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1.
Femina ; 51(6): 350-360, 20230630. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512418

ABSTRACT

PONTOS-CHAVE O misoprostol é um análogo da prostaglandina E1 (PGE1) que consta na Lista de Medicamentos Essenciais da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) desde 2005 O Brasil possui uma das regulações mais restritivas do mundo relacionadas ao uso do misoprostol, estabelecendo que o misoprostol tem uso hospitalar exclusivo, com controle especial, e venda, compra e propaganda proibidas por lei Atualmente, o misoprostol é a droga de referência para tratamento medicamentoso nos casos de aborto induzido, tanto no primeiro trimestre gestacional quanto em idades gestacionais mais avançadas O misoprostol é uma medicação efetiva para o preparo cervical e indução do parto O misoprostol é um medicamento essencial para o manejo da hemorragia pós-parto


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Misoprostol/adverse effects , Misoprostol/pharmacokinetics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Abortion, Legal , Carcinogenic Danger , Parturition/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Postpartum Hemorrhage/drug therapy
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20918, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429951

ABSTRACT

Abstract Solubility of pharmaceutical drugs in organic solvents is one of the important parameters to understand the equilibrium concentration of solute-solvent, which helps optimize and design crystallization conditions to obtain the desired product crystals. In the present study, Chlorzoxazone (CHZ) is used as a model pharmaceutical compound to investigate the equilibrium solubility, the influence of solvent and the operating conditions on the shape, and the size distribution. The solubility of CHZ is determined in organic solvents like Isopropanol, Ethanol, and 2-Ethoxyethylacetate, Ethylacetate and Ethyllactate using shake flask method from -5ºC to 60ºC. The solubility of CHZ in these solvents shows an increasing trend as the temperature increases in the following order: ethyllactate + water (0.5+0.5) < ethylacetate < isopropanol < ethanol < 2-ethoxyethylacetate < ethyllactate + water (0.75+0.25). The solvents, isopropanol, ethanol, and ethyl lactate, produce needle-shaped crystals, while 2-ethoxyethylacetate and ethyl acetate tend to produce plate shaped crystals. CHZ crystals obtained from 2-ethoxyethylacetate tend to have plate shaped crystals with a lower aspect ratio and are selected for batch cooling crystallization experiments performed at different cooling rates, and agitation. It is found that the agitation at 300 rpm and the cooling rate 0.2ºC/min produce more uniform crystal size distribution


Subject(s)
Solvents/classification , Chlorzoxazone/analysis , Crystallization/classification , Solubility , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e19978, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429949

ABSTRACT

Abstract Propolis is a resinous hive product collected by bees from the buds or other parts of plants. It is known for having various biological properties, including antifungal activity. Among the substances present in propolis, flavonoids and phenolic acids and their esters are responsible for its antifungal properties. This means that propolis is ideal for use as an antifungal agent in alternative medicine to treat a number of both topical and systemic infections caused by Candida species and other yeast-like fungi, dermatophyte and nondermatophyte moulds, without the serious side effects typical of synthetic treatment. It is also active against strains of fungi that are resistant to polyenes and azoles, the classes of drugs most commonly used to treat fungal infections. In this article, we review current knowledge about the activity of propolis from different parts of the world and its components in vitro and in vivo against pathogenic fungi isolated from human infections. The article also indicates the possible mechanism of antifungal activity of propolis and its components.


Subject(s)
Propolis/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Complementary Therapies/classification , Candida/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Arthrodermataceae/classification
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21115, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429953

ABSTRACT

Abstract For asthma treatment in children, caregivers need good knowledge and attitudes regarding the disease and its treatment. This study aimed to determine the impact of cultural factors, the level of health education provided to patients and their families, as well as the impact of stigmatization on the treatment awareness of children with asthma in southern Jordan. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of ninety-seven caregivers selected from three hospitals in southern Jordan. Open ended questions were answered after demonstrating the inhaler technique in and evaluated according to the instructions of the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP, 2013). The result revealed moderate knowledge of asthma with a mean score of (22.36/32), as well as moderate knowledge of asthma treatment (24.26/40). A high mean was found for the impact of cultural and environmental factors (22.93/28), whereas low impact was found for stigma with a mean value of (4.73/12). Therefore, to improve future asthma management, additional efforts are required to educate caregivers and improve their asthma awareness and rectify any falsehoods regarding asthma medications by health care providers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Asthma/drug therapy , Child , Health Education/classification , Cultural Factors , Jordan/ethnology , Awareness/ethics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Christianity , Caregivers/ethics , Hospitals/standards
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e19544, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429970

ABSTRACT

Abstract A new series of N-Mannich bases of 2-Phenyl-5-benzimidazole sulfonic acid have been synthesized through amino methylation reaction with secondary amines. The two moieties were held together through a methylene bridge, which comes from formaldehyde (Formalin Solution 37%) used in the reaction. Chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed using FT-IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR. Different in vitro assays including Anti-oxidant, Enzyme inhibition, Anti-microbial and Cytotoxicity assay were performed to evaluate the biological potential with reference to the standard drug. Among the synthesized library, compound 3a shows maximum alpha-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 66.66 µg/ml, compound 3d was found most toxic with LC50 value of 10.17 µg/ml. ADME evaluation studies were performed with the help of Molinspiration online software. Docking calculations were also performed. Given the importance of the nucleus involved, the synthesized compound might find extensive medicinal applications as reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Benzimidazoles/agonists , Mannich Bases/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Sulfonic Acids/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , alpha-Glucosidases/adverse effects , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation , Methylation
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 75 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437659

ABSTRACT

Envelhecer compreende um fenômeno complexo, natural e irreversível, que submete o organismo a inúmeras alterações nos processos biológicos, fisiológicos, ambientais, psicológicos, comportamentais e sociais. Esse processo é caracterizado por um declínio gradual dos mecanismos homeostáticos do organismo, intimamente relacionados com o estado senescente. A senescência, quando diz respeito ao sistema imunológico, é denominada de imunossenescência, que pode ser definida como uma parada estável do ciclo celular associada a mudanças, com uma resposta que limita a proliferação de células envelhecidas ou danificadas. A autofagia está diretamente relacionada com a manutenção do fenótipo senescente, em que a atividade autofágica exerce um papel essencial e ativo na influência da biossíntese de proteínas e organelas. Essa via é regulada naturalmente pela proteína mTOR e quimicamente pelo fármaco rapamicina. Assim, pretendemos investigar: (1) as alterações no perfil corporal e hematimêtrico dos animais ao longo do tratamento com rapamicina; (2) avaliar o perfil de citocinas; (3) observar as modificações histológicas em órgãos linfoides primários e secundário; (4) analisar as populações de células linfoides e mieloides; e (5) avaliar a capacidade proliferativa de linfócitos in vitro. Camundongos SAMP-8 e SAMR-1 foram tratados com rapamicina durante dois meses. A mensuração da massa corporal e análises hematológicas foram realizadas antes e durante o tratamento. Amostras de soro, medula óssea, timo e baço foram analisados em ensaios de ELISA, histologia, população e subpopulações de células. Alterações na massa corporal, parâmetros hematológicos e celularidade de células foram nítidas entre os dois modelos utilizados. Diferenças também foram percebidas na detecção de citocinas IL-1ß. IL-6 e TNF-α, com resultados significantes nas amostras de baço, timo e medula óssea. As citocinas IL-7 e IL-15 apresentaram diferenças de secreção entre os grupos, sendo a primeira maior detectada em camundongos com senescência acelerada tratados com rapamicina. Em nossa análise histológica observamos que os camundongos SAM-P8 apresentaram involução tímica. E nas subpopulações de linfócitos T do baço, células TCD4+ e TCD8+ estavam, respectivamente, em maior e menor quantidade nos camundongos SAM-P8 tratados com rapamicina. Dessa forma, o camundongo da linhagem SAM-P8 é um excelente modelo para se estudar as alterações da senescência, em que o mesmo apresenta características fisiológicas distintas dos camundongos utilizados como controle (SAM-R1). Além disso, verificamos que a dose de rapamicina empregada não desencadeou alterações que pudessem comprometer a resposta imunológica desses camundongos, bem como na possibilidade de atuar na resposta contra os efeitos complexos do envelhecimento


Aging comprises a complex, natural, and irreversible phenomenon, which subjects the organism to countless alterations in biological, physiological, environmental, psychological, behavioral, and social processes. This process is characterized by a gradual decline in the organism's homeostatic mechanisms, closely related to senescence effects. Senescence, when it concerns the immune system, is called immunosenescence, which can be defined as a stable cell cycle arrest associated with changes and is a response that limits the proliferation of aged or damaged cells. Autophagy is a genetically regulated, conserved cellular process and a metabolic pathway essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, which plays a constitutive and active role in controlling the biosynthesis of proteins and organelles. This pathway is regulated naturally by mTOR or chemically by the drug rapamycin, having a direct relationship with cellular homeostasis and maintenance of the senescent phenotype. Thus, we intend to investigate: (1) the changes in the body and hematimetic profile of the animals throughout the rapamycin treatment; (2) evaluate the cytokine profile; (3) observe histological changes in primary and secondary lymphoid organs; (4) analyze lymphoid and myeloid cell populations; and (5) evaluate the proliferative capacity of lymphocytes in vitro. SAMP-8 and SAMR-1 mice were treated with rapamycin for two months. Body mass measurement and hematological analyses were performed before and during treatment. Serum, bone marrow, thymus and spleen samples were analyzed in ELISA assays, histology, cell population and subpopulations. Changes in body mass, hematological parameters, and cellularity were clear between the two models used. Differences were also noticed in the detection of cytokines IL-1ß. IL-6 and TNF-α, with significant results in the spleen, thymus and bone marrow samples. The cytokines IL-7 and IL-15 showed differences in secretion between groups, the former being higher detected in mice with accelerated senescence treated with rapamycin. In our histological analysis we observed that SAM-P8 mice showed thymic involution. And in the spleen T-lymphocyte subpopulations, TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells were, respectively, in higher and lower quantities in SAM-P8 mice treated with rapamycin. Thus, the SAM-P8 mouse is an excellent model to study the changes of senescence, since it presents physiological characteristics different from the control mice (SAM-R1). Furthermore, we verified that the dose of rapamycin used did not trigger changes that could compromise the immune response of these mice, as well as the possibility of acting in the modulatory response against the complex effects of aging


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Aging , Sirolimus/adverse effects , Immunosenescence , Autophagy/immunology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/classification , Homeostasis
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21343, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439516

ABSTRACT

Abstract Voriconazole increases tacrolimus blood concentration significantly when coadministrated. The recommendation of reducing tacrolimus to 1/3 in voriconazole package insert seems not to be satisfactory in clinical practice. In vitro studies demonstrated that the magnitude of inhibition depends on the concentration of voriconazole, while voriconazole exposure is determined by the genotype status of CYP2C19. CYP2C19 gene polymorphism challenges the management of drug-drug interactions(DDIs) between voriconazole and tacrolimus. This work aimed to predict the impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the DDIs by using physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) models. The precision of the developed voriconazole and tacrolimus models was reasonable by evaluating the pharmacokinetic parameters fold error, such as AUC0-24, Cmax and tmax. Voriconazole increased tacrolimus concentration immediately in all population. The simulated duration of DDIs disappearance after voriconazole withdrawal were 146h, 90h and 66h in poor metabolizers (PMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs) and extensive metabolizers(EMs), respectively. The developed and optimized PBPK models in this study can be applied to assit the dose adjustment for tacrolimus with and without voriconazole.


Subject(s)
Tacrolimus/agonists , Impact Factor , Voriconazole/agonists , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Adaptation, Psychological/classification
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22540, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439522

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the activities of novel 20(R)-3,20-dihydroxy-19-norpregn-1,3,5(10)-trienes (kuz7 and kuz8b) of natural 13ß- and epimeric 13α-series against triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. High antiproliferative activity of synthesized compounds kuz8b and kuz7 against MDA-MB-231 triple-negative cancer cells was revealed. The steroid kuz7 of natural 13ß-configuration was more active against MDA-MB-231 cells than the 13α-steroid kuz8b. Cell cycle analysis revealed common patterns for the action of both tested compounds. The number of cells in the subG1 phase increased in a dose-dependent manner, indicating induction of apoptosis, which was also verified by PARP cleavage. In contrast, the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase decreases with increasing compound concentration. Steroid kuz7 at micromolar concentrations reduced the expression of GLUT1, a glucose transporter. High efficacy of the combination of kuz7 with biguanide metformin was shown, and synergistic effects on MDA-MB-231 cell growth and expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were revealed. According to the obtained results, including the high activity of kuz7 against triple-negative cancer cells, the detected induction of apoptosis, and the decrease in GLUT1 expression, 13ß-steroid kuz7 is of interest for further preclinical studies both alone and in combination with the metabolic drug metformin


Subject(s)
Steroids/agonists , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Glucose Transporter Type 1/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Apoptosis , Metformin/administration & dosage
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21920, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439531

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report here microemulsions (MEs) for topical delivery of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of skin cancers. Selected MEs consisting of Oil/Water (O/W) bicontinuous (BC) and Water/Oil (W/O) preparations were characterized as to pH, nanometric size, zeta potential, drug content, and viscosity. Sustained in vitro PpIX release was achieved from MEs 2A (O/W), 10B (BC) and 16B (W/O) through an artificial membrane for up to 24 h, characterizing MEs as drug delivery systems. None of these MEs showed permeation through the skin, demonstrating the required topical effect. After 4 h, in vitro retention of PpIX in the stratum corneum (SC) was higher from both ME 10B and control (PpIX at 60 µg/mL in PEG 300). However, in the Epidermis + Dermis ([Ep + D]), retention from ME 10B and ME 16B was ~40 times higher compared to control. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) showed higher fluorescence intensity in the SC for both control and ME 10B, whereas ME 10B fluorescence was higher in [Ep+D]. The results indicate that ME 10B is suitable for PpIX encapsulation, showing good characteristics and a localized effect for a potential delivery system for PDT-associated treatments of skin cancers.


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy/adverse effects , Protoporphyrins/agonists , Skin/injuries , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Dermis/abnormalities
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21972, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439532

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazilian green propolis has been widely used in food and pharmaceutical products due to its valuable source of phenolic compounds and versatile biological activities. The development and validation of analytical methods are extremely useful for the characterization and quality control of products containing propolis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to optimize, validate and investigate the applicability of a reversed-phase HPLC method for analysis of different types of Brazilian green propolis extracts (glycolic and ethanolic). The method showed to be selective for the propolis phenolic markers. The analysis of variance and residues demonstrated that the method had significant linear regression, without lack of fit. It was also a precise, accurate and robust method, which was of utmost importance to analyze both glycolic and ethanolic extracts and at different concentrations. Moreover, as these products can display most complex matrices to analyze, a valid HPLC method can also prove to be specific and versatile.


Subject(s)
Propolis/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Phytochemicals/analysis , Food/classification
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e201178, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439535

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diclofenac sodium (DF) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Like other NSAIDs, DF is known to be associated with renal, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal complications. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adverse effects of DF in vivo in wistar albino rats and to assess if oral administration of the organic osmolyte betaine mitigates the adverse effect of DF. Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, one group of animals was fed orally with 20 mg/kg of DF once/day, and the other group received a combination of 20 mg/kg of DF and 30 mg/kg of betaine, once/day. Apart from the hematological and biochemical parameters, histopathological changes in the liver, lungs, brain, heart and kidney were also investigated. Histopathological alterations that were found in the liver, kidney, and lungs of DF-treated animals were found to be minimal or absent in DF + betaine-treated animals, as compared to untreated control. The results showed that betaine mitigates the adverse effects associated with DF treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Betaine/agonists , Diclofenac/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21770, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439547

ABSTRACT

Abstract The locust bean gum (LBG) is a polysaccharide with thickening, stabilizing and gelling properties and it has been used in the preparation of pharmaceutical formulations. Hydrogels (HGs) are obtained from natural or synthetic materials that present interesting properties for skin application. This study aimed to develop HGs from LBG using indole-3-carbinol (I3C) as an asset model for cutaneous application. HGs were prepared by dispersing LBG (2%, 3% and 4% w/v) directly in cold water. The formulations showed content close to 0.5 mg/g (HPLC) and pH ranging from 7.25 to 7.41 (potentiometry). The spreadability factor (parallel plate method) was inversely proportional to LBG concentration. The rheological evaluation (rotational viscometer) demonstrated a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic flow behavior (Ostwald De Weale model), which is interesting for cutaneous application. The HET-CAM evaluation showed the non-irritating characteristic of the formulations. The bioadhesive potential demonstrated bioadhesion in a concentration-dependent manner. Permeation in human skin using Franz cells showed that the highest LBG concentration improved the skin distribution profile with greater I3C amounts in the viable skin layers. The present study demonstrated the feasibility of preparing HGs with LBG and the formulation with the highest polymer concentration was the most promising to transport active ingredients through the skin.


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides/analysis , Rubber/analysis , Hydrogels/analysis , Potentiometry/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Skin Cream/classification
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21328, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439548

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study entails the systematic development and validation of a stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for the analysis of sitagliptin and ertugliflozin in a fixed-dose combination. Analytical quality by design (AQbD) concepts were used to define critical method variables, employing Pareto risk assessment and a Placket-Burman screening design, preceded by a Box-Behnken design with response surface analysis to optimise critical method parameters such as % acetonitrile (X1), buffer pH (X2) and column oven temperature (X3). Multiple response optimisation (Derringer's desirability) of variables was accomplished by studying critical analytical attributes, such as resolution, retention time and theoretical plates. The title analytes were separated effectively on a PRONTOSIL C18 column at 37 °C using a mobile phase of acetonitrile:acetate buffer, pH 4.4 (36:64 percent v/v), pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and UV detection at 225 nm. Linearity was observed over a concentration range of 25-150 µg/mL and 3.75-22.5 µg/mL at retention times of 2.82 and 3.92 min for sitagliptin and ertugliflozin, respectively. The method obeyed all validation parameters of the ICH Q2(R1) guidelines. The proposed robust method allows the study of the selected drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms as well as in drug stability studies under various stress conditions.


Subject(s)
Drawing , Sitagliptin Phosphate/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Total Quality Management/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e211019, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439505

ABSTRACT

Abstract The form of drug administration affects the success of treatment, since it can influence adherence of the patient to the therapy. The use of orodispersible films has emerged as a way to overcome some drawbacks of conventional methods of drug delivery, especially for patients experiencing difficulty in swallowing. These films are prepared using a matrix that incorporates the drug and contains other substances that confer the properties of the system. The present work describes the use of thermoplastic starch as a carrier for the model drug diclofenac, including film preparation and testing of its orodispersible potential. Preparation of the film employed a microwave oven to gelatinize and plasticize corn starch, with incorporation of the model drug, followed by solvent-casting. The samples were characterized using mechanical tests, analyses of water uptake and water content, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that the film presented promising properties as an alternative system for oral drug administration, with good incorporation and distribution of the drug in the matrix. The material displayed satisfactory mechanical properties, which are crucial for this type of material, due to the need for oral administration and handling before use.


Subject(s)
Starch/agonists , Diclofenac/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21345, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439504

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work analyzed the pharmacotherapeutic problems identified by the clinical pharmacist in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the acceptance of pharmaceutical interventions in solving these problems. This is a descriptive cross-sectional retrospective study, carried out in the adult ICU of a public hospital. All patients hospitalized during the study period had their pharmacotherapy monitored and those whose stay at the ICU lasted less than 24 hours were excluded. The pharmacotherapeutic problems were classified according to type, cause, acceptability/implementation, mode of intervention, outcome and related pharmacotherapeutic group. 302 patients were followed up and 350 pharmacotherapeutic problems were identified. Most of them were classified as unnecessary drug-treatment (n=186; 53.1%). The most frequent causes were excessive drug administration (n=181; 97.3%), and antimicrobials was the main group of drugs associated to that type of problem. 350 pharmaceutical interventions were performed, highlighting "prescriber informed only" (n=178; 50.9%), with an average acceptability of 90.7%, with those carried out on site being more effective (93.4%). The number of pharmacotherapeutic problems that were totally solved was 282 (80.6%). Clinical pharmacy activities in the ICU identified, prevented and corrected pharmacotherapeutic problems, contributing to the optimization of pharmacotherapy in aspects related to the need, efficacy and safety of treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients/classification , Pharmaceutical Services/ethics , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Organization and Administration/standards , Pharmacists/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Patient Safety/standards , Evidence-Based Pharmacy Practice/trends
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22802, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505844

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to characterize and compare medicines formularies (MFs) used in Long-Term Care (LTC) facilities in Portugal, and to identify the prevalence of Potentially Inappropriate Medicines (PIMs). A systematic contact with LTC facilities was undertaken in December 2021. MFs were systematized according to the Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical classification system (ATC), followed by descriptive content analysis. A structured comparison between MFs developed by public organizations and private LTC facilities was performed. After duplicate removal and exclusion of medicines not for systemic use, two explicit criteria - the Algorithm of medication review in frail older people and the EU(7)-PIM list - were employed for PIMs identification. Five MFs were obtained and assessed. The three MFs developed by private institutions covered 23% of the national LTC facilities and approximately 34% of the national total of beds. Heterogeneity was particularly high for the Alimentary tract and metabolism, Blood and blood-forming organs, Musculoskeletal system, and Respiratory system ATC groups. A PIM prevalence of 29,4% was identified. Medicines distribution between the MFs suggests the need to develop national guidelines towards harmonizing medicines usage in LTC. The prevalence of PIMs found highlights the importance of a particular optimized use of this health technology in aged sub-populations


Subject(s)
Pharmacists/classification , Formulary , Homes for the Aged/classification , Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee/classification , Portugal/ethnology , Aged , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List/ethics
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22330, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505846

ABSTRACT

Abstract Donepezil-HCl is a member of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has many side effects. In this study, to reduce the side effects of Donepezil-HCl and increase the penetration of the drug through the blood-brain barrier, we aimed to design a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulation. The effects of the different formulation parameters, such as homogenization speed, sonication time, lipid and drug concentration, surfactant type and concentration, and volume of the aqueous phase, were assessed for optimization. The particle size and PDI increased with increasing lipid concentration but decreased with increasing amounts of surfactant (Tween 80) and co-surfactant (lecithin). When the homogenization rate and sonication time increased, the particle size decreased and the encapsulation efficiency increased. The optimized formulation exhibited particle size, PDI, encapsulation efficiency, and zeta potential of 87.2±0.11 nm; 0.22±0.02; 93.84±0.01 %; -17.0±0.12 mV respectively. The in vitro release investigation revealed that approximately 70% of Donepezil-HCl was cumulatively released after 24 hours. TEM analysis proved that spherical and smooth particles were obtained and formulations had no toxic effect on cells. The final optimized formulation could be a candidate for Donepezil-HCl application in Alzheimer's treatment with reduced side effects and doses for patients


Subject(s)
Reference Standards , Research/instrumentation , Nanoparticles/analysis , Donepezil/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Alzheimer Disease/pathology
20.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 59(3)sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441578

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Debido al consumo indiscriminado de fármacos, muchas bacterias han comenzado a mostrar resistencia. No obstante, cada vez hay más investigaciones que buscan soluciones a este problema, y para lograrlo indagan en los beneficios médicos de determinadas plantas sobre la cavidad oral y su menor efecto tóxico. El 10 % de las plantas a nivel mundial se usan con fines medicinales. El Instituto Nacional de Cáncer indica que el 67 por ciento de los fármacos tiene su origen en la naturaleza, y el 25 % derivan de las plantas. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto inhibitorio del crecimiento in vitro de los extractos de Plantago major, Eucalyptus globulus y Matricaria chamomilla a diferentes concentraciones (100 por ciento, 50 por ciento, 25 por ciento y 12,5 por ciento) sobre cepas de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). Métodos: Estudio cuasiexperimental, in vitro, longitudinal y prospectivo. El universo estuvo formado por las cepas Streptococcus mutans, y la población por las cepas de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). El tamaño de la muestra se basó en el método estandarizado del CLSI. La muestra fueron 10 discos por extracto, embebidos con 50 uL., colocados sobre agar Mueller Hinton con sembrado de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). Se realizaron las medidas de los halos de inhibición a las 24 horas. Se usaron pruebas paramétricas de análisis de varianza y la prueba Tukey. Resultados: El halo inhibitorio promedio de la clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento fue de 12,76 mm (p = 0,006). El extracto de "eucalipto" al 25 por ciento presentó diferencias significativas respecto a los otros grupos (p = 0,040), al 50 por ciento (p = 0,002) y al 100 por ciento (p = 0,000). Conclusiones: El extracto hidroalcohólico de Eucalyptus globulus al 100 por ciento presentó efecto inhibitorio frente al Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) in vitro(AU)


Introduction: Due to the indiscriminate consumption of drugs, many bacteria have begun to show resistance. However, there is more and more research that seeks solutions to this problem, and to achieve this they investigate the medical benefits of certain plants on the oral cavity and its less toxic effect. 10 percent of the world's plants are used for medicinal purposes. The National Cancer Institute indicates that 67 percent of drugs originate in nature, and 25% are derived from plants. Objective: Determine the inhibitory effect of in vitro growth of the extracts of Plantago major, Eucalyptus globulus and Matricaria chamomilla at different concentrations (100 percent, 50 percent, 25 percent and 12.5 percent) on strains of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). Methods: Quasiexperimental, in vitro, longitudinal and prospective study. The universe was formed by the strains Streptococcus mutans, and the population by the strains of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). The sample size was based on the standardized CLSI method. The sample was 10 discs per extract, embedded with 50 uL., placed on Mueller Hinton agar with Streptococcus mutans seeding (ATCC 25175). Inhibition halos measurements were performed at 24 hours. Parametric analysis of variance tests and the Tukey test were used. Results: The average inhibitory halo of 0.12 percentchlorhexidine was 12.76 mm (p = 0.006). The extract of "eucalyptus" at 25 percent showed significant differences with respect to the other groups (p = 0.040), 50 percent (p = 0.002) and 100 percent (p = 0.000). Conclusions: The hydroalcoholic extract of Eucalyptus globulus at 100 percent presented inhibitory effect against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) in vitro(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Plantago major/adverse effects , Longitudinal Studies
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