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Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233550, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278499

Phaseolus , Seeds
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20200894, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339655


Seed germination is a complex process controlled by many factors, in which physical and biochemical mechanisms are involved and the mobilization of reserves is crucial for this process to occur. Although, seed reserve mobilization is usually thought to be a post-germination process, seed reserve proteins mobilization occurs during germination. This study quantified seed proteins of bean genotypes during different hydration times, in order to understand the process of protein mobilization and whether there is relationship of this biochemical component with seed vigor. This study was conducted using seeds with different levels of vigor, genotypes with highest (13, 42, 55 and 81) and lowest (07, 23, 44, 50, IPR-88-Uirapurú and Iapar 81) physiological quality. High vigor genotypes showed greater efficiency in hydrolysis and mobilization of protein component, because they presented low globulins content in cotyledons at radicle protrusion in relation to low vigor genotypes (07, 23 and 50). The protein alpha-amylase inhibitor, observed in all genotypes, is involved with the longer time needed for radicle protrusion, according to the band intensity difference in genotypes 07, 44 and Iapar 81.

A germinação de sementes é um processo complexo controlado por muitos fatores, nos quais mecanismos físicos e bioquímicos estão envolvidos e a mobilização de reservas é decisiva para que esse processo ocorra. Embora a mobilização de reservas de sementes seja considerada um processo pós-germinativo, a mobilização das proteínas de reserva de sementes ocorre durante a germinação. Este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar as proteínas de sementes de genótipos de feijão durante os diferentes tempos de hidratação, a fim de compreender o processo de mobilização proteica e se há relação desse componente bioquímico com o vigor das sementes. Este estudo foi realizado utilizando sementes com diferentes níveis de vigor, genótipos com maior (13, 42, 55 e 81) e menor (07, 23, 44, 50, IPR-88-Uirapurú e Iapar 81) qualidade fisiológica. Os genótipos de alto vigor apresentaram maior eficiência na hidrólise e mobilização do componente proteico, pois apresentaram baixo teor de globulinas nos cotilédones na protrusão radicular em relação aos genótipos de baixo vigor (07, 23 e 50). A proteína inibidora da alfa-amilase, observada em todos os genótipos, está envolvida com o maior tempo necessário para a protrusão da radícula, de acordo com a diferença de intensidade da banda nos genótipos 07, 44 e Iapar 81.

Seeds/chemistry , Genetic Variation/genetics , Proteins/analysis , Phaseolus/embryology , Mass Spectrometry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Rev. méd. Maule ; 36(2): 8-19, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377868


Skeletal muscle appears to play a central role in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and consequently the metabolic syndrome due to high-fat diets, obesity, and aging. Recent evidence suggests that some bioactive compounds present in natural products can affect blood glucose, possibly due to interactions between the compounds and glucose transporters. As an objective, to evaluate the effect of the extract of the green bean (PV, Phaseolus vulgaris) and apple of small fruit of thinning (Malus domestica, MAF and MIT extracts) on the incorporation of glucose in C2C12 muscle cells. For this, the cytotoxic effect of the extracts on the cells was determined by detecting formazan. Subsequently, glucose incorporation was determined using a fluorescent glucose analog in cells treated with the extracts. Finally, the effect of the extracts on IL-6 and TNFα production was evaluated by ELISA. Results: PV and MAF decreased 50% of viability at 1000µg / mL while MIT only decreased 10% at that concentration. PV had no significant effect on glucose incorporation and the MAF and MIT extract extracts significantly increased glucose incorporation at 100 µg / mL (13500 and 18000 URF respectively). PV increases the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α, MAF and MIT only increase the expression of IL-6. Conclusion: These results make it possible to establish natural extracts derived from thinning small fruit apple can be used as a possible treatment for pathologies with high blood glucose levels.

Humans , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Insulin Resistance , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Phaseolus , Malus , Glucose
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10423, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285668


About 3000 tons of beans are not used in human food due to hardening. Several studies on bean-derived bioactive peptides have shown potential to treat some diseases, including those relying on oxidative dysfunctions. We assessed the effects of peptides extracted from hardened bean Phaseolus vulgaris (PV) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects in endothelial cells, and oxidonitrergic-dependent vasodilating effects. Extract was composed by peptide fraction <3 kDa (PV3) from hardened common bean residue. PV3 sequences were obtained and analyzed with bioinformatics. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with 10, 20, 30, and 250 µg/mL PV3. Oxidative stress was provoked by 3% H2O2. Cytotoxicity and cytoprotective effects were evaluated by MTT assay, whereas, ROS and NO were quantified using DHE and DAF-FM fluorescent probes by confocal microscopy. NO- and endothelium-dependent vasodilating effects of PV3 were assessed in isolated aortic rings. We found 35 peptides with an average mass of 1.14 kDa. There were no cell deaths with 10 and 20 μg/mL PV3. PV3 at 30 μg/mL increased cell viability, while cytotoxicity was observed only with 250 μg/mL PV3. PV3 at 10 μg/mL was able to protect cells from oxidative stress. PV3 also increased NO release without causing cell death. It also reduced relative ROS production induced by H2O2. PV3 vasodilating effects relied on endothelium-dependent NO release. PV3 obtained from low-commercial-value bean displays little cytotoxicity and exerts antioxidant effects, whereas it increases endothelial NO release.

Humans , Phaseolus , Peptides/pharmacology , Endothelium , Hydrogen Peroxide , Molecular Weight , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200816, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285566


Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the fungitoxic effect of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis trimera on the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum 89 race, as well as its effect on the accumulation of phaseolin in hypocotyls of different cultivars and common bean varieties. It was obtained 20% aqueous extract from plants collected in municipalities of the Western Region of Paraná. Blocks containing C. lindemuthianum mycelium were transferred to Petri dishes containing medium with the different extracts and incubated at 25 °C. The colonies diameter was measured until the 12th day. Effects of aqueous extracts on phaseolin production was evaluated in hypocotyls of Carioca, Cnpf 8104, Soberana, Tibatã, Uirapurú cultivars, as well as Rosinha and Vermelho varieties. Each one cultivar and variety hypocotyl was transferred separately to test tubes containing 500 μL of 20% aqueous extracts. Sterile water, Bion®, and UV was used as controls. The phaseolin production was measured in spectrophotometer [280 nm]. Results of the evaluation of the antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of Baccharis sp. specimens collected indicate that approximately 50% of the samples presented capacity to reduce between 74 and 92% of C. lindemuthianum growth. Cultivar Tibatã and Vermelho variety showed greater sensitivity over the applied treatments. Results of fungal filtrates and vegetal aqueous extracts presented a low capacity to induce the production of phaseolin in hypocotyls.

Pest Control, Biological , Colletotrichum/growth & development , Phaseolus , Baccharis/microbiology , Brazil
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00312020, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348973


Phytonematodes are among the main pathogens of the common bean. In general, control practices that aim to control these pathogens have not been regularly adopted in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the occurrence of phytonematodes in dry bean fields in Paraná and São Paulo states and estimate the pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus to dry bean in glasshouse experiments. Root and soil were sampled for nematode extraction, identification and estimation of population density. Four glasshouse experiments with different initial population densities were carried out to evaluate the effect of P. brachyurus on the growth of dry bean plants. Six species of phytonematodes were detected, namely Helicotylenchus dihystera, P. brachyurus, Pratylenchus crenatus, Meloidogyne javanica, Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus sp. The spiral nematode H. dihystera was found in all samples and was the most abundant species in both states. The lesion nematode P. brachyurus was also frequent, reaching 94% in Paraná and 100% in São Paulo. The root-knot nematodes and Rotylenchulus sp. were reported only in São Paulo fields (45% and 18% frequency, respectively), and P. crenatus only in Paraná (12%). The most abundant nematode in the soil was H. dihystera, and in roots was P. crenatus. It was demonstrated that densities of 6.66 specimens of P. brachyurus per cm3 of soil provoke visible and measurable root decay. In conclusion, survey data showed low phytonematode densities and pathogenicity tests demonstrated that densities above 6.67 specimens of P. brachyurus per cm3 of soil cause damage to the dry bean roots.

Fabaceae , Nematoda/pathogenicity , Tylenchoidea , Agricultural Pests , Phaseolus
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 1900-1910, 01-11-2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147954


Studies that demonstrate the effects of sources of nitrogen (N) applied before or after irrigation on the yield of winter crops are limited in literature. In this sense, the objective of this study was to compare the effect of sources of N applied immediately before or after 13 mm irrigation of wheat and bean winter crops. It was used a randomized complete block design, with 4 replicates, in a 5 × 2 + 1 factorial scheme, and 11 treatments consisted of five N sources: urea, polymer-coated urea, urea + ammonium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate and a control treatment (without N fertilization). For wheat, although ammonium nitrate provided great N content in the leaves, the grain yield was lower due to the lodging of the plants; since the application of N either before or after irrigation did not influence the grain yield. Regarding the bean, N fertilization increased productivity, but there were no differences among N sources and, despite the greater N content in the leaves observed with the N supply before irrigation the greatest grain yield was observed when N was applied after the irrigation.

Estudos que demonstram os efeitos de fontes de nitrogênio (N) aplicadas antes ou após a irrigação na produtividade das culturas de inverno são limitados na literatura. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito de fontes de N aplicadas imediatamente antes ou após a irrigação de 13 mm nas culturas do trigo e feijão de inverno. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial incompleto 5 × 2 + 1, sendo 11 tratamentos com cinco fontes de N: ureia, ureia revestida com polímero, ureia + sulfato de amônio, sulfato de amônio e nitrato de amônio e um tratamento controle (sem adubação nitrogenada). Para o trigo, embora o nitrato de amônio tenha proporcionado maior teor de N nas folhas, a produtividade de grãos foi menor devido ao acamamento das plantas; já a aplicação de N antes ou após a irrigação não influenciou a produtividade de grãos. Com relação ao feijão, a adubação nitrogenada aumentou a produtividade, mas não houve diferenças entre as fontes de N e, apesar do maior teor de N nas folhas observadas com o suprimento de N antes da irrigação, a maior produtividade de grãos foi observada com a adubação após a irrigação.

Polymers , Triticum , Phaseolus , Nitrogen
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 1911-1918, 01-11-2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147955


Beans are the main source of protein of plant origin in the Brazilian diet, they also contain phenolic compounds, antioxidants, iron, fibers and vitamins. The BRSMG Majestoso cultivar belongs to the commercial group of carioca beans, displays high productivity, excellent health and a 90-day cycle, has high yield and is resistant to disease. The study of physical properties enables the prediction of agricultural products behavior relative to responses of physical and chemical treatments, in order to allow the maintenance of quality and safety of processed foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of drying on the physical characteristics of beans of the BRSMG Majestoso cultivar. Beans with an initial moisture content of approximately 0.2660 d.b. (dry basis) were used, and dried at 40ºC. The following physical characteristics were determined: bulk density, unit density, intergranular porosity, 1000-grain weight, sphericity, circularity, geometric diameter, unit volume, projected area, surface area and the surface to volume ratio. Based on the results, a reduction in the moisture content of the beans promotes an increase in bulk density, unit density, porosity, sphericity, circularity and the surface to volume ratio. Conversely, the 1000-grain weight, geometric diameter, unit volume, projected area and surface area decreased as the moisture content of the beans was reduced.

Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito da secagem sobre as características físicas de grãos de feijão cultivar BRSMG Majestoso. Foram utilizados grãos com teor de água inicial de aproximadamente 0,2660 b.s. (base seca), e submetidos à secagem com temperatura de 40 ºC. Foram determinadas as propriedades físicas: massa específica aparente, massa específica unitária, porosidade intergranular, massa de mil grãos, esfericidade, circularidade, diâmetro geométrico, volume unitário, área projetada, área superficial e a relação superfície/volume. Com base nos resultados obtidos conclui-se que a redução do teor de água dos grãos de feijão proporcionou aumento da massa específica aparente e unitária, porosidade, esfericidade, circularidade e relação superfície/volume. Em contrapartida, a massa de mil grãos, o diâmetro geométrico, o volume unitário, a área projetada e a área superficial diminuíram com a redução do teor de água dos grãos de feijão.

Phaseolus , Food Preservation
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 1975-1983, 01-11-2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147964


Farmers from the district of São Pedro de Joselândia, belonging to the municipality of Barão de Melgaço, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, have been cultivating for some time two rice plant materials and three types of beans that, according to them, are not commercial. For this reason, the objective of this work was to test the originality of the materials by means of genetic and morphological characterization in order to identify whether the nature of the subsamples would be effectively traditional or whether they are varieties already known in the market. Morphological analyzes of the cultivated plants (phenotypic characteristics, cycle and flowering) and seed of the rice subsamples, hereinafter called Agulhinha Vermelho and Branquinho and of the Amarelinho, Rosinha and Roxinho subsamples were performed. Also, the evaluation of distribution of comparative genetic variability with other materials of the same species, already cataloged, was determined. The subsamples were characterized as traditional varieties different from those already cataloged and they are not found in the Nuclear Collection of Rice and Beans of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa). They have distinct morphological characteristics, being potential species for use in the market of new technologies. This should guarantee to the residents of that community that they are breeders of specific materials of cultural heritage adapted to the local conditions.

Agricultores do distrito de São Pedro de Joselândia, pertencente ao município de Barão de Melgaço ­ Pantanal Norte do estado de Mato Grosso, vêm cultivando há tempos dois materiais vegetais de arroz e três materiais de feijão que, segundo os mesmos, não são comerciais. Por essa razão, com este trabalho o objetivo foi realizar a caracterização genética e morfológica desses materiais a fim de identificar se a natureza das subamostras seria efetivamente tradicional, ou se trataria de variedades conhecidas no mercado e descrever suas características. Foram realizadas análises morfológicas das plantas cultivadas (características fenotípicas, ciclo e florescimento) e de sementes das subamostras de arroz, doravante denominadas Agulhinha vermelho e Branquinho e das subamostras de feijão Amarelinho, Rosinha e Roxinho. Ainda, determinou-se a avaliação de distribuição de variabilidade genética comparativa com demais materiais das mesmas espécies, já catalogados. Observou-se que as subamostras foram caracterizadas como variedades tradicionais, diferentes daquelas já catalogadas e que não se encontram na Coleção Nuclear de Arroz e Feijão da Embrapa. As mesmas possuem características morfológicas distintas, podendo ser materiais com potencial para o uso no mercado de novas tecnologias, o que deve garantir aos moradores da comunidade, serem obtentores de materiais específicos e adaptado às condições locais.

Oryza , Phaseolus , Genetic Background
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1590-1599, 01-09-2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147825


The aim of this study was to identify and categorize new bean cultivars regarding their efficiency and responsiveness to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, both individually and simultaneously, as well as to stipulate the cultivars that would suit each niche market based on this classification. Three experiments were conducted in the field separated by nutrients adopting the randomized block design in a factorial scheme (11 x 4) of 11 cultivars in four doses with three replications. Grain yield was the variable investigated and the means were the basis for the classification separated by in four availabilities: low, partial, adequate dose, and nutritional excess. Genetic variability was observed among the bean cultivars for efficiency and responsiveness (agronomic efficiency) to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The following cultivars: BRS Agreste, BRS Estilo, BRS Notável, and Pérola revealed the greatest values of efficiency and responsive ratings for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, with indications for low and high technological levels. On the contrary, the cultivars BRS Ametista and BRS Sublime based on the efficiency and non-responsive classification showed a low ability to acquire or utilize the nutrients for grain formation. The BRS Pontal cultivar for all three nutrients displayed a high degree of efficiency with a value exceeding the average under different conditions of stress, suggesting that a more rustic cultivar best suits the market niche of small farmers.

O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar e classificar novas cultivares de feijoeiro quanto a eficiência e responsividade ao nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, de forma individual e simultânea, além de indicar as cultivares para cada nicho de mercado, de acordo com essa classificação. Foram realizados três experimentos em campo, separados por nutriente, com delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (11 x 4), sendo 11 cultivares em quatro doses, com três repetições. A variável analisada foi a produtividade de grãos e as médias utilizadas para a classificação, separando-se por nutriente, em quatro disponibilidades, sendo baixo, parcial, dose adequada e excesso nutricional. Existe variabilidade genética para eficiência e responsividade (eficiência agronômica) entre os cultivares de feijão, para nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. As cultivares BRS Agreste, BRS Estilo, BRS Notável e a Pérola são as que possuem maior número de classificações eficientes e responsivas para nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, sendo indicadas para baixo e alto nível tecnológico. Em sentido oposto, as cultivares BRS Ametista e a BRS Sublime com classificação ineficiente e não-responsiva, com baixa capacidade de adquirir ou utilizar os nutrientes para a formação de grãos. A cultivar BRS Pontal para nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, apresenta uma eficiência alta ou acima da média sob os diferentes estresses, o que indica que é uma cultivar mais rústica e que atende o nicho de mercado de pequenos produtores.

Phosphorus , Potassium , Phaseolus , Nitrogen
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 122-132, jan./feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049221


It is possible to cultivate common beans for a third harvest in one agricultural year due to varietal characteristics. For calendar adequacy, performing desiccation and planting often occur almost simultaneously. Germination performance of many plant species can improve with biostimulant use on seeds, however the interaction with herbicide residual molecules is unknown. The hypothesis is that seeds treated with a biostimulant in soil with glyphosate residues can eliminate the advantage of the biostimulant or increase the damage caused by the herbicide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different glyphosate reduce doses and the interaction with biostimulant on bean seed germination and vigor. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized 2 x 5 factorial block designing factorial 2 x 5, corresponding to the presence and absence of biostimulant and five different doses of glyphosate reduce rates, with four repetitions. The conducted evaluations were first count germination, germination test, accelerated aging, cold test, root and shoot length, root and shoot dry matter and electrical conductivity. It can be concluded that the biostimulant treatment on bean seeds increased germination, seed vigor and early seedling growth, but glyphosate presence reduced those advantages, increasing electrical conductivity. However, the herbicide presence provided higher germination on the accelerated aging test.

Devido às características de variedades de feijoeiro comum, é possível seu cultivo como terceira safra em um ano agrícola. Para adequação ao calendário, a prática de dessecação e plantio muitas vezes ocorrem quase simultaneamente. A utilização de bioestimulantes em sementes pode aumentar o desempenho germinativo de diversas espécies de plantas, no entanto a sua interação com moléculas residuais de herbicidas é desconhecido. A hipótese é que o uso de sementes tratadas com bioestimulante em solos com resíduos de glifosato pode eliminar as vantagens do primeiro ou amentar os danos causados pelo herbicida. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de subdoses de glifosato e bioestimulante em sementes de feijoeiro. O experimento foi realizado em blocos inteiramente casualizados em fatorial 2x5, correspondendo a ausência e presença de bioestimulante e cinco subdoses de glifosato, com quatro repetições. As avaliações foram primeira contagem de germinação, teste de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, teste de frio, comprimento de parte aérea e de raiz, massa seca de parte aérea e de raiz e condutividade elétrica. Conclui-se que o tratamento de sementes de feijoeiro com bioestimulante eleva a germinação, o vigor de sementes e o crescimento inicial de plântulas, porém a presença de glifosato elimina essas vantagens, revelando maior condutividade elétrica. No entanto, a presença do herbicida proporciona maior germinação no teste de envelhecimento acelerado.

Seeds , Phaseolus , Hormesis , Herbicides
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190493, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142505


Abstract We evaluated the effect of combined Rhizobium tropici, Trichoderma asperellum and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in beans crop. The hypothesis that strains of T. asperullum, R. tropici and PGPR combined could improve growth, biomass accumulation and beans yield was tested under greenhouse and field conditions. The treatments consisted of control, mineral nitrogen application and inoculation, isolated and associated with the following microorganisms: Rhizobium tropici, Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma asperellum and Burkholderia sp. 10N6. Results were evaluated by shoot dry weight (SDW) and root dry weight (RDW), number of nodules and yield components. In greenhouse environment all the microorganisms behaved similarly, and the treatments inoculated with Burkholderia sp. 10N6 (IBu) and R. tropici (IR) stood out regarding the production components. In field conditions the treatments IR and IRTBa presented the highest values of SDW and RDW. Our results suggest that inoculation with R. tropici, T. asperellum and PGPR may promote beans growth and bring benefits to shoot and root accumulation, increase the number of nodules as well as improve yield components, contributing to a sustainable agriculture.

Phaseolus/growth & development , Phaseolus/microbiology , Bacillus subtilis , Trichoderma , Burkholderia , Rhizobium tropici , Plant Development
Vitae (Medellín) ; 27(2): 1-9, 2020. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1120311


Background: Although legume protein extracts are useful in food preparation and processing as foam stabilizers and as viscosity, palatability and nutrition enhancers, many legume proteins from South America have not been characterized extensively. One such legume is the ñuña bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which is cooked using dry heat until the cotyledons rapidly expand with a pop. The bean is widely cultivated in the Andes, but almost unknown elsewhere. Objective & Methods: In this study, we characterized ten functional properties of a ñuña protein extract using standard food analysis methods. Results: The extract was similar to other legume protein extracts for many properties (amino acid profile, proximate analysis, yield, water absorption, color, isoelectric point, and thermogravimetric analysis). The electrophoretic analysis revealed that the sample was nearly pure phaseolin. Additionally, the ability to form foam and increase solution viscosity were comparatively low when contrasted to other extracts. Conclusion: These properties make ñuña protein extract useful as a nearly pure phaseolin nutrition enhancer in beverages where foaming and high viscosity are undesirable, such as in fortified beverages, drinkable yogurts, or protein supplements. The extract may also have relevance as a weight-loss supplement. Therefore, we expect that incorporating ñuña protein in processed foods would be a straightforward process.

Antecedentes: Los extractos proteicos de leguminosas son muy utilizados en la preparación y procesamiento de alimentos como agentes estabilizadores de espuma y viscosidad, así como potenciadores de palatabilidad y nutrición. Sin embargo, muchas proteínas de leguminosas procedentes de Sudamérica no han sido caracterizadas extensamente. Una de ellas es el frijol ñuña (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), el cual se cocina utilizando calor seco hasta que los cotiledones se expanden rápidamente y explotan. La ñuña se cultiva ampliamente en los Andes, pero es mayormente desconocida en otras partes del mundo. Objetivo y Métodos: En el presente estudio, caracterizamos diez propiedades funcionales de un extracto proteico de ñuña, utilizando métodos estándares para análisis de alimentos. Resultados: Varias propiedades del extracto analizado fueron similares a las de los extractos proteicos de otras leguminosas (perfil de aminoácidos, análisis proximal, rendimiento, absorción de agua, color, punto isoeléctrico y análisis termogravimétrico). El análisis electroforético reveló que la muestra es mayormente faseolina. Además, el extracto analizado presentó baja capacidad para formar espuma e incrementar viscosidad de una solución a comparación de los otros extractos. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos indican que el extracto proteico de ñuña, que es casi faseolina pura, puede ser muy útil como potenciador nutricional de bebidas en las que la espuma y alta viscosidad son indeseadas, como es el caso de bebidas fortificadas, yogures bebibles o suplementos proteicos. El extracto podría tener relevancia como suplemento para pérdida de peso. Por lo tanto, esperamos que el uso de proteína de ñuña sea un proceso sencillo en la industria de alimentos procesados.

Humans , Phaseolus , Food Additives , Amino Acids, Essential
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 98-106, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095831


El complejo de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) incluye algunas de las principales plagas del ejote francés (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Dentro de las cuales, Bemisia tabaci es vector del virus del mosaico dorado que afecta la calidad y rendimiento del cultivo, con pérdidas hasta del 100% y un control difícil debido a la resistencia adquirida por las plagas hacia algunos agroquímicos. El ejote francés ocupa el segundo lugar entre de los productos no tradicionales de exportación de Guatemala. Su manejo agronómico ha sido principalmente a través del control químico, el cual afecta insectos y otros organismos que no son el objetivo del control, tales como: polinizadores, insectos benéficos, humanos y fauna silvestre. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: determinar la presencia de enemigos naturales nativos de la mosca blanca e identificar las especies de mosca blanca presentes en el cultivo del ejote francés en Chimaltenango. Para el estudio se establecieron cuatro parcelas de 300 m², se realizaron muestreos semanales durante dos ciclos del cultivo. En cada parcela se muestrearon cinco sitios y en cada sitio cinco plantas. Las especies de parasitoides nativos encontrados fueron: Encarsia Formosa Gahan, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose y Zolnerowuch y Amitus fuscipennis MacGown y Nebeker, la especie más abundante fue A. fuscipennis. Los depredadores identificados fueron Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) e Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville. La especie más abundante fue H. convergens. Estas especies podrían ser herramientas valiosas para ser empleadas en programas de control biológico, producciones orgánicas o en programas de manejo integrado de plagas.

The whitefly complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) includes some of the main pests of the French green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Among which, Bemisia tabaci is a vector of the golden mosaic virus that affects the quality and yield of the crop, with losses up to 100% and difficult control due to the resistance acquired by pests towards some agrochemicals. The French green bean ranks second among the non-traditional export products of Guatemala. Its agronomic management has been mainly through chemical control, which affects insects and other organisms that are not the objective of the control, such as: pollinators, beneficial insects, humans and wildlife. The objectives of the study were: to determine the presence of natural enemies native to the whitefly and identify the species of whitefly present in the cultivation of the French bean in Chimaltenango. For the study, four 300 m² plots were established, weekly sampling was carried out during two crop cycles. Five sites were sampled on each plot and five plants on each site. The native parasitoid species found were: Encarsia Formosa Gahan, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowuch and Amitus fuscipennis MacGown and Nebeker, the most abundant species was A. fuscipennis. The predators identified were Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville. The most abundant species was H. convergens. These species could be valuable tools to be used in biological control programs, organic productions or in integrated pest management programs.

Animals , Phaseolus/parasitology , Hemiptera/growth & development , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Phaseolus/growth & development , Diptera , Hemiptera/parasitology , Mosaic Viruses
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1463-1469, sept./oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049001


Seeds with a good physiological quality are essential to high productivity. However, for some seeds, Phaseolus lunatus L., the viability and vigor analyze show deficiency in quality. This work aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of Phaseolus lunatus L. seeds using several vigor tests. The study was realized at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis of the Agricultural Sciences Center of the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia ­ PB, Brazil. We used seeds from five cultivars of P. lunatus (Branca, Orelha de Vó, Cearense, Rosinha, and Roxinha). To determine the physiological quality, we measured the water content, the viability and vigor test (germination, emergence, electrical conductivity, tetrazolium, first germination count and emergence, seedling length and dry mass). We used a completely randomized design for seeds evaluation, and the field test was performed in randomized blocks. The water content of P. lunatus did not differ among the cultivars, indicating a uniformity in the percentage of moisture. Also, the percentage and speed of emergency and the dry mass of seedlings did not differ among the varieties. The tetrazolium and electrical conductivity tests indicated that Rosinha cultivar had the worst viability concerning the other cultivars, showing a low percentage of living tissue and lower electrical conductivity. The seeds of Roxinha cultivar had the better physiological quality, and the Cearense cultivar had the worst quality evaluation. We recommend the tetrazolium test but not the electrical conductivity test to evaluate the vigor of P. lunatus.

Em qualquer cultura, para se ter uma elevada produtividade é indispensável à aquisição de sementes com alta qualidade fisiológica, mas para sementes de Phaseolus lunatus L., ainda ocorre deficiência em análises de viabilidade e vigor. Dessa forma, o objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de cultivares de Phaseolus lunatus por diferentes testes de vigor. A pesquisa foi realizada no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia - PB, com sementes de cinco cultivares de Phaseolus lunatus (Branca, Orelha de Vó, Cearense, Rosinha e Roxinha). Para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes determinou-se o teor de água e realizou-se testes de viabilidade e vigor (germinação, emergência, condutividade elétrica, tetrazólio, primeira contagem de germinação e emergência, comprimento e massa seca de plântulas). O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com exceção dos testes realizados em campo, que foi em blocos ao acaso. O teor de água das sementes dos cultivares de feijão-fava não diferiu estatisticamente entre si, indicando que houve uniformidade na porcentagem de umidade. Não houve diferença significativa entre as sementes dos cultivares de feijão-fava quando avaliou-se a porcentagem e velocidade de emergência, bem como a massa seca de plântulas. Os resultados dos testes de tetrazólio e condutividade elétrica constatou-se maior viabilidade para as sementes do cultivar Roxinha, Branca, Cearense e Orelha de Vó quando comparadas com as da Rosinha, uma vez que houve um maior percentual de tecidos vivos e uma menor condutividade elétrica, respectivamente. As sementes do cultivar Roxinha são de melhor qualidade fisiológica e, o cultivar Cearense de pior qualidade; o teste de tetrazólio é recomendado para avaliação do vigor de sementes de cultivares de Phaseolus lunatus, enquanto, o teste de condutividade elétrica não é recomendado para avaliar o vigor das sementes dos cultivares de P. lunatus.

Seeds , Phaseolus
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 869-877, may./jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048695


Selecting a trait linked to metabolic pathways that enhance resistance and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses may be an excellent alternative. A practical approach to increase the productivity of annual crops is to maximize the photosynthetic efficiency in plant breeding. The purpose of this study was to discriminate common bean genotypes during physiological senescence with regard to the stay-green trait and analyze its effects on other traits of agronomic interest. Ten common bean genotypes were analyzed in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The stay-green trait was assessed by visual scores at harvest. The chlorophyll a content, chlorophyll b and green pod color were also evaluated during senescence (75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 days after sowing). Pod maturation of all evaluated genotypes was standard when they reached 95 days after sowing. The stay - green feature was detected only in the genotypes BRS Expedito, FT - Tarumã and BAF071. Genetic variability in the mechanisms related to late senescence is indicated by: i) a high initial chlorophyll a content; and ii) reduced chlorophyll degradation throughout senescence. Plants with stay-green properties were significantly correlated with a lower incidence and severity of plant pathology, greater stem diameter, and higher grain yield.

Selecionar uma característica relacionada às vias metabólicas responsáveis pelo aumento da resistência e/ou tolerância a estresses bióticos e abióticos pode ser uma excelente alternativa no melhoramento de plantas. Uma abordagem prática para aumentar a produtividade das culturas anuais é maximizar a eficiência fotossintética. O objetivo do trabalho foi discriminar genótipos de feijão durante a senescência fisiológica quanto ao caráter stay-green e correlacionar os efeitos sobre outros caracteres de interesse agronômico. Foram avaliados dez genótipos de feijão submetidos ao delineamento de blocos casualizados com três repetições. O caráter stay-green foi mensurado por escores de notas visuais na colheita. Também foram avaliados o teor de clorofila a, teor de clorofila b e coloração verde do legume no decorrer da senescência (75, 80, 85, 90, 95 dias após semeadura). A maturação dos legumes foi padrão para todos osgenótipos avaliados. Os genótipos BRS Expedito, FT - Tarumã e BAF071 apresentaram stay-green, diferentemente dos demais. A variabilidade genética nos mecanismos relacionados a senescência tardia, são detectadas pela: i) elevado teor de clorofila a inicial; e ii) reduzida degradação de clorofila ao longo da senescência. As plantas com stay-green apresentaram correlações significativas com menor incidência e severidade de fitopatologias, maior diâmetro do caule e rendimento de grãos.

Stress, Physiological , Phaseolus , Plant Breeding
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 409-418, mar./apr. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048595


Choosing breeding populations in a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding program via recurrent selection is a crucial step since it maximizes the effort to find superior inbred lines. The application of the mixed models methodology (REML/BLUP) in predicting breeding values has shown good results in animal and perennial crops breeding programs. Conversely, studies on the application of this methodology to annual crops are still scarce. The present work aimed to use the REML/BLUP methodology to select breeding populations of a common bean breeding program via recurrent selection. Thirty-five F3populations were evaluated. Individual plants data were assessed for grain yield and hypocotyl diameter, and the genetic potential of the population was estimated via the mixed models and the Jinks and Pooni's methodologies. A selection index was applied to the selection among and within population, considering both characters simultaneously, using the population and individual BLUP means. REML/BLUP has shown to be afeasible methodology to predict and select the potential of breeding populations, considering more than one character. Selecting individual plants within population provides positive genetic gain estimates for both characters. BLUP breeding values are fundamental to the choice of the number of populations and single plants to be conducted in a common bean breeding program via recurrent selection.

Na cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a escolha de populações segregantes em programas de melhoramento conduzidos por seleção recorrente é etapa crucial, uma vez que se aumenta a chance de extrair linhagens superiores. A aplicação da metodologia de modelos mistos (REML/BLUP) na predição de valores genéticos tem mostrado bons resultados em programas de melhoramento animal e de culturas perenes, enquanto que em culturas anuais, sua utilização ainda necessita resultados adicionais. O objetivo deste estudo foi utilizar a metodologia REML/BLUP na seleção de populações segregantes em um programa de melhoramento de feijoeiro por seleção recorrente. Trinta e cinco populações F3 foram avaliadas por meio de dados individuais de plantas quanto aos caracteres rendimento de grãos e diâmetro do hipocótilo. Os potenciais genéticos das populações foram estimados por meio da metodologia de modelos mistos e da metodologia de Jinks e Pooni. Um índice de seleção foi utilizado a fim de selecionar entre e dentro depopulações para ambos os caracteres simultaneamente, por meio do BLUP de populações e de indivíduo. A metodologia de modelos mistos mostrou-se viável para predizer o potencial de populações segregantes, bem como para selecionar tais populações, considerando mais de um caráter ao mesmo tempo. A seleção de plantas individuais permite estimativas de ganho genético positivas para ambos os caracteres. Os valores genéticos preditos são de grande importância em um programa de melhoramento por seleção recorrente, pois permiteescolher o número de populações e plantas individuais dentro de populações

Phaseolus , Plant Breeding
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 598-608, mar./apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048613


Among the fungus that attack the common bean crop there is Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli (Fsp), causing major losses. Taking into account its importance, the objective of this work was to determine the secondary metabolites class and the potential fungicide of the Pouteria ramiflora leaves on Fsp. The ethanol extract was dissolved in methanol/water and partitioned successively with hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol, subjected to the chemical profile. The solutions were prepared in concentrations of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 µ g/mL and poured into Petri dishes; then, 0.5 cm disc of diameter with spores and mycelia of Fsp was deposited. These dishes were incubated in temperature of 25 ± 2 °C and the evaluations, performed by measuring the colonies diameter (five replications) until reaching the dishes border (three days) with a completely randomized experimental design. Through the Mycelial Index Growth Speed (MIGS) data, analysis of variance was performed and when significant, applied the regression analysis. The results indicated that all fractions and the extract have the phenolic compounds and/or derivatives as one of the major constituents except the hydroethanolic fraction. The extract and its fractions decreased the Fsp MIGS, in the same proportion in which concentrations were increased; the greatest reduction occurred in the butanol fraction at the concentration of 2400 µg/mL, with growth close to zero, indicating its potential use for the Fsp control, probably due to the presence of anthraquinones.

Entre os fungos que acometem a cultura do feijão está Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, causando perdas na produtividade. Levando-se em consideração sua importância, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a classe de metabólitos secundários e o potencial fungicida das folhas de curriola (Pouteria ramiflora) sobre F. solani, em condições de laboratório. O extrato etanólico foi dissolvido em metanol/água e particionado sucessivamente com hexâno, diclorometano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e butanol, submetidos ao perfil químico. As soluções foram preparadas nas concentrações de 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 e 2400 µ g/mL evertidas em placas de petri (10 mL); em seguida, foi depositado um disco de 0,5 cm de diâmetro com esporos e micélio de F. solani. As placas foram incubadas a temperatura de 25 ± 2 °C e as avaliações, realizadas por meio da medição do diâmetro das colônias (cinco repetições) até atingir a borda da placa (três dias), com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Através dos dados do Índice de Velocidade de Crescimento Micelial (IVCM), foi realizada a análise de variância e quando significativa, aplicada a análise de regressão. Os resultados indicaram que todos as frações e o extrato possuem os compostos fenólicos e/ou derivados como um dos constituintes majoritários, exceto a fração hidrometanólica. O extrato e suas frações diminuíram o IVCM de F. solani, à medida que se aumentava as concentrações; a maior redução ocorreu na fração butanolica para a concentração de 2400 µ g/mL, com crescimento próximo a zero, indicando seu potencial de uso para controle de F. solani, provavelmente devido a presença de antraquinonas em sua composição.

Flavonoids , Phaseolus , Phytochemicals , Fungi
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(1): 47-55, mar. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003280


La alelopatía es un fenómeno que involucra la producción de metabolitos secundarios que influyen en el crecimiento de las plantas, pero este potencial alelopático ha sido poco estudiado en la simbiosis rizobio-leguminosa. Esta investigación tuvo los siguientes objetivos: 1) evaluar el potencial alelopático de lixiviados acuosos de Ipomoea purpurea L. Roth en la germinación de semillas y en el crecimiento radical de plántulas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.); 2) determinar el efecto de estos lixiviados en el crecimiento in vitro de Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, y 3) evaluar el potencial alelopático de I. purpurea en el crecimiento, la fisiología y la nodulación de frijol en simbiosis con R. tropici. Tanto el lixiviado acuoso de raíz como el de la parte aérea de I. purpurea estimularon la germinación de semillas de frijol y la elongación radical. El crecimiento in vitro de R. tropici fue inhibido al aplicar los 2 tipos de lixiviado. La presencia de I. purpurea tuvo un efecto negativo en el crecimiento y en las respuestas fisiológicas de las plantas de frijol, que fue atenuado cuando las plantas fueron inoculadas con Rhizobium tropici; no obstante, la nodulación asociada a esta bacteria fue afectada en presencia de la planta alelopática. Los resultados indican que la simbiosis de rizobios en las raíces de frijol es un elemento importante en la atenuación de los danos producidos por la planta alelopática I. purpurea.

Allelopathy is a phenomenon that involves the production of secondary metabolites that influence the growth of plants and microorganisms; however, this alellopathic effect has been scarcely studied on the rhizobia-legume symbiosis. The aims of this research were 1) to assess the allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts of Ipomoea purpurea L. Roth on seed germination and root length of common bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), 2) to determine its effects on the in vitro growth of Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and 3) to evaluate the allelopathic potential of I. purpurea on the growth, nodulation and physiology of common bean plants inoculated with R. tropici. After 48 h, 15% of the aqueous root extract of I. purpurea stimulated seed germination, whereas 4% of the aqueous shoot extracts stimulated such germination. Both the root or shoot extracts stimulated seed germination and e root length. In vitro growth of R. tropici was inhibited as a result of the application of both aqueous extracts. The presence of I. purpurea negatively affected both the growth and physiological responses of common bean plants, and this effect was attenuated after the inoculation of R. tropici; nevertheless, this allelopathic plant affected root nodulation. Our results suggest that the symbiosis of rhizobia and roots of common bean plants is an important element for attenuating the negative effects caused by the allelopathic plant.

Symbiosis/physiology , Ipomoea purpurea/analysis , Phaseolus/growth & development , Rhizobium tropici/growth & development , Allelopathy/physiology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Fabaceae/physiology
Acta amaz ; 49(1): 28-35, jan. - mar. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119185


Comparative studies on the structure of foliar anatomy in four species of Rhynchosia from Roraima state (northern Brazilian Amazon) were carried out to identify additional morphological characters to support the definition of the systematic boundaries among the species. Fully expanded leaves, including the petioles, were collected from the upper nodes of a plant's stem. Anatomical characters were observed in cross-sections of the middle portion of leaflets and petiole segments. Presence and distribution of glandular trichomes, continuity of sclerenchyma around the vascular bundles in leaflet blades and the conformation of the area between the two ridges of petioles were important characters to distinguish among the species of Rhynchosia. For the first time we report a distinct multicellular gland-like structure which we found in the petioles of three species. (AU)

Plants/anatomy & histology , Phaseolus/anatomy & histology , Fabaceae