em algumas formulações.


Introduction: chronic illnesses such as bronchial asthma, respiratory allergies or recurrent acute illnesses, such as the flu, often affect children. Such conditions require the use of medications, usually in the form of syrups, which can be presented as generic or reference ones. The high concentration of sucrose and the low pH of these formulations, as well as the night use and the lack of hygiene after its administration, are some factors that can contribute to the cariogenic and erosive potential of these drugs. Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the cariogenic and erosive potential of infant reference and generic syrups, based on their physical and chemical properties and to identify their main components from the analysis of package inserts and labels. Methodology: eight reference drugs and eight generic equivalents were analyzed, which were evaluated for pH, titratable acidity, the presence of total soluble solids (ºBrix) and the composition in sucrose and preservatives through the analysis of package inserts and labels. Results: it was found that 75% of the sample had a pH below the critical level for tooth enamel demineralization. The presence of sucrose and citric acid was observed in 43.75% of the drugs, especially among those with high titration values. Conclusion: most drugs had pH below the critical pH for tooth enamel dissolution, with a wide range of titratable acidity between them. The package inserts of the medications did not inform about the risk of dental erosion and caries, despite the presence of sucrose in some formulations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma , Tooth Erosion , Bronchitis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Chronic Disease , Dental Caries
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(1): 123-132, jan. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356038

ABSTRACT

Resumo Mediante o processo de estigmatização existente sobre a População em Situação de Rua que faz uso de drogas e a reprodução de violências nos serviços de saúde, refletiu-se neste artigo sobre esse público e o espaço da rua para além da visão de decrepitude com que costumeiramente são vistos. Nesse sentido, a pesquisa tomou contornos a partir do objetivo de conhecer práticas e saberes construídos nos processos de cuidado entre a População em Situação de Rua usuária de drogas. Para isso, delineou-se um estudo qualitativo, utilizando-se da triangulação das técnicas de observação participante, a partir da inserção de uma das pesquisadoras em um Consultório na Rua, em uma cidade no interior de Pernambuco, e duas modalidades de entrevistas individuais em profundidade: a entrevista episódica e a entrevista narrativa. A partir dos dados obtidos, delineou-se três categorias temáticas: "Sujeitos, territorialidades e contextos", "Drogas, medicalização de problemas sociais e controle" e "Redução de danos, singularidades e produção de cuidado no território". Construíram-se, assim, compreensões sobre as normativas e dicotômicas que atravessam a visão sobre a População em Situação de Rua, pretendendo contribuir para a consolidação da oferta de cuidado orientada pela perspectiva da Redução de Danos.


Abstract Through the stigmatization of drug-using People Living on the Streets (PLS) and the reproduction of violence in health services, this paper reflected on this community and the street space beyond the view of decrepitude with which they are usually seen. In this sense, the research contours were shaped from the objective of knowing practice and knowledge constructed in the care processes among the drug-using PLS. A qualitative study was designed, using the triangulation of participant observation techniques, from the inclusion of one of the researchers in a "Street Clinic" (Consultório na Rua), in an inland city of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, and two types of in-depth individual interviews: the episodic interview and the narrative interview. Three thematic categories were outlined from the data retrieved, as follows: "subjects, territorialities and contexts", "drugs, social problem medicalization, and control", and "harm reduction, singularities and care production in the territory". Thus, understandings about the norms and dichotomies that cross the view of PLS were constructed to consolidate the care offer guided by the perspective of harm reduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeless Persons , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Harm Reduction , Qualitative Research
7.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(1): 1-8, 2022-01-09. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363721

ABSTRACT

Background: In developing countries, particularly in Iraq, the use of generic medicines has been increasing in recent years, primarily as a cost-saving measure in healthcare provision. In the Iraqi market, famotidine tablets are available from different pharmaceutical companies. As a result, regular pre-marketing quality testing is required to check the quality and identify which product might safely substitute the innovator product in the event of the innovator brand's unavailability or high cost. Objective: various quality control tests have been conducted to determine the Pharmaceutical Equivalence of the different generic and brands of Famotidine film-coated tablets marketed in Iraq. Materials and Methods: Four different samples of the most commonly available Famotidine 20 mg tablets in the Iraqi market were tested for drug contents, friability, and hardness. Additionally, the in-vitro drug release and kinetics were evaluated. Results: slight differences in the products' content were found; however, they were within the acceptable requirement of British Pharmacopeia (BP) and The United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) 30, NF 25. Similarly, the friability and hardness were within the excellent range according to the B.P. and USP. The results of our study indicated that the tested brand (Famodin) and the three generic products (Famosam, Ulceran, and Famodar) of Famotidine tablets have a unique pattern of in-vitro release profiles. However, all the tested brands and generic pills complied with the USP specifications for the immediate release dosage forms except for Famosam. Release kinetic for the four tested products indicates first-order kinetic models. Conclusion: The findings revealed that nearly all of the tested Famotidine tablet brands and generics met the pharmacopeial requirements for oral tablets. As a result, if acquiring the innovative brand of famotidine tablets is difficult to obtain, healthcare providers may be advised to use the tested products instead


Antecedentes: En los países en vías de desarrollo, especialmente en Irak, el uso de medicamentos genéricos ha aumentado en los últimos años, principalmente como medida de ahorro en la prestación de servicios sanitarios. En el mercado iraquí, los comprimidos de famotidina están disponibles en diferentes empresas farmacéuticas. Por ello, es necesario realizar periódicamente pruebas de calidad previas a la comercialización para comprobar la calidad e identificar qué producto podría sustituir con seguridad al producto innovador en caso de que éste no esté disponible o tenga un coste elevado. Objetivo: se han realizado varias pruebas de control de calidad para determinar la Equivalencia Farmacéutica de los diferentes genéricos y marcas de Famotidina comprimidos recubiertos con película comercializados en Irak. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron cuatro muestras diferentes de los comprimidos de 20 mg de Famotidina más comunes en el mercado iraquí para determinar el contenido de fármaco, la friabilidad y la dureza. Además, se evaluó la liberación in-vitro del fármaco y su cinética. Resultados: Se encontraron ligeras diferencias en el contenido de los productos; sin embargo, estaban dentro de los requisitos aceptables de B.P. y de la Farmacopea de Estados Unidos (USP) 30, NF 25. Así mismo, la friabilidad y la dureza estaban dentro del rango excelente según la B.P. y la USP. Los resultados de nuestro estudio indicaron que la marca probada (Famodin) y los tres productos genéricos (Famosam, Ulceran y Famodar) de comprimidos de famotidina tienen un patrón único de perfiles de liberación in-vitro. Sin embargo, todas las marcas y los comprimidos genéricos probados cumplieron con las especificaciones de la USP para las formas farmacéuticas de liberación inmediata, excepto Famosam. La cinética de liberación de los cuatro productos probados indica modelos cinéticos de primer orden. Conclusiones: Los resultados revelaron que casi todas las marcas y genéricos de comprimidos de Famotidina probados cumplían los requisitos farmacopeicos para los comprimidos orales. En consecuencia, si resulta difícil adquirir la marca innovadora de comprimidos de famotidina, se puede aconsejar a los profesionales sanitarios que utilicen los productos probados en su lugar


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pharmacokinetics , Drugs, Generic
8.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210042, 2022. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360568

ABSTRACT

Spider venoms induce different physio-pharmacological effects by binding with high affinity on molecular targets, therefore being of biotechnological interest. Some of these toxins, acting on different types of ion channels, have been identified in the venom of spiders of the genus Phoneutria, mainly from P. nigriventer. In spite of the pharmaceutical potential demonstrated by P. nigriventer toxins, there is limited information on molecules from venoms of the same genus, as their toxins remain poorly characterized. Understanding this diversity and clarifying the differences in the mechanisms of action of spider toxins is of great importance for establishing their true biotechnological potential. This prompted us to compare three different venoms of the Phoneutria genus: P. nigriventer (Pn-V), P. eickstedtae (Pe-V) and P. pertyi (Pp-V). Methods: Biochemical and functional comparison of the venoms were carried out by SDS-PAGE, HPLC, mass spectrometry, enzymatic activities and electrophysiological assays (whole-cell patch clamp). Results: The employed approach revealed that all three venoms had an overall similarity in their components, with only minor differences. The presence of a high number of similar proteins was evident, particularly toxins in the mass range of ~6.0 kDa. Hyaluronidase and proteolytic activities were detected in all venoms, in addition to isoforms of the toxins Tx1 and Tx2-6. All Tx1 isoforms blocked Nav1.6 ion currents, with slight differences. Conclusion: Our findings showed that Pn-V, Pe-V and Pp-V are highly similar concerning protein composition and enzymatic activities, containing isoforms of the same toxins sharing high sequence homology, with minor modifications. However, these structural and functional variations are very important for venom diversity. In addition, our findings will contribute to the comprehension of the molecular diversity of the venoms of the other species from Phoneutria genus, exposing their biotechnological potential as a source for searching for new active molecules.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation , Spider Venoms/analysis , Spiders , Protein Isoforms/biosynthesis , Hyaluronoglucosaminidase , Pharmaceutical Preparations
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18800, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Efavirenz is one of the most commonly used drugs in HIV therapy. However the low water solubility tends to result in low bioavailability. Drug nanocrystals, should enhance the dissolution and consequently bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to obtain EFV nanocrystals prepared by an antisolvent technique and to further observe possible effect, on the resulting material, due to altering crystallization parameters. A solution containing EFV and a suitable solvent was added to an aqueous solution of particle stabilizers, under high shear agitation. Experimental conditions such as solvent/antisolvent ratio; drug load; solvent supersaturation; change of stabilizer; addition of milling step and solvents of different polarities were evaluated. Suspensions were characterized by particle size and zeta potential. After freeze- dried and the resulting powder was characterized by PXRD, infrared spectroscopy and SEM. Also dissolution profiles were obtained. Many alterations were not effective for enhancing EFV dissolution; some changes did not even produced nanosuspensions while other generated a different solid phase from the polymorph of raw material. Nevertheless reducing EFV load produced enhancement on dissolution profile. The most important modification was adding a milling step after precipitation. The resulting suspension was more uniform and the powder presented grater enhancement of dissolution efficacy.


Subject(s)
Efficacy/classification , HIV/pathogenicity , Crystallization/instrumentation , Dissolution/methods , Particle Size , Solubility , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Excipients/pharmacology , Dissolution/classification , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Methods
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e235329, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1360639

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo apresenta a experiência de pesquisa-intervenção participativa da Gestão Autônoma da Medicação (GAM) com familiares. A GAM, de origem canadense, procura discutir criticamente o uso da medicação psiquiátrica de modo a fomentar a autonomia dos usuários desses medicamentos. No Brasil, o chamado projeto GAM-BR realizou a tradução, adaptação e validação do instrumento utilizado nesta abordagem, o Guia GAM. Seguimos as indicações teórico-práticas da abordagem enativa e empregamos a metodologia da cartografia, em especial a técnica da entrevista cartográfica. Como um projeto participativo, a validação do Guia contou com usuários e trabalhadores dos serviços de saúde mental brasileiros (Caps) como copesquisadores. A realização de um grupo com familiares de usuários na etapa de validação do Guia foi uma inovação na GAM-BR que possibilitou a inclusão desse grupo fundamental para a discussão acerca do tratamento medicamentoso. Podemos destacar dois efeitos processuais desse trabalho com familiares: a promoção de deslocamentos de ponto de vista e a promoção de corresponsabilização. Tais efeitos sugerem perspectivas para a GAM e para o trabalho em saúde mental, em um horizonte de inclusão e composição entre diferentes perspectivas.(AU)


Abstract This article presents the participatory research-intervention experience of Autonomous Medication Management (GAM) with family members. The GAM, a Canadian project, seeks to critically discuss the use of psychiatric medication to foster the autonomy of users of these drugs. In Brazil, the so-called GAM-BR project translated, adapted, and validated the instrument used in this approach, the GAM Guide. We follow the theoretical-practical indications of the enactive approach and employ the cartography methodology, in particular the cartographic interview technique. As a participatory project, the validation of the Guide included users and workers of the Brazilian mental health services (CAPS) as co-researchers. The creation of a group with family members of users in the validation phase was an innovation in GAM-BR that enabled the inclusion of this fundamental group for the discussion about drug treatment. We can highlight two processual effects of this work with family members: the promotion of displacements of points of view and the promotion of co-responsibility. These effects suggest perspectives for GAM and the work in mental health, in a horizon of inclusion and composition between different perspectives.(AU)


Resumen Este artículo presenta la experiencia participativa de intervención-investigación de la Gestión Autónoma de la Medicación (GAM) con miembros de la familia. La GAM es una guía que procede de Canadá y busca discutir críticamente el uso de medicación psiquiátrica para fomentar la autonomía de sus usuarios. En Brasil, el proyecto llamado GAM-BR realizó la traducción, adaptación y validación del instrumento utilizado en este enfoque, la Guía GAM. Se siguieron las indicaciones teóricas y prácticas del enfoque enactivo, y se utilizó la metodología de la cartografía, especialmente la técnica de entrevista cartográfica. Como proyecto participativo, la validación de la Guía incluyó a usuarios y a trabajadores brasileños de los centros de atención a salud mental (CAPS) como coinvestigadores. La creación de un grupo con familiares de usuarios en la etapa de validación de la Guía fue una innovación en GAM-BR por incluir a este grupo de fundamental importancia en la discusión sobre el tratamiento farmacológico. Es posible señalar dos efectos procesales de este trabajo con miembros de la familia: la promoción de los desplazamientos de perspectivas y la promoción de la corresponsabilización. Estos efectos sugieren perspectivas para GAM y el trabajo en salud mental, en un horizonte de inclusión y composición entre diferentes perspectivas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Research , Family , Mental Health , Medication Adherence , Community-Based Participatory Research , Mediation Analysis , Patient Isolation , Psychology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adaptation , Personal Autonomy , Drug Therapy , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Mental Disorders
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18943, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364427

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate drug interactions based on medical records of patients hospitalized in University Hospital Lauro Wanderley (UHLW) in João Pessoa-PB, Brazil. This was a quantitative, descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. This research was conducted in the medical clinic of the above hospital by analyzing pharmaceutical intervention in medical records. The investigated samples consisted of all medical profiles with drug interaction information of patients hospitalized from June 2016 to June 2017. Most of these drug interactions were determined and classified by Micromedex® Solutions database. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee in Institutional Human Research, protocol number 2.460.206. In total, 331 drug interactions were found in 131 medical profiles. Dipyrone, enoxaparin, sertraline, ondansetron, quetiapine, tramadol, bromopride, amitriptyline, and simvastatin were medications that showed highest interactions. According to Anatomical Therapy Classification (ATC), drugs that act on the central nervous system result in more interactions. The most prevalent interaction was between dipyrone and enoxaparin. Some limitations of this study are the lack of notifications and data on drug interactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Research , Medical Records/classification , Drug Interactions , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Inpatients/classification , Universities , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Dipyrone/adverse effects , Enoxaparin/supply & distribution , Simvastatin/supply & distribution , Sertraline/supply & distribution , Quetiapine Fumarate/supply & distribution , Amitriptyline/supply & distribution , Hospitals, University/organization & administration
12.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(1): e25473, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348729

ABSTRACT

Introdução:A implementação de políticas de saúde para garantia da atenção integral aos usuários de álcool e outras drogas vem sendo realizada há algumas décadas e teve sua garantia normativa fortalecida com o passar dos anos através da criação de leis e dispositivosassistenciais cujo objetivo foi redesenhar o cuidado ofertado a essa população. Na atualidade, persistem desafios para a garantia de acesso a uma demanda crescente de pessoas. A implantação de serviços especializados regionais tem sido uma aposta importante para superar alguns desses desafios. Objetivo:analisar o perfil dos usuários de umCentro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e outras drogasda zona da mata de Pernambuco. Metodologia:Estudo descritivo, transversal e quantitativo, realizado entre março ejulho de 2018. Foi realizada coleta de dados primários em prontuários dos usuários do referido centro e analisados a partir da estatística descritiva. Resultados:Os usuários do serviço eram homens (93,8%), da cor parda (46,5%), solteiros (42,3%) e desempregados (43,2%). A maioria foi admitida quando jovem-adulto (46,4%) e por demanda espontânea (64,6%). Apresentam histórico familiar positivo (89,5%) e fazem uso predominante do álcool exclusivo (32,5%). A maioria dos usuários reside no município onde o centro supracitado está sediado. Conclusão:Os dados seguem a tendência dos estudos realizados nos últimos anos em saúde mental sobre os transtornos decorrentes do uso de crack, álcool e outras drogas e evidenciam a necessidade de fortalecer as redes regionalizadas, discutindo desde a infraestrutura como o transporte aos serviços até a necessária articulação entre o centro de atenção psicossocial álcool e outras drogas e a Atenção Básica (AU).


Introduction:The implementation of health policies to guarantee comprehensive care for users of alcohol and other drugs has been carried outfor some decades and had its normative guarantee strengthened over the years through the creation of laws and assistance devices whose objective was to redesign the care offered to this population. Currently, challenges persist to guarantee access to a growing demand of people. The implementation of specialized regional services has been an important bet to overcome some of these challenges. Objective:to analyze the profile of users of a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other drugs in the forest zone of Pernambuco. Methodology: Descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study, carried out between March and July 2018. Primary data was collected from medical records of users of that center and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results:The service users were men (93.8%), brown (46.5%), single (42.3%) and unemployed (43.2%). Most were admitted as a young adult (46.4%) and by spontaneous demand (64.6%). They have a positive family history (89.5%) and make predominant use of exclusive alcohol (32.5%). Most users live in the municipality where the aforementioned center is based. Conclusion:The data follow the trend of studies carried out in recent years in mental health on disorders resulting from the use of crack, alcohol and other drugs and highlight the need to strengthen regionalized networks, discussing from infrastructure such as transport to services to the necessary articulation betweenthe alcohol and other drugs psychosocial care center and the Primary Care (AU).


Introducción:La implementación de políticas de salud para garantizar la atención integral a los usuarios de alcohol y otras drogas se viene realizando desde hace algunas décadas y ha tenido su garantía normativa fortalecida a lo largo de los años a través de la creación de leyes y dispositivos asistenciales cuyo objetivo fue rediseñar la atención ofrecida. a esta población. Actualmente, persisten los desafíos para garantizar el acceso a una demanda creciente de personas. La implementación de servicios regionales especializados ha sido una apuesta importante para superar algunos de estos desafíos. Objetivo:analizar el perfil de usuarios de un Centro de Atención Psicosocial por Alcohol y otras drogas en la zona forestal de Pernambuco. Metodología:Estudio descriptivo, transversal y cuantitativo, realizado entre marzo y julio de 2018. Se recogieron datos primarios de las historias clínicas de los usuarios de ese centro y se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados:Los usuarios del servicio fueron hombres (93,8%), morenos (46,5%), solteros (42,3%) y desempleados (43,2%). La mayoría ingresó como adulto joven (46,4%) y por demanda espontánea (64,6%). Tienen antecedentes familiares positivos (89,5%) y hacen un uso predominante de alcohol exclusivo (32,5%). La mayoría de usuarios vive en el municipio donde tiene su sede el mencionado centro. Conclusión:Los datos siguen la tendencia de los estudios realizados en los últimos años en salud mental sobre los trastornos derivados del uso de crack, alcohol y otras drogas y destacan la necesidad de fortalecer las redes regionalizadas, discutiendo desde la infraestructura como el transporte hasta los servicios hasta los necesarios. articulación entre el centro de atención psicosocial de alcohol y otras drogas y la Atención Primaria (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Mental Health , Health Policy , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Crack Cocaine , Community Networks , Alcoholism
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 235 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354322

ABSTRACT

O comportamento e o destino dos fármacos e seus metabólitos no meio aquático, assim como seus efeitos na biota e saúde humana, têm sido objeto de estudos em âmbito global. No entanto, poucas pesquisas relacionam parâmetros operacionais e físico-químicos à remoção dos fármacos em Estações de Tratamento de Esgotos (ETE). Os principais processos responsáveis pela redução da concentração destes contaminantes na fase aquosa, durante o tratamento de esgotos, são a biodegradação e a sorção à fase sólida. No que diz respeito à qualidade dos lodos produzidos, um aspecto ainda pouco estudado refere-se à identificação de poluentes emergentes, substâncias presentes no ambiente e que usualmente não são monitoradas, especialmente pela ausência de regulamentação legal nos países, podendo apresentar risco potencial à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente. Desse modo, o presente estudo tem por objetivo identificar, quantificar e avaliar a eficiência de remoção de fármacos presentes em biossólidos provenientes de uma ETE, antes e após o processo de compostagem, utilizando técnicas de cromatografia UFLCTM e espectrometria MS-MS, e avaliar os fármacos escolhidos para estudo, com base no modelo QSAR (ECOSAR-EPA), visando identificar o potencial de bioacumulação e ecotoxicidade dessas substâncias no ambiente, de acordo com as propriedades físico-químicas. De acordo com os resultados obtidos observa-se que houve redução na concentração dos compostos avaliados, indicando tendência à biodegradação ou redução na biodisposição dos mesmos. O processo de compostagem estudado, além de mostrar-se adequado para a produção de um biossólido com características compatíveis com as requeridas para o uso agrícola, possibilitou constatar a eficiência do processo como alternativa para o tratamento desses contaminantes presentes no lodo de esgotos. Possíveis interações que possam ocorrer com outros fármacos presentes no ambiente, em relação a concentrações residuais e metabólitos gerados, os quais não foram investigados no presente estudo, apontam para a necessidade de estudos em relação aos mecanismos farmacocinéticos e farmacodinâmicos para entendimento dos mecanismos de reação envolvidos na formação e toxicidade de seus metabólitos. A presença destes compostos nas várias matrizes ambientais denota a importância das pesquisas nessa área, e a adoção de boas práticas operacionais visando garantir a qualidade e a segurança requeridas na utilização benéfica do lodo de esgotos, principalmente para fins agrícolas.


The behavior and fate of drugs and their metabolites in the aquatic environment, as well as their effects on biota and human health, have been the object of studies on a global scale. However, few research relate operational and physicochemical parameters to the removal of drugs in Sewage Treatment Plants (ETE). The main processes responsible for reducing the concentration of these contaminants in the aqueous phase, during sewage treatment, are biodegradation and sorption to the solid phase. Regarding the quality of the sludge produced, an aspect that has still been poorly studied refers to the identification of emerging pollutants, substances present in the environment that are usually not monitored, especially due to the lack of legal regulations in the countries, which may present a potential risk to health. human and the environment. Thus, this study aims to identify, quantify, and evaluate the efficiency of removal of drugs present in biosolids from an ETE, before and after the composting process, using UFLCTM chromatography and MS-MS spectrometry techniques, and evaluate the drugs chosen for study, based on the QSAR model (ECOSAR-EPA), to identify the bioaccumulation potential and ecotoxicity of these substances in the environment, according to their physicochemical properties. According to the results obtained, it is observed that there was a reduction in the concentration of the compounds evaluated, indicating a tendency to biodegradation or a reduction in their biodisposition. The composting process studied, in addition to being suitable to produce biosolids with characteristics compatible with those required for agricultural use, made it possible to verify the efficiency of the process as an alternative for the treatment of these contaminants present in sewage sludge. Possible interactions that may occur with other drugs present in the environment, in relation to residual concentrations and generated metabolites, which were not investigated in this study, point to the need for studies in relation to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms to understand the reaction mechanisms involved in the formation and toxicity of its metabolites. The presence of these compounds in the various environmental matrices denotes the importance of research in this area, and the adoption of good operational practices to ensure the quality and safety required in the beneficial use of sewage sludge, mainly for agricultural purposes.


Subject(s)
Sewage , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Composting , Biosolids , Wastewater Treatment Plants
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18688, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364425

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hydrogels are interesting for use in the treatment of topical wounds due to their virtually zero toxicity, and capacity for extended release of pharmaceuticals. Silver sulfadiazine (SSDZ) is the drug of choice in the treatment of skin burns. The aim of the study was to determine cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity and stability of a PVA hydrogel with integrated silver sulfadiazine. SSDZ-hydrogels were prepared using 10% (w/w) PVA (either 89% or 99% hydrolyzed) and 1% (w/w) silver sulfadiazine. Cellular viability was assessed via MTS assays, antimicrobial activity via disk-diffusion and accelerated stability tests were carried out with analysis at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 days of storage at 40 ± 2 °C and a relative humidity of 75 ± 5%. The parameters evaluated included organoleptic characteristics, moisture, swelling ability, mechanical strength, FTIR, XRD, TGA and DSC, and silver release patterns via XRD and potentiometry. Cell viability tests indicated some cytotoxicity, although within acceptable levels. After 90 days of storage, SSDZ hydrogel samples exhibited a brown coloration, probably due to the formation of Ag or Ag2O nanoparticles. The SSDZ-loaded hydrogels suffered visual and physical changes; however, these changes did not compromise its use as occlusive wound dressings or its antimicrobial properties.


Subject(s)
Silver Sulfadiazine/pharmacology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Hydrogels/analysis , Skin/injuries , Wounds and Injuries/classification , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Reference Parameters/classification
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18655, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364423

ABSTRACT

Abstract Periodontitis is an oral disease associated with inflammation and pain with swollen and bleeding gums. In the present study, dental pastes containing NSAIDs, namely, diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were prepared to treat periodontitis. Dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were prepared with/without mucoadhesive hydrocolloid polymers such as sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and methyl cellulose (MC) by conventional trituration method. The pH, drug content, viscosity, tube spreadability and tube extrudability of these prepared dental pastes were measured. These dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were characterized by FTIR analyses for drug-excipient compatibility. The in vitro drug releases from these dental pastes in 6.4 pH phosphate buffer solution displayed sustained release over longer period and the drug release rate was found to be decreased when the concentration of mucoadhesive polymer was increased. These dental pastes displayed good adhesion to the oral mucosa revealing more retention time in mouth when tested for ex vivo mucoadhesion using bovine cheek pouch. The stability study results reveal that the DC3 and NC3 dental paste formulations were found stable enough over a longer period in different storage conditions. The present study revealed that the prepared mucoadhesive dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) had good adhesion with the oral mucosa to maintain consistent release of drugs over prolonged time.


Subject(s)
Toothpastes/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/analysis , Mouth , Mouth Mucosa/abnormalities , Periodontitis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Diclofenac/adverse effects , Disease/classification , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Drug Liberation , Gingiva/abnormalities , Inflammation/complications
16.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e235853, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1360644

ABSTRACT

Resumo O metilfenidato é um fármaco indicado no tratamento do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH) e da narcolepsia. Atua no sistema nervoso central inibindo a recaptação de dopamina e noradrenalina, o que provoca um efeito psicoestimulante. Estudos anteriores demonstraram um aumento no consumo da droga por indivíduos saudáveis que buscam aprimoramento cognitivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre o uso não prescrito de metilfenidato e o desempenho acadêmico de estudantes de medicina de uma universidade do sul de Santa Catarina. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva de caráter quantitativo. Participaram da pesquisa 243 acadêmicos do segundo ao oitavo semestre do curso de medicina; os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário e analisados com ajuda do software SPSS versão 21.0. A prevalência de uso não prescrito do metilfenidato foi de 2,9%, enquanto 17,3% dos pesquisados afirmaram já ter utilizado o medicamento alguma vez na vida. As motivações para consumo mais citadas foram melhorar o desempenho cognitivo (10%) e ficar acordado por mais tempo (4,1%), e a forma de obtenção mais comum foi por meio de amigos (56,5%). O psicoestimulante não apresentou efeitos de aprimoramento cognitivo, uma vez que participantes que nunca utilizaram o fármaco apresentaram um desempenho acadêmico superior (8,80) se comparados àqueles que usam (7,92) ou já usaram (8,01). Os resultados corroboram a hipótese de efeito relacionado a sensações de bem-estar em pessoas saudáveis, o que torna preocupante a injustificada exposição aos efeitos adversos da droga. Ressalta-se a necessidade de ações que visem à promoção de saúde mental aos universitários.(AU)


Abstract Methylphenidate is a drug indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It acts on the central nervous system by inhibiting dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake, causing a psychostimulant effect. Previous studies have shown an increase in drug use by healthy individuals seeking cognitive enhancement. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between non-prescribed methylphenidate use and academic performance of medical students of a university in southern Santa Catarina. It is quantitative descriptive study. A total of 243 students from the second to the eighth semester of the medicine school participated in the research; data were collected by using a questionnaire and analyzed with the software SPSS Version 21.0. The prevalence of non-prescribed methylphenidate use was 2.9% and 17.3% of respondents said they had used the drug once in their lifetime. The most cited motivations for consumption were improving cognitive performance (10%) and staying awake longer (4.1%), with the most common way of obtention being through friends (56.5%). The psychostimulant had no cognitive enhancement effects since participants who never used the drug had a higher academic performance (8.80) compared with those who use (7.92) or have used it (8.01). The results corroborate the hypothesis of an effect related to feelings of well-being in healthy people, thus making the unjustified exposure to the adverse effects of the drug concerning. We emphasize the need for actions aimed at promoting mental health to university students.(AU)


Resumen El metilfenidato es un medicamento indicado para el tratamiento del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) y de la narcolepsia. Actúa sobre el sistema nervioso central al inhibir la reabsorción de dopamina y norepinefrina, causando un efecto psicoestimulante. Estudios anteriores han demostrado un aumento del consumo de este medicamento por personas sanas que buscan una mejora cognitiva. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre el uso no prescrito de metilfenidato y el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes de medicina de una universidad en el sur de Santa Catarina (Brasil). Se trató de una investigación cuantitativa descriptiva. Participaron en la investigación 243 estudiantes del segundo al octavo semestre del curso de medicina; los datos se recolectaron mediante un cuestionario y se analizaron con la ayuda del software SPSS, versión 21.0. La prevalencia del uso no prescrito de metilfenidato fue del 2,9%, y el 17,3% de los encuestados dijeron que habían usado el medicamento en algún momento de sus vidas. Las motivaciones de consumo más citadas fueron: mejorar el rendimiento cognitivo (10%) y permanecer despierto por más tiempo (4,1%), y la forma más común de obtenerlo fue con los amigos (56,5%). El psicoestimulante no tuvo ningún efecto de mejora cognitiva, ya que los participantes que nunca lo usaron tuvieron un rendimiento académico superior (8,80) en comparación con aquellos que lo usan (7,92) o lo han usado (8,01). Los resultados corroboraron la hipótesis de un efecto relacionado con los sentimientos de bienestar en personas sanas, lo que provoca una exposición injustificada a los efectos adversos de este fármaco. Se enfatiza la necesidad de acciones dirigidas a promover la salud mental de los estudiantes universitarios.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Intelligence , Methylphenidate , Research , Attention , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Schools , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Dopamine , Mental Health , Life , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Efficiency , Emotions , Academic Performance , Medicine
17.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 27: e48860, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1365269

ABSTRACT

RESUMO. As drogas se consolidam como um dos arquétipos culturais predominantes no cotidiano das sociedades urbanas, sendo sua presença ubíqua em praticamente todas as culturas. Os registros históricos apresentam ampla variabilidade de substâncias que em dado momento eram classificadas como o perigo social da época e que em outro se tornavam banalizadas ou tipificadas como inofensivas. Assim, esse estudo teve como objetivo analisar como dispositivo droga que se consolida em diferentes períodos históricos. Para isso, foram coletadas 4.227 matérias dos jornais Folha da Manhã, Folha da Noite e Folha de São Paulo, que abordassem questões relativas ao álcool (década de 1920), maconha (décadas de 1930 a 1960) e crack (década de 1980 a 2005) e realizada Análise Temática de Conteúdo. Os resultados permitem afirmar que a característica central que define todas as substâncias analisadas nos distintos momentos históricos é o risco social que ela apresenta. A droga se constitui como um risco aos usuários ao mesmo tempo que os institui enquanto uma figura de ameaça social. Ao se referenciar uma substância como uma droga, são ativados sentidos que remetem a um quadro de decadência e criminalidade.


RESUMEN. Las drogas se consolidan como uno de los arquetipos culturales predominantes en la vida cotidiana de las sociedades urbanas, y su presencia ubicua en prácticamente todas las culturas. Los registros históricos muestran una amplia variabilidad de sustancias que en un momento se clasificaron como el peligro social de la época y en otro momento se trivializaron o tipificaron como inofensivas. Así que este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar cómo diferentes sustancias psicoactivas se encuentran en la prensa como un riesgo social en diferentes momentos. Para ello, se recogieron 4.227 artículos del periódico Folha da Manhã, Folha da Noite y Folha de São Paulo, que abordasen temas relacionados con el alcohol (1920), marihuana (1930 a 1960) y el crack (1980 a 2005) y se realizó un Análisis Temático de Contenido. Los resultados muestran que la característica definitoria de todas las drogas examinadas en los diferentes momentos históricos es el riesgo social que presenta. La droga se constituye como un riesgo para los usuarios mientras los establece como una figura de amenaza social. Al hacer referencia a una sustancia como droga, se activan sentidos que conducen a un marco de decadencia y criminalidad.


ABSTRACT Drugs are one of the predominant cultural archetypes in the daily life of urban societies, and their ubiquitous presence in almost all cultures. Historical records show a wide variability of substances that at one point were classified as the social danger of the time and at another time trivialized or typified as harmless. Thus, this study aimed to analyze how different psychoactive substances are constituted in the press as a social risk at different times. For this, we collected 4,227 articles of newspapers Folha da Manhã, Folha da Noite and Folha de São Paulo, that addressed issues related to alcohol (1920), marijuana (1930s to 1960) and crack (1980s to 2005) and performed a Thematic Content Analysis. The results indicate that the central defining characteristic of all drugs examined in the different historical moments is the social risk it has. The drug is constituted as a risk to users while establishing them as a figure of social threat. When referring a substance as a drug, senses are activated that denote to a situation of decadence and crime.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/history , Crack Cocaine/analysis , Alcoholism , Mass Media , Psychotropic Drugs/analysis , Social Support , Drug Users/psychology , Criminal Behavior/drug effects
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18809, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364420

ABSTRACT

Abstract Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug widely prescribed all over the world due to its clinical advantages. The currently available long acting marketed depot formulation of risperidone is a microsphere based preparation using poly-[lactide-co-glycolide] (PLGA) as drug release barrier. It is however, a cold chain product due to thermal instability of PLGA at room temperature. After beginning the depot injection therapy it is administered every two weeks but associated with another drawback of about 3 weeks lag time due to which its tablets are also administered for three weeks so as to attain and maintain therapeutic drug concentration in the body. The present work attempts to develop a long acting depot delivery system of risperidone for once a month administration based on the combination of sucrose acetate isobutyrate and polycaprolactone dissolved in benzyl benzoate to provide an effective drug release barrier for one month without any lag time and which can be stored at room temperature precluding the requirement of cold supply chain. The developed depot formulation showed a sustained in vitro drug release profile with 88.95% cumulative drug release in 30 days with little burst release. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of the developed formulation conducted on rats showed attainment of mean peak plasma drug concentration of 459.7 ng/mL in 3 days with a mean residence time of 31.2 days, terminal half-life of 20.6 days, terminal elimination rate constant of 0.0336 per day, and a good in vitro- in vivo correlation.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Risperidone/agonists , Sucrose , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Drug Liberation/drug effects
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18965, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364419

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of present study was to explore protective and curative effects of Malve neglecta on kidneys. In silco study with network pharmacology was performed to find out potential target organs, genes and cellular cell lines which confirmed kidneys as target organ of phyto-constituents present in Malva neglecta extract. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, i.p) was given to induce renal toxicity. Prophylactic study was performed with 300-, 600- and 900 mg/kg doses to find out nephro-protective and -curative effects and curative potential was evaluated at 900 mg/kg dose. Renal function biomarkers, blood urea, BUN, serum creatinine and uric acid, and oxidative stress measuring biomarkers, SOD, CAT, GSH and MDA levels in kidney homogenate were quantified at the end of study. Treatment groups showed decrease in blood urea, BUN, serum creatinine and uric acid levels dose dependently and curative group also showed decline in these biomarkers. SOD, CAT, GSH levels were increased and MDA level decreased in treatment groups significantly as compared to toxic control which revealed the role of oxidative stress in renal damage and anti-oxidant power of MN. Data suggested that use of MN along with drugs causing renal toxicity may prove beneficial due to its nephro- protective and curative effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Malva/metabolism , Neglecta , Therapeutics/instrumentation , Gentamicins , Malvaceae/classification , Creatinine/administration & dosage , Dosage/methods , Antioxidants/adverse effects
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18637, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364416

ABSTRACT

Abstract The therapeutic drugs to treat Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections have toxic side effects and there has been an emergence of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new treatments for HSV infections is mounting. In the present study, semi-solid formulations containing a crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from Schinus terebinthifolia were developed. Skin irritation, cutaneous permeation, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of the formulations were investigated. Treatment with the ointment formulations did not result in any signs of skin irritation while the emulsions increased the thickness of the epidermis in Swiss mice. The cutaneous permeation test indicated that the CHE incorporated in the formulations permeated through the skin layers and was present in the epidermis and dermis even 3 h after topical application. In vivo antiviral activity in BALB/c mice treated with the CHE ointments was better than those treated with the CHE emulsions and did not significantly differ from an acyclovir-treated group. Taken together, this suggests that the incorporation of CHE in the ointment may be a potential candidate for the alternative topical treatment of herpetic lesions.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Simplexvirus/classification , Herpesvirus 1, Human/classification , Anacardiaceae/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Acyclovir/antagonists & inhibitors , Efficacy , Emulsions/adverse effects
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