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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 312-317, 20220316. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362981

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El divertículo de Zenker es una evaginación sacular ciega que puede presentarse a nivel faringoesofágico. No se conoce exactamente su incidencia en la edad pediátrica, constituyendo una patología muy infrecuente. La sintomatología es inespecífica, lo que dificulta el diagnóstico precoz y determina un mayor riesgo de complicaciones asociadas. Caso clínico. Paciente preescolar femenina con cuadro recurrente de emesis con deshidratación, posteriormente asociado a disfagia, a quien se le diagnosticó un divertículo de Zenker. Se realizó tratamiento quirúrgico con hallazgo intraoperatorio de dilatación esofágica, un área de estenosis secundaria al hallazgo incidental de un cuerpo extraño y divertículo de Zenker en la región lateral del esófago dilatado. Discusión. Esta patología es extremadamente rara, pero se debe tener en cuenta dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales en pacientes con sintomatología faringo-esofágica. Conclusión. Se presenta una preescolar sin antecedente de procedimientos esofágicos o malformaciones congénitas asociadas con diagnóstico de un divertículo de Zenker y dilatación esofágica por un cuerpo extraño, tratada quirúrgicamente de forma exitosa.


Introduction. Zenker's diverticulum is a blind saccular evagination that can present at the pharyngoesophageal level. Its incidence in pediatric age is not exactly known, constituting a very infrequent pathology. The symptoms are nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis difficult and determines a higher risk of associated complications.Clinical case. Female preschool patient with recurrent dehydration due to emesis, later associated with dysphagia, who was diagnosed with Zenker's diverticulum. Surgical treatment was performed with intraoperative finding of esophageal dilation, an area of stenosis secondary to the incidental finding of a foreign body, and a Zenker's diverticulum in the lateral region of the dilated esophagus. Discussion. This pathology is extremely rare, but it should be taken into account within the differential diagnoses in patients with pharyngo-esophageal symptoms. Conclusion: We present a preschool female patient with no history of esophageal procedures or congenital malformations associated with a diagnosis of Zenker's diverticulum and esophageal dilation due to a foreign body, successfully treated surgically.


Subject(s)
Humans , Foreign-Body Reaction , Zenker Diverticulum , Esophageal Stenosis , Pharynx , Diverticulum , Esophagus
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 296-301, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345287

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: High-resolution manometry (HRM) represents a potential tool for measuring pharyngoesophageal phonation pressures. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate pharyngeal, esophageal upper sphincteric and esophageal pressures during different phonation tasks. METHODS: 12 (six males, mean age 27 years) professional singers underwent HRM and produced four different vocal tasks at low, medium and high vocal loudness: vowel /ae/, ascending five note scale, word /hey/ and word /go/. Pressures were measured at pharynx, upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and esophagus. Visual analysis of the HRM topographic plots were performed. RESULTS: Esophageal pressures are higher during vocalization than at rest. Pharyngeal and UES phonation pressures does not differ significantly from rest pressures. Visual analysis of the topographic plots showed an important UES pressure increasement during phonation. CONCLUSION: HRM is a valuable tool for measuring pharyngoesophageal pressures during phonation. Esophageal pressures are higher during phonation than at rest and tend to increase with vocal loudness increment. The topographic plot provides additional data about phonatory mechanism physiology, especially at the UES region.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A manometria de alta resolução (MAR) é uma ferramenta de grande potencial para mensuração das pressões faringoesofágicas durante a fonação. OBJETIVO: O estudo visa avaliar pressões faringianas, do esfíncter esofagiano superior e do esôfago durante manobras fonatórias. MÉTODOS: Doze (seis homens, idade média 27 anos) cantores profissionais foram submetidos à MAR e produziram quatro tarefas vocais em intensidade baixa, média e alta: vogal / ae /, escala ascendente de cinco notas, palavras /hey/ e /go/. Pressões aos níveis da faringe, esfíncter esofagiano superior e esôfago foram aferidas além de análise visual dos traçados. RESULTADOS: Pressões esofágicas foram maiores na vocalização que no repouso. Pressões da faringe e esfíncter esofagiano superior durante a fonação não foram diferentes que no repouso. Análise visual dos traçados mostrou importante incremento da pressão do esfíncter durante a fonação. CONCLUSÃO: MAR é uma ferramenta valiosa para mensurar as pressões faringoesofágicas durante a fonação. Pressões esofágicas são maiores durante a fonação que no repouso e tendem a aumentar com maior intensidade sonora. Análise visual dos traçados mostram dados adicionais sobre a fisiologia do mecanismo da fonação, especialmente na região do esfíncter esofagiano superior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pharynx , Esophageal Sphincter, Upper , Pressure , Deglutition , Manometry
3.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(3): e3745, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280429

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a positive-strand RNA virus. The virus can also be detected in many different specimens as throat swabs, nasal swabs, sputum, saliva, blood, etc. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare the reliability of different types of specimen collection, saliva and swabs samples for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Material and Methods: A sample of 22 COVID-19 positive patients was selected. Paired samples from saliva, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal swabs were collected on the 7th day after diagnosis. The hyssops and medium employed was IMPROSWAB and IMPROVIRAL NAT Medium, Germany. The sample evaluation was conducted through RT-PCR. The results were compared using Fisher's exact test and ROC curve. The gold standard proposed in this paper was the nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal swabs specimen. Results: The gold standard method detected 10 true positive cases, of which oropharyngeal swabs, nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva only detected three positive cases. Significant differences (Fisher's exact test p = 0.003) were detected in the comparison between saliva and the gold standart proposed. The ROC curve analysis showed that saliva had an area under the curve of 0.650, with a 30 percent of sensibility. However, the nasopharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal samples had an area under curve of 0.950 and 1.000, respectively, with a sensibility of 90 percent and 100 percent, respectively. Conclusion: Saliva samples are not a reliable specimen for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. In turn, the most reliable specimens are nasopharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal samples collected by swabbing(AU)


Introducción: El SARS-CoV-2 es un virus ARN positivo. Este virus puede ser detectado en diferentes tipos de secreción como hisopada bucal, nasal, esputo, saliva, sangre, etc. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es comparar la confiabilidad de diferentes tipos de muestras, saliva y exudado, en la detección de SARS-CoV-2. Material y Métodos: Una muestra de 22 pacientes con diagnóstico de Covid-19 fue estudiada. Se tomaron muestras pareadas de saliva y exudado nasofaríngeo y orofaríngeo en cada paciente. Se emplearon los hisopos y medios de la firma alemana IMPROVE®. Los resultados de las determinaciones por RT-PCR se compararon mediante test de Fisher (test de la probabilidad exacta de Fisher) y cada sets de muestras fue evaluada individualmente y luego comparadas por curvas ROC. El estándar de oro propuesto fue el doble hisopado nasofaríngeo/orofaríngeo. Resultados: El método de oro propuesto detectó 10 casos positivos. La coincidencia de detección entre todos los sets de muestras fue de 3 casos (30 por ciento). Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (Fisher p = 0.003) en la comparación de los casos detectados en saliva vs el estándar de oro. El análisis de curvas ROC mostró un área bajo la curva de 0.650 (30 por ciento de sensibilidad) para la saliva. En el caso del hisopado nasofaríngeo y el estándar de oro mostraron un área bajo la curva de 0.95 y 1.00, respectivamente, con una sensibilidad del 90 (AU) por ciento y 100 por ciento, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La saliva no es una muestra confiable para la detección de SARS-CoV-2. La muestra más confiable para el diagnóstico fue el hisopado nasofaríngeo y el doble hisopado(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharynx/pathology , Saliva , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/ethics , Nasopharynx/virology
4.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 25(1): 7-21, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287179

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: durante los tres primeros años de vida, las funciones bucofaríngeas se atribuyen a factores genéticos y ambientales. Objetivo: caracterizar las funciones bucofaríngeas en el segundo y tercer año de vida, en niños del municipio de Santa Clara, provincia Villa Clara. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo, en el período de octubre de 2014 a junio de 2017. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por todos los niños nacidos en el Hospital Universitario Ginecobstétrico «Mariana Grajales¼ de Santa Clara, en abril y mayo de 2013, pertenecientes a cualquier área de salud de dicho municipio. La muestra estuvo integrada por 64 niños que fueron examinados a los 18, 24, 30 y 36 meses de edad. Para la recolección de los datos se aplicó el método de observación; la información obtenida se procesó y se sometió a pruebas estadísticas. Resultados: las funciones bucofaríngeas, excepto la fonatoria, sufrieron un deterioro progresivo según aumentó la edad de los niños observados; así mismo, aparecieron hábitos de respiración bucal y deglución con protracción exagerada. Conclusiones: se produjeron importantes cambios en las funciones bucofaríngeas en el segundo y tercer año de vida, en los niños integrantes de la cohorte estudiada.


ABSTRACT Introduction: oropharyngeal functions are attributed to genetic and environmental factors during the first three years of life. Objective: to characterize oropharyngeal functions in the second and third year of life, in children from Santa Clara municipality, Villa Clara province. Methods: a prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was carried out from October 2014 to June 2017. The study universe consisted of all the children born at "Mariana Grajales" Gynecology and Obstetrics University Hospital in Santa Clara, in April and May 2013, belonging to the health areas of the mentioned municipality. The sample consisted of 64 children who were examined at 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of age. Observation method was applied for data collection; the obtained information was processed and subjected to statistical tests. Results: oropharyngeal functions, with the exception of phonatory, suffered a progressive deterioration as the age of the observed children increased; likewise, mouth breathing and swallowing habits with exaggerated protraction appeared. Conclusions: important changes in oropharyngeal functions during the second and third year of life were observed in children belonging to the studied cohort.


Subject(s)
Pharynx
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aims to investigate the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in cleft patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) after pharyngeal flap surgery (PFS) and explore the influence of operation age.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted in 82 cleft patients after PFS. The patients were divided into two groups according to their age at the time of surgery. The incidence and severity of OSA were assessed at least 1.2 years (mean 6.0 years) postoperatively by polysomnography (PSG).@*RESULTS@#The incidence rates of OSA were 20% in the adult group and 31% in the child group. No significant difference was found between the two groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Some patients still have OSA average of 6.0 years after PFS, and operation ageis unrelated to the incidence and severity of OSA.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Pharynx , Polysomnography , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/etiology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#A study was conducted to explore the expression pattern and function of ferritin heavy polypeptide gene (fth1b) in zebrafish pharyngeal teeth development and lay the foundation for subsequent research on teeth development and mineralization.@*METHODS@#The zebrafish embryos were harvested at 56, 72, 96, and 120 h after fertilization. The expression of fth1b in zebrafish pharyngeal teeth development was detected by whole embryo @*RESULTS@#The expression pattern of fth1b gene was very similar to that of the known zebrafish pharyngeal teeth marker dlx2b and was specifically expressed in the zebrafish pharyngeal teeth during development. After the specific knockout of the gene fth1b, the earliest gene that can be detect in zebrafish pharyngeal teeth-pitx2 was expressed normally during early development. The dlx2b expression was not significantly different from that of wild type zebrafish, but the mineralization of pharyngeal teeth in the mutant was weaker than that of wild type zebrafish.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The gene fth1b is specifically expressed in zebrafish pharyngeal teeth and acts on their early mineralization.


Subject(s)
Animals , In Situ Hybridization , Odontogenesis , Pharynx , Tooth , Zebrafish/genetics
7.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(4): 56-58, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278142

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pharyngeal tuberculosis is an extrapulmonary form of this disease which makes up less than 1% of cases, most of which are secondary. In Peru, there are no case reports of this form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. We present the case of a 42-year-old man who consulted due to a two-month history of sore throat and a pharyngeal lump, with no epidemiological or medical history. A biopsy of the lesion and Ziehl-Neelsen staining yielded results compatible with pharyngeal tuberculosis. A chest x-ray showed bilateral miliary lesions, confirming a secondary form of disseminated tuberculosis. This highlights the importance of ruling out tuberculosis in all cases of chronic pharyngitis which are unresponsive to conventional treatment.


Resumen La tuberculosis faríngea es una forma extrapulmonar de esta enfermedad que corresponde a menos de 1% de casos, mayormente de carácter secundario. En Perú, no hay datos de reportes de casos en esta forma de tuberculosis extrapulmonar. Presentamos el caso de un varón de cuarenta y dos años que consultó por dolor de garganta y tumoración en faringe de dos meses de evolución, sin antecedentes epidemiológico o patológico. Se realiza biopsia de la lesión y coloración Ziehl Neelsen dando compatible a tuberculosis faríngea. En la radiografía de tórax se encontró lesiones pulmonares diseminadas bilaterales de tipo miliar, confirmando forma secundaria a tuberculosis diseminada. Por ello, se resalta la importancia de descartar tuberculosis ante toda faringitis crónica sin respuesta al tratamiento convencional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tuberculosis , Pharyngeal Diseases , Peru , Pharynx , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Pharyngitis
8.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(2): 137-146, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115828

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La planificación de cirugías para el manejo del síndrome de apneahipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS) ha incrementado su precisión desde la introducción de la endoscopía del sueño inducido por fármacos (DISE). OBJETIVO: Evaluar la técnica de faringoplastía de reposición con suturas barbadas (BRP) para el colapso velofaríngeo y/o de paredes laterales orofaríngeas evaluado mediante DISE en pacientes con SAHOS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Ochenta y ocho pacientes fueron evaluados para cirugía mediante antropometría, escala de somnolencia de Epworth (ESS) y poligrafía respiratoria. Veinte y seis de 88 pacientes fueron seleccionados. De los 26, 14 accedieron al tratamiento quirúrgico, el que se seleccionó en base a la DISE. En todos los casos, se realizó BRP. RESULTADOS: A los 3 meses de la cirugía hubo mejoría en 10/14 pacientes (criterios de Sher, disminución del índice de apnea-hipoapnea a <20 o 50% del basal). La ESS bajó en promedio de 12 a 5 puntos (p <0,05). No se reportaron incidentes en el posoperatorio y no han ocurrido eventos adversos. CONCLUSIÓN: La técnica de BRP es una técnica sencilla y útil para la expansión anterior y lateral del paladar blando y orofaringe, con una tasa de éxito similar en esta cohorte a la reportada internacionalmente.


INTRODUCTION: Surgical planning for the management of obstructive sleep apneahypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) has changed since the introduction of drug induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). AIM: To evaluate the technique of barbed sutures reposition pharyngoplasty (BRP) for velopharyngeal collapse and/or oropharyngeal lateral walls after DISE evaluation in OSAHS patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 88 patients were evaluated for surgery by anthropometry, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and respiratory polygraphy. 26 of 88 patients were selected. Of the 26, 14 agreed to surgical treatment, which was selected on DISE findings. In all cases, BRP was performed. RESULTS: Three months after surgery there was improvement in 10/14 patients (Sher criteria, apnea-hypopnea index reduction at <20 or 50% of baseline). The ESS improved on average 12 to 5 (p <0.05). No incidents were reported in the post-operative period and no adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The BRP technique is a simple and useful technique for the anterior and lateral expansion of the soft palate and oropharynx, with a similar success rate in this cohort to that internationally reported.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pharynx/surgery , Suture Techniques , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/surgery , Endoscopy/methods , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/surgery , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleepiness , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 150-153, Apr.-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131645

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with slower transit of the bolus through the pharynx and upper esophageal sphincter. Functional heartburn has similar symptoms to gastroesophageal reflux disease, however, the symptoms are not caused by reflux. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate oral and pharyngeal transit in patients with functional heartburn, with the hypothesis that, similar to patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, they have changes in pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter transit time. METHODS: Oral and pharyngeal transit was evaluated by videofluoroscopy in eight women with functional heartburn, five with mild dysphagia for solid foods, and 12 female controls. Controls and patients swallowed in duplicate 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid and paste boluses. RESULTS: No difference in the oral or pharyngeal transit time was found between patients and controls. No aspiration of bolus into the airways was detected in any individual. Pharyngeal residues were detected in the same proportion of swallows, in patients (12.5%) and controls (15.0%), after swallows of 10 mL paste bolus. CONCLUSION: Oral, pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter transit time are similar in patients with functional heartburn to healthy controls.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico está associada ao trânsito mais lento do bolo deglutido pela faringe e esfíncter superior do esôfago. Pirose funcional tem sintomas similares aos de doença do refluxo gastroesofágico, entretanto eles não são consequência de refluxo. OBJETIVO: Como na pirose funcional os sintomas são semelhantes aos da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico, o objetivo desta investigação foi avaliar a duração do trânsito do bolo deglutido pela boca, faringe e esfíncter superior do esôfago em pacientes com pirose funcional, com a hipótese de que esses pacientes também apresentem alteração no trânsito. MÉTODOS: Pelo método videofluoroscópico foi avaliado o trânsito oral e faríngeo de oito pacientes do sexo feminino com pirose funcional, cinco com disfagia leve para alimentos sólidos, e 12 indivíduos controles do sexo feminino. Controles e pacientes deglutiram em duplicata 5 mL e 10 mL de bolos com a consistências líquida e pastosa. RESULTADOS: Com bolo líquido e pastoso não houve diferença na duração do trânsito oral, faríngeo e pelo esfíncter superior do esôfago entre controles e pacientes. Não houve aspiração do bolo para as vias aéreas em nenhum indivíduo. Os resíduos faríngeos foram observados na mesma proporção das deglutições em pacientes (12,5%) e controles (15%), com a deglutição de 10 mL de bolo pastoso. CONCLUSÃO: A duração do trânsito oral, faríngeo e pelo esfíncter superior do esôfago foi semelhante nos pacientes com pirose funcional e controles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pharynx , Heartburn , Deglutition Disorders , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Deglutition , Manometry
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 517-522, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128388

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to describe the first occurrence ofKudoasp. inGobioides grahamae, contributing to the understanding of this group of parasites in the Amazonian ichthyofauna. Forty specimens ofG. grahamaecollected from the natural environment were analyzed. Cysts ofKudoasp. were diffusely distributed through the striated skeletal muscle fibers with severe edema and inflammatory infiltrate composed of lymphocytes were observed in 30% of the specimens. Edema and marked coagulation necrosis of the muscle fibers was associated with infection byKudoasp. spores, which had accumulated inside the skeletal muscle fibers. Although there are no records of foodborne outbreaks caused by Kudoa spp. in Brazil, it is of paramount importance that we evaluate its occurrence, since the consumption of fish, especially raw fish, has increased because of the adoption of Japanese cuisine. To minimize the economic impacts on the fisheries market and the risk of this parasite to public health, it is necessary to initiate a program to monitor the presence of this likely underdiagnosed, emerging parasite.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a primeira ocorrência de Kudoa sp. em Gobioides grahamae, contribuindo, assim, para a compreensão desse grupo de parasitas na ictiofauna amazônica. Foram analisados 40 espécimes de G. grahamae coletados de ambiente natural. Cistos de Kudoa sp. foram distribuídos difusamente através das fibras musculares esqueléticas estriadas com presença de edema grave e infiltrado inflamatório composto de linfócitos, que foram observados em 30% dos espécimes. Edema e necrose de coagulação acentuada das fibras musculares foram associados com a infecção por esporos de Kudoa sp., acumulados no interior das fibras musculares da faringe. Apesar de não haver registros de surtos de origem alimentar causada por Kudoa spp. no Brasil, é de suma importância a avaliação de sua ocorrência, uma vez que o consumo de peixe, especialmente peixe cru, aumentou por causa da adoção da culinária japonesa. Para minimizar os impactos econômicos no mercado da pesca e o risco desse parasita para a saúde pública, é necessário iniciar um programa para monitorar a presença desse parasita emergente, possivelmente subdiagnosticada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Palate/parasitology , Pharynx/parasitology , Perciformes/parasitology , Myxozoa/parasitology , Brazil
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 423-426, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056457

ABSTRACT

The aim of this investigation was to define the volume and area of the airway in subjects with Class II and Class III skeletal deformity. A cross-sectional study was designed including subjects with facial deformity defined by Steiner's analysis in subjects with indication of orthognathic surgery who presented diagnosis by cone beam computerised tomography. We determined the measurements of maximum area, minimum area and volume of the airway. The data were compared using Spearman's test, with statistical significance defined as p<0.05. 115 subjects were included: 61.7 % Class II and 38.3 % Class III, mean age 27.8 years (± 11.6). A significant difference was observed in the area and volume measurements in the groups studied, with significantly smaller measurements found in Class II (p=0.034). The minimum area was 10.4 mm2 smaller in Class II patients than in Class III, while the general volume of the airway was 4.1 mm3 smaller in Class II than in Class III. We may conclude that Class II subjects present a smaller airway volume than Class III subjects.


El objetivo de esta investigación de definir el volumen y área de vía aérea en sujetos con deformidad esqueletal clase II y III. Se diseñó un estudio de corte transversal incluyendo sujetos con deformidad facial definida según análisis de Stainer en sujetos con indicación de cirugía ortognática que presentaran una tomografía computadorizada de haz cónico como elemento diagnóstico; en este examen se determinaron medidas de área mayor, menor de vía aérea y volumen presente; los datos fueron comparados utilizando pruebas estadísticas con el test de spearman considerando el valor de p<0,05 para definir significancia estadística. 115 sujetos fueron incluidos, siendo 61,7 % de tipo clase II y 38,3 % de sujetos clase III, con una edad promedio de 27,8 años (± 11,6). Se observó una diferencia significativa en mediciones de area y volumen en los grupos estudiados, siendo el grupo de clase II significativamente menor (p=0,034). El área de menor tamaño fue 10,4 mm2 en pacientes clase II que en pacientes clase III, mientras que el volumen general de la vía área fue 4,1 menor en los clase II que en los clase III. Es posible concluir que los sujetos de clase II presentan menor volumen de vía área que los sujetos clase III.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Respiratory System/diagnostic imaging , Craniofacial Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Pharynx/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Nose/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional
12.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 107-111, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090552

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a multifactorial disease characterized by episodes of partial or complete collapse during sleep of different regions of the upper airway. Surgery for OSAS evolved with the introduction of different techniques, considering new surgical concept of reconstruction of the upper airway. Objective To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of a new approach aimed at reducing pharyngeal collapse by combining two surgical techniques: lateral and expansion pharyngoplasty. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 38 patients with OSAS undergoing lateral/expansion pharyngoplasty from January 2012 to December 2016. The following data were collected: patient age, gender, and pre- and postoperative body mass index (BMI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) scores, snoring visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, and polysomnography (PSG) results. Results The PSG results showed a significant reduction in the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) from 22.4 ± 27.3 events/h preoperatively to 13.6 ± 17.9 events/h postoperatively (p = 0.009), with postoperative AHI reduction greater than 50% in 63.2% of the patients. There was also a significant reduction in the microarousal index (19.5 ± 22.6 vs 11.0 ± 13.4 events/h; p = 0.001) and in the minimum oxygen saturation (82.6 ± 10.3 vs 86.9 ± 11.1; p = 0.007). Conclusions Lateral-expansion pharyngoplasty represents a new surgical strategy for the treatment of OSAS in patients with palatal collapse by combining two different techniques: lateral and expansion pharyngoplasty. The two techniques, performed as a one-stage procedure, led to improvements in excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and PSG respiratory parameters by acting on lateral and retropalatal collapse, produc- ing favorable results with good applicability in otolaryngology clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pharynx/surgery , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/surgery , Pharyngeal Muscles/surgery , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To demonstrate the regularity of velopharyngeal function recovery after primary cleft palatoplasty and its correlation with different surgical procedures, ages, cleft types, and follow-up times.@*METHODS@#Patients with cleft palate under 5 years old who had more than two follow-up records were included in this study, and consecutive evaluations of postoperative velopharyngeal function were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to reveal the regularity of postoperative velopharyngeal function and the possible influencing factors.@*RESULTS@#A total of 165 patients were included. Inconsistent functions of the velopharyngeal closure were observed in 31 patients, of which velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) in the first follow-up converted to velopharyngeal competence (VPC) in the second follow-up, accounting for 18.79% of the total, and 134 patients had consistent velopharyngeal function. The patients in the group who had consistent velopharyngeal function were younger than those in the group who were inconsistent, and the differences between the two groups were statistically significant. The younger the operation age, the patient's velopharyngeal function was more likely to stabilize at the first follow-up. At the time of the first follow-up in 15, 28, and 40 months, the probability that the patients had stable postoperative velopharyngeal function was 80%, 90%, and 95%, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The recovery of velopharyn-geal function after surgery is a dynamic process. The velopharyngeal status of patients can be converted from VPI to VPC. Meanwhile, VPC cannot switch to VPI. The follow-up time is the most important factor affecting the consistency of the evaluation of velopharyngeal function. Choosing appro-priate follow-up time is the key to obtain the stable evaluation of velopharyngeal function.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Cleft Palate , Humans , Pharynx , Treatment Outcome , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828967

ABSTRACT

2019-nCoV epidemic was firstly reported at late December of 2019 and has caused a global outbreak of COVID-19 now. Saliva, a biofluid largely generated from salivary glands in oral cavity, has been reported 2019-nCoV nucleic acid positive. Besides lungs, salivary glands and tongue are possibly another hosts of 2019-nCoV due to expression of ACE2. Close contact or short-range transmission of infectious saliva droplets is a primary mode for 2019-nCoV to disseminate as claimed by WHO, while long-distance saliva aerosol transmission is highly environment dependent within indoor space with aerosol-generating procedures such as dental practice. So far, no direct evidence has been found that 2019-nCoV is vital in air flow for long time. Therefore, to prevent formation of infectious saliva droplets, to thoroughly disinfect indoor air and to block acquisition of saliva droplets could slow down 2019-nCoV dissemination. This review summarizes diagnostic value of saliva for 2019-nCoV, possibly direct invasion into oral tissues, and close contact transmission of 2019-nCoV by saliva droplets, expecting to contribute to 2019-nCoV epidemic control.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Virulence , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Humans , Mouth , Virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Metabolism , Pharynx , Virology , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , SARS Virus , Virulence , Saliva , Virology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878391

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze velopharyngeal closure patterns and speech characteristics of patients with congenital velopharyngeal insufficiency.@*METHODS@#Patients visiting the Department of Cleft Lip and Palate Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University between 2009 and 2017 were reviewed. Outcomes of subjective speech evaluation, including resonance, consonant articulation, and correction rate, were analyzed. Furthermore, the mobility of soft palate and pharyngeal walls under nasopharyngeal fiberscope were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#A total of 47 cases were retrieved and subjected to nasopharyngeal fiberscopic examination. Among them, 29 (61.7%) demonstrated a circular closure pattern, 16 (34.0%) showed a coronal pattern, and 2 (4.3%) had a sagittal pattern. Furthermore, 25 (53.2%) presented medium soft-palate mobility, 22 (46.8%) had weak lateral pharyngeal wall mobility, and 41 (87.2%) had no posterior pharyngeal wall mobility. Among all of the patients, 23 (48.9%) presented medium hypernasality, accounting for the highest proportion. Consonant misarticulation occurred in 89.4% of the cases. The articulation manners with the highest correction rate were in the following order: nasal, lateral, fricatives, stops, and affricates. The articulation places with the highest correction rate were in the following order: bilabial, alveolar, velar, and linguadental.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Circular closure was the most prevalent velopharyngeal closure pattern among patients with congenital velopharyngeal insufficiency, and consonant omission was the most common articulation abnormality.


Subject(s)
China , Cleft Palate/surgery , Humans , Palate, Soft , Pharynx , Retrospective Studies , Speech , Treatment Outcome , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency
16.
CoDAS ; 32(6): e20190006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133547

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Purpose: This study aims to measure the pressure of the pharynx and the pharyngoesophageal segment (PES) at rest and during phonation in total laryngectomized patients, with different levels of voice production. Methods: four total laryngectomized individuals participated in the study, All patients underwent High Resolution Manometry (MAR) at rest and during phonation. After this process, a descriptive analysis of the results was performed. Results: we observed that during rest the patients had PES pressure below normal and this data may be related to changes in the muscular connections at the level of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) especially the interruption of the cricopharyngeal plexus. During phonation, two patients presented higher UES pressure values during phonation, when compared to the values found at rest, suggesting that introduction of air into the esophagus is followed by pharyngoesophageal contraction and that during phonation the patients with good esophageal speech may develop more pressure in this region. Conclusion: Studies with a greater number of participants may help define, for example, subjects who may benefit from procedures such as cricopharyngeal myotomy or other medical conduct in order to facilitate the acquisition of esophageal voice in these patients.


Resumo: Objetivo: medir a pressão da faringe e do segmento faringo-esofágico (SFE), no repouso e durante a sua vibração (na produção de voz esofágica) em pacientes laringectomizados totais com diferentes níveis de produção de voz. Método: participaram do estudo quatro indivíduos laringectomizados totais, todos submetidos à Manometria de Alta Resolução (MAR) no repouso e durante a fonação. Após esse processo, foi realizada uma análise descritiva dos resultados. Resultados: em nosso estudo, observamos que, durante o repouso, os pacientes apresentaram pressão do esfíncter esofágico superior (EES) abaixo da normalidade, e este dado pode estar relacionado a alterações das conexões musculares, ao nível do EES, especialmente, a interrupção do plexo cricofaríngeo. Durante a fonação, dois pacientes apresentaram maiores valores de pressão do EES, em todas as fonações, quando comparado com os valores encontrados no repouso, sugerindo que a introdução de ar no esôfago é seguida de contração faringo-esofágica e que, durante a fonação, os pacientes bons falantes esofágicos, podem desenvolver maior pressão nesta região. Conclusão: estudos com maior número de participantes podem ajudar a definir, por exemplo, sujeitos que poderão se beneficiar de procedimentos como a miotomia do cricofaríngeo ou outra conduta médica, a fim de facilitar a aquisição de voz esofágica nesses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Speech, Esophageal , Laryngectomy , Pharynx , Phonation , Esophagus , Manometry
17.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(4): 245-248, Oct-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1042735

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report an unexpected difficult airway in a patient with unrecognized lingual tonsillar hypertrophy. A 54-year-old hypertensive woman presented for resection of a mediastinal mass under general anesthesia (GA). After induction, mask ventilation was impossible. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was used, achieving suboptimal ventilation. Fiberoptic intubation through LMA was attempted but tube advancement was hindered by a protrudingmass. Finally, intubation was achieved using the Frova introducer. After completion of the surgery, the patient was transferred, intubated, to the postanesthesia care unit. Ear, nose, and throat assessment concluded that the mass was a hyper-trophied lingual tonsil. Unexpected lingual tonsillar hypertrophy can complicate GA, making mask ventilation, and even intubation impossible. It is considered a frequent cause of unexpected difficult airway. Diagnosis cannot be made by standard airway physical examination. Once recognized, fiberoptic intubation is mandatory in subsequent surgeries.


Resumen Presentamos el caso de una vía aérea difícil imprevista debido a hipertrofia de la amígdala lingual no conocida. Mujer de 54 años, hipertensa, que ingresa para resección de masa mediastínica bajo anestesia general. Tras la inducción, la ventilación mediante mascarilla facial resultó imposible. Se coloca mascarilla laríngea (ML) y se consigue ventilación de forma subóptima. Se intenta intubación guiada por fibroscopia a su través, pero se objetiva masa protruyente que impide la progresión del tubo. Finalmente se intuba mediante introductor Frova. Tras finalizar la cirugía, la paciente se traslada intubada a la Unidad de Reanimación Postanestésica (URPA). Se realiza evaluación por otorrinolaringología (ORL), que concluye que la masa corresponde a una amígdala lingual hipertrófica. La hipertrofia de la amígdala lingual puede complicar la anestesia, dificultando la ventilación e intubación. Se considera una causa frecuente de vía aérea difícil imprevista. El diagnóstico no puede realizarse mediante exploración anestésica estándar. Una vez conocida, las intubaciones siguientes deben ser guiadas por fibroscopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pharynx , Amygdalin , Hypertrophy , Otolaryngology , Tongue , Palatine Tonsil , Ventilation , Laryngeal Masks
18.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 24(5): 60-68, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039665

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the volume and morphology of the middle region of the pharynx (MRP) in adolescents with different anteroposterior craniofacial skeletal patterns. Methods: One hundred twenty-six patients (56 male and 70 female), who had cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) within their records, were selected for this cross-sectional study. Participants were classified, according to their ANB angle value, in Class I (1o ≤ ANB ≤ 3o), Class II (ANB > 3o) and Class III (ANB < 1o). The total volume (tV), minimum axial area (AxMin) and morphology of the MRP and its subdivisions - velopharynx (VP) and oropharynx (OP) - were characterized by CBCT and 3-dimensional image reconstruction software. Intergroup comparisons were performed by ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. Correlations between tV and Axmin with the ANB angle values were tested using linear regression analysis, considering sex as covariable. Results: Statistically significant difference between groups were observed in tV only for the VP region; Class II individuals presented significantly lower tV (6863.75 ± 2627.20 mm3) than Class III subjects (9011.62 ± 3442.56 mm3) (p< 0.05). No significant differences were observed between groups for any other variable assessed, neither in MRP nor in the OP region (p> 0.05). A significant negative correlation was evidenced between tV and Axmin and the ANB angle values; sexual dimorphism was observed for some variables. Conclusions: Class II subjects have smaller tV in the VP region. tV and Axmin tend to decrease in all evaluated regions when the ANB angle values increase.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar o volume e a morfologia da porção média da faringe (PMF) em adolescentes com diferentes padrões esqueléticos no sentido anteroposterior. Método: para esse estudo transversal, foram selecionados cento e vinte e seis pacientes (56 homens e 70 mulheres) que tinham tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC) em seus registros. Os participantes foram classificados de acordo com o valor do ângulo ANB, em Classe I (1o ≥ ANB ≤ 3o), Classe II (ANB > 3o) e Classe III (ANB < 1o). O volume total (Vt), a área axial mínima (AxMin) e a morfologia da PMF e de suas subdivisões - velofaringe (VF) e orofaringe (OF) - foram avaliados na TCFC e em software de reconstrução tridimensional (3D) de imagens. As comparações intergrupos foram realizadas por meio dos testes ANOVA e post-hoc de Tukey. As correlações entre os valores de Vt e Axmin das vias aéreas com os valores do ângulo ANB foram testadas por meio de análise de regressão linear, considerando-se o sexo como uma covariável. Resultados: diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos foi observada apenas no Vt da VF; indivíduos Classe II apresentaram Vt significativamente menor (6.863,75 ± 2.627,20 mm3) do que indivíduos Classe III (9.011,62 ± 3.442,56 mm3) (p< 0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos em nenhuma outra variável avaliada, nem na PMF, nem na OF (p> 0,05). Foi evidenciada uma correlação negativa significativa entre Vt e Axmin e os valores do ângulo ANB; dimorfismo sexual foi observado para algumas variáveis. Conclusões: indivíduos Classe II apresentam o menor Vt da VF. O Vt e a Axmin tenderam a diminuir quando os valores do ângulo ANB aumentaram, em todas as regiões avaliadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Pharynx , Malocclusion, Angle Class III , Cephalometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mandible
19.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 338-342, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040026

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The main modalities of surgical treatment for laryngeal cancer include transoral laser microsurgery (TLM), open preservation surgery, and total laryngectomy (TL). In the elderly, for the presence of comorbidities, the surgical approach more appropriate in many cases remains TL. The use of a stapler for the closure of the esophagus has been introduced to reduce surgical time and postoperative complications such as pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF). Objective In the present study, we have evaluated the effectiveness of the use of the horizontal mechanical pharyngoesophageal closure in patients who underwent TL. Methods This nonrandomized study was performed on consecutive patients with histopathologically proven squamous cell endolaryngeal carcinoma. The TLwas performed using a linear stapler to mechanically suture the pharyngotomy using the semiclosed technique. Results A total of 33 patients underwent TL, and 13 of themunderwent neck dissection. A total of 15 patients (45.4%) were ≤70 years old, and 18 were > 70 years old. Analyzing the results in relation to age, patients > 70 years old showed tumors at an earlier stage than those aged ≤70 years old. Furthermore, in this group there was a greater number of patients who had comorbidities (p = 0.014). In total, we had 2 (6%) cases of PCF in 6.6% in the group ≤70 years old, and in 5.5% of the group > 70 years old (p = 1.00). Conclusions The use of the stapler for the horizontal closure of the pharyngoesophagectomy in the patients subjected to TL is proven to be useful and safe even when used in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Laryngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Laryngectomy/methods , Pharynx/surgery , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Surgical Staplers , Suture Techniques/instrumentation , Treatment Outcome , Cutaneous Fistula/prevention & control , Esophagus/surgery
20.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(3): 220-227, jul. 31, 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145339

ABSTRACT

Objective: Adenoid hypertrophy is a disease whose most serious effect is the obstruction of the nasopharyngeal airway, leading to severe dentoskeletal deformities. The aim of this study was to determine the volume of the nasopharynx in patients with different grades of adenoid hypertrophy. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted. One hundred and twenty-five cone beam computed tomographies of 8 to 12-year-old pediatric patients, obtained from the 2014-2017 database of the School of Dentistry of Universidad de San Martin de Porres, were selected. Romexis 3.6.0 software (PlanMeca®, Finland) was used. In order to make a diagnosis and determine the grade of hypertrophy (Grade 1= healthy, Grade 2= mild, Grade 3= moderate and Grade 4= severe) quantitative and qualitative methods were used; grades 2, 3 and 4 were considered pathological. The same software was used to determine the volume of the nasopharynx. Results: Grade 1 hypertrophy was 44%, mild 36,8%, moderate 13,6% and severe 5,6%, accounting for a pathological adenoid hypertrophy prevalence of 56%. The mean volume of the nasopharynx was 4.985, 3.375, 2.154 and 0.944cm3 for grades 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of pathological adenoid hypertrophy (56%). The volume of the nasopharynx decreases according to the severity of the adenoid hypertrophy.


Objetivo: La hipertrofia adenoidea es una patología cuya repercusión más severa es la obstrucción de la vía aérea nasofaríngea, con graves consecuencias de malformaciones dento-esqueléticas. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el volumen de la vía aérea nasofaríngea en pacientes con diferentes grados de hipertrofia adenoidea. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, se seleccionaron 125 tomografías computarizadas de haz cónico de pacientes pediátricos de 8 a 12 años de edad obtenidas en la base de datos del 2014 al 2017 de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de San Martín de Porres. Se utilizó el software Romexis 3.6.0 (PlanMeca®, Finlandia); para realizar el diagnóstico y determinar el grado de hipertrofia (Grado 1= sano, Grado 2=leve, Grado 3=moderado y Grado 4= severo) se utilizaron dos métodos, uno de evaluación cualitativa y otra cuantitativa; los grados 2, 3 y 4 fueron considerados como patológicos; para determinar el volumen de la vía aérea nasofaríngea se utilizaron las herramientas del mismo software. Resultados: La hipertrofia grado 1 estuvo constituida por el 44%, leve en el 36.8%, moderado en el 13.6% y severo en el 5.6%; constituyendo finalmente una prevalencia de hipertrofia adenoidea patológica del 56%. Las medias de los volúmenes de la vía aérea nasofaríngea fueron de 4.985, 3.375, 2.154 y 0.944 cm3 para los grados 1, 2, 3 y 4 respectivamente. Conclusión: Existe una alta prevalencia de hipertrofia adenoidea patológica (56%), el volumen de la vía aérea nasofaríngea tiende a disminuir conforme a la severidad de la hipertrofia adenoidea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Pharynx/pathology , Adenoids/pathology , Adenoids/diagnostic imaging , Nose/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Hypertrophy
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