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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 23-32, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362667

ABSTRACT

O descarte inadequado de medicamentos pode levar a impactos ambientais negativos e deve ser considerado um problema de saúde pública. O presente estudo teve como objetivo levantar dados quantitativos e qualitativos relacionados ao perfil dos medicamentos descartados no município de Governador Valadares - MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido nas UAPS/ESF que possuíam farmácias, e também na Farmácia Central/Policlínica Municipal. Nesses locais, foi realizada uma análise dos medicamentos descartados no período de julho de 2017 a maio de 2018. Por meio dos dados obtidos nesse período foi possível perceber que as principais classes de medicamentos descartadas foram os inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina, antagonistas da angiotensina II, agentes betabloqueadores, diuréticos, hipoglicemiantes, contraceptivos hormonais e agentes modificadores de lipídeos. Além disso, foi realizada uma ação de educação em saúde e aplicado um questionário semiestruturado aos usuários participantes dos grupos operativos. Dos 34 usuários respondentes do questionário, 23 (69,70%) não tinham acesso a informação sobre o local correto de descarte e armazenamento de medicamentos. Após a ação de educação em saúde verificou-se um aumento no quantitativo de medicamentos descartados pelos usuários nas UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I e II, Altinópolis III e IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I e II e Esperança e Nossa Senhora das Graças. O trabalho desenvolvido permitiu apresentar dados relevantes para a gestão municipal demonstrando a importância do farmacêutico no cuidado em saúde e o caráter epidemiológico local da prevalência das doenças crônico não transmissíveis.


The inadequate disposal of drugs can lead to negative environmental impacts and should be treated as a public health problem. This study aimed at surveying quantitative and qualitative data related to the profile of drugs discarded in the city of Governador Valadares - MG. The work was developed in the UAPS / ESF that had pharmacies, and also in the Central Pharmacy/Municipal Polyclinic. In these locations, an analysis of the drugs discarded between July 2017 and May 2018 was carried out. Through the data obtained in this period, it was possible to notice that the main classes of drugs discarded were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, beta-blocking agents, diuretics, hypoglycemic agents, hormonal contraceptives, and lipid-modifying agents. In addition, a health education action was carried out and a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to users participating in the operating groups. From the 34 users who responded the questionnaire, 23 (69.70%) did not have access to information on the correct place to dispose and store medicines. After the health education action, there was an increase in the amount of drugs discarded by users in the UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I and II, Altinópolis III and IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I and II, and Esperança and Nossa Senhora das Graças. The work carried out made it possible to present relevant data for municipal management, demonstrating the importance of the pharmacist in health care and the local epidemiological character of the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmacies/supply & distribution , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Patients , Pharmacists/supply & distribution , Tablets/supply & distribution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/supply & distribution , Health Centers , Public Health/education , Health Education , Municipal Management/legislation & jurisprudence , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Drug Storage , Environment , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/supply & distribution , Lipids/supply & distribution
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 1191-1203, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364689

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estudo transversal da disponibilidade de medicamentos prescritos na Atenção Primária, com amostra probabilística de 1221 usuários das farmácias públicas de município polo de saúde em Minas Gerais, em 2017. Foram estimados indicadores de disponibilidade dos medicamentos e realizou-se regressão logística hierárquica, segundo o modelo comportamental de uso de serviços de saúde. Apenas 39,3% dos usuários receberam todos os medicamentos nas quantidades prescritas. Os medicamentos mais e menos disponíveis foram, respectivamente, os que atuam no sistema digestivo/metabolismo, e no sangue e órgãos hematopoiéticos. A disponibilidade integral do tratamento se mostrou associada a mais escolaridade (≥ 8 anos OR: 1,7; IC 95%: 1,3-2,4); proximidade até a farmácia (≤15 min OR: 1,7; IC 95%: 1,2-2,3); ausência de gastos privados com medicamentos (OR: 2,2; IC 95%: 1,7-2,9) e menor número de medicamentos prescritos (≤ 2 OR: 3,2; IC 95%: 2,3-4,4; 3/4 OR: 1,6; IC 95%: 1,2-2,1). Esses resultados mostram diferenças na disponibilidade de medicamentos dentro do SUS, evidenciando a necessidade de reorganização da rede de atendimento dos serviços de dispensação e do planejamento das aquisições de medicamentos, além da proposição de políticas públicas que priorizem a população mais vulnerável.


Abstract This is a cross-sectional study on the availability of prescribed medicines in Primary Health Care (PHC), with a probabilistic sample of 1,221 users of public pharmacies in a health pole municipality in Minas Gerais, in 2017. Medicine availability indicators were estimated, and a hierarchical logistic regression was performed, according to the behavioral model of health service use. Only 39.3% of patients received all medicines in the prescribed quantities. The most and the least available medicines were, respectively, those for the digestive system/metabolism, and for blood and hematopoietic organs. Full availability of the prescribed treatment was associated with higher schooling (≥ 8 years OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4); proximity to the pharmacy (≤15 min OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.3); absence of out-of-pocket expenditure on medicines (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9), and a smaller number of prescription drugs (≤ 2 OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.3-4.4; 3/4 OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1). These results showed differences in medicine availability within the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), and highlighted the need to reorganize the dispensing services network and pharmaceutical procurement planning, as well as to develop public policies to protect the vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacies , Pharmaceutical Services , Prescription Drugs , Primary Health Care , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18849, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360168

ABSTRACT

Abstract To assess the performance indicators for pharmaceutical services (PS) in primary health care (PHC), the level of satisfaction with pharmacy services among users and managers / pharmacists' impressions in relation to the findings were evaluated. The study used mixed methods, including a retrospective and descriptive study of the performance indicators for PS in PHC, an observational study on the level of satisfaction and a qualitative study of users' perception of pharmacy services at Health Units. Managers and pharmacists' impressions of the study results were also collected. Only 44.4% of pharmacies had a full-time pharmacist. From the establishments visited, 5.3% did not have an air-conditioned environment, and only 33.3% of the items essential to the Good Practices of Storage of Medicines and Supplies criteria were fulfilled. Although 77.9% of the prescribed medicines were dispensed, it did not reach the 80% standard. The satisfaction level of users was 3.2±0.6, indicating dissatisfaction with pharmacies' services. By means of an evaluation of each item within the questionnaire, it was possible to observe that variables related to pharmaceutical care presented low scores in relation to other domains, thus evidencing the fragility of the pharmaceutical- patient relationship in users' perception. Managers and pharmacists suggested that these results were related to the inadequate physical infrastructure of pharmacies, work overload, lack of recognition and undervaluation of pharmacists, lack of interaction within the PHC team, high turnover of pharmacists, and lack of PS prioritization by the administration. PS in PHC has structural and organizational weaknesses that require changes. In general, users are dissatisfied with pharmacies' services, especially with pharmaceutical care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients , Personal Satisfaction , Pharmacists/classification , Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration , Primary Health Care/classification , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Consumer Behavior , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Health Manager , Organization and Administration/statistics & numerical data , Pharmacies , Diagnosis of Health Situation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Equipment and Supplies/supply & distribution , Health Research Evaluation
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241043, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285593

ABSTRACT

Abstract As there is a great scarcity of studies on the importance of good compounding practices in the preparation of cosmetics, this study aimed to evaluate the quality control of cosmetics with active ingredient caffeine for the treatment of cellulite prepared by magistrals pharmacies. Microbiological analyzes, pH determination, color measurement, quantification of the percentage of the active ingredient caffeine and viscosity in creams and gels with 5% of the active ingredient caffeine were performed. In the microbiological analysis, the presence of molds and yeasts was verified above the permitted level according to the Brazilian pharmacopoeia. The pH decreased over time, contributing to the formulations becoming more acidic. In the color parameters, it was found that pharmacy F4 showed a brownish color, both for the gel and for the cream. The percentage of caffeine was within specifications in all formulations and the viscosity remained unchanged during the shelf life of the samples. It is important that the compounding pharmacies demand more effectively the commitment of the team, as well as the analysis of the raw material according to the microbiological control regulations to translate into the quality of the products prepared by the pharmacies and favor the consumer in the effective objective that the product you want to achieve.


Resumo Como há uma grande escassez de estudos sobre a importância de boas práticas de manipulação na elaboração de cosméticos, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o controle de qualidade de cosméticos com princípio ativo cafeína para o tratamento de celulite, elaborados por farmácias de manipulação de Campo Mourão. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas, determinação do pH, mensuração da coloração, quantificação da porcentagem do princípio ativo cafeína e viscosidade em cremes e geís com 5% do princípio ativo cafeína. Nas análises microbiológicas foi verificada a presença de bolores e leveduras acima do pemitido segundo a farmacopéia brasileira. O pH diminuiu ao longo do tempo, contribuindo para que as formulações ficassem mais ácidas. Nos parâmetros de cor averiguou-se que a farmácia F4 apresentou uma coloração amarronzada, tanto para o gel quanto para o creme. A porcentagem de cafeína estava dentro das especificações em todas as formulações e a viscosidade se manteve inalterada durante o prazo de validade das amostras. Com o propósito de um melhor preparo magistral é importante que as farmácias de manipulação exijam de forma mais eficaz o comprometimento da equipe, bem como a análise da matéria-prima segundo as regulamentações de controle microbiológico. Além disso, a implementação de normas mais rígidas e o melhor controle da matéria-prima e das formulações finais fazem com que a qualidade dos produtos manipulados pelas farmácias magistrais seja aumentada significativamente, favorecendo o consumidor na efetiva finalidade a que o produto objetiva atingir.


Subject(s)
Pharmacies , Cosmetics , Brazil , Caffeine , Gels
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(11): 5463-5480, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350468

ABSTRACT

Resumo Desde 2003, a Câmara de Regulação do Mercado de Medicamentos (CMED) é responsável por estabelecer o preço máximo ao consumidor (PMC) para medicamentos. O objetivo deste estudo é comparar preços praticados na internet com o PMC e verificar como se dá a diferença média de preços entre eles no mercado em dois segmentos de medicamentos existentes no Brasil, os de referência e os genéricos. Foi realizada uma coleta de preços de medicamentos em sítios eletrônicos de farmácias e drogarias e os preços coletados foram comparados com os seus respectivos PMCs para o ano de 2019. Foram analisados 68 fármacos e 268 apresentações comerciais de medicamentos genéricos e de referência relativas a esses fármacos. Observou-se um padrão distinto para a diferença média de preços praticados em relação ao PMC em cada segmento de mercado, sendo que, em sua maioria, os genéricos tendiam a praticar as maiores diferenças e os de referência as menores diferenças. O problema da distorção dos preços praticados em relação ao PMC apontados pela literatura foi confirmado principalmente em relação ao mercado de genéricos. Conclui-se que seria importante uma revisão periódica do PMC levando em conta os preços praticados no varejo.


Abstract Since 2003, the Medicine Market Regulation Chamber (CMED, in portuguese) has been responsible for establishing the maximum consumer prices (MCP) for medicines. The aim of this study is to compare prices practiced on the internet with the MCP and identify the average price difference between them in two segments of existing drugs in Brazil, the reference and the generic ones. Drug prices were collected on websites of pharmacies and drugstores and compared with their respective MCP for the year 2019. The analysis included 68 drugs and 268 commercial presentations of generic and reference drugs related to these drugs. A different pattern was observed for the average price difference in relation to the MCP in each market segment, with most generic drugs tending to show the highest differences and the reference drugs the lowest ones. The problem of price distortion in relation to the MCP pointed out by the literature was confirmed mainly in relation to the generic drug market. It was concluded that a periodic review of the MCP would be important, considering retail prices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacies , Drug Costs , Brazil , Drugs, Generic , Internet
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 5081-5088, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345760

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o uso e o acesso aos medicamentos para o diabetes mellitus tipo 2 em idosos atendidos na Estratégia Saúde da Família de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo. Trata-se de um inquérito domiciliar de base populacional realizado com 338 idosos, em amostragem por conglomerados. Investigou-se a farmacoterapia do diabetes e o acesso por meio de um questionário estruturado em entrevistas face a face. O número de medicamentos usados no tratamento do diabetes variou de um a quatro. Observou-se o predomínio de antidiabéticos orais, sendo o uso de apenas metformina autorreferido por 37,9% dos idosos, e 9,8% usavam sulfonilureia isoladamente. No grupo de idosos com idade igual ou superior a 80 anos, percebeu-se maior frequência (38,9%) no uso de insulina do que nos outros grupos etários. O acesso total foi estimado em 96,4%, a forma de financiamento gratuita correspondeu a 78,1% e as farmácias do Sistema Único de Saúde foram os principais locais de provisão dos medicamentos (74,8%). A metformina foi o antidiabético oral mais usado pelos idosos, em conformidade com as atuais recomendações para o tratamento da doença. Contudo, verificou-se usos inapropriados, especificamente na utilização isolada de sulfonilureia. Além disso, evidenciou-se a importância do sistema público de saúde para o fornecimento dos medicamentos.


Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the use and access to medications for type 2 diabetes among older people registered in the family health strategy in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo. A population-based household survey was undertaken with 338 older adults selected using two-stage cluster sampling. Pharmacotherapy of diabetes and access to medications was investigated using a structured questionnaire administered by means of face-to-face interviews. The number of medicines used to treat diabetes ranged between 1 and 4. Respondents predominantly used only oral antidiabetic agents. The use of metformin and sulfonylureas on their own was reported by 37.9% and 9.8% of respondents, respectively. Frequency of insulin use was greatest in the 80 years and overage group (38.9%). The large majority of respondents (96.4%) had full access to medicines. Means of payment was "free of charge" in 78.1% of the respondents and public pharmacies were the main source of medication (74.8%). The most commonly used oral antidiabetic was metformin, which is consistent with current treatment guidelines. However, the findings show inappropriate medication use among older people, more specifically the use of sulfonylureas on their own. The findings of this study highlight the important role played by the public health service in providing medications for type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Pharmacies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Brazil , Health Services Accessibility , Hypoglycemic Agents
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(6): 2301-2310, jun. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278708

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease marked by elevated blood glucose levels. Controlling DM involves adequate diet, physical exercises, medicines and monitoring the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. This was a retrospective study of the process of dispensing long-acting insulin analogues to users with diabetes (types 1 and 2) who were registered at high-cost public pharmacies in public health system in a southeast state of Brazil, that sought to evaluate the fulfillment of the criteria of all the clinical protocol to provide these analogs. Of the 987 users registered in the health service, 315 met the inclusion criteria for the study. The evaluation of the dispensing processes of the long-acting insulin analogues revealed that the inclusion, exclusion, and suspension criteria of the protocol related with these insulin analogues were in some extend only partially fulfilled. Additionally, there was no difference between the initial and final fasting glycemic and HbA1c levels. It is concluded that the established criteria for dispensing long-acting insulin analogues were partly fulfilled by pharmacies, compromising the rational use of these analogues. It can directly impact the cost of maintaining the public health service and users' health.


Resumo Diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença crônica marcada por níveis sanguíneos elevados de glicose. O controle do DM envolve dieta adequada, exercícios físicos, medicamentos e monitoramento dos níveis sanguíneos de glicose e de hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c). Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo do processo de dispensação de análogos de insulina de ação prolongada a usuários com diabetes (tipos 1 e 2) cadastrados em farmácias públicas de alto custo do sistema público de saúde de um estado do Sudeste do Brasil, que buscou avaliar o cumprimento dos critérios do protocolo clínico para fornecimento desses análogos. Dos 987 usuários cadastrados no serviço de saúde, 315 preencheram os critérios de inclusão. A avaliação dos processos de dispensação dos análogos de insulina de ação prolongada revelou que os critérios de inclusão, exclusão e suspensão do protocolo dos análogos de insulina eram parcialmente cumpridos. Além disso, não houve diferença entre os níveis inicial e final de glicemia em jejum e HbA1c. Conclui-se que os critérios estabelecidos para dispensação de análogos de insulina de ação prolongada foram parcialmente cumpridos pelas farmácias, comprometendo o uso racional dos análogos. Os achados podem impactar diretamente no custo de manutenção do serviço público de saúde e na saúde do usuário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose , Brazil , Clinical Protocols , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Insulin, Long-Acting , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(4): e00129919, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285833

ABSTRACT

A Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância, Bicos, Chupetas e Mamadeiras (Lei Federal nº 11.265/2006) visa controlar o marketing abusivo de produtos que competem com o aleitamento materno. O objetivo foi avaliar o impacto de uma intervenção educativa sobre o cumprimento da Lei em farmácias. Pesquisa de intervenção randomizada conduzida em 155 farmácias que infringiam a Lei na Zona Sul do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A prática comercial das farmácias foi avaliada antes e depois da intervenção com o farmacêutico e com o gerente, comparados ao grupo controle. O intervalo entre a intervenção e a segunda avaliação foi de um mês. Para aferir as mudanças no quantitativo de farmácias com infração à Lei, antes e depois da intervenção, foi utilizado o teste de McNemar. O teste de Wilcoxon foi usado para comparar a variação no número de infrações em cada grupo de alocação. Um mês após a intervenção houve redução de 16,1% (n = 25) no total de farmácias com infração. Houve redução de 18,7% para 12,9% em produtos cuja promoção comercial é proibida (p = 0,093) e de 92,9% para 80,5% nos produtos lácteos (p = 0,001), mas entre alimentos de transição houve aumento de 28,5% para 42,3% de farmácias com promoção ilegal (p = 0,006). O grupo intervenção com farmacêutico apresentou redução estatisticamente significativa nas infrações relacionadas a descontos de preço (p = 0,022) e a exposições especiais (p = 0,002). A intervenção educativa reduziu a quantidade de farmácias que infringia essa Lei, principalmente quando esta intervenção foi realizada com o farmacêutico.


The Brazilian Code of Marketing of Infant and Toddlers Food, Nipples, Pacifiers, and Baby Bottles (Federal Law n. 11,265/2006) aims to control the abusive marketing of products that compete with breastfeeding. The objective was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on compliance with this law by pharmacies. A randomized intervention study was conducted in 155 pharmacies that were infringing the law in the Southern Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The pharmacies' commercial practices were assessed before and after the intervention with the pharmacist and manager, compared to the control group. The interval between the intervention and the second assessment was one month. McNemar test was used to measure changes in the number of pharmacies infringing the law before and after the intervention. Wilcoxon test was used to compare variation in the number of violations in each group. A month after the intervention, there was a 16.1% reduction (n = 25) in the number of pharmacies committing violations. There was a decrease from 18.7% to 12.9% in products whose commercial promotion is banned by the law (p = 0.093) and from 92.9% to 80.5% in milk products (p = 0.001), but among processed complementary food there was an increase from 28.5% to 42.3% of pharmacies with illegal promotions (p = 0.006). The intervention group with the pharmacists showed a statistically significant reduction in violations related to discount prices (p = 0.022) and special displays (p = 0.002). The educational intervention reduced the number of pharmacies that infringed the law, mainly when the intervention involved the pharmacist.


La Norma Brasileña de Comercialización de Alimentos para Lactantes y Niños de la Primera Infancia, Tetillas, Chupetes y Biberones (Ley Federal nº 11.265/2006) tiene como finalidad controlar el márketing abusivo de productos que compiten con la lactancia materna. El objetivo fue evaluar el impacto de una intervención educativa sobre el cumplimiento de la ley en farmacias. Se realizó una investigación de intervención aleatoria, llevada a cabo en 155 farmacias que infringían la ley en la zona sur de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. La práctica comercial de las farmacias fue evaluada antes y después de la intervención con el farmacéutico y con el gerente, comparadas con el grupo de control. El intervalo entre la intervención y la segunda evaluación fue de un mes. Para evaluar los cambios en lo cuantitativo de farmacias con infracción a la ley, antes y después de la intervención, se utilizó el test de McNemar. El test de Wilcoxon se utilizó para comparar la variación en el número de infracciones en cada grupo de asignación. Tras un mes de la intervención hubo una reducción de un 16,1% (n = 25) en el total de farmacias con infracción. Hubo una reducción desde un 18,7% a un 12,9% en productos cuya promoción comercial está prohibida (p = 0,093) y de un 92,9% a un 80,5% en productos lácteos (p = 0,001). Sin embargo, entre alimentos de transición hubo un aumento de un 28,5% a un 42,3% de farmacias con promoción ilegal (p = 0,006). El grupo de intervención con el farmacéutico presentó una reducción estadísticamente significativa en las infracciones relacionadas con descuentos de precio (p = 0,022) y respecto a exposiciones especiales (p = 0,002). La intervención educativa redujo la cantidad de farmacias que infringía esta ley, principalmente cuando la intervención educativa se realizó con el farmacéutico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Pharmacies , Breast Feeding , Brazil , Family , Marketing
10.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1280614

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To evaluate the skills and practices of pharmacy staff during the dispensing of tramadol (drug with fiscalized substance) in drugstores and pharmacies in Medellin, Colombia. METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed. The simulated patient technique was used. The main outcomes included the information provided on the dispensed drug (tramadol), the use of tools to provide information, and the information provided on drug precautions and use recommendations. RESULTS We visited 305 drugstores and pharmacies. The average dispensing time was 2.3 min (SD 1.1 min). In nine drugstores and pharmacies (3.0%), tramadol was not dispensed because it was not in stock. In 17 drugstores and pharmacies (5.7%), the simulated patients were actively informed by the dispensing pharmacy staff; of these, 16 provided oral information and one provided oral and written information. Eight patients (2.7%) received information regarding tramadol use. However, 99% of patients were not informed about tramadol side effects such as dependence, sedation, or hypnosis, and none of the simulated female patients were informed on the precautions related to tramadol use during pregnancy or lactation. CONCLUSIONS Communication skills and appropriate practices of pharmacy staff are critical to patient self-care. However, this study shows their difficulty in counseling about precautions and use recommendations of drugs with fiscalized substances. These outcomes could inform future studies focusing on the rational use of these drugs in drugstores and pharmacies. It is necessary to improve the pharmacy staff competencies through continuing education programs, to facilitate access to information and training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pharmacies , Pharmacy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Community Pharmacy Services , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19164, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350233

ABSTRACT

In Nigeria, drug financing by the public has been challenged by financial constraints through public fund due to a limited fund available to the government to meet all its demands. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability of the hospital patient prices of same drugs under the PublicPrivate Partnership (PPP) and in Private Retail Community Pharmacy (PRCP), and to investigate the perceived efficiency and effectiveness of the PPP by comparing it with the Drug Revolving Fund (DRF) model in drug supply financing. This study was conducted in Nigeria utilizing a mixed method. Mann-Whitney U test analysis was used to compare the median drug price of the two facilities. The majority (76.19%) of the drugs were sold at a cheaper rate in the hospital than what was obtained in the PRCP with no significance difference (p > 0.05). Dominant responses from the focused group discussions supported the PPP model. This study shows that the median patient price of the basket of matched pairs of same drugs in the hospital under the PPP and in the PRCP was identical. Overall, the participants were of the opinion that the PPP model was more efficient and effective than DRFin the financing drug supply


Subject(s)
Pharmacists/ethics , Drug Price , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Financing, Government/organization & administration , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Patients , Pharmacies/organization & administration , Statistics, Nonparametric , Supply , Financial Management/classification , Government , Nigeria/ethnology
12.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 322-327, 20201230.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223490

ABSTRACT

Muitas pessoas todos os anos são infectadas pelo HIV no Brasil e, quando infectadas, se tratadas precocemente têm mais chances de sucesso no tratamento, e assim evitam infectar outras pessoas com mudanças em seus hábitos comportamentais. Os autotestes de HIV que estão disponíveis em farmácias e drogarias de alguns países desde 1996 têm um papel fundamental na prevenção de propagação da doença. Apesar de o SUS oferecer gratuitamente a realização do teste às pessoas, é necessária a disponibilidade destes testes em farmácias e drogarias no Brasil. Esta modalidade de teste oferece resultados rápidos e seguros, porém com algumas advertências que poderão ser esclarecidas principalmente através do farmacêutico. Embora estes testes forneçam alta taxa de confiabilidade, são inúmeras as possibilidades de ocorrer um resultado falso negativo. Desta forma, é de extrema importância a orientação dos farmacêuticos junto ao consumidor. Com este artigo será possível identificar os tipos de testes disponíveis, quais as vantagens do autoteste bem como sua precisão, quais os grupos de risco que podem ser beneficiados e a abordagem social referente a este tipo de teste e como foi a experiência de se colocarem à disposição da população estes testes em outros países, como França e Estados Unidos


Many people every year are infected with HIV in Brazil and whe infected if treated early have a better chance of success in treatment, thus avoid infecting others with changes in their behavioral habits. The HIV self-tests that have been available in pharmacies and drugstores in some countries since 1996 play a key role in preventing the spread of the disease. Although the SUS offers the people free test, it is necessary the availability of these tests in pharmacies and drugstores in Brazil. This test mode offers quick and safe results, however with some warnings that can be clarified mainly through the pharmacist. Although these tests provide a high reliability rate, there are numerous possibilities of a false negative result, so the orientation of pharmacists to the consumer is extremely important. With this article it will be possible to identify the types of tests available, the advantages of self-testing as well as their accuracy, which groups of risk can benefit and the social approach to this type of test and how was the experience of putting them. These tests are available in other countries, such as France and the United States.


Subject(s)
Pharmacies , HIV , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Self-Testing
13.
Rev. Saúde Pública Paraná (Online) ; 3(supl. 1): 212-225, dez. 11, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SESA-PR | ID: biblio-1151291

ABSTRACT

A chegada da epidemia de Covid-19 ao Paraná tornou necessária a adoção de medidas pela Assistência Farmacêutica da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde que reduzisse a circulação de pessoas e reorientasse os trabalhos nas farmácias das Regionais de Saúde. Cerca de 112 mil usuários são atendidos nessas farmácias para recebimento de medicamentos do Componente Especializado e elenco complementar. Dentre as estratégias para diminuição de circulação de usuários estão entrega antecipada de medicamentos, renovações automáticas do tratamento, ferramenta para cadastro online de novos usuários e ampliação do serviço de entrega em casa. A entrega antecipada de medicamentos, o cadastro online e a entrega domiciliar proporcionaram jun-tos uma redução da presença de cerca de 80 mil usuários nas farmácias das RS entre março e julho de 2020. As ações adotadas foram efetivas na redução da circulação de pessoas protegendo usuários e equipe da AF. (AU)


The arrival of the Covid-19 epidemic in Paraná required the Pharmaceutical Assistance Department (AF) of the Paraná Secretary of Health to adopt measures to reduce people's circulation and redirect the efforts of the pharmacies of all Regional Health Offices (RS). About 112 thousand users count on these pharmacies to receive medicines included in the Specialized Component and Complementary medicines list. Among the strategies to reduce the circulation of users are early delivery of medicines; automated renewals of treatment; a tool for online registration of new users and expansion of the home delivery service. The early delivery of medicines, online registration and home delivery together made it possible for 80 thousand users not to have to physically visit RS pharmacies between March 2020 and July of the same year, protecting not only the users themselves but also AF people. (AU)


Subject(s)
Pharmacies , Pharmaceutical Services , Coronavirus Infections , Unified Health System
14.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(3): 933-965, set. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134070

ABSTRACT

Resumo Em 5 de novembro de 1808, dom João de Bragança promulgou um alvará sobre o exercício dos boticários e o preço das drogas e ordenou a criação de um regulamento para taxar o custo dos medicamentos comercializados no Brasil. Publicado pela primeira vez em 1809, o Regimento dos preços dos medicamentos... ganhou novas edições nos anos subsequentes e tornou-se um indispensável instrumento de trabalho para os envolvidos com a feitura e o comércio dos remédios. Este texto situa historicamente e destaca esse documento brevemente explorado pelos pesquisadores da história da farmácia brasileira, visto ter sido uma das primeiras iniciativas do governo luso-brasileiro condizentes com a atividade farmacêutica no Brasil no século XIX.


Abstract On November 5th, 1808, D. João de Bragança issued a license about the practice of druggists and the price of drugs and ordered the creation of a regulation to tax the cost of medicines marketed in Brazil. First published on 1809, the Regimento dos preços dos medicamentos... gained new editions in the following years and became an indispensable working tool for those involved in the making and trading of drugs at this time. This paper situates historically and sheds light on a document briefly explored by the researchers of the history of the Brazilian pharmacy, taking into account that it was one of the first initiatives of the Luso-Brazilian government in line with the pharmaceutical activity in Brazil in the nineteenth century.


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , Pharmacies/history , Pharmaceutical Services/history , Taxes/history , Fees, Pharmaceutical/history , Pharmacies/legislation & jurisprudence , Pharmaceutical Services/economics , Pharmaceutical Services/legislation & jurisprudence , Taxes/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Government Regulation/history , Fees, Pharmaceutical/legislation & jurisprudence
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(8): 3163-3174, Ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133113

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar aspectos relacionados aos serviços prestados nas farmácias do SUS do Brasil, segundo a percepção dos usuários. Utilizou-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos, realizada entre 2013 e 2014. Analisou-se indivíduos que obtiveram algum medicamento nas farmácias públicas. Para o cálculo das estimativas de prevalências, foi usado como denominador o total de usuários de medicamentos com IC95%. A partir da faixa etária de 20 a 24 anos até 60 a 64 anos observa-se diferenças significativas entre homens e mulheres, em relação ao uso de farmácias públicas. Mais de 30% das pessoas de todas as classes socioeconômica que não obtiveram medicamentos nas farmácias do SUS, nunca pensaram nessa possibilidade. Não costumam esperar para obtenção dos medicamentos e avaliação positiva do horário de funcionamento tiveram uma associação mais forte em relação a avaliação positiva dos usuários das farmácias do SUS. O horário de funcionamento e o tempo de espera são potenciais barreiras nas farmácias do SUS. A avaliação dos usuários que utilizam o SUS é positiva, mas aponta diferenças regionais e a identificação da magnitude dessas pode contribuir na formulação de políticas mais eficazes e equânimes.


Abstract Objective of this article is to evaluate aspects related to the services provided in SUS pharmacies in Brazil, according to users' perception. Data from the National Survey of Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines carried out between 2013 and 2014 were used. Individuals who obtained drugs from public pharmacies were analyzed. To calculate prevalence estimates, the total number of users of drugs with 95%CI was used as denominator. From the age group of 20 to 24 years up to 60 to 64 years, there were significant differences between men and women in terms of use of public pharmacies. More than 30% of people from all socioeconomic classes who did not obtain drugs from SUS pharmacies never thought about this possibility. Not having to wait much time to obtain the medication and a positive evaluation of the opening hours had a strong association with the positive evaluation of users of SUS pharmacies. Opening hours and waiting time are potential barriers in SUS pharmacies. The evaluation of users of SUS was positive, but it pointed to regional differences, and the identification of the magnitude of such differences can contribute to the planning of more effective and equitable policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pharmacies , Pharmaceutical Services , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
16.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(2): e1873, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126865

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El seguimiento farmacoterapéutico es una de las actividades orientadas al paciente que debe desarrollar la farmacia comunitaria para disminuir la morbilidad y la mortalidad asociada al uso de medicamentos. Su implementación representa una oportunidad de optimizar la farmacoterapia y de mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes que reciban el servicio. Objetivo: Evaluar las condiciones básicas estructurales para la implementación del servicio de seguimiento farmacoterapéutico en las farmacias comunitarias de los municipios Diez de Octubre y Cerro de la provincia de La Habana. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en el periodo de febrero-abril de 2016. Se evaluaron 44 farmacias comunitarias del municipio Diez de Octubre y 22 del municipio Cerro. Se empleó una guía de evaluación validada por expertos según Moriyama, que exploró cinco dimensiones y diez aspectos. Resultados: El municipio Cerro fue el menos favorable con menos dimensiones cumplidas. Para los dos municipios la dimensión de menor afectación fue la de recursos materiales y la de mayor la de servicios. Otras dimensiones afectadas fueron las de equipamiento, infraestructura y la de recursos humanos. La farmacia 710 de Diez de Octubre cumplió con la mayoría de las dimensiones evaluadas, excepto el acceso al Portal de la red Infomed. Conclusiones: Las farmacias comunitarias de los municipios Diez de Octubre y Cerro no tienen las condiciones básicas estructurales para implementar el servicio de seguimiento farmacoterapéutico(AU)


Introduction: Pharmacotherapy follow-up is one of the activities aimed to patients that must develop the community pharmacies to reduce morbidity and mortality associated to medications use. Its implementation represents an opportunity to optimize pharmacotherapy and to improve the quality of life for patients receiving the service. Objective: To evaluate the basic structural conditions for the implementation of the service of pharmacotherapy follow-up at the community pharmacies of 10 de Octubre and Cerro municipalities in Havana province. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the period from February to April 2016. 44 community pharmacies were assessed in 10 de Octubre municipality and 22 in Cerro municipality. It was used a guide for the assessment validated by experts according to Moriyama, that explored five dimensions and ten aspects. Results: Cerro municipality was the least favourable with fewer dimensions accomplished. For both municipalities, the dimension with less affectation was the material resources and the one with greater affectation was services. Other affected dimensions were the equipment, infrastructure and human resources. The pharmacy #710 in 10 de Octubre municipality complied with most of the dimensions assessed, except for the access to INFOMED network´s web page. Conclusions: Community pharmacies of 10 de Octubre and Cerro municipalities do not have basic structural conditions to implement the service of pharmacotherapy follow-up(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacies , Pharmacists , Pharmaceutical Services/standards , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
20.
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 5(2): 68-79, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1146108

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Evaluar la calidad de veinte plantas medicinales que se dispensan en la Farmacia Natural del CAMEC del Hospital III Chimbote - Red Asistencial Ancash - EsSalud. Materiales y métodos. Investigación analítica-descriptiva. Se analizaron veinte plantas medicinales: Berberis vulgaris, Bixa orellana, Chuquiraga rotundifolia, Culcitium canescens, Desmodium mollicum, Equisetum arvense, Eupatorium triplinerve, Gentianella alborosea, Geranium ayavacense, Maytenus laevis, Melissa officinalis, Minthostachys setosa, Muehlenbeckia volcanica, Peumus boldus, Phyllanthus niruri, Senecio tephrosioides, Smallanthus sonchifolius, Tiquilia paranychioides, Uncaria tomentosa, Valeriana officinalis. Las muestras fueron seleccionadas al azar (1 bolsa de 100 g) a las cuales se les realizaron los análisis organolépticos como olor, sabor, color, características superficiales y textura, así como el análisis físico-químico (ensayo fitoquímico). Asimismo, se realizó la extracción acuosa de cada planta (infuso o decocto), según la dosis indicada a los pacientes. También se llevaron a cabo las pruebas de Mayer, Wagner, Dragendorff, Fehling, tricloruro férrico, Shinoda y espuma. Finalmente se analizaron las cenizas totales, el contenido de humedad y la determinación de metales pesados (plomo y cadmio) por el método de espectrometría de absorción atómica. Resultados. Cada una de las veinte plantas analizadas tiene las características organolépticas propias de su especie. En el análisis fitoquímico cualitativo se encontró la mayor presencia de fenoles. En las cenizas totales se encontraron dos plantas que sobrepasan los límites permitidos por la OMS (14%), Eupatorium triplinerve «asmachilca¼ con 22,027 % y Berberis vulgaris «agracejo¼ con 15,2843 %. En humedad, los valores obtenidos están dentro de los límites permitidos por la OMS (12%). En metales pesados, ninguna de las muestras evidenció concentraciones superiores al valor límite: plomo (10 mg/kg), cadmio (0,3 mg/kg), propuesto para hierbas medicinales por la OMS. Conclusiones. Las plantas medicinales que se dispensan en la Farmacia Natural del CAMEC Chimbote cumplen con los parámetros de calidad establecidos por la OMS.


Objectives. To evaluate the quality of twenty medicinal plants that are dispensed in the Natural Pharmacy of the CAMEC of the Hospital III Chimbote - Red Asistencial Ancash - EsSalud. Materials and methods. Analytical-descriptive research. Twenty medicinal plants were analyzed: Berberis vulgaris, Bixa orellana, Chuquiraga rotundifolia, Culcitium canescens, Desmodium mollicum, Equisetum arvense, Eupatorium triplinerve, Gentianella alborosea, Geranium ayavacense, Maytenus laevis, Melissa officinalis, Minthostachys setosa, Muehlenbeckia volcanica, Peumus boldus, Phyllanthus niruri, Senecio tephrosioides, Smallanthus sonchifolius, Tiquilia paranychioides, Uncaria tomentosa, Valeriana officinalis. The samples were selected at random (1 bag of 100 g) to which organoleptic analyses such as smell, taste, color, surface characteristics, and texture were carried out, as well as the physical-chemical analysis (phytochemical test). Likewise, it was carried out the aqueous extraction of each plant (infuse or decoct), according to the dose indicated to the patients. Mayer, Wagner, Dragendorff, Fehling, ferric trichloride, Shinoda, and foam tests were also carried out. Finally, total ashes, moisture content, and the determination of heavy metals (lead and cadmium) were analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrometry method. Results. Each of the twenty plants analyzed has the organoleptic characteristics of its species. In the qualitative phytochemical analysis, the highest presence of phenols was found. In the total ashes, two plants were found to exceed the limits allowed by the WHO (14%), Eupatorium triplinerve "asmachilca" with 22.027%, and Berberis vulgaris "agracejo" with 15.2843%. In humidity, the values obtained are within the limits allowed by the WHO (12%). In heavy metals, none of the samples showed concentrations higher than the limit value: lead (10 mg/kg), cadmium (0.3 mg/kg), proposed for medicinal herbs by the WHO. Conclusions. The medicinal plants dispensed in the Natural Pharmacy of CAMEC Chimbote comply with the quality parameters established by the WHO.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Quality Management , Peru , Pharmacies , Phytochemicals , Hospitals, Public
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