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1.
Med. infant ; 28(2): 81-95, Julio - Diciembre 2021. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1355111

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Debido a la emergencia provocada por la pandemia por el virus SARS-CoV-2 se ha producido una crisis sanitaria global. Una vez disponibles las vacunas, se espera que jueguen un rol decisivo para el control de la enfermedad. Dichas vacunas fueron desarrolladas en tiempo récord por lo que es esencial monitorear su seguridad. Durante la Campaña de Vacunación contra COVID-19, todos los Eventos supuestamente atribuibles a vacunación e inmunización (ESAVI) debieron ser notificados al Ministerio de Salud de la Nación a través del Sistema Integrado de Información Sanitaria de Argentina (SIISA). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional prospectivo desde el 04/01/2021 al 05/05/2021 en el personal del Hospital Garrahan. Se utilizaron dos métodos de vigilancia de ESAVI. La vigilancia pasiva incluyó las notificaciones voluntarias recibidas de forma telefónica y a través de un cuestionario publicado en intranet. La vigilancia activa se realizó sobre los primeros 947 trabajadores inmunizados, enviando el mismo cuestionario por WhatsApp. Resultados: Hasta el día 05/05/2021 fueron inmunizados 5056 agentes, 4865 con las dos dosis. Se notificaron 473 ESAVI. De ellos, 304 correspondían a la primera dosis y 169 a la segunda. La cantidad de notificaciones según su origen fue de 136 para la vigilancia pasiva, y 333 para la vigilancia activa. Se registraron 5 ESAVI graves; tres anafilaxias, un escotoma secundario a la hipertermia generada por la vacuna y una reacción alérgica grave. Los síntomas locales más frecuentes fueron: dolor, enrojecimiento, hinchazón e induración. Los síntomas sistémicos más frecuentes fueron: fiebre, febrícula, astenia, cefalea, mialgia, artralgia y síntomas gastrointestinales. Como tratamiento en la mayoría de los casos se utilizó paracetamol. Discusión: El presente trabajo logró recolectar un número significativo de notificaciones, brindando información útil al tratarse de una vacuna recientemente aprobada en nuestro país y el mundo. (AU)


Introduction: Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic emergency, a global health crisis has occurred. Once vaccines become available, they are expected to play a decisive role in controlling the disease. These vaccines were developed in record time, and therefore it is essential to monitor their safety. During the COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign, all Events Suspected to be Attributable to Vaccination and Immunization (ESAVI) had to be notified to the National Ministry of Health through the Integrated Health Information System of Argentina (SIISA). Material and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from 04/01/2021 to 05/05/2021 in the staff of Garrahan Hospital. Two methods of ESAVI surveillance were used. Passive surveillance included voluntary notifications received by telephone and through a questionnaire posted on intranet. Active surveillance was conducted on the first 947 immunized workers, sending the same questionnaire by WhatsApp. Results: Up to 05/05/2021, 5056 workers were immunized, of whom 4865 with two doses. A total of 473 ESAVI were reported. Of these, 304 corresponded to the first dose and 169 to the second. The number of notifications was 136 for passive surveillance and 333 for active surveillance. Five severe ESAVIs were recorded; three anaphylaxis, one scotoma secondary to vaccine-generated hyperthermia, and one severe allergic reaction. The most frequent local symptoms were: pain, redness, swelling, and induration. The most frequent systemic symptoms were: mild fever or fever, asthenia, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Paracetamol was used as treatment in most cases. Discussion: In the present study a significant number of notifications was collected, providing useful information on a vaccine recently approved in our country and in the world (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunization/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , Health Personnel , Pharmacovigilance , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Prospective Studies
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 192-197, Junio 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222951

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La inmunoglobulina G endovenosa (IGEV) es un medicamento hemoderivado de inmunoglobulina G polivalente y policlonal. Posee un amplio espectro de indicaciones como inmunomodulador o como terapia de reemplazo. Asimismo, si bien se considera un tratamiento seguro, la incidencia de reacciones adversas reportadas en la literatura varía del 1 % al 81 %. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la utilización de IGEV y describir los acontecimientos adversos por la medicación en un hospital pediátrico de alta complejidad.Población y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de farmacoepidemiología, observacional y prospectivo. Se evaluaron pacientes que recibieron IGEV durante 7 meses, en 6 áreas de un hospital pediátrico de alta complejidad de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. La unidad de análisis fue cada infusión de IGEV, y la principal variable de estudio fue la presencia de reacciones adversas.Resultados. Se analizaron 305 infusiones en 111 pacientes. El 81,6 % de las indicaciones fueron de tipo supletorio. La dosis máxima utilizada fue 1 g/kg. En el 99,6 % de las infusiones, se indicó algún tipo de premedicación; la difenhidramina fue la droga más utilizada, aunque con diferentes posologías. Se registraron 12 reacciones adversas (el 3,9 % de las infusiones), tres de las cuales se consideraron graves: dos meningitis asépticas y una crisis comicial. Todas se resolvieron ad integrum.Conclusiones. La tasa de reacciones adversas de la IGEV en nuestro medio fue baja, con mayoría de reacciones leves e inmediatas y evolución favorable en todos los pacientes.


Introduction. Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) is a blood product from polyvalent and polyclonal immunoglobulin G. It covers a broad range of indications as immunomodulator or replacement therapy. In addition, although it is considered a safe therapy, the incidence of adverse reactions reported in the bibliography ranges from 1 % to 81 %. The objective of this study was to assess IVIG use and describe related adverse events in a tertiary care children's hospital.Population and methods. This was a pharmacoepidemiological, observational, and prospective study. Patients receiving IVIG for 7 months in 6 areas of a tertiary care children's hospital in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires were assessed. The analysis unit was each IVIG infusion, and the main variable was the presence of adverse reactions.Results. A total of 305 infusions in 111 patients were analyzed. In 81.6 % of cases, the indication was for replacement. The maximum dose was 1 g/kg. In 99.6 % of infusions, some type of premedication was indicated; diphenhydramine was the most common drug, with varying dosages. A total of 12 adverse reactions (3.9 % of infusions) were recorded; 3 were severe: aseptic meningitis (2 cases) and seizures (1 case). All resolved to normal.Conclusions. The rate of IVIG adverse reactions in our setting was low; most reactions were mild and immediate and resolved favorably in all patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Immunoglobulin G/adverse effects , Pharmacovigilance , Immunoglobulin G/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Pharmacoepidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1245-1257, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285930

ABSTRACT

Resumo Avaliou-se os formulários de notificação de suspeitas de reações adversas a medicamentos (RAM) do sistema de farmacovigilância do Brasil e outros doze países latino-americanos. O estudo foi composto por três etapas. Na primeira, os formulários foram pontuados em relação à presença de itens essenciais para compor uma notificação de RAM. Na segunda, as variáveis dos formulários foram quantificadas e classificadas, quanto à razoabilidade em contribuírem para a avaliação de causalidade. Na última etapa, recorreu-se à análise de agrupamento hierárquico para identificar os formulários similares. O formulário da Venezuela obteve a maior pontuação (18 pontos). A mediana das variáveis nos formulários dos países foi de 41 [26 (Guatemala) a 95 (Brasil)]. A maioria das variáveis dos formulários foram classificadas como vitais e a maior parte contribui como fator de explicação alternativo para a avaliação de causalidade. Quatro agrupamentos foram identificados (1, 2, 3 e 4). Os formulários do Brasil e da Bolívia formaram dois grupos distintos, 1 e 3 respectivamente. Há necessidade de modificação dos formulários dos países ou até mesmo exclusão de variáveis, tornando-os mais adequados ao processo de avaliação da causalidade das RAM.


Abstract The scope of this study was to assess the forms used to report suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR) to the pharmacovigilance system in Brazil and twelve other Latin-American countries. The study comprised three stages. In the first stage, the forms were attributed a score relating to the presence of critical items to generate ADR notification. In the second stage, the variables of the forms were quantified and classified regarding feasibility to contribute to an appropriate assessment of causality. In the last stage, hierarchical clustering was used to identify similar forms. The Venezuelan form achieved the highest score (18 points). The median number of variables in the forms of each country was 41 [26 (Guatemala) to 95 (Brazil)]. Most of the variables of the form were classified as life-critical and the majority contribute as an alternative explanation to causality assessment. Four clusters were identified (1, 2, 3 and 4). The forms of Brazil and Bolivia formed two distinct groups, 1 and 3 respectively. The results of this study indicate the need to change the forms of the different countries studied or even delete some variables, making them more appropriate for the process of assessment of ADR causality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Pharmacovigilance , United States , Bolivia , Brazil/epidemiology , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 79-86, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249060

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. El uso de medicamentos puede conllevar errores de medicación que desemboquen en la hospitalización del paciente, el aumento de los costos relacionados con la atención e, incluso, la muerte. Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de errores de medicación notificados en un sistema de información de farmacovigilancia en Colombia entre el 2018 y el 2019. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio observacional a partir del registro de errores de medicación de un sistema de farmacovigilancia que cubre a 8,5 millones de pacientes ambulatorios afiliados al sistema de salud de Colombia. Los errores se categorizaron en ocho grupos de la A (situaciones potenciales de error) hasta la I (error que pudo llevar a la muerte). Se hizo el análisis descriptivo y se estableció la prevalencia de los errores de medicación. Resultados. Durante los años 2018 y 2019, se reportaron 29.538 errores de medicación en pacientes ambulatorios, con una prevalencia general de 1,93 por cada 10.000 medicamentos dispensados. En el 0,02 % (n=6) de los casos, se presentaron errores que llegaron a afectar a los pacientes y causaron daño (tipos E, F e I). La mayoría de los errores se asoció con la dispensación (n=20.636; 69,9 %) y la posible causa más común fue la falta de concentración en el momento de dispensar los medicamentos (n=9.185; 31,1 %). Los grupos farmacológicos más implicados en errores de medicación fueron los antidiabéticos (8,0 %), los inhibidores del sistema renina-angiotensina (7,6 %) y los analgésicos (6,0 %). Conclusiones. Los errores de medicación son relativamente poco frecuentes y con mayor frecuencia se catalogan como circunstancias o eventos capaces de generar un error de tipo A. Muy pocas veces, pueden causarle daño al paciente, incluso, hasta la muerte.


Abstract | Introduction: The use of drugs may involve medication errors leading to hospitalization, increased costs related to care, and even death. Objective: To determine the prevalence of medication errors reported in a pharmacovigilance information system in Colombia between 2018 and 2019. Materials and methods: We conducted an observational study based on the records of medication errors from a pharmacovigilance system covering 8.5 million outpatients affiliated with the Colombian health system. The errors were categorized from A (potential situations to error) to I (an error that could lead to death). We performed a descriptive analysis and established the prevalence of medication errors. Results: During 2018 and 2019, 29,538 medication errors in outpatients were reported with a general prevalence of 1.93 per 10,000 drugs dispensed. The errors that reached the patient and caused damage (types E, F, and I) occurred in 0.02% (n=6) of the patients. Most of them were related to the dispensation (n=20,636; 69.9%) and the possible most common cause was the lack of concentration at the time of dispensing (n=9185; 31.1%). The pharmacological groups most involved in medication errors were antidiabetics (8.0%), renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (7.6%), and analgesics (6.0%). Conclusions: Medication errors are relatively rare situations, generally classified as circumstances or events capable of generating the error (type A error). In low proportion, they can reach the patient and cause damage or even death.


Subject(s)
Medication Errors , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Pharmacovigilance , Patient Harm
6.
Medisan ; 25(1)ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1154850

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El impacto de la prescripción inapropiada de fármacos en el anciano ha llevado al desarrollo de métodos para su reducción en varias partes del mundo. Objetivo: Diseñar y validar los criterios de medicación potencialmente inapropiada en el anciano, adaptados al entorno sociosanitario de Cuba. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación cualitativa, en la cual los criterios fueron validados por medio de la metodología Delphi, por un comité de expertos (especialistas en medicina geriátrica y clínica de diferentes zonas geográficas del país), y se les calculó la consistencia interna mediante el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Resultados: Los criterios quedaron estructurados en tres listas: 1) medicación potencialmente inapropiada, medicamento indicado no prescripto, cuando no existe contraindicación para su uso; 2) medicación potencialmente inapropiada independiente del diagnóstico o la condición clínica; 3) medicación potencialmente inapropiada dependiente del diagnóstico o la condición clínica. Conclusiones: Se demostró la validez del contenido y la adecuada consistencia interna de los criterios diseñados para la identificación de medicación potencialmente inapropiada en el anciano.


Introduction: The impact of inappropriate prescription of medication in the elderly has led to the development of methods for its reduction in several parts of the world. Objective: To design and validate the medication approaches potentially inappropriate in the elderly, adapted to the socio-sanitary environment of Cuba. Methods: A qualitative investigation was carried out, in which the approaches were validated by means of the Delphi methodology, by an experts committee (specialists in geriatrics medicine and clinic from different geographical areas of the country), and the internal consistency was calculated by means of the alpha coefficient of Cronbach. Results: The approaches were structured in three lists: 1) potentially inappropriate medication, advised medication non prescribed, when contraindication doesn't exist for its use; 2) medication potentially inappropriate, independent from the diagnosis or clinical condition; 3) potentially inappropriate medication, depending on the diagnosis or clinical condition. Conclusions: The validity of the content and the appropriate internal consistency of the designed approaches for the medication identification potentially inappropriate in the elderly were demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Aged , Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control , Pharmacovigilance , Peer Review , Cuba
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze clinical feature and information of medication to explore the risk signals of preparations containing Psoraleae Fructus (BGZP) related with hepatobiliary adverse drug reactions (ADR), in order to reinforce pharmacovigilance.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted based on hepatobiliary ADR related with BGZP from the China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System in years from January 2012 to December 2016. Serious and general ADRs were analyzed and assessed.@*RESULTS@#There were 355 cases of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP. Both the amount of cases and the proportion of serious ADR showed an increasing growth by years (P<0.05). It was found that 10.43% of 355 cases may be involved with irrational drug use, including overdose, repeated medication, and combination of multiple drugs. There were 190 cases which used BGZP (non-combination), and they were mainly for common in diseases caused by abnormal immune activation (accounting for 40.53% of the total cases). Especially at the age group with the most cases with age of 41-50 years, the cases associated with immunological diseases of female were obviously more than that of male (P<0.05). The latency of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP ranged from 1 to 386 days, and the median latency was 27.5 days, along with the range of cumulative dose (0.45-520.02 g) as well as the daily dose (0.09-2.64 g/d) after the conversion.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Cases of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP showed significant individual differences, and there was no correlation between drug usage duration and dosage and the occurrence of hepatobiliary ADR. It may be similar with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury, and recommended that BGZP should be used with more caution under monitoring liver function, especially in female patients with immunological diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharmacovigilance , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921729

ABSTRACT

Multiple methods should be incorporated into the research on pharmacovigilance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM for a comprehensive and objective evaluation. The arrival of the era of medical big data allows it to be deeply integrated into medical research. The real world study(RWS) represented by hospital information system(HIS) provides a data basis for exploring the pharmacovigilance of TCM. Prescription sequence analysis(PSA) and prescription sequence symmetry analysis(PSSA) developed based on the former serve as a methodological basis for clinical safety evaluation of Chinese patent medicines after marketing. By collating the related studies of HIS, PSA and PSSA and employing the propensity score matching( PSM) method and nested case-control study(NCCS), this paper formed a HIS-, PSA-and PSSA-based technical system for clinical safety evaluation of Chinese patent medicines in the real world, in order to provide a methodological demonstration for the future research on the pharmacovigilance of TCM.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pharmacovigilance , Prescriptions , Sequence Analysis
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921726

ABSTRACT

Pharmacovigilance system is an extension of the original adverse drug reactions monitoring and reporting system as well as an internationally recognized basic system that must be matched with the whole life cycle supervision of drugs. European Union(EU)pharmacovigilance system, World Health Orgnization(WHO) Uppsala Monitoring Center system and ICH system are internationally recognized pharmacovigilance systems. They all have their own pharmacovigilance characteristics and could provide guarantee for clinical safe drug use. With the deepening of international communication, pharmacovigilance has also been developed in China. Pharmacovigilance of Chinese medicine is a new concept based on the existing pharmacovigilance system of chemical medicine and the characteristics of Chinese medicine. In ancient China, Chinese medicine also had its own ways of early warning. Ancient medical books have records on the toxicity classification, clinical pharmacovigilance and intoxication rescue of Chinese medicine. With the increase of public recognition of Chinese medicine in recent years, especially since the government issued the 13 th Five-Year Plan for the development of Chinese medicine, the pharmaceutical industry in China has paid more and more attention to the pharmacovigilance of Chinese medicine.However, the pharmacovigilance system of Chinese medicine has not yet been established, and it still needs to be explored and improved.Therefore, it is very necessary to develop the system to standardize pharmacovigilance-related activities of Chinese medicine. In this context, this study analyzed and learned the characteristics of pharmacovigilance systems of EU, ICH, and WHO Uppsala Monitoring Center, so as to provide some enlightenment for the establishment and improvement of pharmacovigilance system of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Books , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , European Union , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pharmacovigilance
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888158

ABSTRACT

In order to solve the problems of confusion in clinical medication and imperfect instructions in Chinese patent medicines(CPMs), the Standardization Department of the China Association of Chinese Medicine and Center for Pharmacovigilance and Rational use of Chinese Medicine in Beijing University of Chinese Medicine jointly compiled the Instructions for Clinical Application of Chinese Patent Medicines(CPMs). As the interpretation and supplement of drug instruction information, it aims to guide clinical safety and rational use of CPMs. In addition, the technical specification for clinical application description of CPMs has been formulated, which covers the seven processes of "carding instructions, clinical investigation, data retrieval, data screening, evidence classification, path transformation and writing format". It will enable readers of Instructions for Clinical Application of Chinese Patent Medicines to understand the work behind the compilation.


Subject(s)
Beijing , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs , Pharmacovigilance
11.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE002335, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1349811

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Descrever a vigilância ativa dos eventos adversos pós-vacinação, sua incidência e fatores associados, em um município de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos Coorte prospectiva realizada na Atenção Primária à Saúde, entre 2017 e 2018. Foram acompanhados 384 indivíduos que receberam vacinas, excluindo-se aqueles que tiveram eventos adversos prévios. Na linha de base, foram coletadas informações sociodemográficas, de saúde e histórico de vacinação e, no seguimento, as características do evento adverso e das ações de vigilância epidemiológica. Estimou-se taxa de incidência de eventos adversos, e realizaram-se o teste do qui-quadrado, a regressão de Poisson e o teste de Hosmer-Lemeshow. Resultados A incidência de eventos adversos foi de 13,36 casos/100 mil doses de vacinas (intervalo de confiança de 95%: 13,34-13,38), com maior incidência em crianças menores de 5 anos. Os eventos adversos mais frequentes foram dor local, vermelhidão, endurecimento, seguidos de febre e choro persistente. Dentre os fatores associados à ocorrência dos eventos adversos, recebimento da vacina contra tétano e difteria (risco relativo: 7,9; intervalo de confiança de 95%: 2,77-12,46) e administração por meio da via intramuscular foram considerados de risco (risco relativo: 6,1; intervalo de confiança de 95%: 2,55-14,63). A conduta do profissional de enfermagem, diante das orientações sobre as vacinas recebidas, aumentou a notificação de eventos adversos (risco relativo: 3,4; intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,53-7,68). Conclusão O estudo permitiu conhecer fatores que favorecem a ocorrência de eventos adversos. Há evidências de que condutas adotadas pelos profissionais de enfermagem nas salas de vacinação podem evitar subnotificações de eventos adversos pós-vacinação.


Resumen Observación Describir la observación activa de los eventos adversos posvacunación, su incidencia y factores asociados en un municipio del estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos Cohorte prospectiva realizada en la Atención Primaria de Salud, entre 2017 y 2018. Se realizó el seguimiento de 384 individuos que recibieron vacunas, excluyendo a aquellos que tuvieron eventos adversos previos. En la línea basal, se recopiló información sociodemográfica, de salud e historial de vacunación y, en el seguimiento, las características del evento adverso y las acciones de observación epidemiológica. Se estimó un índice de incidencia de eventos adversos y se realizó la prueba χ2 de Pearson, la regresión de Poisson y la prueba de Hosmer-Lemeshow. Resultados La incidencia de eventos adversos fue de 13,36 casos/100.000 dosis de vacuna (intervalo de confianza de 95 %: 13,34-13,38), con mayor incidencia en niños menores de 5 años. Los eventos adversos más frecuentes fueron dolor local, enrojecimiento, endurecimiento, seguidos de fiebre y llanto persistente. Entre los factores asociados a la ocurrencia de los eventos adversos, la aplicación de la vacuna contra el tétanos y la difteria (riesgo relativo: 7,9; intervalo de confianza de 95 %: 2,77-12,46) y la administración por medio de la vía intramuscular fueron considerados de riesgo (riesgo relativo: 6,1; intervalo de confianza de 95 %: 2,55-14,63). La conducta del profesional de enfermería ante las instrucciones sobre las vacunas recibidas aumentó la notificación de eventos adversos (riesgo relativo: 3,4; intervalo de confianza de 95 %: 1,53-7,68). Conclusión El estudio permitió conocer factores que favorecen a la ocurrencia de eventos adversos. Hay evidencias de que las conductas adoptadas por los profesionales de enfermería en las salas de vacunación pueden evitar subnotificaciones de eventos adversos posvacunación.


Abstract Objective To describe the active surveillance of adverse events following immunization, their incidence and associated factors in a municipality of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods This is a prospective cohort conducted in Primary Health Care between 2017 and 2018. A total of 384 individuals who received vaccines were followed up, excluding those who had previous adverse events. At baseline, sociodemographic, health and vaccination history information and, in follow-up, the characteristics of adverse events and epidemiological surveillance actions were collected. The incidence rate of adverse events was estimated, and the chi-square test, poisson regression and Hosmer-Lemeshow test were performed. Results The incidence of adverse events was 13.36 cases/100,000 doses of vaccines (95% confidence interval: 13.34-13.38), with a higher incidence in children under 5 years of age. The most frequent adverse events were local pain, redness, hardening, followed by fever and persistent crying. Among the factors associated with the occurrence of adverse events, receiving tetanus and diffrhyphria vaccine (relative risk: 7.9; 95% confidence interval: 2.77-12.46) and intramuscular administration were considered at risk (relative risk: 6.1; 95% confidence interval: 2.55-14.63). Nursing professionals' conduct, considering the guidelines on the vaccines received, increased adverse event reporting (relative risk: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.68). Conclusion The study allowed to know factors that favor the occurrence of adverse events. There is evidence that conducts adopted by nursing professionals in immunization rooms may avoid underreporting of adverse events following immunization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vaccination/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Practice Patterns, Nurses' , Pharmacovigilance , Epidemiologic Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Epidemiological Monitoring
12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(1): e00245820, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153671

ABSTRACT

Em março de 2020, a Organização Mundial da Saúde anunciou a nova pandemia denominada de COVID-19, representando um desafio para os profissionais e serviços de saúde. Ainda não foi identificado um tratamento eficaz contra essa doença e vários fármacos são utilizados sem evidências de sua eficácia, que em alguns casos pode causar eventos indesejados. Esse é um estudo transversal com o objetivo de avaliar as reações adversas a medicamentos (RAMs) nos pacientes com COVID-19, identificadas entre 1º de março e 15 agosto de 2020 no Brasil, e os fatores associados ao surgimento de reações graves. Para comparar as proporções das amostras relacionadas ao notificador, paciente, fármacos e eventos adversos utilizamos os testes não paramétricos qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher, e para comparar as médias dos dados com a distribuição normal foi usado o teste t e de Mann-Whitney. Também foi realizada a análise de regressão logística multivariável, estimando as odds ratio (OR) brutas e ajustadas pelo software Stata, versão 10.0. Foram identificadas 631 RAMs em 402 pacientes. Os medicamentos mais envolvidos foram hidroxicloroquina (59,5%), azitromicina (9,8%) e a cloroquina (5,2%). As reações se manifestaram prioritariamente no sistema cardíaco (38,8%), gastrointestinal (14,4%), tecido cutâneo (12,2%) e hepático (8,9%). A cloroquina (OR = 5,4; IC95%: 1,9-15,6) e a hidroxicloroquina (OR = 2,1; IC95%: 1,2-3,6) foram os únicos medicamentos associados a RAM grave. Nossos achados fornecem subsídios para melhores práticas em farmacovigilância, contribuindo para tomadas de decisões regulatórias efetivas e seguras pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, para os pacientes e toda a sociedade.


En marzo de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud anunció la nueva pandemia denominada COVID-19, representando un desafío para los profesionales y servicios de salud. Todavía no se identificó un tratamiento eficaz contra esta enfermedad y varios fármacos se utilizan sin evidencias de su eficacia, que, en algunos casos, pueden causar eventos indeseados. Este es un estudio transversal, con el objetivo de evaluar las reacciones adversas a medicamentos (RAMs) en pacientes con COVID-19, identificadas desde el 1º de marzo al 15 agosto de 2020 en Brasil, y los factores asociados al surgimiento de reacciones graves. Para comparar las proporciones de las muestras relacionadas con el notificador, paciente, fármacos y eventos adversos, utilizamos los tests no paramétricos chi-cuadrado y exacto de Fisher, y para comparar las medias de los datos con la distribución normal, se utilizó el test t y de Mann-Whitney. También se realizó un análisis de regresión logística multivariable, estimando las odds ratio (OR) brutas y ajustadas, mediante el software Stata, versión 10.0. Se identificaron 631 RAMs en 402 pacientes. Los medicamentos más implicados fueron: hidroxicloroquina (59,5%), azitromicina (9,8%) y la cloroquina (5,2%). Las reacciones se manifestaron prioritariamente en el sistema cardíaco (38,8%), gastrointestinal (14,4%), tejido cutáneo (12,2%) y hepático (8,9%). La cloroquina (OR = 5,4; IC95%: 1,9-15,6) e hidroxicloroquina (OR = 2,1; IC95%: 1,2-3,6) fueron los únicos medicamentos asociados a RAM grave. Nuestros resultados proporcionan apoyo para mejores prácticas en farmacovigilancia, contribuyendo a las tomas de decisiones regulatorias efectivas y seguras, por parte de la Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria, para los pacientes y toda la sociedad.


In March 2020, the World Health Organization announced the new COVID-19 pandemic, which represented a challenge for health services and professionals. An effective treatment against this disease has not yet been developed; as such, several drugs are used without evidence of efficacy, which in some cases may lead to unwanted events. This is a cross-sectional study with the objective of evaluating adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in patients with COVID-19, identified between March 1 and August 15, 2020, in Brazil, as well as assessing the factors associated with the emergence of severe reactions. To compare the proportions of samples related to the notifier, patient, drugs and adverse events, we used Fisher's chi-square and exact nonparametric tests; and to compare the means of the data with normal distribution, we used the Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney's test. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed, estimating the crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) by the Stata software, version 10.0. A total of 631 ADRs were identified in 402 patients. The main drugs were hydroxychloroquine (59.5%), azithromycin (9.8%) and chloroquine (5.2%). The reactions manifested primarily in the cardiac system (38.8%), gastrointestinal system (14.4%), skin tissue (12.2%) and hepatic system (8.9%). Chloroquine (OR = 5.4; 95%CI: 1.9-15.6) and hydroxychloroquine (OR = 2.1; 95CI%: 1.2-3.6) were the only drugs associated with severe ADR. Our findings provide support for better practices in pharmacovigilance, contributing to effective and secure regulatory decision-making by the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency, patients and society as a whole.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(10): e00077721, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345618

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has stated that the prescription of remdesivir should be cautious for patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 30 and some studies reported risk of adverse renal events. The available information on the renal safety profile for remdesivir is limited, thus we analyzed the renal and urinary adverse reactions attributed to remdesivir reported in a large open pharmacovigilance database. We obtained reports of remdesivir and other drugs used to treat COVID-19 (tocilizumab, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir) registered by September 30 2020, from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We analyzed the reporting odds ratios (RORs) for reports of adverse renal and urinary events for remdesivir and other drugs. We found 2,922 reports with remdesivir registered in FAERS for COVID-19. Among these, 493 renal and urinary adverse effects (16.9%) were reported. The most frequent events were acute kidney injury (338; 11.6%), renal impairment (86; 2.9%), and renal failure (53; 1.8%). Versus hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, or tocilizumab, the use of remdesivir was associated with an increased chance of reporting renal and urinary disorders regardless of gender and age of patients (2.53; 95%CI: 2.10-3.06). The ROR remained significant when we restricted the analysis to hydroxychloroquine (4.31; 95%CI: 3.25-5.71) or tocilizumab (3.92; 95%CI: 2.51-6.12). Our results reinforce this already reported signal, emphasizing that it could be extremely useful for health professionals who prescribe this new antiviral to treat COVID-19, mainly knowing its low efficacy.


Resumo: De acordo com a Agência de Controle de Alimentos e Medicamentos dos Estados Unidos (FDA), a prescrição do remdesivir deve ser feita com cautela em pacientes com taxa de filtração glomerular estimada (TFGe) < 30, sendo que diversos estudos relatam risco de eventos adversos renais. São limitados os dados disponíveis sobre o perfil de segurança renal do remdesivir. Assim, analisamos as reações adversas renais e urinárias atribuídas ao remdesivir e notificadas em um grande base de dados abertos de farmacovigilância. Obtivemos notificações sobre remdesivir e outros medicamentos usados para tratar a COVID-19 (tocilizumabe, hidroxicloroquina, lopinavir/ritonavir) registradas até 30 de setembro de 2020 do Sistema de Notificação de Eventos Adversos da FDA (FAERS). Analisamos as razões de chances de notificação (RORs) para notificações de eventos adversos renais e urinários referentes ao remdesivir e outros medicamentos. Encontramos 2.922 notificações sobre remdesivir registradas no FAERS para COVID-19. Entre esses casos, foram notificados 493 efeitos adversos renais e urinários (16,9%). Os eventos mais frequentes foram lesão renal aguda (338; 11,6%), comprometimento renal (86; 2,9%) e insuficiência renal (53; 1,8%). Comparado com a hidroxicloroquina, lopinavir/ritonavir ou tocilizumabe, o uso do remdesivir esteve associado com um aumento das chances de notificação de transtornos renais e urinários, independentemente do sexo e idade dos pacientes (2,53; IC95%: 2,10-3,06). A ROR permaneceu significativo quando limitamos a análise à hidroxicloroquina (4,31; IC95%: 3,25-5,71) ou ao tocilizumabe (3,92; IC95%: 2,51-6,12). Nossos resultados corroboram outros estudos e destacam a utilidade para profissionais da saúde que usam esse novo antiviral para tratar a COVID-19, sobretudo em função de sua baixa eficácia.


Resumen: La Agencia Americana de Control de Alimentos y Medicamentos (FDA) ha destacado que la prescripción de remdesivir debe ser prudente con pacientes con tasa de filtración glomerular estimada (TGFe) < 30; además, algunos estudios informaron del riesgo de reacciones adversas renales. La información disponible sobre el perfil de seguridad renal, en el caso del remdesivir, es limitada. Por ello, analizamos las reacciones adversas renales y urinarias atribuidas al remdesivir e notificadas en una extensa base de datos abierta de farmacovigilancia. Obtuvimos las notificaciones de remdesivir y otros medicamentos usados para tratar la COVID-19 (tocilizumab, hidroxicloroquina, lopinavir/ritonavir) registrados el 30 de septiembre de 2020 por el Sistema de Notificación de Eventos Adversos de la FDA (FAERS). Analizamos las odds ratios informadas (RORs) en el caso de informes de eventos adversos renales y urinarios adversos relacionados con el remdesivir y otros medicamentos. En el FAERS, encontramos 2.922 notificaciones de remdesivir registradas como medicament sospechoso usado en COVID-19. De estos, habían 493 con efectos renales y urinarios adversos (16,9%). Los efectos adversos más frecuentes fueron lesiones renales agudas (338; 11,6%), insuficiencia renal (86; 2,9%), y fallo renal (53; 1,8%). Frente a hidroxicloroquina, lopinavir/ritonavir, o tocilizumab, el uso de remdesivir se asoció con un riesgo mayor de notificar alteraciones renales y urinarios, independientemente del género y edad de los pacientes (2,53; IC95%: 2,10-3,06). La ROR permaneció significativo al restringir el análisis a la hidroxicloroquina (4,31; IC95%: 3,25-5,71) o tocilizumab (3,92; IC95%: 2,51-6,12). Nuestros resultados corroboran datos previos, algo que podría ser extremadamente útil para los profesionales de la salud que decidan usar este nuevo antiviral para tratar la COVID-19, sobre todo conociendo su baja eficacia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacovigilance , COVID-19/drug therapy , Brazil , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2 , Kidney
16.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(10): e00304420, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339533

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Desde 1963 que a farmacovigilância foi reconhecida como uma área prioritária na saúde pública a nível global pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, garantindo a monitorização permanente da segurança dos medicamentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar as reações adversas a medicamentos recebidas pela Unidade de Farmacovigilância do Porto (UFPorto), Portugal, ao longo de duas décadas de atividade. Foram consideradas todas as notificações de suspeitas de reações adversas a medicamentos recebidas entre janeiro de 2001 e dezembro de 2019. Foram calculadas as taxas de notificação anuais, assim como a sua distribuição por origem, tipo de notificador e local de exercício da atividade, gravidade, conhecimento prévio e causalidade das reações adversas a medicamentos notificadas. No período em estudo, a UFPorto recebeu 9.711 notificações de suspeitas de reações adversas a medicamentos. As instituições hospitalares são aquelas que mais notificam (n = 6.003; 64%), assim como o médico entre os profissionais de saúde (n = 5.284; 54,4%). Os eventos adversos mais frequentemente reportados são graves (n = 6.275; 72%) e encontram-se descritos no respectivo Resumo das Características do Medicamento (n = 6.978; 72%). À maioria das notificações avaliadas pela UFPorto foi atribuído o grau de causalidade "provável" (n = 7.473; 77%), independentemente do tipo de notificador. Os resultados obtidos são concordantes com outros dados previamente reportados na literatura médica internacional e em relatórios oficiais nacionais. Contudo, continua-se a verificar taxas de subnotificação acentuadas, face ao esperado. Ao longo de aproximadamente 20 anos de atividade da UFPorto, tem-se verificado um aumento da sua atividade nas diversas vertentes da segurança do medicamento.


Abstract: Since 1963, the World Health Organization has acknowledged pharmacovigilance as a priority area in global public health, guaranteeing permanent monitoring of drug safety. This study aimed to characterize the reports of adverse drug reactions received by the Porto Pharmacovigilance Centre (UFPorto), Portugal, in the unit's two decades of work. The analysis included all reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received from January 2001 to December 2019. We calculated the annual reporting rates and distribution by origin, type of notifier and place of work, severity, prior knowledge, and causality of the reported adverse drug reactions. During the study period, UFPorto received 9,711 notifications of suspected adverse drug reactions. Hospital institutions reported the most suspected adverse drug reactions (n = 6,003; 64%), as did physicians among healthcare workers (n = 5,284; 54.4%). The most frequently reported adverse events were severe (n = 6,275; 72%) and are described in the respective Summary of Product Characteristics (n = 6,978; 72%). Most of the reports received by UFPorto were evaluated as having "probable" causality (n = 7,473; 77%), independently of the type of notifier. The results are consistent with other data previously reported in the international medical literature and official national reports. However, the underreporting rates are still higher than expected. In approximately 20 years, UFPorto has experienced an increase in its activity in various areas of drug safety.


Resumen: Desde 1963 la farmacovigilancia fue reconocida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, como un área prioritaria en la salud pública a nivel global, garantizando la monitorización permanente de la seguridad de los medicamentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar las reacciones adversas a medicamentos recibidas por la Unidad de Farmacovigilancia de Oporto (UFPorto), Portugal, a lo largo de dos décadas de actividad. Se consideraron todas las notificaciones de sospechas de reacciones adversas a medicamentos, recibidas entre enero de 2001 y diciembre de 2019. Se calcularon las tasas de notificación anuales, así como su distribución por origen, tipo de notificador y lugar de ejercicio de la actividad, gravedad, conocimiento previo y causalidad de las reacciones adversas a medicamentos notificadas. En el período de estudio, la UFPorto recibió 9.711 notificaciones de sospechas reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Las instituciones hospitalarias son quienes más notifican (n = 6.003; 64%), así como el médico entre los profesionales de salud (n = 5.284; 54,4%). Los eventos adversos más frecuentemente reportados son graves (n = 6.275; 72%) y se encuentran descritos en lo respectivo Resumen de las Características del Medicamento (n = 6 978; 72%). A la mayoría de las notificaciones evaluadas por la UFPorto se le atribuyó el grado de causalidad "probable" (n = 7.473; 77%), independientemente del tipo de notificador. Los resultados obtenidos son concordantes con otros datos previamente reportados en la literatura médica internacional y en informes oficiales nacionales. No obstante, se continúa verificando tasas de subregistro acentuadas, frente a lo esperado. A lo largo de aproximadamente 20 años de actividad de la UFPorto, se ha verificado un aumento de su actividad en las diversas vertientes de la seguridad del medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pharmacovigilance , Portugal/epidemiology , Brazil , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
18.
Edumecentro ; 12(4): 122-140, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142853

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: el proceso de capacitación en farmacovigilancia en la atención terciaria de salud resulta necesario en la práctica clínica habitual. Objetivo: caracterizar el proceso de capacitación en farmacovigilancia en un hospital de cuidados terciarios del municipio Playa, provincia La Habana. Métodos: se realizó una investigación cualitativa entre enero-diciembre de 2019. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis e inducción-deducción y empíricos: encuesta en forma de entrevista y cuestionario para el diagnóstico inicial. Se realizó la parametrización donde se especificó una única variable: el proceso de capacitación sobre farmacovigilancia hospitalaria para profesionales y técnicos de la salud, dividida en tres dimensiones: epistemológica, procedimental y conductual, y estas se desglosaron en nueve indicadores. Se realizó la triangulación metodológica con los resultados obtenidos. Para evaluarlos se empleó la escala valorativa: satisfactoria, parcialmente satisfactoria y no satisfactoria. Resultados: el 86,7% de los profesionales y técnicos a los que se le aplicó el diagnóstico inicial mostró resultado no satisfactorio, el 10,0 % parcialmente satisfactorio y solo el 3,3% resultó satisfactorio; en ningún análisis se obtuvo la máxima calificación (5 puntos); la triangulación de la información obtenida posibilitó determinar el inventario de problemas y las potencialidades de la institución para eliminar las carencias de conocimientos sobre la temática. Conclusiones: la parametrización posibilitó cumplir con el objetivo trazado, se caracterizó como no satisfactoria la capacitación en la mayoría de los muestreados, lo cual evidenció la necesidad de elaborar una estrategia sobre la farmacovigilancia hospitalaria.


ABSTRACT Background: the training process in pharmacological vigilance in tertiary health care is necessary in routine clinical practice. Objective: to characterize the training process in pharmacological vigilance in a tertiary care hospital in Playa municipality, Havana province. Methods: a qualitative research was carried out from January to December 2019. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction and empirical ones: survey in the form of an interview and questionnaire for the initial diagnosis. The parameterization was carried out where a single variable was specified: the training process on hospital pharmacological vigilance for health professionals and technicians, divided into three dimensions: epistemological, procedural and behavioral, and these were broken down into nine indicators. The methodological comparison of sources was carried out with the results obtained. To assess them, the rating scale was used: satisfactory, partially satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Results: 86.7% of the professionals and technicians to whom the initial diagnosis was applied showed unsatisfactory results, 10.0% were partially satisfactory and only 3.3% were satisfactory; In no analysis was the maximum score obtained (5 points); the methodological comparison of the information obtained made it possible to determine the inventory of problems and the potentialities of the institution to eliminate the lack of knowledge on the subject. Conclusions: the parameterization made it possible to meet the objective set, the training was characterized as unsatisfactory in most of the sampled, which evidenced the need to develop a strategy on hospital pharmacological vigilance.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical , Pharmacovigilance , Mentoring , Health Services Research
20.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 14(3): 196-202, 30-09-2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128391

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar a existência de informações, em bulas destinadas aos profissionais de saúde, sobre precaução de uso de medicamentos cardiovasculares em idosos. METODOLOGIA: Trata-se de estudo documental realizado por meio de análise de dados contidos em bulas de medicamentos. Analisou-se a existência, na bula, de informações sobre precauções no uso de medicamentos para idosos, conforme descrito no Consenso Brasileiro de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados para Idosos de 2016. RESULTADOS: Dos 29 medicamentos pertencentes ao grupo do sistema cardiovascular que devem ser evitados por idosos e estão disponíveis no Brasil, 15 independem da condição clínica prévia do paciente para que sejam vetados para os idosos. Desses 15, apenas 3 medicamentos (20%) têm informações explícitas concordantes com o Consenso (metildopa, digoxina e espironolactona); 2 (13,33%) têm informações explícitas ausentes; 4 (26,66%) têm informações explícitas discordantes; e 6 bulas (40%) foram categorizadas como informações não explícitas. Quanto às precauções dos medicamentos de acordo com a condição clínica do paciente, incluíram-se 14 medicamentos que devem ser evitados por idosos e estão disponíveis no Brasil. Destes, 12 (85,71%) têm em suas bulas recomendações concordantes com o Consenso, porém não explícitas, e 2 (14,28%) não têm as contraindicações. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria das bulas carece de informações sobre precauções de uso de medicamentos para a população idosa.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the existence of information on drug labeling intended for health professionals on the precaution of cardiovascular drugs use in older people. METHODS: This is a documentary study, carried out with the analysis of data contained in drug labelings. The existence of information on precautions in the use of drugs for older people as described in the 2016 Brazilian Consensus on Potentially Inappropriate Drugs for Older People (Consenso Brasileiro de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados para Idosos de 2016). RESULTS: Of the 29 drugs belonging to the cardiovascular system group that should be avoided by older people and are available in Brazil, 15 are independent of the clinical condition. Of these fifteen, only three drugs (20%) have explicit information in accordance with the Consensus (methyldopa, digoxin, and spironolactone); two (13.33%) have missing explicit information; four (26.66%) have explicitly discordant information; and six drug labels (40%) were categorized as non-explicit information. Regarding drug precautions according to clinical condition, 14 drugs were included. Of these, 12 (85.71%) have equal contraindications of that of Consensus on their drug labels, however, non-explicit; and two (14.28%) contraindications are missing. CONCLUSION: Most drug labels lack information on the precautions for the use of drugs in older people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Drug Prescriptions , Cardiovascular Agents/administration & dosage , Medicine Package Inserts , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Health of the Elderly , Age Factors , Pharmacovigilance
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