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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879172

ABSTRACT

Molecular pharmacognosy is a science of classification and identification, cultivation and protection, and production of active ingredients of graduated drugs at the molecular level. The proposal of molecular pharmacognosy allows the research of crude drugs to advance from the microscopic level to the genetic level. Pueraria lobata root, as a medicinal and edible plant, has high application value and economic value. There are many varieties that are easy to cause confusion, and it is not easy to distinguish and identify according to traditional identification methods. Moreover, the research of P. lobate root at the genetic level is still relatively shallow. the study received extensive attention of scholars. This article reviews recent research on molecular identification of P. lobate, transcriptome sequencing, cloning and synthesis of functional genes of P. lobate root in recent years in order to provide references for further promoting the development and utilization of P. lobate root and its active ingredients.


Subject(s)
Pharmacognosy , Plant Roots/genetics , Pueraria
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(5): 453-491, sept. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915688

ABSTRACT

Medicinal and aromatic plants are biologically and economically valuable species because of their intrinsic value as plants, ability to produce secondary metabolites, possible use in the pharmaceutical and food industries, germplasm availability and applications in traditional medicine. In addition, they hold social and economic importance due to the ancestral knowledge they represent and because they are part of the livelihood of many families. Most of them are collected from the wild and are in serious danger of extinction. Through biotechnological tools it is possible to develop their germplasm and obtain new and improved varieties from wild material, while advocating the alternative of production by cultivation instead of extracting it from nature. The objective of this review is to provide an updated perspective on the traditional uses, conservation status and biotechnological advances in a group of 30 plant species native to the American continent.


Las plantas medicinales y aromáticas deben ser valoradas tanto por su valor intrínseco como tales, por su capacidad de producir metabolitos secundarios, su posible uso en las industrias farmacéutica y alimentaria y por sus aplicaciones en medicina tradicional. Además, tienen importancia social y económica debido al conocimiento ancestral que representan y porque son parte del sustento de muchas familias. La mayoría de estas especies son recolectadas de la naturaleza y están en grave peligro de extinción. A través de herramientas biotecnológicas es posible desarrollar su germoplasma y obtener variedades nuevas y mejoradas a partir de material silvestre; esta estrategia propicia la alternativa de producción por cultivo en lugar de extraerla de la naturaleza. El objetivo de esta revisión es proporcionar una perspectiva actualizada de los usos tradicionales, el estado de conservación y los avances biotecnológicos en un grupo de 30 especies de plantas nativas del continente americano.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Biotechnology , Phytotherapy , Medicine, Traditional , Pharmacognosy , Americas , Natural Resources Exploitation , Conservation of Natural Resources
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771681

ABSTRACT

Based on the literature data in CNKI, data mining and analysis technologies were used in this paper to describe the scientific research and development direction of Pharmacognosy in the last decade from the perspective of bibliometrics. The analysis of measured data revealed the core research institutions, excellent research teams, leading scholars, major research aspects and research progress in the field. Results showed that most of the scholars in the field were from colleges and institutions, accounting for 74.6% of the total research findings and forming a group of core scholars. In terms of frequency and timeliness of citation, pharmacognosy is a discipline in sustained growth and development since it mainly cites the literature in the other disciplines, absorbs and utilizes knowledge of the other disciplines. Over the last few years, molecular identification and genetic diversity have become the research hotspots in pharmacognosy, and the techniques and methods such as ISSR, RAPD, DNA barcoding and DNA molecular marker have been widely used.


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , China , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Data Mining , Pharmacognosy , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Research
4.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 22(1)ene.-mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901508

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la composición química de las especies vegetales está sujeta a cambios, dependiendo, entre otros factores, de la localización geográfica. Moringa oleífera Lam., que crece en Machala, Ecuador, puede diferir de especies de otras regiones geográficas. Objetivo: realizar un estudio farmacognóstico preliminar del tallo y raíz (corteza y pulpa) de la planta M. oleífera cultivada en las áreas de la Unidad Académica de Ciencias Agropecuarias, de la Universidad Técnica de Machala. Métodos: se desarrolla el control de la calidad de la droga cruda según la metodología establecida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, mediante determinación de la humedad residual, el porciento de cenizas y el porciento de sustancias solubles en el tallo y la raíz. Se cuantificaron algunos metales mediante espectrometría de emisión óptica con plasma acoplado inductivamente. El estudio químico preliminar se efectuó a través de ensayos de tamizaje fitoquímico y mediante cromatografía en capa delgada. Resultados: la humedad residual para ambos órganos y los valores de cenizas obtenidos para la raíz se encuentran dentro de los límites establecidos. Las cenizas totales para el tallo resultaron elevadas. La determinación de metales descartó la presencia de metales tóxicos en los órganos estudiados. Los valores de sustancias solubles indicaron mayor poder extractivo para el agua. La evaluación mediante tamizaje fitoquímico sugirió triterpenos y esteroides, azúcares reductores, alcaloides, flavonoides, aminoácidos y saponinas, en los extractos de la raíz. En el tallo se detectaron, además, catequinas, mucílagos y compuestos fenólicos, no así flavonoides. La cromatografía en capa delgada sugirió la existencia de alcaloides derivados de la fenilmetilamina. Conclusiones: el estudio permitió establecer parámetros de calidad de la droga cruda para la especie estudiada; sugerir, en principio, semejanzas en composición química de la planta analizada con otras de orígenes geográficos diferentes, y comprobar la ausencia de metales tóxicos en los órganos estudiados(AU)


Introduction: The chemical composition of plant species is subject to changes which depend, among other factors, on their geographic location. The Moringa oleifera Lam. growing in Machala, Ecuador, may differ from species from other geographic regions. Objective: Conduct a preliminary pharmacognostic study of the stem and root (bark and pulp) of the plant M. oleifera grown in areas from the Agricultural Sciences Academic Unit of the Technical University of Machala. Methods: Quality control was performed of the crude drug following the methodology set up by the World Health Organization to determine residual humidity, percentage of ashes and percentage of soluble substances in the stem and the root. Several metals were quantified by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The preliminary chemical study was conducted by phytochemical screening testing and thin layer chromatography. Results: Both the residual humidity for both organs and the ash values obtained for the root are within the limits established. Total ashes for the stem were high. Metal determination discarded the presence of toxic metals in the organs studied. Values for soluble substances awarded a greater extraction capacity to water. Phytochemical screening pointed to the presence of triterpenes and steroids, reducing sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, amino acids and saponins in root extracts. The stem was found to also contain catechins, mucilages and phenolic compounds, but not flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography pointed to the presence of alkaloids derived from phenyl methylamine. Conclusions: The study made it possible to set up crude drug quality parameters for the study species, make preliminary suggestions about similarities between the chemical composition of the plant analyzed and other plants of different geographic origin, and verify the absence of toxic metals in the organs studied(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacognosy , Benzylamines/antagonists & inhibitors , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Moringa oleifera/toxicity , Ecuador/ethnology
5.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 21(4)oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-960652

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Cnidoscolus chayamansa Mc Vaugh es una especie originaria del sur de México conocida y cultivada en Mesoamérica. Esta especie es apreciada por su valor nutricional y medicinal, sin embargo, son pocas sus investigaciones preclínicas referenciadas.Objetivo: determinar los índices farmacognósticos que avalen la calidad del extracto de las hojas esta planta y los metabolitos secundarios presentes a través del tamizaje fitoquímico. Métodos: se procesó la droga seca en forma de sólidos pulverulentos, se estandarizó el secado por dos vías: a la sombra y mediante una estufa. Se determinó la humedad residual por el método gravimétrico. Se utilizó la maceración en reposo como metodología de extracción a través de tres disolventes: éter de petróleo, etanol y agua destilada. Se caracterizó fitoquímicamente el extracto que se obtuvo mediante la metodología de extracción continua por Soxhlet. Se realizó el control de la calidad a los extractos hidroalcohólicos. Los índices numéricos se determinaron según la norma ramal NRSP 309, 1992 y el tamizaje fitoquímico según la metodología analítica de Miranda y Cuéllar. Resultados: el secado en estufa mostró los mejores resultados por los menores índices de humedad residual. La humedad residual estuvo dentro de los límites establecidos. Se observó la presencia de metabolitos secundarios como flavonoides, alcaloides, taninos y saponinas. La determinación de las cenizas totales fue del 10,7 por ciento. Conclusiones: la planta cumple con los parámetros farmacognósticos establecidos en cuanto a humedad residual, densidad relativa, índice de refracción, pH y sólidos totales. Además la presencia de taninos y flavonoides se correlacionan con estudios previos realizados a esta planta(AU)


Introduction: Cnidoscolus chayamansa Mc Vaugh is a species native of southern Mexico which is known and grown in Mesoamerica. Despite being valued for its nutritional and medicinal properties, few preclinical studies have been referenced about this species. Objective: Determine the pharmacognostic indices attesting to the quality of extract from the leaves of this plant, as well as the secondary metabolites contained in it using phytochemical screening. Methods: The dry drug was processed in the form of powdery solids, and drying was standardized in two ways: in the shade and with a stove. Residual humidity was determined by the gravimetric method. Maceration at rest was the methodology applied for extraction. Three solvents were used: petroleum ether, ethanol and distilled water. Soxhlet continuous extraction methodology was used for phytochemical characterization of the extract obtained. Quality control was performed of the hydroalcoholic extracts. Numerical indices were determined with branch standard NRSP 309, 1992. Phytochemical screening was conducted by Miranda and Cuéllar analytical methodology. Results: The best results were obtained by stove drying, due to its lower residual humidity indices. Residual humidity was within the limits established. Secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins, were found to be present. Total ash determination was 10.7 percent. Conclusions: The plant meets the pharmacognostic parameters established for residual humidity, relative density, refractive index, pH and total solids. The presence of tannins and flavonoids correlates with previous studies about the plant(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacognosy , Cuba , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Jatropha
6.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 1-8, jan.-mar. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780051

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Verbena minutiflora Briq. ex Moldenke (gervai) tem seu uso medicinal relatado popularmente para tratamento de doenças hepáticas, diarreia e outros problemas de saúde. Entretanto, pouco se conhece a respeito de seus componentes químicos e estudos que comprovem suas propriedades medicinais são escassos. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a composição química dos extratos aquosos e etanólicos de flores de V. minutiflora e otimizar processos de obtenção de extratos com maiores capacidades antioxidantes e maiores concentrações de flavonoides. O método de extração foi desenhado por planejamento fatorial, onde as variáveis para a determinação da capacidade antioxidante foram: pH, extração líquida, método e tempo de extração. Para a determinação de flavonoides totais as variáveis avaliadas por planejamento fatorial foram: concentração de hexametilenotetramina, tipo de ácido, volume de ácido e tempo de aquecimento. Os resultados das análises químicas dos extratos mostraram: aminogrupos, taninos e ácidos fixos (extrato aquoso) aminogrupos, flavonoides, triterpenos, esteroides, alcaloides e cumarinas (extrado hidroetanólico). Os resultados dos planejamentos fatoriais mostraram que o melhor método de extração para a capacidade antioxidante foi o que usou vórtex, por 35 min, com água:etanol 50:50, com pH1, obtendo 0,1899± 5,8.10-3 mmol expressos em ácido ascórbico g-1 nos extratos de V. minutiflora. Enquanto, para as dosagens de flavonoides totais as variáveis significantes foram: tipo de ácido e volume de ácido. A melhor extração obtida foi: 6,748. 10-2± 2,085 10-3% expressos em quercetina. Os resultados mostraram que o planejamento fatorial é uma importante ferramenta para a otimização de extração de componentes químicos em produtos naturais.


ABSTRACT Verbena minutiflora Briq. ex Moldenke (gervai) has its popular use reported for liver disorders treatments, diarrhea, and other health problems. However, little is known about its chemical components and studies that proves its medicinal properties are rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from flowers of V. minutiflora and to optimize processes to obtain extracts with higher antioxidant capacity and greater concentration of flavonoids. The methods of extraction were designed by factorial planning, where the variables to determine the antioxidant capacity were: pH; extraction liquid; method and extraction time. To determinate the total flavonoids the variables evaluated by factorial design were: concentration of hexamethylenetetramine; type of acid; volume of acid and warming time. The results of chemical analysis of the extracts showed: amino groups, tannins and fixed acids (aqueous extract) amino groups, flavonoids, triterpenes, steroids, alkaloids and coumarins (hydroalcoholic extract). The factorial designs results showed that the best extraction method for the antioxidant capacity was the one that uses vortex, for 35 min, with water: ethanol 50:50, at pH 1, getting 0,1899 ± 5,8.10-3 mmol expressed in ascorbic acid g-1 in extracts of V. minutiflora . While, for dosages of total flavonoids the significant variables were the type of acid and volume of acid. The best extraction obtained was: 6,748. 10-2± 2,085 10-3% expressed in quercetin. These data showed that the factorial design is an important tool in optimizing the extraction of chemical components in natural products.


Subject(s)
Chemistry , Process Optimization/classification , Spectrum Analysis/analysis , Verbena/chemistry , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Pharmacognosy/methods , Vortex
7.
Fortaleza; s.n; 2016. 94 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971927

ABSTRACT

Pombalia calceolaria L., Violaceae, popularmente conhecida por ipeca-da-praia, ipecabranca, ipecacunha dos raizeiros é uma Pombalia calceolaria L., Violacea e, popularmente conhecida por ipeca-da-praia, ipecabranca, ipecacunha dos raizeiros é uma herbácea perene, predominante no sertão nordestino. Embora não existam dados na literatura comprovando sua atividade farmacológica, pordécadas, suas raízes são preparadas na forma de decocto, lambedor e maceração, cujas principais indicações populares são para tosse, expectoração, como vermífugo, antidiarréico epara dentição. O presente estudo teve por objetivo realizar a caracterização farmacognósticadas raízes de P. calceolaria nos aspectos botânicos, químicos e farmacológicos. Aimportância da caracterização morfoanatômica está no fato de que não há registro em literatura descrevendo o perfil botânico desta espécie vegetal. Assim, as raízes recém coletadas de P. calceolaria foram caracterizadas morfologicamente com vista desarmada e em seguida realizada a caracterização anatômica através de secção histológica, reação histoquímica, registro fotomicrográfico em campo de luz claro, onde foi evidenciado que araiz em estudo apresenta o xilema secundário oriundo do câmbio com dimorfismo no tamanho dos vasos e floema secundário constituído de poucas camadas circundando o xilema. Noparênquima cortical foi visualizado e fotomicrografado, sob luz polarizada, a presença decristais de inulina...


Early diagnosis of HIV in Brazil still represents a challenge. It is estimated that about 30% of people living with HIV do not know their HIV status. 43% of the population comes to health services with late diagnosis in clinical conditions as AIDS-related. In this scenario, female sex workers - SW, are considered the most vulnerable, with HIV prevalence rate of 4.8%, while among women in the general population, the prevalence is 0.4%. Thus, the aim of this work was to understand what incentives and barriers that involve performing diagnostic testing of HIV among female sex workers in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará. It built an analysis of their realities which tried to contribute to the reduction of vulnerabilities associated with HIV/AIDS infection. We used a qualitative approach using the methodology "Rapid Assessment" (RA) from the anthropological presuppositions. We conducted interviews with 36 SW women, field observation, and document analysis. The decision to perform an HIV test is determined by the intersection of individual, social, programmatic factors, linked to social inequalities. The disconnection between common sense and scientific knowledge, linked to the influence of religious beliefs, constituted as a barrier to testing. The prenatal was configured as a process that enables the test but does not encourage its regularity in nonpregnant time. Most respondents spoke of continued use of condom with their clients, however, do not use it with their steady partners. Women often want to do the test, however the main barrier is the difficulty of access to services. The integration of the populations most vulnerable to HIV in health care depends on the mode of organization of the health system. It is necessary to consider their demands and needs, strategically and collectively with their


Subject(s)
Humans , Inulin , Pharmacognosy , Plant Roots
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; mar. 2015. 101 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836698

ABSTRACT

Jacaranda decurrens Cham., Jacaranda caroba (Vell.) DC. e Piper umbellatum L. são plantas nativas do Brasil, presentes no estado de São Paulo, com relatos de uso popular para atividade antiúlcera. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antiúlcera de J. caroba, J. decurrens e formulações de nanocápsulas contendo P. umbellatum. Também pretendeu-se caracterizar a fitoquímica de tais formulações e extratos. Adicionalmente, foi avaliada a toxicidade aguda e subaguda de J. caroba. Os extratos de Jacaranda apresentaram compostos fenólicos em seus perfis cromatográficos obtidos por CCD e CLAE, característicos para cada espécie. Os diferentes extratos de J. caroba variaram sua composição química conforme a procedência e idade da planta. As espécies J. decurrens e J. caroba de três diferentes regiões não apresentaram ação antiúlcera aguda em ratos em modelo de indução por etanol acidificado, embora o extrato e as frações de J. caroba apresentaram potencial atividade anti Helicobacter pylori, com CIM variando entre 125 e 1.000 µg/mL. O extrato de J. caroba não promoveu sintomas de toxicidade aguda e subaguda em ratos. A DL50 observada foi maior que 5.000 mg/kg. Não foram relatadas alterações significativas na aparência macroscópica e peso dos órgãos, porém houve indicação de atividade mutagênica em teste de Ames na linhagem TA98 de S. typhimurium, o qual apresentou uma tendência dose-resposta para concentrações entre 7,5 e 15,0 mg/placa após ativação metabólica (S9). A formulação de nanocápsulas de poli-ε- caprolactona com extrato de P. umbellatum apresentou partículas com diâmetro médio de 181,6 ± 0,9 nm e potencial zeta de -31 ± 4 mV. Através de análise por CLAE observou-se maior eficiência de encapsulamento para a porção mais apolar da fração, enquanto que os compostos mais polares ficaram dispersos no meio. As nanocápsulas poliméricas apresentaram atividade gastroprotetora mesmo sem a adição de ativos e tiveram sua atividade aumentada pela fração clorofórmica de P. umbellatum


Jacaranda decurrens Cham., Jacaranda caroba (Vell.) DC. and Piper umbellatum L. are native plants in Brazil, present in the state of São Paulo, with popular usage reports for anti-ulcer activity. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of J. caroba, J. decurrens and nanocapsules formulations containing P. umbellatum. Also, we intended to characterize the phytochemistry of such formulations and extracts. Additionally, we evaluated the acute and subacute toxicity of J. caroba. Extracts from Jacaranda presented phenolic compounds in their chromatographic profiles obtained by TLC and HPLC, with variations between species. Samples of J. caroba extracts showed different chemical composition according to the origin and age of the plant. The species J. decurrens and J. caroba from three different regions showed no acute anti-ulcer action when tested in rats by acidified ethanol induction model. However, extract and fractions from J. caroba showed potential anti Helicobacter pylori activity, with MIC ranging from 125 and 1,000 ug/mL. J. caroba extract did not cause symptoms of acute and subacute toxicity in rats. The DL50 was determined above 5,000 mg/kg. Also, there were no significant changes to the macroscopic appearance of organs or changes in their weights. Meanwhile, an indication of mutagenic activity was observed in the Ames test. The TA98 strain of S. typhimurium, showed a tendency of dose-response for concentrations between 7.5 and 15.0 mg/plate after metabolic activation (S9). The nanocapsules formulation of poly-ε-caprolactone containing P. umbellatum extract had an average particle diameter of 181.6 ± 0.9 nm and zeta potential of -31 ± 4 mV. HPLC analysis showed better entrapping efficiency for the more apolar portion of the fraction, while the more polar compounds were dispersed in the medium. The polymeric nanocapsules showed gastroprotective activity even without the addition of active molecules and had their activity increased by chloroform fraction of P. umbellatum


Subject(s)
Rats , Jacaranda caroba/pharmacology , Malvaceae/classification , Photochemistry , Nanocapsules/analysis , Pharmacognosy/classification , Phenolic Compounds/classification , Phytochemicals , Stomach Ulcer/pathology
9.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(1): 193-202, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751372

ABSTRACT

Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a herb known popularly in Cuba as Tilo and used traditionally as sedative. The development in a solid pharmaceutical (Tablets 100 mg) using dry extract of Justicia pectolaris aqueous extract is of interest for the development of phytomedicines, which uses this active raw material. The aim of the present study was to carry out chemical and biological stability studies to the formulation. A method of coumarin determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used and validated. The stability studies during different periods of time (24 months) showed a stability of the product stored at 32 ± 2 °C, and protected of the light.


Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae é uma erva conhecida popularmente em Cuba como Tilo e utilizada tradicionalmente como sedativo. O desenvolvimento de formas farmacêuticas sólidas (comprimido 100 mg) usando extrato aquoso seco de J. pectoralis é de interesse no desenvolvimento de fitoterápicos que empreguem esse princípio ativo. O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar estudos de estabilidade químicos e biológicos da formulação. Um método de determinação de cumarinas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE) foi usado e devidamente validado. Os estudos de estabilidade durante diferentes períodos de tempo (24 meses) mostraram a estabilidade do produto preservado a 32 ± 2 °C e protegido da luz.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae/classification , Tablets/pharmacokinetics , Coumarins/analysis , Pharmacognosy/methods , Phytotherapeutic Drugs
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(2): 99-112, Mar. 2015. map, tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907475

ABSTRACT

Ante el incremento de enfermedades crónico-degenerativas como la Diabetes mellitus (DM), es necesario e indispensable documentar y evaluar farmacológicamente las plantas utilizadas en la medicina tradicional regional para el control empírico de esta enfermedad. Este estudio presenta los resultados de una investigación etnofarmacológica de especies vegetales empleadas empíricamente en una comunidad del sureste mexicano para el control de la DM. La información se obtuvo en una comunidad de Tabasco, México a través de una entrevista estructurada TRAMIL y mediante la consulta de ejemplares de herbario. Se encontró un total de 36 especies vegetales usadas en la comunidad para este tratamiento y todas ellas conocidas por uno o más nombre locales. Las familias más representadas son las Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae y Poaceae. Destacan cinco especies por su uso significativo TRAMIL (UST) para el control de la DM, siendo las más importantes Tradescanthia spathacea Sw. y Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen. La importancia de uso en la comunidad enfatiza la necesidad de iniciar estudios farmacológicos sobre la actividad hipoglucémica de estas especies.


Because of the increase of chronic degenerative diseases, such as Diabetes mellitus (DM), it is necessary and indispensable to carry out pharmacological studies in order to identify and to evaluate plant species that are used in regional traditional medicine for empirical control of DM. Results of an ethnopharmacological research on Mexican plants used for empirical control of DM in a community at the southeast of Mexico are presented in this study. Information was obtained from people at a community of Tabasco, Mexico by means of applying a TRAMIL structured interview, and by reviewing herbarium specimens. A total of 36 plant species that are used in the community to control the DM was found, all of those species are known by one or more local names. Botanical families with more species mentioned by people are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae and Poaceae. On the basis of their high TRAMIL significant use (TSU), five plant species are distinguished for local DM control, and two of them are the most important: Tradescanthia spathacea Sw. and Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen. The importance of using those species in the community emphasizes the need to initiate pharmacological studies on the hypoglycemic activity of them.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Ethnopharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents , Plants, Medicinal , Interviews as Topic , Medicine, Traditional , Mexico , Pharmacognosy
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237706

ABSTRACT

The teaching status of Molecular Pharmacognosy in 28 institutions in China was investigated by questionnaire and the survey data was analyzed by SPSS. Research contents included course beginning years, majors, class hours, characteristics of the course, teaching ways, the theory and practice contents, evaluation modes, selection of teaching material, teaching achievements, teachers and so on for undergraduates and graduates. Research results showed that with 20 years' development, Molecular Pharmacognosy had been offered for both undergraduate and graduate students in at least 20 colleges and universities and Molecular Pharmacognosy education in China showed good development momentum. At the same time, to promote the development of Molecular Pharmacognosy further, investment for it should be increased and practical teaching condition should be improved.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Molecular Biology , Education , Workforce , Methods , Pharmacognosy , Education , Workforce , Methods , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teaching , Workforce , Methods
12.
Cusco; s.n; 2015. 112 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-880134

ABSTRACT

La presente investigación se planteó con el objetivo de caracterizar la farmacobotánica y evaluar de manera preliminar la genotoxicidad de Baccharis genistelloides "Quimsa Qüchu" y Baccharis buxifolia "Tayanka". Baccharis genistelloides "Quimsa Qüchu" fue recolectada en los valles de Limatambo y Baccharis buxifolia "Tayanka" en Kachona del distrito de Santiago. Para la caracterización farmacobotánica, se estudió la morfología externa y morfometría, descripción de la anatomía interna, la densidad e índice estomático y la histolocalización mediante pruebas histoquímicas de algunos metabolitos, de las partes aéreas vegetativas de Baccharis genistelloides y Baccharis buxifolia. Con dichos datos se realizó la comparación fenética con relación a otras especies del genero Baccharis y se evaluó de manera preliminar la genotoxicidad de los extractos acuosos al 1% de Baccharis genistelloides "Quimsa Qüchu"y Baccharis buxifolia "Tayanka". Para el estudio de la morfología externa y la morfometría se describe los parámetros (tamaño, número, disposición de hojas, flores, inflorescencias, etc) para lo cual se usa un instrumento de medida (vernier) y un esteroscopio. Para la anatomía interna se realizó cortes anatómicos mediante el uso de un micrótomo manual para luego ser fijados, coloreados y montados al microscopio, la densidad e índice estomático se obtienen de la relación porcentual directamente proporcional de la cantidad total de células y el número total de estomas en la cara abaxial y adaxial, Todos estos datos fueron procesados mediante el análisis fenética, utilizando el paquete estadístico Past 3 complementando la caracterización farmacobotánica con la histoquímica para tres reacciones de coloración utilizando dragendorff, SUDAN III y lugol. La evaluación genotóxica se realizo usando Allium cepa como bioensayo, sometiendo los meristemos apicales al extracto acuoso 1% (como forma de uso tradicional) de Baccharis genístelloides "Quimsa Qüchu" y Baccharís buxífolía "Tayanka", evaluando el índice mitótico y aberración cromosómicas que generan. Los resultados encontrados en la caracterización farmacobotánica indican como característica principal la disposición de las inflorescencias en capitulo en ambas especies, en Baccharis genistelloides la característica principal es la presencia de tres cladodios a lo largo de la planta, así como la presencia de flores femeninas exclusivamente, en cambio Baccharis buxifolia presenta ramas alternas con hojas lanceoladas y flores dioicas. El resultado del análisis fenético muestra una relación estrecha entre Baccharis genistelloides "Quimsa Qüchu" y Baccharis Crispa mientras que Baccharis buxifalia "Tayanka" no está emparentado con las especies en comparación. La reacción histoquímica ratifica antecedentes teóricas de la presencia de alcaloides, almidón y lipidos para ambas especies. La evaluación preliminar de genotoxicidad muestra una reducción del índice mitótico normal de 13.03 % hasta 6.1% para Baccharis genistelloides "Quimsa Qüchu" y 7.4% para Baccharis buxifolia "Tayanka", considerándose como no genotóxico . Este tipo de estudios mejorara la correcta identificación y distinción de especies próximas y morfológicamente similares. Además que brindara luces sobre la ausencia de genotoxicidad.


Subject(s)
Baccharis , Pharmacognosy , Plant Extracts , Plants, Medicinal
13.
Trujillo; s.n; 2014. 42 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-915996

ABSTRACT

En base a la biodiversidad que existe en nuestro país, las plantas medicinales han contribuido como recurso esencial para cubrir ciertas necesidades terapéuticas y alimenticias de muchas personas. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo determinar las características farmacognósticas en las hojas y tallos de la Peperomia dolabriformis Kunth "congona de zorro" procedente del Cerro Campana del distrito de Huanchaco - La Libertad; empleando la metodología de Miranda Martínez M. & Cuellar Cuellar A., publicado en su Manual de Prácticas de Laboratorio: "Farmacognosia y Productos Naturales". Se evaluó sus características morfológicas de las hojas y tallos, obteniendo similitud con otras especies analizadas. En cuanto a los resultados fisicoquímicos se obtuvo: 34.4 ± 0.74 y 36.3 ± 0.80 en pérdida de agua por sombra y 57.2 ± 0.70 y 54.6 ± 0.82 por medio de estufa. Se obtuvo 14±0.12% de humedad relativa en tallos y un 13.8±0.10% en hojas, encontrándose en el rango establecido; 0.81±0.04% y 0.70±0.03% en cenizas totales en tallos y hojas respectivamente; 0.83±0.05% y 0.82±0.05% en tallos y hojas en cenizas solubles en agua, y 0.85±0.04% y 0.9±0.06% en cenizas insolubles en ácido clorhídrico en tallos y hojas respectivamente. Los resultados expuestos servirán de base para la confección de un compendio de parámetros de calidad de esta especie. Así mismo, se realizó el tamizaje fitoquímico; según Miranda Migdalia, donde se evidenció la presencia de flavonoides, taninos, triterpenos y esteroides, azúcares reductores, compuestos fenólicos, compuestos grasos, aceite esencial y antocianidinas. Finalmente se concluye que este trabajo cumple con los parámetros establecidos según la Farmacopea Británica y la Guía de control de Plantas Medicinales que reporta la OMS.


Subject(s)
Pharmacognosy , Peperomia , Peru , Plants, Medicinal , Phytochemicals
14.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3,supl.1): 649-656, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-727191

ABSTRACT

Euphorbia hirta L., popularmente conhecida por erva andorinha, tem sido utilizada no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios e como antiespasmódico. Esse trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas, caule e raiz dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó obtido da planta inteira, parte essa utilizada na fitoterapia Ayuverda. Na prospecção fitoquímica foram encontrados flavonóides, mucilagem, resinas e cumarinas. Na determinação do teor de água, de cinzas totais e de cinzas insolúveis em ácido, os valores encontrados foram 8,99%, 9,35%, 0,75%, respectivamente. Com o desenvolvimento deste trabalho foi possível obter parâmetros para o controle de qualidade das folhas, caule e raízes de E. hirta.


The Euphorbia hirta L. has been used in the treatment of respiratory disorders and as an antispasmodic. This work was carried out to determine the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the leaves, stems and roots of this plant, as these parts are commonly used. Some features of value in their diagnosis were identified and illustrated by photomicrographs. Phytochemical reactions and determination of water and ash contents were carried out in the powder obtained from the whole plant, the part used in Ayurveda phytomedicine. In phytochemical screening, we found flavonoids, mucilage, resins and coumarins. The values of water content, total ashes and acid insoluble ashes were 8.99%, 9.35%, 0.75%, respectively. The data obtained are important for the quality control of the leaves, stems and roots of E. hirta.


Subject(s)
Euphorbia pilulifera/analysis , Pharmacognosy/trends , Plant Components, Aerial/classification , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Quality Control
15.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(4): 719-727, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704103

ABSTRACT

Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae), better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem microscopic characters of G. amygdalinum, aiming to expand the knowledge on this medicinal species and indicate anatomical structures. Plant material was fixed and sectioned by freehand and using a microtome. The sections were either stained or underwent standard histochemical tests. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate epidermal relief. The leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata. There are striate cuticle, glandular and non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. In transverse section, the midrib and the petiole have a plano-convex shape. Both show several collateral vascular bundles and few crystals of calcium oxalate. In the stem, the epidermis persists and the phellogen has a peripheral origin. It presents typical endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps adjoining the phloem. The aspects that contribute to characterizing the species are stomata on both leaf surfaces, midrib and petiole features, the endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps in the stem, as well as the different types of trichome on both aerial organs.


Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae), espécie mais conhecida pela sinonímia Vernonia amygdalina Delile, é um pequeno arbusto empregado na medicina popular como antipirético, laxativo, antimalárico e anti-helmíntico. Estudos demonstraram que diferentes extratos do vegetal possuem atividades antioxidante, antimicrobiana e antiparasitária. Entre os metabólitos bioativos presentes, citam-se lactonas sesquiterpenoides, saponinas, polifenóis e flavonoides. Este estudo investigou os caracteres microscópicos de folha e caule de G. amygdalinum, a fim de ampliar o conhecimento acerca dessa espécie medicinal e apontar estruturas anatômicas características. O material foi fixado e seccionado à mão livre e em micrótomo. Os cortes foram corados ou submetidos aos testes histoquímicos clássicos. Empregou-se microscopia eletrônica de varredura para investigar a ultraestrutura da superfície epidérmica. A folha é anfiestomática com estômatos anomocíticos. Há cutícula estriada, tricomas glandular e tector e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em secção transversal, a nervura central e o pecíolo têm contorno plano-convexo. Ambos mostram vários feixes vasculares colaterais e poucos cristais de oxalato de cálcio. No caule, a epiderme permanece e o felogênio tem instalação periférica. São observadas endoderme típica e calotas esclerenquimáticas apostas ao floema. Os aspectos que fornecem elementos para a identificação da espécie são a ocorrência de estômatos em ambas as superfícies foliares, a organização da nervura central e do pecíolo, a endoderme e as calotas esclerenquimáticas no caule, além dos diferentes tipos de tricoma nos órgãos aéreos estudados.


Subject(s)
Asteraceae/classification , Plant Stems , Vernonia , Microscopy, Electrochemical, Scanning/classification , Pharmacognosy/classification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/classification
16.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(3): 395-411, July-Sept. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689894

ABSTRACT

Ferulic acid is a phenolic acid widely distributed in the plant kingdom. It presents a wide range of potential therapeutic effects useful in the treatments of cancer, diabetes, lung and cardiovascular diseases, as well as hepatic, neuro and photoprotective effects and antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Overall, the pharmaceutical potential of ferulic acid can be attributed to its ability to scavenge free radicals. However, recent studies have revealed that ferulic acid presents pharmacological properties beyond those related to its antioxidant activity, such as the ability to competitively inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and activate glucokinase, contributing to reduce hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia, respectively. The present review addresses ferulic acid dietary sources, the pharmacokinetic profile, antioxidant action mechanisms and therapeutic effects in the treatment and prevention of various diseases, in order to provide a basis for understanding its mechanisms of action as well as its pharmaceutical potential.


O ácido ferúlico é um ácido fenólico amplamente distribuído no reino vegetal. Ele apresenta uma ampla gama de potenciais efeitos terapêuticos utéis no tratamento do câncer, diabetes, doenças pulmonares e cardiovasculares, bem como efeitos hepáticos, neuro e fotoprotetores, atividades antimicrobianas e anti-inflamatórias. O potencial farmacêutico do ácido ferúlico pode ser atribuído à sua capacidade em sequestrar radicais livres. No entanto, estudos recentes revelaram que o ácido ferúlico apresenta propriedades farmacológicas, além da sua atividade antioxidante, como a capacidade de inibir competitivamente a HMG-CoA redutase e ativar a glucoquinase, contribuindo para reduzir a hipercolesterolemia e hiperglicemia, respectivamente. A presente revisão aborda as fontes dietéticas de ácido ferúlico, o perfil farmacocinético, os mecanismos de ação como antioxidante e efeitos terapêuticos no tratamento e prevenção de várias doenças, de modo a proporcionar uma base para a compreensão dos seus mecanismos de ação, bem como os seus potenciais farmacêuticos.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Pharmacognosy/classification , Pharmacologic Actions
17.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 18(3): 461-468, jul.-set. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-683117

ABSTRACT

Introducción: para la explotación de Malvaviscus arboreus con fines medicinales se necesita la determinación de algunos parámetros.Objetivos: establecer los parámetros de cultivo y poscosecha. Métodos: se determinó la forma de propagación asexual como tipos de estacas, sustratos y plantación directa de estas en el terreno; porcentaje que brotó; el comportamiento de cultivo en 3 fechas, plantando estacas de cualquier tipo directamente en canteros al sol (9 plantas/m2); inicio de cosecha de flores y rendimientos frescos en 15 recolecciones sucesivas por 7 días; presencia de plagas; tamizaje fitoquímico en extractos etéreo, alcohólico y acuoso; parámetros farmacognósticos; tipo de secado; índices numéricos (humedad, cenizas totales, sustancias solubles en agua y alcohol 70 por ciento), y vida útil de la droga conservada por año a temperatura ambiente. Resultados: el mejor enraizamiento fue en zeolita; resultó preferible la plantación directa en área definitiva (90 x 40 cm) en cualquier fecha del año, la óptima fue mayo por mayores rendimientos de flores. Se observó presencia del crisomélido Phylotreta striolata y hongos; Alternaria sp. y Fusarium sp. en ramas. Se identificó mayor diversidad de metabolitos secundarios en el extracto alcohólico. Cualquier tipo de secado fue rápido y mantuvo el color natural de la droga. Las características organolépticas se conservan durante 1 año en frascos de vidrio y polipropileno; en los sobres de polietileno de baja densidad hay pérdida de color y olor a partir de 6 meses y presencia de Lasioderma serricorne en cualquier envase.Conclusiones: se demostró crecimiento vigoroso y alta producción de flores durante casi todo el año a partir de 5 meses de establecido el cultivo, la droga cosechada mantiene calidad por 6 meses en frascos de vidrio ámbar


Introduction: the use of Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. with medicinal purposes requires the determination of some parameters. Objectives: to determine cultivation and pre-crop parameters. Methods: forms of asexual spread such as types of pegs, substratum, and their direct plantation in the land were determined as well as the sprout percentage; cultivation behavior in three different dates, planting different types of pegs in flowerbeds exposed to the sun (9 plants/m²); beginning of the cultivation of flowers and fresh yield in 15 consecutive pickings for 7 days; presence of plagues; phytochemical screening in ethereal, alcoholic and aqueous extracts; pharmacognostic parameters; drying types; numerical values (humidity, total ashes, soluble substances in water and 70 percent alcohol) and useful life of the drug preserved during a year at room temperature. Results: the best growing roots was seen in the zeolite; direct seeding was preferable in a definitive area (90 x 40 cm) at any in date of the year, the optimum date was May due to the possibility of obtaining better production of flowers; presence of chrysomelid Phyllotreta striolata and fungi was observed as well as Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. in branches. A greater diversity of secondary metabolites in the alcoholic extract was identified. Any type of drying was fast and maintained the natural color of the drug. The organoloeptic characteristics are kept for a year in glass and polypropylene bottles; in low density polyethylene packs, color and odor loss appears from the 6 months and Lasioderma serricorne is present in any container. Conclusions: a vigorous growth and a high production of flowers were demonstrated during almost all the year from the 5 months of cultivation establishment; the cultivated drug maintains its quality for 6 months in amber glass containers


Subject(s)
Althaea , Crops, Agricultural , Pharmacognosy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312463

ABSTRACT

Traditional medicine system of India comprised varieties of plants which are playing a significant role in curing diseases from ancient times. Among them, Enicostemma littorale blume (E. littorale) a perennial herb of the family Gentianaceae is cosmopolitan in occurrence in India. The bittery natured plant acts as a laxative, helps in curing fever, rheumatism, skin diseases, abdominal disorders, snake bite, obesity and helps to regulate blood sugar levels. The plant constituents have been reported for possessing antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, antiinflammatory, hypolipidaemic, hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic properties. This review provides a bird's eye view about geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of E. littorale.


Subject(s)
Gentianaceae , Chemistry , Physiology , India , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Pharmacognosy , Plant Dispersal , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Physiology
19.
Multequina ; 22(2): 51-55, 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-877545

ABSTRACT

Se realizaron comparaciones entre ensayos cualitativos de rutina para establecer cuál resulta más sensible para detectar la presencia de alcaloides en muestras pequeñas de semillas de plantas herbáceas nativas. Se comparó entre los análisis de detección convencionales de precipitación y de cromatografía en capa delgada (CCD) utilizando reactivo de Dragendorff y reactivo de Iodoplatinato. A su vez se estimó un umbral mínimo de sensibilidad para la detección de alcaloides con reactivo de Dragendorff cuando es utilizado en reacciones de precipitación. Para ello se evaluó su capacidad de detección frente a extractos de semillas comerciales ricas en alcaloides de Capsicum spp. obtenidos a partir de muestras de diferente masa. Se pudo corroborar la presencia de alcaloides en semillas de algunas especies de plantas dicotiledóneas herbáceas nativas. Los resultados sugieren que los ensayos convencionales en CCD resultan más sensibles para detectar alcaloides en semillas que los ensayos de precipitación.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Plant Extracts , Seeds , Argentina , Chromatography , Pharmacognosy
20.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(4): 566-574, 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-695242

ABSTRACT

Baccharis rufescens Spreng. var. tenuifolia (DC.) Baker pertence à família Asteraceae e é usada na medicina tradicional como estomáquico e hepatoprotetor. Um estudo fitoquímico mostrou a presença de flavonoides e triterpenos, sendo que os extratos clorofórmico e metanólico de folhas apresentaram-se ativos no bioensaio de toxicidade sobre Artemia salina Leach. Além disso, extratos clorofórmicos evidenciaram a presença de peróxidos, sugerindo sua aplicação no tratamento da malária (Schenkel at al., 2002; Montanher et al., 2002; Moreira et al., 2003). Considerando a importância farmacológica de B. rufescens var. tenuifolia, o presente trabalho objetivou o estudo morfoanatômico e histoquímico do caule e da folha dessa espécie, a fim de fornecer subsídios farmacognósticos para o controle de qualidade. O material botânico foi submetido às técnicas usuais empregadas na microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Folha anfiestomática, presença de estômatos anomocíticos, tricomas glandulares capitados bisseriados, tricomas tectores flageliformes simples unisseriados, dutos secretores associados ao floema, calota de fibras perivasculares e cristais de oxalato de cálcio do tipo estiloide e prismático na região medular do caule foram as principais características observadas que auxiliam na identificação do táxon.


Baccharis rufescens Spreng. var. tenuifolia (DC.) Baker belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is used for liver and stomach problems in traditional medicine. Previous phytochemical data reported flavonoid and triterpene contents. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the leaves showed activity in the bioassay of brine shrimp. Chloroform extracts showed the presence of peroxides that can be used to treat malaria (Schenkel et al., 2002; Montanher et al., 2002; Moreira et al., 2003). Considering the pharmacological importance of B. rufescens var. tenuifolia, the purpose of this paper was to perform the anatomical analysis of aerial vegetative parts of Baccharis rufescens var. tenuifolia in order to provide pharmacognostic data for quality control. The plant material was studied by the usual methods of light and scanning electron microscopy. Amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, biseriate capitate glandular trichomes, uniseriate simple flagelliform non-glandular trichomes, secretory ducts associated to the phloem, perivascular fiber cap, calcium oxalate as prismatic and styloid crystals in the pith of the stem were reported as the mainly anatomical data for B. rufescens var. tenuifolia.Ouvir Ler foneticamente.


Subject(s)
Asteraceae/classification , Pharmacognosy/methods , Baccharis/classification , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/statistics & numerical data
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